Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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 Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and ObesityJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.572 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 25      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1124-4909 - ISSN (Online) 1590-1262 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2467 journals]
• Suspicion of Munchausen syndrome by proxy with a child's presentation of
undernutrition, scurvy, and an apparent Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake
Disorder

Abstract: Purpose Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) was recently characterized in the DSM-5 classification. Potential differential diagnoses remain poorly reported in the literature. Our purpose was to present a possible Munchausen syndrome by proxy with undernutrition and scurvy, presenting as ARFID in a child. Methods We describe here a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with severe undernutrition (BMI = 11.4) and scurvy leading to joint pains. The boy had had a very selective diet since early childhood, and his condition required hospitalization and enteral refeeding. Because of his specific eating behaviour, an ARFID was initially suspected. However, observation of the mother–child relationship, analysis of the child’s eating behaviour, and retrospective analysis of his personal history suggested that this was not a true ARFID, and that the selective eating behaviour had probably been induced by the mother over many years, who probably maintained a low variety diet. Conclusion Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a difficult differential diagnosis, which may also affect patients with ARFID symptoms, which may also present in the affected child as apparent ARFID. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-12-24

• Eating disorder psychopathology dimensions based on individual
co-occurrence patterns of symptoms over time: a dynamic time warp analysis
in a large naturalistic patient cohort

Abstract: Purpose Most of the network approaches in eating disorders found the highest degree of centrality for symptoms related to weight and shape concerns. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce and may increase our insight of the complex characteristics and dynamics over time. In the current study, an alternative non-linear method to perform longitudinal network analyses, the dynamic time warp approach, was used to examine whether robust dimensions of eating disorder psychopathology symptoms could be found based on the individual dynamic interplay of eating disorder symptoms co-occurrence patterns in time. Methods The study sample included a naturalistic cohort of patients (N = 255) with all eating disorder subtypes who were assessed with the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) at a minimum of four times during treatment. Dynamic time warp analyses yielded distance matrices within each individual patient, which were subsequently aggregated into symptom networks and dimensions at the group level. Results Aggregation of the individual distance matrices at the group level yielded four robust symptom dimensions: 1. restraint/rules, 2. secret eating/fasting, 3. worries/preoccupation, and 4. weight and shape concern. The items ‘fear of weight gain’ and ‘guilt’ were bridge symptoms between the dimensions 1, 3 and 4. Conclusion Dynamic time warp could capture the within-person dynamics of eating disorder symptoms. Sumscores of the four dimensions could be used to follow patients over time. This approach could be applied in the future to visualize eating disorder symptom dynamics and signal the central symptoms within an individual and groups of patients. Level of evidence Level III: evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case–control analytic studies. .
PubDate: 2022-12-05

• Eating disorders: a comprehensive guide to medical care and complications
(fourth edition)

PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Obituary: Enrica Marzola

PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Research in eating disorders: the misunderstanding of supposing serious
mental illnesses as a niche specialty

Abstract: Purpose Eating disorders (EDs) are mental illnesses with severe consequences and high mortality rates. Notwithstanding, EDs are considered a niche specialty making it often difficult for researchers to publish in high-impact journals. Subsequently, research on EDs receives less funding than other fields of psychiatry potentially slowing treatment progress. This study aimed to compare research vitality between EDs and schizophrenia focusing on: number and type of publications; top-cited articles; geographical distribution of top-ten publishing countries; journal distribution of scientific production as measured by bibliometric analysis; funded research and collaborations. Methods We used the Scopus database, then we adopted the Bibliometrix R-package software with the web interface app Biblioshiny. We included in the analyses 1,916 papers on EDs and 6491 on schizophrenia. Results The ED field published three times less than schizophrenia in top-ranking journals – with letters and notes particularly lacking—notwithstanding a comparable number of papers published per author. Only 50% of top-cited articles focused on EDs and a smaller pool of journals available for ED research (i.e., Zones 1 and 2 according to Bradford's law) emerged; journals publishing on EDs showed an overall lower rank compared to the schizophrenia field. Schizophrenia research was more geographically distributed and more funded; in contrast, a comparable collaboration index was found between the fields. Conclusion These data show that research on EDs is currently marginalized and top-rank journals are seldom achievable by researchers in EDs. Such difficulties in research dissemination entail potentially serious repercussions on clinical advancements. Level of evidence Level V: opinions of respected authorities, based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, or reports of expert committees.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for patients with anorexia nervosa: a
case–control study

Abstract: Purpose Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) require appropriate nutrient therapy and physical activity management. Eating disorder treatment guidelines do not include safe, evidence-based intensity criteria for exercise. This study used cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) to evaluate the exercise tolerance of patients with AN. Methods CPX was performed with 14 female patients with AN admitted to a specialized eating disorder unit between 2015 and 2019. Their anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by assessing their exercise tolerance using CPX and compared with 14 healthy controls (HC). The metabolic equivalents (AT-METS) were compared when AT was reached. We examined factors related to AT (AN-AT) in the AN group, including age, body mass index (BMI), previous lowest weight, minimum BMI, past duration of BMI < 15, exercise history, and ΔHR (heart rate at the AT—resting heart rate). Results The AT of the AN group (BMI: 15.7 [Mean] ± 1.8 standard deviation [SD]) was significantly lower than that of the HC group (BMI: 19.7 ± 1.8) (AN: 10.0 ± 1.8 vs. HC: 15.2 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min, P < 0.001). AT-METS was also significantly lower in the AN group than in the HC group (AN: 2.9 ± 0.52 vs. HC: 4.4 ± 0.91, P < 0.001). AN-AT was highly influenced by ΔHR. Conclusions This study showed that AT and AT-METS were lower in patients with AN than in HC. Patients with AN should be prescribed light-intensity aerobic exercise, and the current findings may help develop future physical management guidelines for patients with AN. Level of evidence III: Evidence obtained from case–control analytic studies.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• An examination of daily sleep characteristics and subsequent eating
disorder behavior among individuals with binge-spectrum eating disorders

Abstract: Introduction Specific characteristics of sleep (e.g., duration, quality, and fatigue) are positively associated with (ED) behaviors, specifically binge eating (BE) potentially through decreased self-regulation and increased appetite. However, prior work has been largely cross-sectional and has not examined temporal relationships between sleep characteristics and next-day ED behaviors. Thus, the present study examined daily relationships between sleep and ED behaviors among individuals with binge-spectrum EDs. Method Participants (N = 96) completed 7 daily ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys over 7–14 days; morning surveys assessed sleep characteristics and 6 randomly timed surveys each day captured ED behaviors. Analyses examined within-subject and between-subject effects of sleep quality, duration, and fatigue on BE, compensatory purging behaviors, and maladaptive exercise. Results Within-subject sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with engagement in maladaptive exercise later that day. Additionally, between-subject sleep duration was significantly negatively associated with engagement in compensatory purging behaviors. Discussion Within- and between-subjects associations between sleep quality and duration and compensatory behavior engagement indicate that sleep plays an important role in ED behaviors. Future research should incorporate sensor-based measurement of sleep and examine how specific facets of sleep impact BE and treatment response. Level of evidence Level II: Evidence obtained from controlled trial without randomization.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• The relationship between low-carbohydrate diet score, dietary insulin

Abstract: Purpose Carbohydrate intake and insulinemic potential of diet are suggested to be correlated with the development of different chronic diseases. Considering the limited research on obesity, this study aimed to investigate the association of dietary insulin index (DII), dietary insulin load (DIL), and low-carbohydrate diet score (LCDS) with body weight and obesity in healthy adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, DII, DIL, and LCDS were calculated using relevant formulas based on dietary intakes obtained by a valid 168-item food frequency questionnaire, in 393 otherwise healthy adults of either normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Results Individuals in the highest tertile of DIL and DII had respectively 73% (OR: 0.27, 95% CI 0.08–0.94, p = 0.049) and 50% (OR: 0.5, 95% CI 0.26–0.96, p = 0.038) lower odds of being overweight compared to the lowest tertile, after adjusting the effects of age, sex, and dietary energy intake. Participants in the highest tertile of DIL had 92% greater odds of being obese compared to the lowest tertile, but this association did not remain significant after adjusting the effect of energy intake. Individuals in the highest tertile of LCDS had about 2 times odds of being overweight compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.04–4.01, p = 0.049). There was no relationship between being obese and tertiles of LCDS. Conclusion Higher dietary carbohydrate intake and insulinemic potential of diet could not be considered independent dietary risk factors for overweight or obesity. Level of evidence Level III: evidence obtained from an observational study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Translation and validation of the Chinese version of the orthorexia
nervosa assessment questionnaires among college students

Abstract: Purpose The main objective of the study was to translate, validate, and compare the Chinese ORTO scales (ORTO-15 and ORTO-R). The secondary objective was to assess factors that may be related with risk of orthorexia nervosa (ON). Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on March-to-June 2021 for ORTO-15 and April 2022 for ORTO-R. ORTO questionnaires were translated into Chinese using the forward–backward–forward method. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), discriminant validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaires. The internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and the test–retest reliability. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explore potential factors related with ON scores. Results Totally, 1289 and 1084 eligible participants were included for assessment of ORTO-15 and ORTO-R, with the mean age of 20.9 ± 2.0 years and 21.0 ± 2.3 years. The internal consistency of Chinese ORTO-15 scale and ORTO-R scale were both satisfactory (α = 0.79, ICC = 0.79; α = 0.77, ICC = 0.82). However, all ORTO-15 models showed a poor fit using CFA whereas the ORTO-R was characterized by acceptable goodness-of-fit. Multivariate linear regression indicated that physical activities and mental disorders were positively associated with ON risk assessed by both ORTO-R and ORTO-15. Conclusion The Chinese ORTO-R scale was a more reliable tool to screen for ON tendencies than the Chinese version of ORTO-15. Mental disorders and physical activities might be associated with the increased ON risk. Level of evidence Level V (descriptive cross-sectional study).
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Low resilience in severe obesity: marker of adverse childhood experiences
and current psychological disorders

Abstract: Purpose Psychological disorders, early-age psychological traumas and eating disorders may contribute to the development of severe obesity in vulnerable individuals. Resilience may serve a protective role against binge eating disorder or depression. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE), resilience, and current psychological disorders. It also examined whether resilience plays a protective role in this pathway in a cohort of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Methods Two hundred patients (153 women, 47 men) with severe obesity scheduled for bariatric surgery at the CHRU Nancy were included between September 2016 and April 2017. Participants completed the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) questionnaire and underwent a structured interview on ACE and current psychological disorders. Results Mean total RSA score was 5.16 ± 0.87. The most frequent ACE were emotional neglect (90.5%) and emotional abuse (61%); 96% reported at least one ACE; 67% presented at least one current psychological disorder, the most frequent being anxiety (36%) and BED (35%). The number of psychological disorders, cumulative ACE and age explained 19.5% of the variance in total RSA score (p < 0.0001; adjusted R2 = 0.19). The association of cumulative ACE and number of psychological disorders was mediated by resilience. Conclusion Our findings suggest that resilience is a relevant component of the psychosocial phenotype of severe obesity in bariatric surgery candidates. Resilience seems to play a partly mediation role in the relationship between ACE and psychological disorders. Low resilience becomes a marker that underscores the necessity to examine in greater depth ACE and psychological disorders. Level of evidence Level III, cohort analytic study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Conceptualisations of health in orthorexia nervosa: a mixed-methods study

Abstract: Purpose Limited research has explored conceptualisations of health and healthy eating in orthorexia nervosa (ON). This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate how ‘health’ and ‘healthy eating’ are conceptualised by individuals at risk for ON. This study examined the potential relationships between health anxiety, beliefs about health controllability and orthorexic symptomatology in our broader sample. Methods A total of 362 participants took a survey on health anxiety (measured with the HAQ), beliefs about the controllability of one’s own health (IMHLC) and ON symptomatology (E-DOS and EHQ). Participants ‘at risk’ for ON (n = 141), also completed an online qualitative survey about conceptualisations of health and healthy eating. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis (part A). The PROCESS macro for SPSS was used for the quantitative analysis (part B). Results Conceptualisations of health and healthy eating were complex. Four themes were generated from our qualitative data: ‘health is more than thin ideals’, ‘healthy food equals healthy mind’, ‘a body that works for you’ and ‘taking control of your body’. Our quantitative analysis revealed that health anxiety and beliefs in health controllability independently predicted ON symptomatology. Conclusion A richer understanding of what health means in the context of ON is important, given the centrality of this concept to the proposed classification of this disordered eating style. Our findings highlight that both health anxiety and health controllability are important targets for future investigation, given their potential relevance to the aetiology and treatment of ON. Level of evidence Level V, based on a descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• The influence of partner appearance in the assessment of a person with
obesity: an experimental study

Abstract: Purpose This study analyzes whether knowing that a male with obesity has a romantic relationship with a normal weight woman improves impressions about him. Methods An online experiment was conducted with a sample of 3024 adult participants (1828 women and 1196 men) with a mean age of 36.11 (SD = 13.49). Each participant was shown two photographs: one of a male target with obesity and one of his female partner (who had either normal weight or obesity depending on the condition). The respondents’ sex was added as a fixed factor into the analyses. Physical attractiveness was rated using an item with a scale ranging from 0 to 100. Competence, warmth, and morality were measured using a 17-item adjective list. Results The target was assessed as more attractive when he had a partner with normal weight (F(1, 3009) = 4.85, p = .028, $$\eta^{2}$$  = .002), and was also given higher scores for competence (F(1, 3009) = 4.93, p = .026, $$\eta^{2}$$  = .002), warmth (F(1, 3009) = 4.32, p = .038, $$\eta^{2}$$  = .001), and morality (F(1, 3009) = 11.16, p = .001, $$\eta^{2}$$  = .004). There was a significant interaction between partner weight and the respondents’ sex for physical attractiveness, as the difference between the scores in each condition was only significant for women. Conclusion It is possible that women perceived that the male target who had a normal weight partner had a higher status or some hidden quality besides his physical appearance, and thus rated him as more attractive. Level of evidence Level I, experimental study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Dietary patterns and eating behaviors on the border between healthy and
pathological orthorexia

Abstract: Purpose The obsession with healthy eating associated with restrictive behaviors is called Orthorexia Nervosa (OrNe). Nevertheless, some studies suggest that orthorexia can also be a non-pathological interest in healthy eating which is called Healthy Orthorexia (HeOr). First, one of the main objectives of this study is to compare HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors in different dietary patterns (vegan, vegetarian and omnivore). Second is to reveal the relationship between HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). Lastly, to determine the potential predictors of HeOr and OrNe. Methods Participants (N = 426 with an omnivorous diet; N = 415 with a vegan diet, N = 324 with a vegetarian diet) completed a web-based descriptive survey, the Teruel Orthorexia Scale and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R 21. Results HeOr and OrNe were more common in individuals following both vegan and vegetarian diets. Individuals following a vegan or a vegetarian diet had lower body mass index and higher body image satisfaction than individuals following an omnivorous diet. Cognitive restraint and following a vegan or a vegetarian diet were the two main predictors of both HeOr and OrNe. Cognitive restraint was positively associated with both HeOr and OrNe (more strongly correlated with OrNe), whereas uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were positively related to OrNe and negatively related to HeOr. Conclusion The present study contributes to a better understanding of the some similarities and differences between HeOr and OrNe. It also points to higher rates of orthorexia in individuals following a vegan or vegetarian diet and represents a further step towards developing prevention and intervention programs by identifying risk factors for OrNe. Level V Cross-sectional descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Elevated miR-143 and miR-34a gene expression in human visceral adipose
tissue are associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic adults: a
cross-sectional study

Abstract: Objective We aimed to evaluate the association of miR-143 and miR-34a expression in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues with insulin resistance (IR). Methods VAT and SAT were obtained from 176 participants without diabetes. miR-143 and miR-34a expressions in VAT and SAT were measured using qRT-PCR. Fasting serum insulin and glucose concentration, homeostatic model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B), and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (BMI), VAT miR-143 expression was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and HOMA-IR, and negatively associated with HOMA-B and QUICKI. miR-34a expression in VAT was directly associated with FPG, insulin, and HOMA-IR and negatively associated with QUICKI. In SAT, miR-34a expression was positively associated with insulin and negatively associated with QUICKI. The interaction terms of HOMA-IR and BMI categories were significant for both miR gene expressions in VAT. After stratifying participants based on BMI, the association of miR-143 and miR-34a expressions in VAT with IR indices remained significant only in obese patients. Conclusion miR-143 and miR-34a expressions in VAT were independent predictors of IR in people without diabetes, and that this association was conditional on the degree of obesity. Level of evidence Level of evidence III, cross-sectional analytic study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Associations among alexithymia, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms
binge-eating disorder and obesity

Abstract: Purpose Evidence suggests that difficulties identifying and describing one’s feelings, core components of alexithymia, are associated with attitudinal and behavioral symptoms of disordered eating; depressive symptoms also may underlie these associations. Specifically, research indicates that alexithymia is positively related to depressive symptoms, which in turn may promote both disordered-eating attitudes and certain disinhibited-eating behaviors (e.g., emotional eating). Findings also suggest that military-dependent youth with high weight may exhibit elevated depressive symptoms and disordered eating. As such, understanding associations among alexithymia, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating is particularly relevant for this vulnerable population. Methods We examined 149 adolescent military dependents (14.4 ± 1.6y; 55.0% female; 20.0% non-Hispanic Black; BMIz: 1.9 ± 0.4) at high risk for binge-eating disorder and obesity in adulthood. Participants completed questionnaires assessing two components of alexithymia (difficulty identifying feelings [DIF] and difficulty describing feelings [DDF]), depressive symptoms, emotional eating, and trait anxiety; disordered-eating attitudes were assessed via semi-structured interview. Results A series of regression-based models examined indirect relationships of DIF and DDF with disordered-eating attitudes and emotional eating through depressive symptoms. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals revealed a significant indirect path from each of the alexithymia components to disordered-eating attitudes via depressive symptoms; indirect paths to emotional eating were non-significant. Conclusion Results support the salience of depressive symptoms in the relationship between alexithymia and disordered-eating attitudes. Future research should utilize prospective designs and explore direct and indirect associations of alexithymia with other disordered-eating behaviors. Level of evidence Level III, evidence obtained from a well-designed cohort study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Female Muscularity
Scale among Chinese young women

Abstract: Purpose The Female Muscularity Scale (FMS) was specifically developed for assessing drive for muscularity in women. The current study aimed to translate the FMS into Chinese (FMS-C) and examine its psychometric properties among Chinese young women. Methods Based on standard procedures, the FMS was translated into Chinese. By using the psych and lavaan packages on R version 4.0.3, the current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and convergent and incremental validity of the FMS-C with a sample of 517 Chinese women college students ( $${M}_{age}$$ = 18.86 years). Results Results showed a 2-factor structure including attitudes and behaviors of the FMS-C. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α) was .91 for the total FMS-C scale and .89 and .88 for the Attitudes and Behaviors subscales, respectively. Results also revealed evidence for good convergent and incremental validity of the FMS-C. Conclusion Findings suggest that the FMS-C can be a useful tool to measure both attitudes and behaviors underlying drive for muscularity and muscle tone concerns among Chinese young women. Level of evidence Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Radiofrequency echographic multispectrometry (REMS): an innovative
technique for the assessment of bone status in young women with anorexia
nervosa

Abstract: Purpose Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increase risk of fragility fracture are common complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) present several limits in subjects with AN. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the new Radiofrequency echographic multispectrometry (REMS) technique in the assessment of bone status in young women with AN. Methods In a cohort of 50 subjects with restrictive AN and in 30 healthy controls, we measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS-BMD), at femoral neck (FN-BMD) and total hip (TH-BMD) using both DXA and REMS technique. Results BMD evaluated by DXA and REMS technique at all measurement sites were all significantly (p < 0.01) lower in subjects suffering from AN subjects than in controls. Good correlations were detected between BMD by DXA and BMD by REMS measurements at LS (r = 0.64, p < 0.01) at FN (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and at TH (r = 0.84, p < 0.01) in subjects suffering from AN. Moreover, Bland–Altman analysis confirmed the good agreement between the two techniques. The subjects suffering from AN with previous vertebral fragility fractures presented lower values of both BMD-LS and BMD-TH by DXA and by REMS with respect to those without fractures; however, the difference was significant only for BMD-TH by REMS (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggest that REMS technique due to its characteristic of precision and reproducibility may represent an important tool for the evaluation of the changes in bone status in AN young women, especially during the fertile age and in case of pregnancy and breastfeeding. Level of evidence Level of evidence: level III cohort study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Gray matter volume and functional connectivity underlying binge eating in
healthy children

Abstract: Purpose As a maladaptive disordered eating behavior, binge eating (BE) onset has been reported in children as young as eight years old and is linked with a range of negative psychological consequences. However, previous neuroimaging research of BE has mainly focused on adults in clinical conditions, and little is known about the potential neurostructural and neurofunctional bases of BE in healthy children. Methods In this study, we examined these issues in 76 primary school students (mean age = 9.86 years) using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) approaches. Results After controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume/head motion, we observed that higher levels of BE were correlated with greater gray matter volumes (GMV) in the left fusiform and right insula and weaker rsFC between the right insula and following three regions: right orbital frontal cortex, left cingulate gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus. No significant associations were observed between BE and regional white matter volume. Significant sex differences were found only in the relationship between BE and GMV in the left fusiform. Furthermore, the GMV- and rsFC-based predictive models (a machine-learning method) achieved significant correlations between the actual and predicted BE values, demonstrating the robustness of our findings. Conclusion The present study provides novel evidence for the brain structural and functional substrates of children’s BE, and further reveals that the weakened communication between core regions associated with negative affectivity, reward responsivity, and executive function is strongly related to dysregulated eating. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-12-01

• Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Weight Self-Stigma
Questionnaire (S-WSSQ) in a sample of participants with obesity seeking
weight loss treatment

Abstract: Purpose Weight self-stigma may be defined as a self-devaluation due to one’s identification with the group of people with obesity. The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ) is an instrument specifically designed to measure weight self-stigma in populations with overweight or obesity. The objective of this study was to adapt the WSSQ to the Spanish population (S-WSSQ) following the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptations. Methods The sample comprised 165 participants with obesity seeking weight loss treatment (65% women) at the “Hospital de Valme” (Seville, Spain). Scales to measure life satisfaction, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and antifat attitudes were used to analyze the convergent and divergent validity of the S-WSSQ. Results A confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate values of the goodness of fit indexes of a two-factor model (χ2/df = 2.01 CFI = 0.92, IFI = 0.92, SRMR = 0.08, RMSEA = 0.078), replicating the structure found by the original authors. Cronbach’s alphas of the two factors were 0.76 (self-devaluation) and 0.77 (fear of enacted stigma). Composite Reliability values were 0.72 (self-devaluation) and 0.76 (fear of enacted stigma). Self-devaluation and fear of enacted stigma were negatively related to self-esteem, and positive affect, and positively related to negative affect and antifat attitudes. Finally, life satisfaction was negatively correlated to fear of enacted stigma. Conclusions Based on these results, it is concluded that the S-WSSQ has good psychometric properties and might be used by the Spanish-speaking scientific community to measure weight self-stigma. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-11-25

• Relationships between body image and mental health in white, cisgender
college students

Abstract: Purpose Previous studies have suggested that drive for leanness (DL) may be less maladaptive than drive for thinness (DT) or drive for muscularity (DM). However, no studies have examined whether there might be gender differences in the relationships between these three drives and mental health variables. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we wanted to examine DL in the context of mental health and to see if it is less maladaptive than DT and DM. Second, we wanted to examine gender differences in the relationships between body dissatisfaction (DT, DM, DL) and mental health in a sample of college students. Methods A sample of 988 White, heterosexual, cisgender college students (76.8% female) completed an omnibus survey measuring body image (DL, DT, DM) and mental health (generalized anxiety, social physique anxiety, self-esteem) variables. Regression analyses evaluated associations between these drives and mental health variables. Results DT predicted all three mental health outcomes in both men and women. DM predicted generalized and social physique anxiety in women but only generalized anxiety in men. DL predicted social physique anxiety only in women. Conclusion Because we found gender differences in body image and relationships between body image and mental health, future studies should take gender into account when exploring body image and related variables. Level of Evidence V Cross-sectional descriptive study.
PubDate: 2022-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40519-022-01495-3

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