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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Nutrition
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-861X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Probing the potential of bioactive compounds of millets as an inhibitor
           for lifestyle diseases: molecular docking and simulation-based approach

    • Authors: Kajal Nagre, Nirupma Singh, Chandrika Ghoshal, Gitanjali Tandon, Mir Asif Iquebal, Tarsem Nain, Ram Swaroop Bana, Anita Meena
      Abstract: Millets are becoming more popular as a healthy substitute for people with lifestyle disorders. They offer dietary fiber, polyphenols, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, protein, and antioxidants. The nutritional importance of millets leads to the present in-silico study of selective bioactive compounds docked against the targets of lifestyle diseases, viz., diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis using molecular docking and molecular simulations approach. Pharmacokinetic analysis was also carried out to analyse ADME properties and toxicity analysis, drug-likeliness, and finally target prediction for new targets for uncharacterized compounds or secondary targets for recognized molecules by Swiss Target Prediction was also done. The docking results revealed that the bioactive compound flavan-4-ol, among all the 50 compounds studied, best docked to all the four targets of lifestyle diseases, viz., Human dipeptidyl peptidase IV (−5.94 kcal mol−1 binding energy), Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (−6.49 kcal mol−1) diabetes-related enzyme, the Human angiotensin-converting enzyme (−6.31 kcal mol−1) which plays a significant role in hypertension, and Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (−4.67 kcal mol−1) for atherosclerosis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis substantiates that the flavan-4-ol forms a better stability complex with all the targets. ADMET profiles further strengthened the candidature of the flavan-4-ol bioactive compound to be considered for trial as an inhibitor of targets DPPIV, SGLT2, PCSK9, and hACE. We suggest that more research be conducted, taking Flavon-4-ol into account where it can be used as standard treatment for lifestyle diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Waist-to-height ratio is a simple tool for assessing central
           obesity and consequent health risk

    • Authors: Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Abraham Wall-Medrano
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Circulating vitamin levels mediate the causal relationship between gut
           microbiota and cholecystitis: a two-step bidirectional Mendelian
           randomization study|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Changhong Miao, Lu Xiao, Xinyi Xu, Shuoxuan Huang, Jiajin Liu, Kuang Chen
      Abstract: BackgroundThe relationship between gut microbiota and the occurrence of cholecystitis remains unclear. Existing research lacks a clear understanding of how circulating vitamin levels modulate this relationship. Therefore, our study aims to investigate whether circulating vitamin levels mediate the causal relationship between gut microbiota and cholecystitis using a two-step bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach.MethodsIn this study, we initially employed Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (LDSC) analysis to assess the genetic correlation of five circulating vitamin level genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary datasets, thereby avoiding potential sample overlap. Subsequently, we conducted a two-step analysis to investigate the causal effects between gut microbiota and cholecystitis. In the second step, we explored the causal relationship between circulating vitamin levels and cholecystitis and identified the mediating role of vitamin D. The primary method used for causal analysis was the inverse variance-weighted approach. We performed additional sensitivity analyses to ensure result robustness, including the cML-MA method and reverse Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.ResultsAn increment of one standard deviation in RuminococcaceaeUCG003 was associated with a 25% increased risk of cholecystitis (OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.01–1.54, p = 0.04), along with a 3% decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.944–0.998, p = 0.04). However, following the rigorous Bonferroni correction, every one standard deviation decrease in circulating vitamin D levels was associated with a 33% increased risk of cholecystitis (OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.49–0.90, p = 0.008, Padjust = 0.04). Thus, the potential link between gut microbiota and cholecystitis risk might be mediated by circulating vitamin D levels (proportion mediated = 5.5%). Sensitivity analyses provided no evidence of pleiotropy.ConclusionOur study results suggest that an elevated abundance of specific gut microbiota is associated with an increased susceptibility to cholecystitis, with the causal relationship being mediated by circulating vitamin D levels. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are necessary to validate the causal effects of gut microbiota on cholecystitis risk. This study provides novel insights into cholecystitis prevention through the regulation of gut microbiota.
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Metabolite profiling of peripheral blood plasma in pigs in early postnatal
           life fed whole bovine, caprine or ovine milk

    • Authors: Ankita Jena, Carlos A. Montoya, Karl Fraser, Caroline Giezenaar, Wayne Young, Jane A. Mullaney, Ryan N. Dilger, Debashree Roy, Warren C. McNabb, Nicole C. Roy
      Abstract: Ruminants’ milk is commonly used for supplying nutrients to infants when breast milk is unavailable or limited. Previous studies have highlighted the differences between ruminants’ milk composition, digestion, absorption, and fermentation. However, whether consuming different ruminants’ milk impact the appearance of the circulatory blood metabolites in the early postnatal life is not well understood. The analysis conducted here aimed to determine the effect of feeding exclusively whole milk from bovine, caprine or ovine species to pigs, approximately 7 days-old for 15 days, on circulatory blood plasma metabolites. Relative intensities of plasma metabolites were detected using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomic approach. Seven polar and 83 non-polar (lipids) metabolites in plasma were significantly different (false discovery rate 
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Mechanism of the antidiabetic action of Nigella sativa and Thymoquinone: a

    • Authors: Arslan Shaukat, Arsalan Zaidi, Haseeb Anwar, Nadeem Kizilbash
      Abstract: IntroductionLong used in traditional medicine, Nigella sativa (NS; Ranunculaceae) has shown significant efficacy as an adjuvant therapy for diabetes mellitus (DM) management by improving glucose tolerance, decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis, normalizing blood sugar and lipid imbalance, and stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic cells. In this review, the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of NS as a herbal diabetes medication are examined in depth, demonstrating how it counteracts oxidative stress and the onset and progression of DM.MethodsThis literature review drew on databases such as Google Scholar and PubMed and various gray literature sources using search terms like the etiology of diabetes, conventional versus herbal therapy, subclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, physiology, behavior, and clinical outcomes.ResultsThe efficiency and safety of NS in diabetes, notably its thymoquinone (TQ) rich volatile oil, have drawn great attention from researchers in recent years; the specific therapeutic dose has eluded determination so far. TQ has anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties but has not proved druggable. DM’s intimate link with oxidative stress, makes NS therapy relevant since it is a potent antioxidant that energizes the cell’s endogenous arsenal of antioxidant enzymes. NS attenuates insulin resistance, enhances insulin signaling, suppresses cyclooxygenase-2, upregulates insulin-like growth factor-1, and prevents endothelial dysfunction in DM.ConclusionThe interaction of NS with mainstream drugs, gut microbiota, and probiotics opens new possibilities for innovative therapies. Despite its strong potential to treat DM, NS and TQ must be examined in more inclusive clinical studies targeting underrepresented patient populations.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T00:00:00Z
  • Dietary practice and nutritional status and the respective effect of
           pulses-based nutrition education among adolescent girls in Northwest
           Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled

    • Authors: Fantahun Ayenew Mekonnen, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Telake Azale, Netsanet Worku Mengistu
      Abstract: BackgroundThinness and stunting are the most severe public health problems among adolescent girls in Ethiopia. An inadequate intake of protein-source foods is the most critical cause, mainly due to the non-affordability of animal-origin foods. However, research into what extent improving pulses-based food consumption could contribute to decreasing the magnitude of protein-energy undernutrition is limited.ObjectiveThis trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pulses-based nutrition education in reducing the proportion of thinness among adolescent girls.MethodsA two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among adolescent girls in Northwest Ethiopia from December 2021 to June 2022. A total of 602 adolescent girls from four schools were enrolled in the trial. Schools were assigned to intervention and control groups using the stratified cluster randomization method. Pulses-based nutrition education was the intervention, whereas the usual dietary practice of adolescent girls was the comparator. The education was delivered over 4 weeks on a 45–60-min session per week basis. Thinness was the primary outcome of the trial, measured by anthropometry. An intention-to-treat analysis method was used. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to the data. Relative risk with the respective confidence interval and value of p was calculated. A value of p
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides on the physicochemical
           properties of catfish surimi and myofibrillar protein oxidation during
           frozen storage

    • Authors: Liang Ling, Ying Liu, Xin Zhang, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Shahzad, Manal Y. Sameeh, Ying Wang, Chunbo Cai, Yingchun Zhu
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FVPs) on the myofibrillar protein (MP) oxidation protein and physicochemical properties of catfish surimi during 75 days of frozen storage at −18°C. FVP was added to surimi at 1%, 1.5%, and 2%, respectively; the degree of MP oxidation and the physicochemical properties of the surimi were investigated, and the microstructure of the surimi was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the carbonyl content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the FVP groups were lower than those in the CK group (the blank surimi). In comparison, the total sulfhydryl content, solubility, and Ca2+-ATPase activity were higher than those in the CK group after 75 days of storage. The addition of FVP significantly increased the water-holding capacity (WHC), gel strength, elastic modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G“) of surimi, and made the gel of surimi have stronger continuity and a denser structure. Therefore, FVP has a better cryoprotective effect on surimi. It improves the quality of surimi, decreases MP oxidation, and reduces lipid and water loss during frozen storage. The anti-freezing effect of FVP added at 2% was similar to that of commercial protectants (4% sucrose and 4% sorbitol).
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T00:00:00Z
  • Orally administered low-molecular weight agaro-oligosaccharides are
           absorbed into the plasma of healthy humans

    • Authors: Ikuya Shirai, Yu Iwasaki, Koji Karasawa, Yasutaka Shigemura, Shigeru Katayama
      Abstract: Agaro-oligosaccharides (AOSs) are known to have biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesity effects. Although existing evidence suggests the presence of AOSs in peripheral tissues after oral administration, whether AOSs permeate into the blood circulation remains unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that AOSs with low-molecular weight can permeate the human gastrointestinal tract. To test this hypothesis, the time course of absorption was examined by analyzing plasma samples before and 1, 2, and 4 h after ingestion. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after labeling with p-aminobenzoic ethyl ester. Our results showed that the plasma concentration of agarobiose (Abi) was higher than that of agarotetraose (Ate); however, agarohexaose was not detected. Additionally, plasma levels of Abi and Ate were proportional to the dose. These results suggest that permeation efficiency is dependent on the molecular weight and that the systemic absorption of Abi via the gastrointestinal tract is better than that of Ate. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the bioactivity of orally administered AOSs in peripheral tissues.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T00:00:00Z
  • Effectiveness of orange almond potato cookie vs. orange potato cookie
           supplementation on nutritional wellbeing of the Indonesian stunted
           preschool-aged children during COVID-19

    • Authors: Fatmah Fatmah, Suyud W. Utomo
      Abstract: BackgroundPreschool-aged children who experience stunting due to insufficient consumption of macro- and micronutrients exhibit weakened immune systems, rendering them susceptible to contracting COVID-19 during the ongoing epidemic. Therefore, it is imperative to implement interventions aimed at enhancing the nutritional status of preschool-aged children by providing them with nutrient-rich food supplements as a preventive measure against illness transmission. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of incorporating potato almond orange cookies into the diet on the nutritional status of preschool-aged children who are experiencing stunting.MethodsA non-randomized pre-post intervention study was done on 42 individuals aged 12–58 months during 4 weeks. The intervention group was provided with almond potato cookies, while the control group was given orange potato cookies. During the study period, educational sessions on balanced nutrition in preschool-aged children with stunting and COVID-19 were provided to the mothers of both groups. The data analysis involved conducting univariate and bivariate analyses, namely utilizing the independent t-test.ResultsThe intervention group exhibited the most significant enhancements in -for-Age Z-score. The mean -for-Age Z-score of the intervention group increased by 0.51 (from −3.15 to −2.64), whereas the control group saw a smaller gain of 0.25 (from −2.69 to −2.44). This increase was influenced by the mother’s age; mother’s education; father’s occupation; family size; good sanitation facilities; healthy home environment; and fat, calcium, and zinc intake from the cookies (p 
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T00:00:00Z
  • Bioactive profiles of edible vegetable oils determined using 10D
           hyphenated comprehensive high-performance thin-layer chromatography
           (HPTLC×HPTLC) with on-surface metabolism (nanoGIT) and planar
           bioassays|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: Isabel Müller, Alexander Gulde, Gertrud E. Morlock
      Abstract: IntroductionVegetable oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids are assumed to be safe and even healthy for consumers though lipid compositions of foods vary naturally and are complex considering the wealth of minor compounds down to the trace level.MethodsThe developed comprehensive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC×HPTLC) method including the on-surface metabolization (nanoGIT) and bioassay detection combined all steps on the same planar surface. The pancreatic lipolysis (intestinal phase) experiment and the subsequent analysis of the fatty acid composition including its effect-directed detection using a planar bioassay was performed without elaborate sample preparation or fractionation to ensure sample integrity. Thus, no sample part was lost, and the whole sample was studied on a single surface regarding all aspects. This made the methodology as well as technology miniaturized, lean, all-in-one, and very sustainable.Results and discussionTo prioritize important active compounds including their metabolism products in the complex oil samples, the nanoGIT method was used to examine the pancreatic lipolysis of nine different vegetable oils commonly used in the kitchen and food industry, e.g., canola oil, flaxseed oil, hemp oil, walnut oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, coconut oil, and palm oil. The digested oils revealed antibacterial and genotoxic effects, which were assigned to fatty acids and oxidized species via high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS). This finding reinforces the importance of adding powerful techniques to current analytical tools. The 10D hyphenated nanoGIT-HPTLC×HPTLC-Vis/FLD-bioassay-heart cut-RP-HPLC-DAD-HESI-HRMS/MS has the potential to detect any potential hazard due to digestion/metabolism, improving food safety and understanding on the impact of complex samples.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Rapid detection of micronutrient components in infant formula milk powder
           using near-infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Shaoli Liu, Ting Lei, Guipu Li, Shuming Liu, Xiaojun Chu, Donghai Hao, Gongnian Xiao, Ayaz Ali Khan, Taqweem Ul Haq, Manal Y. Sameeh, Tariq Aziz, Manal Tashkandi, Guanghua He
      Abstract: In order to achieve rapid detection of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), calcium (Ca), and vitamin C (Vc), four micronutrient components in infant formula milk powder, this study employed four methods, namely Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), Normalization (Nor), and Savitzky–Golay Smoothing (SG), to preprocess the acquired original spectra of the milk powder. Then, the Competitive Adaptive Reweighted Sampling (CARS) algorithm and Random Frog (RF) algorithm were used to extract representative characteristic wavelengths. Furthermore, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) models were established to predict the contents of GOS, FOS, Ca, and Vc in infant formula milk powder. The results indicated that after SNV preprocessing, the original spectra of GOS and FOS could effectively extract feature wavelengths using the CARS algorithm, leading to favorable predictive results through the CARS-SVR model. Similarly, after MSC preprocessing, the original spectra of Ca and Vc could efficiently extract feature wavelengths using the CARS algorithm, resulting in optimal predictive outcomes via the CARS-SVR model. This study provides insights for the realization of online nutritional component detection and optimization control in the production process of infant formula.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Adherence to diabetes risk reduction diet and the risk of head and neck
           cancer: a prospective study of 101,755 American

    • Authors: Xia Wu, Linglong Peng, Haoyun Luo, Zhiquan Xu, Jijian Wang, Haitao Gu, Yaxu Wang, Yi Xiao, Chaohua Zhang, Ling Xiang
      Abstract: BackgroundAdherence to the diabetes risk reduction diet (DRRD) may potentially reduce the risk of developing head and neck cancer (HNC) as the diet includes fruits and limits red and processed meats, known risk factors for HNC. However, there is currently no epidemiological research to investigate this potential association.MethodsThe present study utilized data on demographics, lifestyles, medications, and diets of participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial to explore the potential association between adherence to DRRD and the risk of HNC. We used a DRRD score to evaluate adherence to the dietary pattern and employed Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HNC risk. Several subgroup analyses were carried out to identify potential effect modifiers, and multiple sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of the correlation. The nine components of the DRRD was assessed separately for its association with the risk of HNC.ResultsDuring a mean follow up of 8.84 years, 279 cases of HNC were observed. DDRD score was found to be inversely associated with the risk of HNC (HR Q4 vs. Q1: 0.582; 95% CI: 0.396, 0.856; p = 0.005 for trend) in a linear dose–response manner (p = 0.211 for non-linearity). Subgroup analysis indicated this inverse correlation was more pronounced among participants who had never smoked (HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.193; 95% CI: 0.073, 0.511; p 
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • A retrospective study on the physical growth of twins in the first year
           after birth|Objectives|Methods|Results|Conclusion|Clinical trial

    • Authors: Ting Pan, Yanru Huang, Qian Cheng, Li Chen, Yan Hu, Ying Dai, Xiao Liu, Zhiyang Jiang, Yuanfeng Zhong, Zhanzhan Zhang, Qian Chen, Qian Zhang, Xuan Zhang
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study analyzed the physical growth of small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) twins up to one year after birth.MethodsWeight, length, and head circumference data of 0–1 year-old twins were collected from the Child Health Care System from 2010 to 2019. Physical data were presented as Z-scores. Five parameters – growth level of weight, body length, head circumference, growth velocity, and body proportion (weight for length) were compared in twins.ResultsA total of 3,909 cases were collected (22.61% SGA, 77.39% AGA). 1. In both groups, WAZ (Weight for age z-score), HCZ (Head circumference for age z-score), and LAZ (Length for age z-score) increased more rapidly in the first 6 months. By one year of age, WAZ, HCZ, and LAZ had reached the normal range, but none had reached the average level of normal singleton children. 2. The mean values of WAZ, HCZ, and LAZ in the AGA group were between −1 and 0, and between −2 and − 1 in the SGA group, in the first year after birth. The SGA group lagged significantly behind the AGA group. The LAZ score of SGA and AGA was lower than the WAZ and HCZ scores. 3. The proportion of preterm AGA was the largest in twins, and the growth rate of preterm AGA was the fastest. Preterm twins had greater growth potential than term twins. However, the growth level of preterm SGA was always low. 4. The WFLZ (Weight for length z-score) in each group was approximately close to 0. The WFLZ of SGA was smaller than that of AGA twins at most time points. After 4 months of age, the WFLZ of twins had a downward trend. The WFLZ of preterm SGA approached −1 at approximately 1 year old.ConclusionThe physical growth of SGA and AGA in twins in the first year can reach the normal range but cannot reach the average level of normal singleton children. More attention should be paid to SGA in twins, especially preterm SGA. We should give proper nutritional guidance after 4 months of age to ensure the appropriate body proportion (weight for length) of SGA in twins.Clinical trial registrationwww.chictr.org.cn, CTR2000034761.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Comparison of the effects of pea protein and whey protein on the metabolic
           profile of soccer athletes: a randomized, double-blind, crossover

    • Authors: Luiz Lannes Loureiro, Tathiany Jéssica Ferreira, Fábio Luiz Candido Cahuê, Victor Zaban Bittencourt, Ana Paula Valente, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci
      Abstract: IntroductionPea protein (PP) concentrate is a plant-based alternative to animal protein sources, such as whey protein (WP). In addition to its valuable amino acid composition, PP has a low environmental impact, making it a sustainable, nutritious, and viable alternative for enhanced sports performance, such as in soccer. PP Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of PP and WP supplementation on biochemical and metabolic parameters in soccer players.MethodsTwelve male under-20 soccer players were included in this double-blind, randomized crossover intervention study. For 10 consecutive days, each participant received either 0.5 g/kg of the PP or WP supplementation after training, starting 7 days before the test game, and continuing until 2 days after. After a 4-day washout period, the athletes switched groups and the intervention was restarted. Blood samples were collected before and after the game, as well as 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h intervals thereafter. Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate (LA), urea, creatinine, and uric acid were analyzed using commercial kits. Exploratory metabolic profiling of the serum samples was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.ResultsA comparison of biochemical markers showed that the PP group had lower CK in the post-game moment, 24 h, and 48 h. Lower LA in the post-game moment, and lower ALT in the post-game moment and at 24 h. Of the 48 metabolites analyzed, 22 showed significant differences between the time points, such as amino acids, ketone bodies, and glucose metabolism. Glutamate and lactate levels significantly increased between the pre- and post-game moments in the WP group. After the game, the WP group exhibited reduced levels of metabolites such as arginine and taurine, whereas no such change was observed in the PP group. There was no difference in metabolites 72 h after the game.ConclusionsDespite the slight advantage of the PP group in specific biochemical markers, these differences are not sufficient to justify the choice of a particular type of protein. However, the results highlight the viability of plant protein as a potential alternative to animal protein without compromising athletic performance or recovery.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of anthocyanin supplementation in diet on glycemic and related
           cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled

    • Authors: Ting Mao, F. N. U. Akshit, Maneesha S. Mohan
      Abstract: PurposeThis study is the first systematic review and meta-analysis based on RCTs on the effects of anthocyanins on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the effect on T2DM-related cardiovascular disease.MethodsRCTs published in English from five electronic databases were evaluated for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose, fasting insulin, model assessment for insulin resistance, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The quality of the studies was rated (Cochrane Risk of Bias tool) and weighted mean differences were calculated (DerSimonian-Laird model with random effects). Leave-one-out sensitivity, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were conducted. The strength of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE guidelines.ResultsIn all, 13 RCTs were analyzed out of the 239 identified studies, with a duration longer than 4 weeks (703 participants with T2DM). Our findings indicate that a median dose of 320 mg/day anthocyanins, either from fruit extracts or pure supplements, for a median intervention length of 8 weeks significantly reduced HbA1c [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) −0.31, p = 0.00], FBG (WMD −0.63, p = 0.00), 2-h postprandial glucose (WMD −1.60, p = 0.00), TG (WMD −0.45, p = 0.01), and LDL (WMD −0.26 p = 0.02). However, the effects of anthocyanins on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in patients with T2DM were not statistically significant. Anthocyanins from fruit extracts or powder exhibited a higher reduction of HbA1c compared to pure anthocyanin supplements.ConclusionThe significant improvements in glycemic parameters and lipid profile, suggest the benefits of anthocyanins, especially from fruit extract or powder, in the management of T2DM, and their ability to delay the onset of lipid disorder-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease associated with T2DM. The mechanism behind this reduction in glycemic markers could be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of anthocyanins. Further research with well-designed RCTs is required to determine the optimal dosage of anthocyanins for the treatment of T2DM and to comprehend the consequences.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Assessing daily energy intake in adult women: validity of a
           food-recognition mobile application compared to doubly labelled water

    • Authors: Michele Serra, Daniela Alceste, Florian Hauser, Paul J. M. Hulshof, Harro A. J. Meijer, Andreas Thalheimer, Robert E. Steinert, Philipp A. Gerber, Alan C. Spector, Daniel Gero, Marco Bueter
      Abstract: Accurate dietary assessment is crucial for nutrition and health research. Traditional methods, such as food records, food frequency questionnaires, and 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR), have limitations, such as the need for trained interviewers, time-consuming procedures, and inaccuracies in estimations. Novel technologies, such as image-based dietary assessment apps, have been developed to overcome these limitations. SNAQ is a novel image-based food-recognition app which, based on computer vision, assesses food type and volume, and provides nutritional information about dietary intake. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to investigate the validity of SNAQ as a dietary assessment tool for measuring energy and macronutrient intake in adult women with normal body weight (n = 30), compared to doubly labeled water (DLW), a reference method for total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Energy intake was also estimated using a one-day 24HR for direct comparison. Bland–Altman plots, paired difference tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to assess agreement and relationships between the methods. SNAQ showed a slightly higher agreement (bias = −329.6 kcal/day) with DLW for total daily energy intake (TDEI) compared to 24HR (bias = −543.0 kcal/day). While both SNAQ and 24HR tended to underestimate TDEI, only 24HR significantly differed from DLW in this regard (p 
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • FT-ICR-MS reveals the molecular imprints of the brewing process

    • Authors: Stefan A. Pieczonka, Martin Zarnkow, Friedrich Ampenberger, Martina Gastl, Michael Rychlik, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
      Abstract: The study of fermentation and brewing has a long history of pioneering discoveries that continue to influence modern industrial food production. Since then, numerous research endeavors have yielded conventional criteria that guide contemporary brewing practices. However, the intricate open challenges faced today necessitate a more exhaustive understanding of the process at the molecular scale. We have developed an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis (FT-ICR-MS) of the brewing process that can rapidly and comprehensively resolve thousands of molecules. This approach allows us to track molecular fluctuation during brewing at the level of chemical compositions. Employing biological triplicates, our investigation of two brewing lines that are otherwise identical except for the malt used revealed over 8,000 molecular descriptors of the brewing process. Metabolite imprints of both the similarities and differences arising from deviating malting temperatures were visualized. Additionally, we translated traditional brewing attributes such as the EBC-value, free amino nitrogen, pH-value, and concentration curves of specific molecules, into highly correlative molecular patterns consisting of hundreds of metabolites. These in-depth molecular imprints provide a better understanding of the molecular circumstances leading to various changes throughout the brewing process. Such chemical maps go beyond the observation of traditional brewing attributes and are of great significance in the investigation strategies of current open challenges in brewing research. The molecular base of knowledge, along with advancements in technological and data integration schemes, can facilitate the efficient monitoring of brewing and other productions processes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Morel (Morchella spp.) intake alters gut microbial community and
           short-chain fatty acid profiles in mice

    • Authors: Longying Pei, Wei Liu, Luping Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Luxi Jiang, Zhaohui Chen, Qiquan Wang, Peng Wang, Heng Xu
      Abstract: Morels (Morchella spp.) are highly nutritious and consumed as both edible mushrooms and traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with morel mushrooms on the gut bacterial microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profiles in healthy mice. Healthy mice were randomly assigned to five groups: a control group (0% morel) and four intervention groups supplemented with different levels of morel mushrooms (5% for M5, 10% for M10, 15% for M15, and 20% for M20) over a period of 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at the end of the experiment to characterize the microbiota and assess the SCFAs levels. The morel intervention significantly altered the bacterial community composition, increasing Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group and Parabacteroides, while decreasing Staphylococcus and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio). Moreover, increased morel intake was associated with weight loss. All SCFAs content was upregulated in the morel-intervention groups. Potential SCFAs-producing taxa identified by regression analysis were distributed in the families Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and in the genera Jeotgalicoccus, Gemella, Odoribacter, Tyzzerella 3 and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014. The functional categories involved with SCFAs-production or weight loss may contain enzymes such as beta-glucosidase (K05349), beta-galactosidase (K01190), and hexosaminidase (K12373) after morel intervention. The exploration of the impact of morel mushrooms on gut microbiota and metabolites contributes to the development of prebiotics for improving health and reducing obesity.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Normal-weight central obesity: implications for diabetes

    • Authors: Xueshan Jin, Jiajun Liu, Qiuyu Cao, Jiehua Lin, Guangfu Wu, Longhui Liu, Shan Jiang, Xin Zhou, Zhiqiang Li, Aicheng Yang
      Abstract: BackgroundCurrent guidelines for obesity prevention and control focus on body mass index (BMI) and rarely address central obesity. Few studies have been conducted on the association between normal-weight central obesity and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods26,825 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were included in our study. A weighted multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between different obesity patterns and the risk of DM.ResultsOur results suggest that normal-weight central obesity is associated with an increased risk of DM (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.75–3.23) compared with normal-weight participants without central obesity. When stratified by sex, men with normal-weight central obesity, obesity and central obesity were found to have a similar risk of DM (OR: 3.83, 95% CI: 2.10–5.97; OR: 4.20, 95% CI: 3.48–5.08, respectively) and a higher risk than all other types of obesity, including men who were overweight with no central obesity (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.96–1.51) and obese with no central obesity (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30–0.91).ConclusionOur results highlight the need for more attention in people with central obesity, even if they have a normal BMI.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nicotinamide riboside
           and pterostilbene and/or coconut oil on anthropometric variables in
           amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A pilot study

    • Authors: Sandra Carrera-Juliá, José M. Estrela, Mario Zacarés, Mari Ángeles Navarro, María Jesús Vega-Bello, José Enrique de la Rubia Ortí, Mari Luz Moreno, Eraci Drehmer
      Abstract: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes the death of motor neurons and alters patients’ body composition. Supplementation with the antioxidants nicotinamide riboside (NR) and pterostilbene (PTER) can combat associated oxidative stress. Additionally, coconut oil is an alternative energy substrate that can address mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of a Mediterranean Diet supplemented with NR and PTER and/or with coconut oil on the anthropometric variables of patients with ALS. A prospective, mixed, randomized, analytical and experimental pilot study in humans was performed through a clinical trial (registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT03489200) with pre- and post-intervention assessments. The sample was made up of 40 subjects categorized into four study groups (Control, Antioxidants, Coconut oil, and Antioxidants + Coconut oil). Pre- and post-intervention anthropometric assessments were carried out to determine the following data: weight, percentage of fat and muscle mass, skinfolds, body perimeters, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waste-to-Hip Index (WHI) and Waist-Height Ratio (WHR). Compared to the Control group, GAx significantly increased muscle mass percentage and decreased fat mass percentage, triceps, iliac crest, and abdominal skinfolds. GCoco significantly increased muscle mass percentage and decreased fat mass percentage, subscapular skinfolds, and abdominal skinfolds. GAx + coco significantly increased muscle mass percentage and decreased abdominal skinfolds. Therefore, our results suggest that the Mediterranean Diet supplemented with NR and PTER and the Mediterranean Diet supplemented with coconut oil (ketogenic diet) are the two nutritional interventions that have reported the greatest benefits, at anthropometric level.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T00:00:00Z
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