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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.115
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1684-5358
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Allelopathic sorghum aqueous root extracts inhibit germination and
           seedling growth of crops and weeds

    • Authors: H Tibugari, C Chiduza
      Pages: 20036 - 20052
      Abstract: Allelopathic sorghum aqueous extracts can be used as sprays against weeds of arable lands. Water-soluble allelochemicals in the aqueous extracts may also negatively affect crops. Root aqueous extracts from the South African landrace sorghum IS9456 and the Botswanan commercial variety Mahube, with high (584.69 μg mg-1 root fresh weight) and low (17.38 μg mg-1 root fresh weight) sorgoleone contents respectively, were tested on germination, radicle length, plumule length and dry weight of goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn], blackjack [Bidens pilosa (L.)], maize [Zea mays (L.)], soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)]. Factors in five glasshouse experiments were the two sorghum varieties and four root extract solutions (0%, 5%, 10% and 20%) (w/v) arranged in a randomised complete block design with six replications. There was no significant effect (P>0.05) of variety and root aqueous extract on germination, radicle length, plumule length and dry weight of maize and on germination of wheat and goosegrass. The sorghum accession IS9456 significantly (P<0.05) reduced plumule length and dry weight of wheat and goosegrass and germination, plumule length and dry weight of soya bean and blackjack compared to Mahube. Increasing strength of root aqueous extract solution significantly (P<0.001) reduced plumule length and dry weight of wheat and goosegrass as well as germination and dry weight of soya bean and blackjack. Extracts from IS9456 had greater inhibitory effects on crop and weed germination and growth compared to those from Mahube. Due to its low sorgoleone content and weak weed suppression from its root aqueous extracts, Mahube may have low potential for use in allelopathic weed control. The sorghum accession IS9456, which also produces very high sorgoleone content, may be used in integrated weed management exploiting allelopathy from both sorgoleone and water-soluble allelochemicals, although farmers will have to be careful in terms of crop rotations since the aqueous extracts also inhibit germination and growth of some crops.
      Field studies may be required to further confirm allelopathic effects of root aqueous extracts from IS9456.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Chronic undernutrition and adolescent school performance in central

    • Authors: K Mechlowitz, KT Roba, A Feye, L Laytner, SL McKune
      Pages: 20102 - 20120
      Abstract: Chronic undernutrition among adolescents in developing countries has been identified as a major public health issue. Previous research has found associations between chronic undernutrition and academic performance outcomes in adolescents. There is
      need for localized research focusing on nutritional status and its association with educational outcomes among adolescents in different areas of Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether chronic undernutrition (stunting) in adolescents in
      Ethiopia was correlated with various school performance outcomes. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in North Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. The researchers conducted
      multivariable linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between stunting and four school performance outcomes, which included grade 8 Ministry exam score, all-subjects average score, English score, and Math score. The prevalence of stunting in this sample was 11%. After adjusting for all other variables in the model, stunting was positively associated with the grade eight Ministry exam score (β = -4.96; 95% [CI -7.68, -2.25]; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analyses, sex (being female) was significantly associated with the grade eight Ministry exam score (β = -2.08; 95% CI [-3.81, -0.35]; p = 0.019 ), the all-subjects average score (β = -3.97; 95% CI [-5.51, -2.43]; p < 0.001), English score (β = -3.72; 95% CI [-5.60, -1.84]; p < 0 .001), and Math score (β = -4.87; 95% CI [-7.02, -2.72]; p < 0.001). Residence (living in a rural area) was significantly associated with all-subjects average score (β = -3.93; 95% CI [- 5.81, -2.06]; p < 0.001), English score (β = -2.65; 95% CI [-4.94, -0.35]; p = 0.024), and Math score (β = -3.86; 95% CI [-6.50, -1.22]; p = 0.004). Maternal education (grade 1-8) was significantly associated with English score (β = 5.46; 95% CI [1.31, 9.62]; p = 0.010) and Math score (β = 4.78; 95% CI [0.03, 9.53]; p = 0.049). These findings indicate that further research focusing on adolescent chronic undernutrition and educational outcomes as well as why chronic undernutrition is associated with certain performance outcomes and not others is needed before definitive conclusions can be made. Positive changes in child growth later in a child’s life may have important implications for cognition.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • The effect of biochar from rice husks on evapotranspiration, vegetative
           growth and fruit yield of greenhouse tomato cultivar Anna F1 grown in two
           soil types

    • Authors: PW Masinde , BM Wahome
      Pages: 20280 - 20299
      Abstract: Biochar made from crop residues has been shown to improve soil texture, soil porosity and soil structure. It can enhance fertilizer utilization, reduce leaching loses and hence improve nitrogen supply for plant growth. Utilization of biochar in preparation of potting substrates can enhance growth and yields of greenhouse tomato. A study was carried out to test the influence of rice husks biochar on substrate properties, growth and yield of greenhouse tomato. The experiment was carried as a factorial in completely randomized design with two factors: four biochar levels and two soil types, replicated three times. The biochar levels were volume ratios of 0 biochar: 1 soil (0Biochar), 0.25 biochar: 0.75 soil (0.25Biochar), 0.5 biochar: 0.5 soil (0.5Biochar) and 0.75 biochar: 0.25 soil (0.75Biochar). The two soil types used were the well drained deep red friable soil and imperfectly drained dark brown clay soil obtained from the University farm. Tomato Anna F1 was grown in four-liter plastic pots containing about 3 kg of soil-biochar mixture. Data were collected on the plant growth parameters of plant height, number of leaves per plant and plant dry weight upto the 8th - 9th week after transplanting, when fruit ripening began. The chlorophyll index of the leaves were measured using the SPAD meter. At harvesting, fresh weight and number of the fruits were determined. Incorporating biochar into potting substrate at 0.25-0.75 levels significantly increased evapotranspiration during early vegetative growth. This was indicative of biochar changing substrate properties mainly through significant reduction of bulk density and possibly increasing porosity. Biochar levels of 0.25-0.75 resulted in significant increases in vegetative growth and fruit yield of tomato. Adding biochar to the pot substrate increased tomato plant height, plant dry weight and fruit fresh weight by 21- 34%, 50-64% and 49%-56%, respectively. The increase in vegetative growth and fruit yield at 0.25-0.75 biochar levels was attributed to the positive effect of biochar on substrate physical properties. Plant height and number of leaves per plant had a significant linear relationship whose slope, the rate of increase in plant height with increase in number of leaves was not influenced by biochar levels. Biochar enhanced growth without changing the ratio of plant height to number of leaves of tomato. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar made from rice husks at 0.25 level can enhance greenhouse production in both red and clay soils.  
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Assessment of nutrition knowledge and sources of nutrition information
           among middle- and long-distance elite athletes in north rift region of

    • Authors: DM Kathure , PW Bukhala , SO Konyole
      Pages: 20300 - 20316
      Abstract: Diet influences athletes performance while the foods chosen in training and competition determines how well competitors prepare and compete. Competitors should know about their nourishing objectives and how they can choose an eating technique to meet those objectives. However, there exists paucity of literature expounding on that. Many athletes have limited knowledge on matters of nutrition, and their nutrition practices do not conform to athletes' requirements. The sources of nutrition information among this group are also conflicting. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and sources of nutrition knowledge among middle (800m-2500km) and long-distance (≤3000km) elite athletes in North Rift Kenya. Using already trained research assistants, a total of 30 athletic camps in Uasin Gishu and Nandi counties were visited allowing a return of 374 questionnaires. Majority of the respondents were males at 74%, results on age revealed that 47 % were between 22-28 years old and most elite athletes (55%) had an experience of 3 years and below. About 62% participated in long-distance running and 72% had attained secondary school level of education. From the nutrition knowledge scores generated, most of the athletes had adequate nutrition knowledge (above 50 %). With regard to specific questions, 51.9% had no knowledge that iron supplements should only be taken when one has iron deficiency. About three quarters (75.4%) had the right knowledge that athletes should not train on an empty stomach. The internet was the major source of nutrition knowledge information and nutritionists were least consulted on matters sports nutrition. There were no differences in knowledge among the athletes at different age groups (p =.510). Therefore, it is recommended that nutrition professionals be incorporated as part of technical team so as to ensure increased awareness among the athletes. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Factors affecting the fermentation process of Vietnamese traditional wine
           ("men la" wine) using "Ba Nang" wine starter

    • Authors: NV Hue , ND Chung , VTT Hang , VTT Hang , PT Be , TTP Nga
      Pages: 20317 - 20330
      Abstract: “Men la” wine is a traditional wine product of the upland people in Vietnam. The wine is of the cultural essence of the nation, reflecting the current trend of one village one product (OCOP). The "Ba Nang" wine starters are usually made from sticky rice and local herbs. In fact, the use of herbs in traditional wine production has become popular. However, the traditional methods used by the local producers are not standardized. The quality of the wines produced is therefore not stable and wine producers resort to laborious trials and personal experience. The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the fermentation process in the production of “Men la” wine using the wine starters of the Van Kieu people in Da Ban, Ba Nang commune, Dakrong district, Quang Tri province, Vietnam. The ratio of yeast to rice, solid fermentation time, temperature, and time of liquid fermentation, as well as some biochemical criteria, were investigated to determine the best parameters for "Men la" wine production. The results showed that the optimal parameters for obtaining the highest quality of wine were: a mixture ratio of wine starter and whole rice of 8g: 1000g; solid fermentation for 4 days at 30 – 32oC; and fermentation for 7 days at 25oC with a ratio of rice ingredients and water of 1:2. The final product contained 4.952% of total sugar, 0.08% of reducing sugar, 0.315% acid, 0.104 g/L amino acid, and 10.61g/100mL of ethanol. The analysis did not detect methanol in the distilled wine products. The finished wine produced on a laboratory scale had a sweet taste equivalent to that of wine, with a flavor that was thought to be superior to the local wine. The alcoholic fermentation time was shortened by 2 days compared with local wine. The resultant "Men la" wine met the National Technical Regulations for alcoholic beverage products (QCVN 6-3:2010/BYT). 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Determination of quality traits, and the nutrient and mineral contents of
           Cowpea varieties in South Africa

    • Authors: JNA Asiwe
      Pages: 20331 - 20348
      Abstract: Eastern Cape, followed by Limpopo, have the highest numbers of citizens experiencing food insecurity. The Limpopo and Free State provinces share the highest prevalence rate of children affected by iron deficiency anaemia leading to severe stunting and underweight. Cowpea is an important grain legume that is rich in proteins (20-24%), minerals and vitamins for human and animal nutrition. Cowpea stands to enhance food security and nutrition in rural South African communities. Introduction of cowpea varieties that are rich in proteins, minerals and vitamins will improve the quality of the dietary intakes and nutritional status of the poor. To fast-track the development of improved cowpea varieties that meet the nutritional needs of consumers and farmers, thirty cowpea improved varieties were introduced and evaluated to determine their qualities and the nutrients they contain. This will assist breeders in ascertaining their usefulness and how to deploy the traits in breeding programmes. The seeds were harvested from seed multiplication plots during 2017 growing season, and were analysed in three replications to determine their nutrient and mineral contents (crude protein or CP, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, P, K and moisture). The mineral contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer while CP content was determined by the Kjeldahl method using Kjeltec™ Model 2300, as described in Foss Analytical AB manual. Results showed that the varieties exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations for the nutrients and minerals determined except for P and moisture. Eight varieties out-performed the two local control varieties (Glenda and Bechuana White with 24% and 20% respectively) in CP with a range of 25-31%. Many varieties also significantly out-performed the local checks in respect of minerals tested: 4, 12, 6, 5, 14, and 15 varieties exhibited higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Cu and Fe, respectively. Results also show that the quality of grains varied in terms of seed colour, texture, and eye colour. The results not only demonstrate that many of the improved varieties were better than the control varieties, but have also provided a database for utilising the promising varieties in breeding programme for the development of new cowpea germplasm with better quality traits and nutrient contents. Variation in seed qualities offers opportunities for farmers and consumers to make choice as these quality traits influence acceptability and marketability of cowpea in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Analysis of cereal production in Algeria

    • Authors: A Bouchafaa , K Djeddour-Djaballah
      Pages: 20349 - 20365
      Abstract: Analysis of cereal production allows one to make decisions about the importance of certain products and the water resources. Improving cereal production is crucial in developing the standard of living in Algeria. Actually, it should be part of any future strategy for the country. Most of the arable land in Algeria is in a Mediterranean climate, where droughts are common and rainfall is distributed unevenly throughout the year. Research on the impact of climate variability and irrigation on cereal production is necessary due to the effects on the uneven performance of crops in Algeria. The study considered here is based on statistical methods to model the production of durum wheat, bread wheat, barley and oats. The first method used is principal component analysis. It was applied to classify the data in order to determine the relative importance of the various regions for the evaluation of cereal production. The results exhibit an increasing trend in the cereal production on the period from 2009 to 2012. The 2012 cereal harvest in Algeria proved to be the second highest ever recorded, after that of 2009, despite an unusual period of snow in February. It appears that durum wheat production was explained jointly by precipitation and irrigation. However, the variations in the production of the common wheat, oat and barley can only be explained by precipitation. Agriculture currently depends mainly on precipitation rather than irrigation. Modern irrigation systems could increase production. Therefore, if agricultural production is to be improved, important agricultural irrigation methods are needed to mitigate the impact of climate variability in each agricultural area, mainly in the southern regions of the country.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Performance and economic consideration of broiler chickens fed enzyme
           supplemented cassava fibre meal

    • Authors: MH Ogunsipe , SA Akinyele , NO Oyewole , I Ibidapo
      Pages: 20366 - 20382
      Abstract: The search for alternative energy source to substitute for the expensive conventional energy feed resources in broiler chicken diet is the driving force of this study. Thus, the study assessed the performance and economics of the production of broiler chickens fed enzyme supplemented cassava fibre meal (CFM) in a 56-day feeding trial. A batch of three hundred and sixty (360) day-old Arbor acre broiler-chicks was allotted to twelve (12) diets replicated five (5) times of six (6) birds in a complete randomization. Cassava fibre was sun dried for 5 days with constant turning to prevent fermentation, reduce the moisture content and possibly reduce the cyanide content. Proximate composition, phytochemical components and cyanide contents were determined using appropriate standard methods. Cassava fibre meal was substituted for maize at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels and Roxazyme® G2 supplementation was at 0, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Data collected on feed intake and weight gain were analysed using the General Linear Model (GLM), and differences in means where observed were separated using Duncan option of the SPSS 2006 version 15.0. The Economics of broiler chicken production was determined using economic tools such as gross margin and economic efficiency analyses. Results showed that CFM contained appreciable levels of nutrients that could promote broiler growth when substituted at optimum level as an energy source in broiler chicken diet. Substitution of CFM at 40 and 60% levels for maize led to a decrease (p<0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion of broiler chickens. Feed intake and weight gain were not influenced by dietary substitution of CFM for maize in the broiler starter and broiler finisher stages of growth. The effect of enzyme supplementation was not significant in the birds’ physiological growth at both starter and finisher stages. The effect of interaction was not significant (p>0.05) indicating that birds’ performance were not dependent on the two factors under investigation. Economics of broiler chicken production revealed that total cost was lower in birds fed CFM with or without enzyme supplementation compared with those fed the maizebased diets. Net revenue, economic efficiency and profitability ratio analysis showed better economic viability and profitability in birds fed CFM with or without enzyme supplementation compared with those fed maize-based diets.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Determinants of acceptability of cricket consumption and adoption for
           improved food security among riparian communities of the Victoria Basin,

    • Authors: HO Oyaro , CO Gor , M Ocaido , EO Okul , E Okuto
      Pages: 20383 - 20400
      Abstract: overburdened environment; malnutrition is likely to be on the rise with human population growth projected at 9.7 billion by 2050. This has seen cricket consumption for household food security increasing in the past decade. Cricket (acheta domesticus) farming can contribute positively to solving malnutrition problems being experienced among the riparian communities in the Kenyan Lake Victoria Basin. Cricket farming presents a livelihood diversification strategy that can help buffer rural households against food insecurity and provide an alternative source of income. However, its adoption as an alternative source of protein for improved household food security has remained low among smallholder farmers. The study investigated determinants of acceptability of cricket consumption and its influence on adoption for farming as an alternative source of food. The study employed a mixed methods research approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 120 trained cricket farmers from selected riparian counties including Siaya, Kisumu and Homa Bay in Kenyan Victoria basin. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to summarize quantitative data while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data by thematic arrangements and similarities across different investigation areas. Based on data analyzed, the results indicated that cultural beliefs, perception and attitude such as cultural value attached to cricket consumption (p = 0.021), crickets are sweet and tender than poultry (p = 0.037) as well as age with a p<0.028, had statistical significance on acceptability to cricket consumption. On the other hand, regression β coefficient of awareness, access and availability were found to have no association with the adoption of cricket farming. The study recommended that: first, the government formulates a policy on farming edible insects as mini-livestock and improved food security. Secondly, further study is needed to determine possible strategies for changing attitude towards cricket consumption for increased adoption by smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Performance indicators of sheep fed rice straw supplemented with browse

    • Authors: T Adogla-Bessa, FO Sarkwa , LK Adjorlolo , EC Timpong-Jones , F Idan , A Nyarko Gyimah, CK Tudeka
      Pages: 20401 - 20414
      Abstract: The use of browse leaves as a protein source can help ruminants cope with adverse nutritional stress under unpredictable climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine feed intake, digestibility, metabolisable energy intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of sheep fed untreated rice straw supplemented with browse leaves. Four forest type rams with an average weight of 27.75± 0.89 kg (2 years old) and in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design were used in the digestibility study. Twelve ram lambs of average weight 13.2 kg ± 0.05 kg were assigned to the experimental diets randomly for 12 weeks in the growth study in a completely randomized design. Animals were fed four diets namely: Untreated rice straw (URS) + Albizzia lebbek (AL) (Control), URS + Moringa oleifera (MO), URS + Ficus exasperata (FE) and URS + Spondias mombin (SM). The dietary treatment influenced (p<0.05) the digestible organic matter in dry matter (DOMD), maintenance energy requirement (MEm), metabolisable energy intake (MEI) and ratio of metabolisable energy intake to maintenance energy requirement (MEI: MEm). The DOMD, MEm, MEI and MEI: MEm were in the range of 965-983/kgDM, 3.61-5.36 MJ/d, 9.51-15.8 MJ/d and 2.63-3.38 respectively. The total intake of browse and straw ranged from 428.71 to 487.14 g/d. The average daily gain ranged from 7.14 to 20.24 g/d. The animals fed URS+FE recorded the highest average daily gain (p<0.05) while the animals fed URS+AL recorded the lowest average daily gain (p<0.05). Feed conversion efficiency ranged from 25.97 to 71.45 kg feed/ kg gain. The sheep fed URS+FE were the most efficient (p<0.05) and those fed URS+AL, the least efficient (p<0.05). Supplementation of browse leaves to sheep using untreated rice straw as a basal diet improved digestibility with moderate weight gains. These browse leaves (AL, FE, MO and SM) can be used to supplement poor quality ruminant diets for improved performance particularly during periods of feed scarcity. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Pathogenic variability of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on dry
           bean in South Africa

    • Authors: AM Payazi , SA Kanu , HTH Muedi
      Pages: 20415 - 20425
      Abstract: Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) anthracnose is an economically important seed-borne fungal disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum was evaluated in a glasshouse study. A total of 32 isolates were collected in three provinces, namely KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and North-West. The isolates were collected from different fields of dry bean at research stations and also from small-scale farmers’ fields. Inoculum developed from the different isolates was sprayed onto 12 CIAT differential dry bean cultivars that were used to identify pathogen races. The inoculation was carried out during the trifoliate developmental stage of the dry bean seedlings raised in pots 14 days post-sowing. Using the CIAT binomial system, eight pathogenic races of C. lindemuthianum were identified, namely, 3, 6, 7, 81, 83, 89, 263 and 323 out of the 32 isolates evaluated. Only pathogenic races 7, 81, 83 and 89 were found in the more humid locations of the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Races 7, 81 and 89 are internationally recognized and show characteristics reported of races in Brazil. Race 6 was identified in Mpumalanga and North west provinces and this was important as it has been reported in other Southern African countries. The races populations were distinct between locations as they infected both the Andean and the Meso-American bean landraces. The most important dry bean landraces were AB 136, G 2333, Kaboon, TU and PI 207262 as they showed complete resistance from the isolates. The study findings suggests that these six landraces can be successfully used to improve anthracnose resistance, especially G 2333 because of its horizontal resistance that can be used to improve the current cultivars used for the control of anthracnose in South Africa. Additionally, Cornell 49242 was one of the landraces of importance, as it showed glimpses of anthracnose that faded overtime under controlled suitable environmental conditions. Use of these landraces will ensure stability in the long-term control of dry bean anthracnose since the pathogen C. lindemuthianum is highly variable and widely distributed in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Performance of Sokoto red goats (bucks) fed urea treated and untreated
           rice milling waste in north western Nigeria

    • Authors: A Adebayo , A Yusuf , RA Adeleke
      Pages: 20426 - 20438
      Abstract: The study was carried out at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm of Federal University Dutsin-Ma to monitor the performance of Sokoto red bucks fed urea treated and untreated rice milling waste. Twenty entire male Sokoto red bucks were used. The experimental animals were allotted (n=5) in a completely randomized design (CRD) to diets A and B with 15% and 30% inclusion levels of untreated rice milling waste, respectively, while C and D contained 15% and 30% inclusion levels of urea treated rice milling waste, respectively, in a completely randomized design (CRD). The feeding trial lasted for 84 days while the digestibility trial lasted for 14 days. Three randomly selected experimental bucks from each experimental treatment were housed in the metabolic cages and their faeces collected for seven days using faecal bag after the seven days adaptation period. The faeces were weighed and bulked 10% collected and oven-dried before they were stored in polythene bags until required for analysis. Urine was also collected for seven days inside the metabolic cages using urinary funnel piped into the bottle containing 2 ml 10% sulphuric acid to trap the nitrogen content. 10% of the urine was sampled and stored in freezer at -2C for chemical analysis. The dry matter intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in treatments A and B than other treatments. However, this did not result in significantly better (P<0.05) performance (feed efficiency and Cost of feed/ live weight gain) as shown with treatment C and D that had significantly better (P<0.05) weight gain, feed efficiency, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen retention. The cost of feed per kg live weight was shown to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in treatments C and D compared to treatment B which was significantly lower (P<0.05) than treatment A. The study concluded that diet D which contained 30% inclusion level of urea treated rice milling waste was the best among all the diets because of the lowest cost per feed live weight of 1.40 USD/kg and feed efficiency of 0.10.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • The nutritional status of young children 0-24 months attending clinics in
           Tshwane health sub-district 1, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    • Authors: CM Enwelu (Omeh) , FJ Veldman , LJ Ncube
      Pages: 20439 - 20460
      Abstract: Children between the ages 0 - 24 months are at high nutritional risk, which affects their growth and development, cognitive capacity, and productivity in adulthood. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status of young children 0 - 24 months attending clinics in Tshwane Health Sub-District 1, Gauteng province, South Africa. A clinic-based cross-sectional quantitative descriptive study design was applied in this study. Anthropometric data were collected from 270 young children (107 aged 0 – 6 months, 91 aged 6.1 – 12 months, 47 aged 12.1 – 18 months, and 25 aged 18.1 – 24 months) in 10 clinics in Tshwane Health Sub-District 1 using a questionnaire. Data was captured on a Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet and analysed using SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Carey, NC, USA), Release 9.4. A Pearson chi-square test was used to test for correlation between the socio-economic, demographic and the nutritional status of young children, where a P-value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The results of the study showed that 160 (59.3%) had normal weight for length, 18 (6.7%) were wasted, 22 (8.2%) were severely wasted, 24 (8.9%) were overweight and 46 (17.0%) were obese. One hundred and fifty-six (57.8%) had normal weight for age, 47 (17.4%) were underweight, 17 (6.3%) were severely underweight, 39(14.4%) had weight for age >+2SD and 11(4.1%) had weight for age >+3SD. 204 (75.6%) had normal length for age, 26 (9.6%) were stunted, 40 (14.8%) were severely stunted. For overweight young children, there was a significant association between weight and the number of people in the households, at P<0.038 and mothers weekly spend on food, at P<0.027. There was a significant association between length and the number of persons in the households at P<0.047, mothers' income at P<0.047, and mothers weekly spend on food at P<0.051. For underweight young children, there was a significant association between weight and weekly spend on food at P<0.037. There was a significant association between length and mothers' education at P<0.007. Although, the majority of young children had normal weight for length, normal weight for age and normal length for age. In this study, a significant number of young children were malnourished. The young child’s weight for length and weight for age were influenced by the mother’s weekly expenditure on food. Since the mother’s employment status influences the child's weight and length, the implementation of alternative nutrition intervention strategies to monitor and improve the nutritional status of young children is necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Challenges and opportunities in common bean production and marketing in
           Botswana: Prospects and farmer’s perspectives

    • Authors: G Mangole , M Ithuteng , M Radikgomo , OO Molosiwa,
      Pages: 20461 - 20479
      Abstract: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most consumed legume crop in the world, and one of the most consumed legume crops in Botswana. This study aims to identify constraints and opportunities in common beans production in order to enhance common bean production in the country. A survey was conducted among 287 farmers in two districts of Southern and Chobe with farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique. The majority of farmers were female (66.1%), a few farmers planted common bean (11.5%). Slightly more than a quarter (27.8%) of farmers were above the age of 65 years. Constraints to production included pests and diseases, damage by animals, lack of labour, drought, and lack of seeds. Seven percent of farmers assumed that common bean was a drought tolerant crop and 33% of farmers said common bean taste better than other pulses. However, only 21% preferred to grow it. More farmers (13.2%) grew common bean in the Southern district than farmers in the Chobe district (7.0%). Farmers who grew common bean bought their seeds from Agro dealers (76%) with an average amount of 6kg of seed purchased at a time at an average price of $1.11 kg-1. Common bean was planted on 7% of the arable land that was planted. Most of the farmers (87%) were not trained in common bean production and received little or no assistance from extension officers resulting in little knowledge by farmers about the production of common beans. Strategies to create awareness are needed to facilitate access and mobilise farmers to adopt common beans to improve their livelihoods. This is particularly encouraged in agro-ecological zones such as Chobe with high yield producing potential. Development of seed systems and release of varieties tested in Botswana agro-ecological zones, would increase the production of common bean to improve food security and nutrition, and reduce import bill in Botswana. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Analysis of risk factors that influence stunting among Rwandan children
           under the age of five

    • Authors: S Ndagijimana , I Kabano , JM Ntaganda
      Pages: 20480 - 20497
      Abstract: In East Africa, 39% of all children were stunted in 2016. Rwanda reported the second highest rate at 37.7%. Globally, deaths from malnutrition stand at 45% of child deaths, creating an economic handicap for all countries. According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal to reduce malnutrition by 3.9% per year, all countries must define appropriate strategies. Although related research has been conducted in Rwanda, the issue of malnutrition prevails. This study assesses stunting with multiple factors, with the aim of revealing the system-wide impact of food insecurity on malnutrition. Secondary data from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) 2014-2015 were used. Variables were classified into five categories, namely the community, environment, socio-development, media, and proximate factors. To assess the risk factors for stunting, a mixed-effect logistic regression was applied and an association between different factors and stunting was determined. The prevalence of stunting was 37.7%, the average was relatively still high, compared to the global prevalence of 21.3% in 2019, and the city of Kigali comprised the lowest prevalence (22.7%) while the highest prevalence was observed in the Western Province (44.6%). The place of residence and altitude were found to be statistically significant community and environmental factors. Wealth index and parental education level were considered socio-demographic risk factors. All media factors were associated with stunting and in proximate factors, the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the mother, duration of breastfeeding, age and weight of the child at birth, sex, and birth order were statistically significant factors. In addition, infection, diarrhoea, and parasitic infection were also associated with stunting. Ensuring sustainable food security in households should go hand in hand with all strategies for eliminating all forms of malnutrition since stunting is observed in most regions where there are cases of food insecurity. Educating children is key to reducing stunting since the parents need nutrition education to better take care of their children. Public policy throughout the country should aim to improve the living standards of people. Generally, all concerned institutions accompanied with policies to eradicate malnutrition and industries providing nutrients should be promoted.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Contribution of local agrobiodiversity to complementary foods for 6 to 23
           months old children in southern rural Benin

    • Authors: E Koukou , W Amoussa-Hounkpatin , M Savy, GD Ntandou-Bouzitou, MI Mitchodigni, FSU Bodjrènou, CF Tovissode, C Termote
      Pages: 20498 - 20522
      Abstract: In rural Benin, malnutrition, especially micronutrient deficiencies, contrasts with a rich agrobiodiversity that abounds in cultivated or wild foods that are potential sources of micronutrients. This paradox leads us to examine the role of local agrobiodiversity in the diet of children living in two agroecological zones of southern Benin. This study involved 1,263 children aged 6-23 months from 17 randomly selected villages in Southern Benin. A multiple-pass 24-h recall method on two non-consecutive days with the estimation of the consumed portions was used to collect dietary intake data. Semistructured questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic and demographic data to explore factors driving agrobiodiversity food consumption, especially wild foods. Nonparametric analyses based on gamma distribution were performed to establish the effect of wild food consumption on vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes. Conditional inference tree-classification models were performed to identify factors driving wild food consumption. Among a total of 48 local foods that were reported as consumed by children, 11 were from wild species. The contributions of total local agrobiodiversity to nutrient intake of complementary foods was between 49% (calcium) and 98% (vitamin A). Cultivated species contributed to local agrobiodiversity foods for 57% (calcium) and 96 % (zinc). The semi-domesticated species have a contribution of between 2% (zinc) and 35% (calcium) to nutrient intake. Wild species contribution to nutrient intake was between 1% (zinc) and 9% for vitamin C. Wild foods consumption correlated significantly and positively with calcium and vitamin A intakes among children. Sociolinguistic factors such as ethnicity and religion of the household head were determinants of wild food consumption. These findings suggest that sensitization on the nutritional importance of the wild foods including socio-linguistic factors may be necessary to promote wild foods’ consumption. This could be a good strategy to promote healthy diets in local communities. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Effect of cooking on the proximate composition and minerals content of
           wild edible macro fungi from lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi,

    • Authors: Y Yusran, E Erniwati, H Maksum, A Khumaidi, RHB Setiarto
      Pages: 20523 - 20541
      Abstract: Lore Lindu National Park was the most important flora and fauna protected area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. This area has high biodiversity, one of which is edible macro fungi. Macro fungi have attracted worldwide attention and reputation because of their diverse functions including beauty and aesthetics, medicinal effects (anticancer, antidiabetic, immunoenhancing and antioxidant), cosmetic ingredients, high nutritional value as food, economic value and ecosystem services. Macro fungi were rich in essential minerals, micro elements, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates and fiber. Indigenous peoples around this area have long been using edible macro fungi that grow wild in the forest both as a source of food and medicine. This study aimed to analyze the effect of cooking on the proximate composition and mineral content of several edible macro fungi originating from the Lore Lindu National Park area (Auricularia sp, Auricularia auricula-judae, Termitomyces sp, Lentinus sp, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus sp, Boletus sp). Determination of the nutritional composition of edible macro fungi was carried out by mineral analysis using the AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry) method and proximate analysis. Differences in proximate and mineral composition between cooked and uncooked edible macro fungi samples were analyzed by T-test. The results showed that all tested samples contained substantial amounts of nutrients and essential proteins. Cooked and uncooked edible macro fungi contain significant macro and micro minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, S, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn). The amount of protein and dietary fiber in edible macro fungi was also significantly affected by the cooking process. The fiber content in edible macro fungi increases when cooked, while the composition of carbohydrates, protein, fat, ash content and some mineral elements decreases due to cooking. This research shows that cooked and uncooked edible macro fungi have potential nutritional principles. The evaluation of the nutritional components (protein, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids and IVPD (in-vitro protein digestibility) and the calorific value of edible macro fungi indicated a low-fat and low-calorie diet, which was lower than legumes and meat.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Household food security determinants and nutritional status of inhabitants
           of a peri-urban community: a case study in the Volta region of Ghana

    • Authors: NK Kortei, A Koryo-Dabrah, P Esua-Amoafo, C Yarfi, J Nyasordzi, EK Essuman, CO Tettey , EB Nartey, E Awude, PT Akonor
      Pages: 20542 - 20565
      Abstract: Food shortages and malnutrition widely persist and continue to be rural peculiarities across the sub-region. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a peri-urban community of Dzodze in the Volta region to ascertain the level of food security as well as the nutritional status of the inhabitants using a random sampling technique. This community-based comparative cross-sectional study conducted from May to July 2018 adopted a multistage random sampling and selected 105 households. Sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Cramer’s-V, and Pearson’s correlations models were used to assess the association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and food frequency data while the Logit model, FSI, HCR were used to measure food security. Over half of the sample (59.6%) were in the normal range of BMI which implied good nutritional status. Remarkably, a majority of those in this normal BMI range 81 (77%) were female. Women aged 41years and above constituted a large portion of study participants (54.3%) of which many 43 (41%) were married. Just 4.8% of this group said they were both separated and cohabited with their partners non-customarily. Data on the frequency of food intake by the community revealed that, a majority of 63.4% of the respondents ate three times a day. Most of the people (77.2%, 68.7%, and 86.9%) ate breakfast, lunch, and supper, respectively, daily over a week. The fallouts from the work showed majority (71.5%) of the respondents were food secure and the remaining (about 28.5%) were food insecure. Factors such as age, gender, educational level, household size, and age were found to be significant predictors that influenced food security of the peri-urban community according to the logit model used. The smallholder households according to the computed food security index of 1.13 and normal range of BMI were identified to be indices of food security. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
  • Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on melon plant productivity

    • Authors: AC del Padre, EM López, FV Ocampos, OC Casuriaga, MDS Oviedo, AS Niz, AL Resquín, DL Ávalos
      Pages: 20566 - 20580
      Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on some production parameters of melon plants. The experiment was carried out in San Roque, which is 24 km from the city of Concepción, Paraguay, at the coordinates 57°14´10.29´´ South and 23°19´12.05´´ West. The study design was the completely randomized block with three replications in a split plot scheme 4 x 4. The dose used in the main plot was of N (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) and in the sub-plot, K (0, 95, 190 and 285 kg ha-1). A light harrow was carried out to prepare the soil, seedlings were produced in 1500 cm3 pots of 60-micron thickness and the transplant was carried out when the seedlings had between 4 and 6 true leaves at 30 days after planting. Urea with 45% N was used as the source of nitrogen and potassium chloride 60% was used as the source of potassium. Fertilisation was carried out in September 2017 on two occasions: at 15 and 30 days after transplanting. The spacing used was of 1.5 m between rows and 1.5 m between plants, giving a total of 4356 plants ha-1. Harvesting began 90 days after planting and was carried out three times as the fruits reached commercial ripeness. The variables that were measured were average fruit weight (AFW), total soluble solids (TSS), polar diameter (PD), equatorial diameter (ED), fruit weight per plant (FWP). The data of the evaluated variables were subjected to the analysis of variance using the Fisher test where significant differences were found in: AFW, TSS, PD, ED and FWP. Subsequently, the regression analysis was performed (AFW, TSS and PD) and response surface (ED and FWP). The dose combination that produced the best values for equatorial diameter and fruit weight per plant was 71.9495 kg ha-1 of N and 160.554 kg ha-1 of K, 77.5921 kg ha-1 of N and 147.369 kg ha-1 of K, respectively. 
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2022)
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