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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Nutrition
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-861X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Storage stability and in vitro digestion of apigenin encapsulated in
           Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate–chitosan

    • Authors: Ruihong Ge, Haihua Zhu, Jian Zhong, Hui Wang, Ningping Tao
      Abstract: Few studies have investigated the encapsulation of apigenin in solid particle-stabilized emulsions. In this work, Pickering emulsions containing apigenin and stabilized by whey protein isolate-chitosan (WPI-CS) complexes were created to enhance the bioavailability of apigenin. Different lipids including medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), ethyl oleate (EO), and corn oil (CO) were selected to fabricate lipid-based delivery systems. The microstructure of the Pickering emulsions, as revealed by optical and cryo-scanning electron microscopies, showed that the oil droplets were dispersed evenly and trapped by a three-dimensional network formed by the WPI-CS complexes, which was further confirmed by rheology properties. After 30 days of storage, Pickering emulsions with MCTs achieved the highest apigenin retention rate, exhibiting 95.05 ± 1.45% retention when stored under 4°C. In vitro gastrointestinal tract experiments indicated that the lipid types of the emulsions also affected the lipid digestion and release rate of apigenin. Pickering emulsions with MCTs achieved a higher bioaccessibility compared to that of the other two emulsions (p < 0.01). These results indicate that the delivery system of Pickering emulsions with MCTs stabilized by WPI-CS complexes offers good storage stability and improved bioaccessibility of apigenin.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Eating disorders risk assessment in men who practice team

    • Authors: Daniel Baldó Vela, Noelia Bonfanti, Luis Antonio Villarino Marín
      Abstract: IntroductionEating disorders (EDs) are characterized by an overconcern about body weight and shape. Men who practice team sports have been systematically excluded from the high-risk eating disorders groups. This exclusion could be challenged based on misinformation about the prevalence of actual eating disorders within these athletes, with the previous evidence showing significant body image concerns among them and the under-diagnosis risk in populations of men.ObjectiveTo assess eating disorders risk in Spanish adult men who practice team sports.Methodology:An observational study was conducted with 276 athlete men aged between 18 and 55 years: 60.5% were team sports players and 39.5% were athletes of aesthetic, endurance, and weight-category sports. Data were collected via an online form including a general assessment sheet and four validated questionnaires: The Eating Habits Questionnaire for Athletes (CHAD), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Inventory of Eating Disorders (EDI-2), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Data analysis was conducted with the software IBM SPSS 28.0.0.ResultsAbout 20.36% of team sports players presented a clinical profile compatible with an ED diagnosis. There were no significant differences comparing EDs potential cases between team sports players and athletes playing sports categorized as high EDs risk. There were significant differences when analyzing the existence of EDs between the different groups of age, family pressure, and coach pressure. The U-value of the Mann–Whitney test presented significant differences when assessing the influence of BMI over the development of EDs.ConclusionMen who practice team sports may also be a high-risk group for the development of EDs. Being younger than 21 years, having a BMI larger than 25 kg/m2, and perceiving high-level pressure from the coach and/or family would be risk factors for EDs in men who practice team sports.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • A rational definition for functional foods: A perspective

    • Authors: Norman J. Temple
      Abstract: Many foods are described as “functional foods”. However, the term is poorly defined. A commonly used definition is that they contain substances that have positive effects on health “beyond basic nutrition”. However, there are several problems with this definition. In many cases, healthy foods are included under the term functional foods. A new definition is proposed as follows. Functional foods are novel foods that have been formulated so that they contain substances or live microorganisms that have a possible health-enhancing or disease-preventing value, and at a concentration that is both safe and sufficiently high to achieve the intended benefit. The added ingredients may include nutrients, dietary fiber, phytochemicals, other substances, or probiotics.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Ae1/Sbe1 maize-derived high amylose improves gut barrier function and
           ameliorates type II diabetes in high-fat diet-fed mice by increasing

    • Authors: Weiwei Qi, Jingchao Liu, Tante Yu, Shengchan Huang, Rentao Song, Zhenyi Qiao
      Abstract: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has its origins in chronic inflammation due to immune dysregulation. Improving chronic inflammation can significantly reduce the probability of T2DM and the rate of disease progression. Resistance to starch 2 (RSII) high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) has been widely implicated in the improvement and regulation of T2DM. However, its exact molecular mechanisms have not been fully discovered. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to knock out two starch-branching enzyme genes, Ae1 and Sbe1, in maize to obtain mutants containing higher levels of HAMS. In experiments in which HAMS was fed to mice on a high-fat diet (HFD), we confirmed the function of HAMS in ameliorating hyperglycemia. Mechanistically, we found that HAMS improves the gut barrier function by increasing the Akkermansia abundance in the gut. This increase led to the alleviation of chronic inflammation in mice on a HFD, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood glucose.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Complexation of multiple mineral elements by fermentation and its
           application in laying hens

    • Authors: Huayou Chen, Xinyu Heng, Keyi Li, Zhen Wang, Zhong Ni, Ebin Gao, Yangchun Yong, Xin Wu
      Abstract: To overcome the problems with current mineral supplements for laying hens including low absorption, mineral antagonism, and high cost, we developed mineral element fermentation complexes (MEFC) by synergistically fermenting bean dregs and soybean meal with strains and proteases and complexing with mineral elements. The fermentation complexation process was optimized based on the small peptide and organic acid contents and the complexation rate of mineral elements after fermentation. The optimal conditions were as follows: the total inoculum size was 5% (v/w), 15% (w/w) wheat flour middling was added to the medium, and mineral elements (with 4% CaCO3) were added after the completion of aerobic fermentation, fermentation at 34°C and 11 days of fermentation. Under these conditions, the complexation rates of Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn were 90.62, 97.24, 73.33, 94.64, and 95.93%, respectively. The small peptide, free amino acid, and organic acid contents were 41.62%, 48.09 and 183.53 mg/g, respectively. After 60 days of fermentation, 82.11% of the Fe in the MEFC was ferrous ions, indicating that fermentation had a good antioxidant effect on ferrous ion, and the antioxidant protection period was at least 60 days. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the mineral ions were complexed with amino and carboxyl groups. The added mineral elements promoted microbial growth, protein degradation, and organic acid secretion and significantly improved fermentation efficiency. Animal experiments showed that MEFC had positive effects on several parameters, including production performance (average daily feed intake, P < 0.05; egg production rate, P < 0.05; and average egg weight, P < 0.05), mineral absorption, intestinal morphology (villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum, P < 0.05), and blood routine and biochemical indexes (red blood cells, P < 0.05; hemoglobin, P < 0.05). This study provides theoretical support for the development of mineral complexes for laying hens via fermentation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Beyond bariatric surgery and weight loss medicaments. A systematic review
           of the current practice in obesity rehabilitative inpatient programs in
           adults and pediatrics|Background|Aim|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Daniele Spadaccini, Silvia Guazzotti, Filipa Patricia Goncalves Correia, Tommaso Daffara, Sabrina Tini, Alessandro Antonioli, Gianluca Aimaretti, Paolo Marzullo, Marina Caputo, Valentina Antoniotti, Flavia Prodam
      Abstract: BackgroundObesity treatment strategies mainly include outpatient lifestyle modification, drugs and bariatric surgery. Voluntary rehabilitative inpatient programs are gaining relevance as potential alternative settings of care that focus on weight loss and prevention of weight regain through a multidisciplinary approach, but their prevalence is still limited due to the high costs.AimConsidering the lack of evidence in this area, the objective of this study is to systematically review the currently available literature on non-pharmacological and non-surgical inpatient programs aimed at weight loss, to clarify the efficacy and the characteristics of these interventions.MethodsProper English language articles from 2000 to 2022 were searched on relevant databases. Quality assessment was performed by two different authors using ROB2 and robvis tools. Adult and pediatric studies were reviewed separately and their characteristics were systematically displayed.Results36 articles were included (20 on adults, 16 on children, and adolescents) for a total of 5,510 individuals. The multidisciplinary approach was mainly comprehensive of a low-calorie diet, scheduled physical activity, and psychological support based on behavioral treatment. Educational and cooking sessions were present at a lower rate. Globally, inpatient weight loss programs showed a consistent efficacy in reducing body weight and inducing beneficial effects on quality of life, psychological well-being, eating behavior, physical performance, and fatigue. Follow-up data were scarce, but with a high percentage of patients regaining weight after a short period.ConclusionWeight loss inpatient rehabilitation is a promising area that has evidence of all-rounded success in the amelioration of several aspects related to obesity. Nevertheless, it appears to be quite inconsistent in preserving these benefits after the intervention. This might slow the innovation process in this area and preclude further investments from national healthcare. Personalized and enriched programs could show greater impact when focusing on the behavioral and educational aspects, which are crucial points, in particular in pediatrics, for setting up a long-lasting lifestyle modification. More studies are therefore necessary to evaluate long-term efficacy based on the different work-up models.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Infodemiology on diet and weight loss behavior before and during COVID-19
           pandemic in Indonesia: Implication for public health

    • Authors: Ira Dewi Ramadhani, Leny Latifah, Andjar Prasetyo, Marizka Khairunnisa, Yurika Fauzia Wardhani, Diah Yunitawati, Mochammad Fahlevi
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis study set out to explore public interest through information search trends on diet and weight loss before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.MethodsThe Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative internet search popularity on diet-related search terms, including top and rising diet-related terms. The search range was before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2018 to January 2022) in the Indonesia region. We analyzed the Relative Search Volume (RSV) data using line charts, correlation, and comparison tests.ResultsSearch queries of “lose weight” was higher during the pandemic (58.34 ± 9.70 vs. 68.69 ± 7.72; p
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • A high-fat diet disrupts the hepatic and adipose circadian rhythms and
           modulates the diurnal rhythm of gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty
           acids in gestational mice

    • Authors: Lu Ding, Jieying Liu, Liyuan Zhou, Xinmiao Jia, Shunhua Li, Qian Zhang, Miao Yu, Xinhua Xiao
      Abstract: The prevalence of gestational obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Evidence supported that the interactions between the gut microbiota and circadian clocks far reached, affecting host metabolism. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HF) on the hepatic and adipose circadian rhythms in gestational mice and to explore the role of gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mediating the effects. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly fed a standard chow diet (Ctr) or HF prior to and during pregnancy. Samples were collected every 4 h over 24 h (six time points), and 16S rRNA and metabonomics were carried out. Rhythmic patterns were identified and compared using CircaCompare. The results showed that the HF before and during pregnancy significantly induced obesity and worsen glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism in the gestational mice. Furthermore, the HF significantly disrupted the rhythmic pattern of hepatic and adipose circadian clock genes and downstream metabolic genes. Importantly, our results revealed that the HF altered the diurnal rhythm of the gut microbiota in a diverse manner, which was assessed across three categories: phase shift, loss rhythmicity, and gained rhythmicity. We report here, for the first time, a parallel alteration of the rhythmic phase of butyric acid and butyrate-producing Clostridiaceae_1, which was confirmed by a positive correlation between them. Overall, our research emphasized the importance of the rhythmicity of gut microbiota-derived SCFAs in mediating circadian disruption in response to the HF in gestational mice, which may provide novel insights into the prevention and treatment of gestational obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Inulin accelerates weight loss in obese mice by regulating gut microbiota
           and serum metabolites

    • Authors: Zeang Wu, Zhenzhu Du, Yuanyuan Tian, Miao Liu, Kailong Zhu, Yufan Zhao, Haixia Wang
      Abstract: Several studies indicated that the gut microbiota might participate in the beneficial effect of inulin on obesity. However, the mechanisms involved were still largely unknown. Sixteen high-fat diets (HFDs)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice were converted to a normal diet and then randomized into two groups, OND (obese mice + normal diet) group gavage-fed for 10 weeks with normal saline and ONDI (obese mice + normal diet + inulin) group with inulin at 10 g/kg/day. The body weight of HFD-induced obese mice showed different degrees of decrease in both groups. However, the ONDI group lost more weight and returned to normal earlier. Compared to the OND group, inulin supplementation significantly shifted the composition and structure of gut microbiota, such as higher α diversity. The β diversity analysis also confirmed the changes in gut microbiota composition between groups. At the genus level, the abundance of Alistipes was considerably increased, and it was significantly correlated with inulin supplementation (r = 0.72, P = 0.002). Serum metabolite levels were distinctly altered after inulin supplementation, and 143 metabolites were significantly altered in the ONDI group. Among them, indole-3-acrylic acid level increased more than 500-fold compared to the OND group. It was also strongly positive correlation with Alistipes (r = 0.72, P = 0.002) and inulin supplementation (r = 0.99, P = 9.2e−13) and negatively correlated with obesity (r = −0.72, P = 0.002). In conclusion, inulin supplementation could accelerate body weight loss in obese mice by increasing Alistipes and indole-3-acrylic acid level.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Zein-based nano-delivery systems for encapsulation and protection of
           hydrophobic bioactives: A review

    • Authors: Xiaojia Yan, Moting Li, Xingfeng Xu, Xuebo Liu, Fuguo Liu
      Abstract: Zein is a kind of excellent carrier materials to construct nano-sized delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactives, owing to its unique interfacial behavior, such as self-assembly and packing into nanoparticles. In this article, the chemical basis and preparation methods of zein nanoparticles are firstly reviewed, including chemical crosslinking, emulsification/solvent evaporation, antisolvent, pH-driven method, etc., as well as the pros and cons of different preparation methods. Various strategies to improve their physicochemical properties are then summarized. Lastly, the encapsulation and protection effects of zein-based nano-sized delivery systems (e.g., nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanomicelles and nanogels) are discussed, using curcumin as a model bioactive ingredient. This review will provide guidance for the in-depth development of hydrophobic bioactives formulations and improve the application value of zein in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Bioactive peptides identification and nutritional status ameliorating
           properties on malnourished rats of combined eel and soy-based tempe
           flour|Background and aims|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Nindy Sabrina, Mochammad Rizal, Fahrul Nurkolis, Hardinsyah Hardinsyah, Melvin Junior Tanner, William Ben Gunawan, Matthew Nathaniel Handoko, Nelly Mayulu, Nurpudji Astuti Taslim, Dwi Sari Puspaningtyas, Sutamara Lasurdi Noor, Vincentius Mario Yusuf, Happy Kurnia Permatasari, Son Radu
      Abstract: Background and aimsA combined eel and soy-based tempe (CEST) flour is rich in nutrients, especially its high amino acid content in which bioactive peptides (BPs) are expected to be found. Hence, this research aimed to identify the BPs of CEST flour and CEST supplementation’s effect on improving nutritional status biomarkers by ameliorating serum protein, hemoglobin, and IGF-1 of malnourished rats.MethodsCEST flour with a ratio of eel and soy-based tempe of 1:3.5 was produced by applying the oven drying method. Amino acid sequences from six BPs were analyzed using a protein sequencer and spectrometer-electrospray ionization (MS-ESI). A total of thirty malnourished male Rattus norvegicus aged 3–4 weeks were given low-protein (LP; 4% w/w protein) diet treatment for 4 weeks. Afterward, rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats. Group A and B remained on a low-protein diet for 4 weeks, receiving an LP diet and getting doses of CEST of 100 and 200 mg/kg BW, respectively, via oral. Group C or control was given a Normal-protein (NP) diet (23% w/w of protein) and was allowed to feed ad libitum during the trial period without a dose of CEST.ResultsSix bioactive peptides were found, with WMGPY being the most abundant, along with a DPPH radical scavenging activity of 5.0 mg/mL. The results showed that serum protein, hemoglobin, and IGF-1 of group B were significantly higher compared to groups A and C (p = 0.0021). CEST dose of 200 mg/kg BW was more effective to increase serum levels of protein (p = 0.0052), hemoglobin, and IGF-1 (p < 0.0001) compared to a 100 mg/kg BW dose.ConclusionThis indicates that the CEST flour has six bioactive peptides, which may contribute to the improvement of nutritional status biomarkers. To establish its potential impact, a human clinical study is urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Chemical and nutritional characteristics, and microbial degradation of
           rapeseed meal recalcitrant carbohydrates: A review

    • Authors: Cheng Long, Xiao-Long Qi, Koen Venema
      Abstract: Approximately 35% of rapeseed meal (RSM) dry matter (DM) are carbohydrates, half of which are water-soluble carbohydrates. The cell wall of rapeseed meal contains arabinan, galactomannan, homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I, type II arabinogalactan, glucuronoxylan, XXGG-type and XXXG-type xyloglucan, and cellulose. Glycoside hydrolases including in the degradation of RSM carbohydrates are α-L-Arabinofuranosidases (EC, endo-α-1,5-L-arabinanases (EC, Endo-1,4-β-mannanase (EC, β-mannosidase (EC, α-galactosidase (EC, reducing-end-disaccharide-lyase (pectate disaccharide-lyase) (EC, (1 → 4)-6-O-methyl-α-D-galacturonan lyase (pectin lyase) (EC, (1 → 4)-α-D-galacturonan reducing-end-trisaccharide-lyase (pectate trisaccharide-lyase) (EC, α-1,4-D-galacturonan lyase (pectate lyase) (EC, (1 → 4)-α-D-galacturonan glycanohydrolase (endo-polygalacturonase) (EC, Rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase, Rhamnogalacturonan lyase (EC, Exo-β-1,3-galactanase (EC, endo-β-1,6-galactanase (EC, Endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC, α-xylosidase (EC, β-glucosidase (EC endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC, exo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC, and β-glucosidase (EC In conclusion, this review summarizes the chemical and nutritional compositions of RSM, and the microbial degradation of RSM cell wall carbohydrates which are important to allow to develop strategies to improve recalcitrant RSM carbohydrate degradation by the gut microbiota, and eventually to improve animal feed digestibility, feed efficiency, and animal performance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of probiotic and magnesium co-supplementation on mood, cognition,
           intestinal barrier function and inflammation in individuals with obesity
           and depressed mood: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical

    • Authors: Sepideh Mahboobi, Marzieh Ghasvarian, Haleh Ghaem, Hamzeh Alipour, Shohreh Alipour, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari
      Abstract: BackgroundThe co-occurrence of obesity and mood impairments named as “metabolic mood syndrome” (MMS) is often neglected in the obesity management. This study aimed to evaluate effects of Probio-Tec ®BG-VCap-6.5 and magnesium co-supplementation on mood, cognition, intestinal barrier function and serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels in participants with obesity and depressed mood.DesignSeventy-four eligible participants were randomly allocated to either Probio-Tec®BG-VCap-6.5 [containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis (BB-12®)] + Magnesium chloride or placebo for 9 weeks. Sociodemographic data were collected in the beginning. Anthropometric, dietary and physical activity (PA) assessments were carried out. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores were assessed through validated questionnaires. Fasting plasma zonulin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and (CRP) were measured by ELIZA kits.ResultsOf seventy-four participants (mean age 37.51 ± 8.10), 52 completed the study. Changes in serum LPS and zonulin were not different significantly between groups (−3.04 ± 44.75 ng/dl, 0.11 ± 5.13, ng/dl, p> 0.05 for LPS and 1.40 ± 48.78 ng/dl, −0.17 ± 6.60, p> 0.05 for zonulin, respectively). CRP levels reduced significantly in intervention group compared to placebo [−474.75 (−1,300.00, −125.00) mg/l vs. 175.20 (−957.75, 1,683.25) mg/l, p = 0.016]. Changes in BDI-II and MoCA scores were not significantly different between intervention (−7.13 ± 5.67, 1.20 ± 2.16, respectively) and placebo (−5.42 ± 6.71, 1.94 ± 1.86, respectively) groups (p> 0.05).ConclusionNine weeks of probiotic and magnesium co-supplementation resulted in decreased CRP levels as an indicator of inflammatory state with no significant effects on mood, cognition and intestinal integrity in individuals with obesity and depressed mood.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Study on the antagonistic effects of koumiss on Toxoplasma gondii
           infection in mice

    • Authors: Xinlei Yan, Yufei Sun, Guangzhi Zhang, Wenying Han, Jialu Gao, Xiuli Yu, Xindong Jin
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic parasite, and approximately one-third of people worldwide are positive for T. gondii antibodies. To date, there are no specific drugs or vaccines against T. gondii. Therefore, developing a new safe and effective method has become a new trend in treating toxoplasmosis. Koumiss is rich in probiotics and many components that can alleviate the clinical symptoms of many diseases via the functional characteristics of koumiss and its regulation of intestinal flora. To investigate the antagonistic effect of koumiss on T. gondii infection, the model of acute and chronic T. gondii infection was established in this study. The survival rate, SHIRPA score, serum cytokine levels, brain cyst counts, β-amyloid deposition and intestinal flora changes were measured after koumiss feeding. The results showed that the clinical symptoms of mice were improved at 6 dpi and that the SHIRPA score decreased after koumiss feeding (P < 0.05). At the same time, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α decreased (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference of survival rate between koumiss treatment and the other groups. Surprisingly, the results of chronic infection models showed that koumiss could significantly reduce the number of brain cysts in mice (P < 0.05), improve β-amyloid deposition in the hippocampus (P < 0.01) and decrease the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Moreover, koumiss could influence the gut microbiota function in resisting T. gondii infection. In conclusion, koumiss had a significant effect on chronic T. gondii infection in mice and could improve the relevant indicators of acute T. gondii infection in mice. The research provides new evidence for the development of safe and effective anti-T. gondii methods, as well as a theoretical basis and data support for the use of probiotics against T. gondii infection and broadened thoughts for the development and utilization of koumiss.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Association between tea intake and hospitalized nephrolithiasis in Chinese
           adults: A case–control study|Introduction and

    • Authors: Yingyu Liu, Shiyuan Bi, Hexiao Li, Jianxiu Shi, Yang Xia, Kaijun Niu, Song Bai
      Abstract: Introduction and aimNephrolithiasis is one of the most common urological disorders worldwide. Tea is one of the most popular drinks worldwide. This study aimed to explore the association between tea intake and hospitalized nephrolithiasis in Chinese adults.MethodsThe patients and healthy participants were from the Shenyang sub-cohort of Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study. After selecting and matching by age (±1 year) and sex using the 1:2 ratio, 834 participants were included in this study. Of these, 278 patients had hospitalized nephrolithiasis and 556 were healthy controls. The tea intake was assessed using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between tea intake and hospitalized nephrolithiasis.ResultsAfter adjustment, a higher frequency of tea intake was found to be negatively associated with the risk of hospitalized nephrolithiasis. Compared with participants who never drank tea, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) [OR (95% CI)] for participants who drank ≥1 cup (180 mL) of tea per day was 0.418 (0.192–0.911) (P for trend = 0.013). Moreover, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for participants who drank ≥1 cup of green tea and black tea per day was 0.189 (0.069–0.520) (P for trend
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Preparation of carrier-free astaxanthin nanoparticles with improved
           antioxidant capacity

    • Authors: Fei Yu, Jiaxin Chen, Zizhan Wei, Pingchuan Zhu, Qing Qing, Bangda Li, Huimin Chen, Weiying Lin, Hua Yang, Zhongquan Qi, Xuehui Hong, Xiao Dong Chen
      Abstract: Astaxanthin (AST), a red pigment of the carotenoids, has various advantageous biological activities. Nevertheless, the wide application of AST is restricted due to its poor water solubility and highly unsaturated structure. To overcome these limitations, carrier-free astaxanthin nanoparticles (AST-NPs) were fabricated through the anti-solvent precipitation method. The AST-NPs had a small particle size, negative zeta potential and high loading capacity. Analysis of DSC and XRD demonstrated that amorphous AST existed in AST-NPs. In comparison with free AST, AST-NPs displayed enhanced stability during storage. Besides, it also showed outstanding stability when exposed to UV light. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of AST-NPs was significantly increased. In vitro release study showed that AST-NPs significantly delayed the release of AST in the releasing medium. These findings indicated that AST-NPs would be an ideal formulation for AST, which could contribute to the development of novel functional foods.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of gliadin and glutenin on the hygroscopicity of freeze-dried
           apple powders

    • Authors: Xiaotong Yang, Yujie Wei, Jing Liu, Hongshan Liang, Bin Li, Jing Li
      Abstract: Wheat gluten addition in freeze-dried apple powders can effectively prevent their undesirable moisture adsorption and caking during long-term storage, but the working mechanism of wheat gluten had not been expounded. Therefore, such anti-hygroscopicity effects were systematically investigated from the perspective of wheat gluten major components: gliadin and glutenin. Herein, moisture adsorption curve/isotherm, morphology, and moisture migration law of the protein-added apple powders were analyzed at varied storage humidities. Results showed that Peleg, GAB, and Ferro-Fontan models could describe the moisture adsorption process of gliadin-added and glutenin-added freeze-dried apple powder. By comparing the model fitting results, it was found that the fitting degree of moisture adsorption isotherm of the sample increased with the increase of water activity, and the imitative effect of the Ferro-Fontan model was the best. According to the result of the fitting prediction, the equilibrium moisture content of glutenin-added apple powder was 4.7% lower than that of gliadin-added apple powder at 25°C and 75% relative humidity (RH). Type III moisture adsorption isotherms were observed for gliadin-added apple powder, while that of glutenin-added apple powder was type II. In addition, the gliadin-added apple powder demonstrated better fluidity and lower water migration when the relative humidity (RH) of the environment was lower than 58%. Once above this RH value, the protecting effect of glutenin was more obvious. These findings not only elucidate the anti-hygroscopic mechanism of wheat gluten in the processing of apple powder, but also provide a new idea for improving the quality of apple powder and the development of new anti-hygroscopic agents.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Simultaneous determination of twelve mycotoxins in edible oil, soy sauce
           and bean sauce by PRiME HLB solid phase extraction combined with
           HPLC-Orbitrap HRMS

    • Authors: Donghui Luo, Jingjing Guan, Hao Dong, Jin Chen, Ming Liang, Chunxia Zhou, Yanping Xian, Xiaofei Xu
      Abstract: A solid phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) method was established for the determination of 12 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, HT-2 toxin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxysciroenol, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid, and citreoviridin) in edible oil, soy sauce, and bean sauce. Samples were extracted by 80:20 (v:v) acetonitrile-water solution, purified by PRiME HLB column, separated by aQ C18 column with mobile phase consisting of 0.5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol. The results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of 12 mycotoxins were 0.12–1.2 μg/L and 0.40–4.0 μg/L, respectively. The determination coefficients of 12 mycotoxins in the range of 0.20–100 μg/L were> 0.998. The average recoveries in soy sauce and bean sauce were 78.4–106.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.2–9.7% under three levels, including LOQ, 2× LOQ and 10 × LOQ. The average recoveries in edible oil were 78.3–115.6%, and the precision RSD (n = 6) was 0.9–8.6%. A total of 24 edible oils, soy sauce and bean sauce samples were analyzed by this method. AFB1, AFB2, sterigmatocystin and mycophenolic acid were detected in several samples at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 22.1 μg/kg. The method is simple, sensitive, and rapid and can be used for screening and quantitative analysis of mycotoxin contamination in edible oil, soy sauce, and bean sauce.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • The synergistic effects of short inter-pregnancy interval and
           micronutrients deficiency on third-trimester
           depression|Objective|Materials and methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Jing Lin, Ye Zhou, Wei Gu
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo explore the effect of inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) and micronutrients on depression in the third trimester of pregnancy.Materials and methodsA total of 5,951 eligible pregnant women were included in this single-center retrospective cohort study. Variables with potential effects on third-trimester depression were collected. These variables included: maternal factors [age, pregnancy interval, body mass index (BMI), BMI change, gravidity, native place, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption], previous delivery outcomes [preterm birth, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and delivery mode], and micronutrients in early pregnancy (folic acid, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, and ferritin). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to screen the factors affecting the occurrence of depression. Based on these factors, the nomogram model was established. At the same time, the interaction between IPI and micronutrients was verified.ResultsThe incidence of depression in the third trimester of pregnancy was 4.3%. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that there were five independent risk factors for third-trimester depression: gravidity, previous cesarean section delivery, folic acid, and vitamin D levels in early pregnancy and IPI. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the prediction model and nomogram were established. The prediction cut-offs of the corresponding factors were calculated according to the Youden index. Finally, the synergistic effect of short IPI and micronutrient deficiency was verified.ConclusionThere is a synergistic effect between short IPI and micronutrient deficiency in early pregnancy, which can aggravate the occurrence of depression in late pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Limosilactobacillus reuteri FN041 prevents atopic dermatitis in pup mice
           by remodeling the ileal microbiota and regulating gene expression in
           Peyer’s patches after vertical

    • Authors: Jingbo Zhou, Gaoshun Xu, Xinyue Li, Huayu Tu, Haoyu Li, Hong Chang, Jie Chen, Renqiang Yu, Ce Qi, Jin Sun
      Abstract: ObjectivesLimosilactobacillus reuteri FN041 is a potential probiotic bacterium isolated from breast milk in traditional farming and pastoral areas of China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal intervention mode and potential mechanism of FN041 to prevent atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice.MethodsIn intervention mode I, FN041 was supplemented to dams during the late trimester and lactation and pups after weaning; in intervention mode II, FN041 was supplemented after pups were weaned. AD was induced in pups with MC903 plus ovalbumin on the ear after weaning.ResultsThe effect of intervention mode I in preventing AD was significantly better than that of intervention mode II. Compared with the model group, the inflammatory response of the pup’s ears, the proportion of spleen regulatory T cells and the plasma IgE were significantly decreased in mice in intervention mode I. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosal barrier was enhanced, and the Shannon index of the ileal microbiota was significantly increased. The microbiota structure deviated from the AD controls and shifted toward the healthy controls according to the PCoA of unweighted UniFrac. The relative abundances of Limosilactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia in the ileum were significantly increased compared to the AD group. Based on RNA-seq analysis of pups’ Peyer’s patches (PPs), FN041 inhibits autoimmune pathways such as asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus and activates retinol metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways to reduce inflammatory responses. Intervention mode II also significantly reduced AD severity score, but the reduction was approximately 67% of that of intervention mode I. This may be related to its ineffective remodeling of the ileal microbiota.ConclusionPrenatal and postnatal administration of FN041 is an effective way to prevent AD in offspring, and its mechanism is related to remodeling of ileal microbiota and PPs immune response.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
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