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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.115
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1684-5358
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Evaluation of nutrient content in red kidney beans, amaranth leaves, sweet
           potato roots and carrots cultivated in Rwanda

    • Authors: M.R. Kambabazi , M.W. Okoth , S. Ngala , L. Njue , H. Vasanthakaalam
      Pages: 17801 - 17814
      Abstract: No data exist on the nutrient composition of some important Rwandan staples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient content of red kidney beans, sweet potato roots, amaranth leaves and carrot roots. About 6 kg of each raw material were cleaned and conditioned prior to mechanical drying, ground and sieved [60-mesh] into flour and then subjected to quantitative analysis for proximate content, energy, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), vitamin A and vitamin C. Proximate composition determination was done using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), carbohydrates were determined by difference, energy was calculated, mineral analysis was done by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and vitamin analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods. The results showed that red kidney beans, sweet potato roots, amaranth leaves and carrots contain 21.48, 6.66, 29.46 and 13.8% of protein; 2.58, 1.68, 7.89 and 2.08% of fat; 60.86, 79.13, 19.29 and 57.38% of carbohydrate; 2.33, 2.68, 8.98 and 9.63% of fiber; 8.82, 8.74, 10.08 and 8.88% of moisture content; 3.94, 1.11, 24.30 and 5.16% of ash; 357.2, 363.7, 284.0, 322.9 kcal/100 g of energy; and 146.4, 182.7, 26,290 and 1,247 mg/kg of calcium, respectively. Red kidney beans, amaranth leaves and carrots contained 8.54, 30.48, and 15.55 mg/kg of zinc; and 21.36, 219.1 and 8.81 mg/kg of iron, respectively. Zinc and iron were, however, not detected in sweet potato samples analysed. Red kidney beans, sweet potato roots, amaranth leaves and carrot contained 768.0, 10,880, 399.4, and 6,413 IU/100 g of vitamin A; and 2.67, 30.99, 330.3 and 6.76 mg/100g of vitamin C, respectively. In conclusion, the staples analysed contained appreciable amounts of nutrients and could be used to overcome malnutrition and allow dietary diversity. It could be recommended to prepare a Rwandan food composition database in order to improve awareness on local grown crops’ quality.
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Milk handling practices and utilization at dairy farms and collection
           centers under rural and peri-urban milk value chain systems in Nakuru
           County, Kenya

    • Authors: F. Ndungi , P. Muliro , A. Faraj , J. Matofari
      Pages: 17815 - 17833
      Abstract: There are increasing expectations on the compliance of food products to safety and quality standards due to consumer demand for high-quality food. The aim of this study was to determine the quality tests that are carried out on raw milk and its utilization at three milk collection centers in Olenguruone and Dundori regions of Nakuru as well as some selected dairy farms. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data were collected from milk collection centers’ staff and farmers. Milk sampling for quality control testing was done at both the cooperative delivery points and farm level. The quality of milk handled and stored in different containers was assessed. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were carried out on the data. Results indicated that the average quantity of milk received at all milk collection centers was about 3687 liters per day. It was noted that most of the milk collection centers’ staff (operators) had certificates or diplomas in dairy science. Their average job experience period in the milk sector was 7 years. Majority of the farmers (90%) and transporters (94%) used plastic containers for milk handling and storage. Farmers who used plastic containers for milking were approximately three times more likely to have their milk rejected compared to those who used mazzi cans, aluminium or stainless-steel containers (p<0.05; Odds ratio =3.20). The alcohol and lactometer tests were carried out on milk received at all collection centers studied. Resazurin test was only carried out in one collection center at Olenguruone that had the required laboratory equipment. Milk quality assessment was not done at the farm level. Traditional fermented milk was the common dairy product produced from evening milk in most dairy farmers’ households. Regular education programs and seminars on milk safety and quality should be provided to both collection centers’ operators and farmers. 
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Improving caregivers’ infant and young child-feeding practices using a

    • Authors: E. Kansiime , M.K. Kabahenda , EA Bonsi
      Pages: 17834 - 17853
      Abstract: Despite improvements in food production and healthcare services, the burden of malnutrition in Uganda has for the last 30 years remained unacceptably high with rates of stunting (chronic undernutrition) and anemia (proxy for micronutrient deficiency) currently estimated at 29% and 53%, respectively among young children aged 6-59 months. Considering that both undernutrition and over nutrition are greatly attributed to monotonous diets characterized by limited dietary diversity and overdependence on starchy refined grains or roots as staples, there is need to improve the population’s awareness of appropriate dietary practices. To improve nutrition education, the Infant and Young Child-feeding national counseling cards for community volunteers (IYCF cards) that were developed by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), are currently the standard package used in Uganda’s health sector to educate caregivers on appropriate child-feeding practices. In this study, the effectiveness of a three-group food guide was evaluated against IYCF cards. A randomized, controlled intervention trial engaged three randomly selected distant groups of child-caregiver pairs (n=40) concurrently in one of three treatments namely: (i) nutrition education using a threefood group guide (FG), (ii) nutrition education using age-appropriate IYCF cards, and (iii) negative control group that engaged in hair-plaiting sessions. At baseline, all groups had randomly selected caregivers of children aged 6-14 months and were met once a week for five consecutive weeks during the intervention. Caregivers were interviewed at baseline and 2 months after the interventions to determine changes in child-feeding practices while their children were concurrently measured to determine changes in their nutritional status. At baseline, caregivers in the three treatment arms exhibited inappropriate child-feeding practices indicated by low child-feeding index (CFI) scores, which were also related to poor nutritional status of their children. After the interventions, children in FG group were given more varied animal-source foods than those in IYCF cards group (p = 0.02). Compared to controls, caregivers in FG group gave their children significantly more snacks (p = 0.01), their child-feeding practices indicated by CFI scores significantly improved (p = 0.001) and their children exhibited better growth patterns indicated by weight-for-age (p = 0.02) and MUAC-forage (p = 0.03) Z-scores. These findings, therefore, indicate that the three-group food guide is more likely to improve child-feeding practices and growth patterns than IYCF cards. Hence, there is need to integrate the food guide into IYCF materials to foster child-feeding practices and growth. 
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Higher fiber complementary food alters fecal microbiota composition and
           normalizes stool form in Malawian children: a randomized trial

    • Authors: E. Lungu , J. Auger , A. Piano , W.J. Dahl
      Pages: 17854 - 17875
      Abstract: Dietary fiber favorably modulates gut microbiota and may be protective against diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa where rates in infants and young children are high. Soybean hull is high in fiber and accessible in rural Africa; however, its use in complementary feeding has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability and feasibility of a soybean, soy hull fiber, and maize (SFM) blend food; the primary outcome was compliance to the feeding protocol. Secondary outcomes were stool form and frequency, fecal microbiota composition, growth and dietary intake. In a parallel, single-blind study, children 6-36 months of age from the Lilongwe district of Malawi were randomized to receive daily SFM (n=69) or maize only (n=10) porridge (phala) for 6 months. Anthropometrics were measured monthly, and compliance, stool frequency, and stool form, weekly. At baseline, 3-month, and 6-month (study end) time points, dietary intake (24-h recall) was assessed, and fecal samples were collected. Fecal DNA was analyzed by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microbes of interest and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Mothers accessed the acceptability and feasibility of the study foods at study end. Mothers reported excellent compliance to feeding the SFM porridge, rated it more acceptable than maize, and noted improved appetite, weight, and stool consistency of their children. Stool frequency at baseline (2±1 stools/d) was unchanged with intervention; however, there were significantly fewer diarrhea-type stools reported during study months 4-6 vs. 1-3 for the SFM group, whereas no improvement was seen for the maize group. At study end, the fecal abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in children receiving the SFM, compared to maize (p<0.05), and a trend for increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p=0.07) was seen. A comparison of fecal microbiota composition using linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) showed notable differences in numerous taxa in the SFM group compared to baseline, whereas the maize comparator exhibited fewer changes. Fiber intake was higher for the SFM group, compared to maize at 6 months (13.7±3.8 vs. 8.4±4.5 g/day, p<0.01). Weight-for-height and BMI-for-age Z-scores were significantly higher for the SFM group. In young Malawian children, feeding a blend of soybean, soy hulls and maize reduced diarrhea-type stools and increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a bacterial species involved in maintaining intestinal health, and thus may provide a feasible means of improving wellness in children in resource-poor settings through the modulation of microbiota composition.
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Influence of rashaqa instructions, 2030 on behaviors of female students of
           departments of home science education and kindergarten, Umm Al-Qura
           University, Makka, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: K.A.A. Abeer
      Pages: 17876 - 17890
      Abstract: College students’ prosperity advancing and harming behaviors are vital and include numerous parameters as eating and healthy habits. The activities of 185 undergraduate Saudi female university students from departments of Home Science Education (n=82) and Kindergarten (n=103), faculty of Education, UMM AL- QURA University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia were reported. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Students in departments exposed to information on proper nutrition and healthy behavior through their learning period at university. Researcher compared differences between students of both departments on eating of breakfast, junk foods, fruits, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks; and healthy habits as brushing teeth, sleeping hours, smoking, sports, engagement in physical activity, duration spent watching TV and interacting on social media. Data were collected from April to October 2019 and compared. Results showed that students in the Department of Home Science Education had significantly higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (P= 0.002), total body weight (P= 0.002) using unpaired student "t" test, significantly higher increase of body weight since beginning of university study (P =0.026), spent significantly more free time watching TV per week days (P =0.013), spent significant more free time on social media at days of week (P =0.002); significantly higher chances of eating supper with their parents (P =0.004) and significantly more sleeping hours (P =0.005) versus those in Kindergarten Department. Skipping breakfast and snack pattern were common among Saudi university students. This study showed insignificant difference in other health related behaviors between students of Home Science Education and Kindergarten departments as eating breakfast during the week (P =0.293), days of eating breakfast (P =0.547), eating fast food during week (P =0.195), days of eating fast food (P =0.666) and bowel problems (P =0.109) using Chi-Square test. There was insignificant difference in fast foods intake (P  =0.195), engagement in physical activities (P =0.163), intake of vegetables (P =0.370) and fruits (P =0.876) between students in both departments using Chi-Square test. Results indicated that behaviors to health-related habits are bad among female students of both Home Science Education and Kindergarten departments and this may be due to the fact that students living alone had more difficulties in adapting to healthy diets. These habits require more than having only knowledge about nutrition. A health program is required to elevate awareness and increase good behavior habits among students of Faculty of Education at UMM AL- QURA University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia as they are the future teachers.
      PubDate: 2021-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Vegetable consumption patterns of urban farmers in community gardens in
           Emfuleni Local Municipality, Gauteng province of South Africa

    • Authors: T.P. Modibedi , M.M.S. Maake , M.R. Masekoameng, S.S. Tekana , O.S. Oduniyi
      Pages: 17891 - 17906
      Abstract: Lack of adequate vegetable consumption may contribute to micronutrient deficiency especially in developing countries where low intake of nutrient-dense animal products is common. Despite growing evidence that vegetable consumption is of great importance, only about 25.6% South Africans consume sufficient vegetables per day. This research was carried out to investigate the vegetable consumption patterns of urban farmers in Emfuleni Local Municipality, South Africa. The objectives were to determine reasons why urban farmers consume vegetables, vegetable intake patterns in a 24-hour recall, and factors influencing vegetable consumption patterns. The study was conducted in six (6) large townships of Emfuleni Local Municipality using a quantitative research approach and survey design. A sample of 254 urban farmers were randomly selected from 30 urban community gardens with a population of 418 farmers. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured survey questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Program for the Social Sciences Version 23. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and ordered logistic regression model were explored to analyse the data. The results revealed that 96.1% and 93.3% of farmers in urban community gardens consumed vegetables as a relish and salad, respectively. Vegetables were mostly consumed during dinner because most respondents were physically present in the community gardens during the day. The results of the factors influencing vegetable consumption patterns showed that out of 10 independent variables chosen, only three (age group, level of education, and main source of income) were positive and statistically significant. The study, therefore, recommends that farmers should include vegetables in all three of their daily meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Education in the form of training should be provided to the urban farmers to create awareness in the community about the importance of vegetable gardens and the consumption of vegetables across all age groups.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Effect of maternal aflatoxin exposure through diet on growth of infants 0
           - 3 months in Kisumu County, Kenya

    • Authors: M.I. Obade , P. Andang’o , C. Obonyo , F. Lusweti
      Pages: 17907 - 17930
      Abstract: Aflatoxins are naturally occurring carcinogenic toxins associated with poor growth outcomes in young children. Although evidence supports mother-to-infant exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, evidence of its effect on growth is limited to the period after introduction of complementary foods. It is, therefore, unclear whether early maternal exposure to aflatoxins affects infant growth right from birth. Prevalence of aflatoxin levels of 40% has been observed in Nyanza region, Kenya, and 22.7% of children under 5 years are stunted. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aflatoxin exposure on growth of infants 0-3 months old in Kisumu County, Kenya. Specific objectives were to: establish association between maternal baseline characteristics and aflatoxin exposure; establish association between infant baseline characteristics at birth and maternal aflatoxin exposure; determine effect of maternal aflatoxin exposure on infant growth indicators at 3 months of age. Out of 553 pregnant women who were screened for aflatoxin exposure, 137 exposed and 137 nonexposed women, matched for age and household income, participated in an 8-month cohort study. The women were followed up to delivery and their infants up to 3 months after delivery. Infant length and weight data was collected monthly. Length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ)) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z-scores were generated. Aflatoxin levels were analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in parts per billion (ppb). Effects of aflatoxin on infant growth outcomes were assessed using multi-variate linear and logistic regression. Effect of maternal aflatoxin exposure on infant length, weight, LAZ, WLZ, WAZ was determined using Cox regression with constant time at risk. Infants of exposed women had lower weight (95% CI:-0.85,-0.53), length (95% CI: -4.08, -3.36), LAZ (95% CI: -1.93, -1.16) and WAZ (95% CI:-1.03, -0.54) at 3 months of age, but there was no difference in WLZ (95% CI:-0.03, 0.74). Risk for stunting was higher in infants of exposed women (RR=4.08; 95% CI:1.35, 12.29). There was no difference in the risk for underweight (RR=6.61; 95% CI:0.80-54.33) and wasting (RR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.40, 3.39, P=0.38).These results underpin the need to reduce aflatoxin exposure in infants and young children who are very vulnerable.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Modeling the adoption and use intensity of improved maize seeds in Benin
           West-Africa: Double-hurdle approach

    • Authors: F.E. Mahoussi , P.Y. Adegbola , A.K.N. Aoudji , B. Kouton-Bognon, G. Biaou
      Pages: 17931 - 17951
      Abstract: Improved maize seeds are one of the main factors that can contribute to improving maize productivity. This paper was carried out with the aim of identifying the determinants of adoption and improved maize seeds’ intensity use on households in all areas favourable to maize production in Benin using pooled data on 490 producers.  Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage, frequency distribution, t and chi-square tests were used to summarize the characteristics of the sampled producers. Cragg's Double Hurdle model was also used to categorize producers who adopted or who did not adopt improved maize seed and those who intensified the use of improved maize seed. The results showed that literacy, easy access to improved seed, specific training received on the use of improved varieties and gender, affected the adoption of improved maize seed while easy access to improved seed, maize yield, relationship with extension services, total household size, age squared, number of experience years in maize production, and distance from the producer to where the seed was purchased had a significant influence on the decision to intensify the use of improved maize seed. The fact that the variable easy access to improved seeds affected not only the adoption of improved seeds but also the intensification of their use, confirmed that access to improved seeds was an indisputable success factor for the intensification of improved seed use. Giving producers the capacity to obtain improved maize seed that was financially and geographically improved was a very important aspect to be considered by policy makers in the definition of agricultural policies. Predisposing factors for access (perception of varieties, attitudes towards the choice of new varieties, knowledge and management of these varieties) and capacity factors for access (income, availability of seeds in the environment, and seed prices) must be considered. The establishment of a wide seed distribution network through government and non-governmental organizations or private actors could, therefore, be important to reduce transaction costs and improve access to improved maize seed, and then increase the rate of adoption and continued use of improved seed.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Seasonal diversity of entomofauna, their impact and management practices
           in tomato fields in Meru District, Tanzania

    • Authors: G. Michael , A.M.S. Nyomora , E.F. Mvungi , E.M. Sangu
      Pages: 17952 - 17971
      Abstract: Tomato is a highly cultivated vegetable in Tanzania. The intensive tomato cultivation and production in Tanzania has resulted in high pests and diseases build-up. A survey to identify and quantify entomofauna diversity in different seasons and pest management practices in Meru District was conducted. In addition, a laboratory experiment was done to assess the effectiveness of commonly used pesticides SnowBecco (Thiamethoxam) and Belt (Flubendiamide) against two dominating insect pests, white flies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889)) and leaf miner (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917)), respectively. The results obtained revealed that, tomato fields in Meru District had significantly higher entomofauna build up during dry season than the rainy season (U0.05 (df, 24) = 45, p = 0.0441). More than 70% of all collected entomofauna were dominated by the whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and tomato leaf miners (Tuta absoluta) belonging to orders Hemiptera and Lepidoptera, respectively. It was also observed that, the common pesticides management practices were the use of pesticidal cocktail, broad spectrum insecticides, use of botanical pesticides, frequent application of pesticide and insecticides over dosage. Moreover, yield reduction due to whiteflies and tomato leaf miners infestation were observed in terms of reduced fruits number per plant (38 and 18.4%), fruit size (22.4 and 14.2%), and fruits weight per plant by 43.6 and 26.2%, for Bemisia tabaci and Tuta absoluta, respectively. The study showed that the recommended doses in both tested insecticides caused significant pest mortality (F0.05 (df, 19) = 4.367, p = 0.0199) and (F0.05 (df, 19) = 4.761, p = 0.0147) for B. tabaci and T. absoluta, respectively, within a specified period of time. The results suggest that high insect pest infestations could be caused by factors other than development of insecticidal tolerance including inappropriate identification of insect pests due to lack of training, and inappropriate selection and application of insecticides. Consequently, frequent application of broad spectra insecticides not only increases production expenses but also disrupts agroecosystem by killing beneficial entomofauna and disrupting soil organisms that are susceptible to insecticide toxicity.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
  • Assessing efficacies of insect pest management methods to preserve
           nutritional composition of bagged maize in storehouses located in markets
           in Nigeria

    • Authors: G.O. Otitodun , A.A. Ala , S.I. Nwaubani , M.O. Omobowale , S.K. Ajao , M.O. Ogundare , A.E. Olenloa , G.S. Busari , G.I. Abel , J.A. Braimah, O.R. Kolayemi , J.C. Ogwumike, G.P. Opit , K.E. Ileleji , S.G. McNeill
      Pages: 17972 - 17988
      Abstract: Maize needs to be stored using effective and safe postharvest management measures to prevent physical insect damage as well as ensure stability of nutritional quality during storage. In this study, conducted in February–December 2016, insect pest management methods for bagged maize preservation in storehouses located in markets in Nigeria were evaluated for their ability to preserve nutritional quality. Study locations were in
      three grain markets, namely Eleekara market in Oyo town and Arisekola market in Ibadan, Oyo State, South West Nigeria, and Ago market in Ilorin, Kwara State, North Central Nigeria. Treatments comprised Piper guineense (Botanical), Bularafa diatomaceous earth (DE), permethrin powder (Rambo™) (Permethrin), PICS bags (hermetic) and ZeroFly® bags (non-hermetic). The study also had negative control (Control) comprising untreated maize in polypropylene bags. In general, as a result of insect infestation, protein content increased in all treatments except PICS which had the least infestation. After 11 months of storage, Permethrin and PICS treatments had the lowest insect infestation levels and the highest energy levels. Energy level in the Botanical treatment was also high and similar to levels in Permethrin and PICS treatments most likely due to fats and essential oils in P. guineense being adsorbed and/or absorbed by kernels. Fat content was lower in the Control and DE treatments likely due to the Control having the highest insect infestation and the DE adsorbing and/or absorbing fat from kernels. During storage carbohydrate content decreased in all treatments except the Control. However, even in the Control, there was a clear trend of decrease in carbohydrate content. Because the Control had the highest insect (Sitophilus zeamais) infestation and insect damaged kernels (IDK), this trend in decrease in carbohydrate content may be insect related. Ash content increased in the ZeroFly treatment, was unchanged in Botanical, Control, and PICS treatments, and decreased in DE and Permethrin treatments. Nutritional quality variables in this study were within or close to the known value ranges for maize. Therefore, use of maize that had been fumigated well and had a relatively low initial grain MC (9.1%), in addition to the effects of the treatments most likely slowed down population growth of the several insect species that were found and contributed to preserving nutritional quality. The relatively low insect populations in all treatments, including the Control, during the February–September period probably reduced the clarity of effects of infestation on
      nutritional composition reported in this study.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2021)
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