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Progress in Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.193
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1129-8723
Published by Mattioli 1885 srl Homepage  [9 journals]
  • The Role of exclusive breastfeeding and water source in the reduction of
           stunting: Mediation and moderation analysis of cross-sectional data among
           Beninese children aged 6 months

    • Authors: Jaurès F. H. Lokonon, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin , Sam U.F. Bodjrenou, Morel Yves Sokadjo, Nicole Idohou Dossou, Mintodê Nicodème Atchadé, Nobert M. Hounkonnou
      Abstract: Background: Stunting is a public health issue in many low and middle income countries. The role played by exclusive breastfeeding practice (EBF) and water source (WS) used by the mothers in stunting reduction needs to be more clarified. Objective: To test whether EBF and WS are moderators or mediators of participation in Nutrition at Centre (N@C) project activities effect on child stunting reduction. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on 213 mothers and their 6 months’ age children from 40 villages in Southern Benin. Scores of participation in N@C activities (SPA) were estimated by counting the activities in which the mothers have participated during the last six months. Association between prevalence of stunting (length-for-age z-score < - 2) and SPA was investigat-ed binary and multinomial logistic regression. Then, EBF and WS were included in the models to check whether they were mediators or moderators. Results: In our sample, 16% of children were stunted. High SPA of mothers was likely associated with low stunting prevalence (OR=0.92; 95% IC: 0.87-0.98). We did not have evidence to claim that neither EBF nor WS were a mediator of the effect of SPA on stunting reduction, but they were moderators. While the score of participation increased and the mothers didn’t practice EBF, the stunting prevalence increased slightly from 21.4% to 26.8%. Moreover, the score of participation increased and WS is drilling system or covered well or tap, the stunting prevalence decreased by 15.6%, 26.9%, and 45.4%, respectively. Conclusions: EBF and WS have been the moderators of SPA effect on children stunting prevalence at 6 months of age. Effective practice of EBF and the use of appropriate WS by the mothers are needed to have a large effect of participation in the nutrition community projects on the reduction of stunting.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.9954
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • A diabetes risk screening in Northern Cyprus: what we learned with

    • Authors: Serpil Ozsoy, Emel Ozer
      Abstract: Background: According to the data of IDF 2019, 463 million people with diabetes live in the world and it is predicted that this number will increase by 51% in the next 25 years and reach 700 million. T2 D is increasing due to industrialization, obesity, decreased physical activity and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Especially in individuals with a high risk of diabetes, physical activity intervention, development of healthy eating habits, obesity management and behavior change intervention reduce the development of diabetes by 58%. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine diabetes risk score of nurses with FINDRISC questionnaire. The FINDRISC questionnaire is a cost-effective and fast-applied scoring that does not require any intervention. Method: FINDRISC questionnaire was applied to the participants by face-to-face interview technique. Results: It was determined that as the age, body mass index and waist circumference values increased parallel with  the total score of FINDRISC. Conclusion: It is important to perform screening studies to identify high-risk groups for Type 2 diabetes in order to prevent or delay the development of Type 2 diabetes. It is thought that identifying high-risk individuals and preventing the development of diabetes by lifestyle changes can reduce both direct expenditures for medical care associated with the disease and indirect expenditures associated with loss of income and productivity. Key Words:Prediabetes, diabetes, diabetes risk, diabetes prevention, FINDRISC.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.11858
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Nutritional content of gluten free foods in the northern side of Cyprus

    • Authors: Sabiha Gökçen Zeybek, Taygun Dayı
      Abstract: Background: Gluten free (GF) foods -which are the main part of the gluten free diets- are produced from grains without gluten protein. They have an important place in the food market. Depending of the type of GF foods, it may cause nutrient deficiencies in long term unconscious consumption. Nutrient deficiencies are related with some health problems thus evaluation of the GF foods contents has importance for the nutrition science. Methods and Study Design: The current study was conducted in Cyprus.
      Authors visited six diffirent supermarkets and determined 99 different gluten free foods. After the determination, they evaluated nutrient contents of GF foods from food labels and compared with reference foods which include gluten protein. They used TurKomp and BeBiS programme to determine reference foods nutrient content. Results: There were two main groups in this study. In the study group; there were 99 GF foods and 34 gluten containing foods in the control group. The mean energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fatty acid and sugar contents of the gluten free foods were higher, their protein contents were lower than control group (p<0.05). In addition, GF foods had lower dietary fiber content but this result was not statistical significance. Conclusion: This study have brighten nutrition science to provide diet diversity for patients who need to consume gluten-free products for a long-term.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12078
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Examination of the stress and social phobia levels of 13-18 age group
           students participating in tennis training

    • Authors: Korkmaz Yigiter, Mihrac Koroglu
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the stress and social phobia levels of 13-18 age group students receiving tennis training in terms of some variables. In this study, the relational survey model, which is one of the quantitative research designs, was used. Stress level scale and social phobia scale were used as data collection tools in the research. These questionnaires were applied to students aged 13-18 attending tennis clubs in Sakarya. The data obtained from the students were transferred to the SPSS program and descriptive statistics were applied to indicate their demographic characteristics. Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used to see if there is a significant difference between stress and social phobia points of students according to age, gender, and education level. A correlation test was applied to look at the relationship between stress and social phobia levels. As a result of the study, there was no significant difference in the stress and social phobia levels of tennis players attending tennis clubs in Sakarya in terms of age, gender, and class levels (p>0,05). In addition, there was no significant relationship between the stress and social phobia levels of tennis players (p>0,05).
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12287
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Analysis of Effects of Nutrition and Physical Appearance on
           Self-Confidence in Women who Exercise

    • Authors: Zekiye Başaran
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of nutrition and physical appearance perfectionism on self-confidence in women who exercise. This is an experimental study without a control group. The research sample consisted of 36 women. The study was carried out for 10 weeks, 3 days a week, and 1 hour a day. The program consisted of step, pilates, zumba, yoga, and cardio work. Data were obtained face-to-face and online. Personal information form, women self-confidence scale, physical appearance perfectionism scale, and the three-factor eating questionnaire were utilized as data collection tools. SPSS 25 packaged software analyzed the data obtained from scales. Paired Sample t-test was applied to data showing normal distribution while the Wilcoxon test was applied to data showing non-parametric distribution. There also was conducted a correlation analysis to determine the relationship between scales. According to research results, there are decreases in weight, waist measurement, and BMI (Body Mass Index) values of the participants. While there is a decrease in all averages in nutritional status, a significant difference can be seen between uncontrolled eating and conscious restriction pre/post-test. There also is a significant difference in the physical appearance perfectionism total point and imperfection sub-dimension. A significant difference can be observed in total and social sub-dimension while there are decreases in self-confidence points. There is a significant relationship between women's self-confidence and physical appearance perfectionism. Finally, exercise and conscious nutrition cause a decrease in weight, body mass index, and waist measurement, while it creates a positive effect on physical appearance. These effects also increased the level of self-confidence in women. There is a significant relationship between physical appearance and self-confidence. It is recommended that all women be directed to sports activities so that they can be strong and self-confident. Keywords: Exercise, Nutrition, Physical appearance, Self-confidence
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12729
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Role of foods in caries among preschool-children: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Nevra Koç, Nazlı Nur Aslan, Hülya Yardimci
      Abstract: Aim: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a chronic infectious disease that affects children and is a serious public health problem. Proper and balanced nutrition is important for preventing caries and developing immunity against infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between childhood caries and consumption of cariogenic and anti-cariogenic foods among children 30-78 months old. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with 200 children between 30-78 months old. The questionnaire form was included sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional habits and frequency of consumption of food groups. Presence of decayed, extracted or filled teeth was recorded from dentist files and decayed-missed-filled teeth (dmft) index was calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to dmft index as children with and without caries. The data were evaluated with proper statistical methods. Findings: During the study, 200 children (116 male, 84 female) were evaluated. Mean age was 61.4±11.9 months. Educational status of parents was related to the presence of caries (p<0.05). Presence of caries was related to regular consumption of breakfast and lunch but there was not a significant relation for dinner. Consumption of potato crisps, fizzy drinks, and sweets was more frequent among children with caries (p<0.05) whereas consumption of anti-cariogenic animal-oriented foods was more frequent among children without caries (p<0.05). Frequency of milk, yoghurt and chicken consumption was higher among caries-free children (p<0.05). Conclusions: Consumption of cariogenic foods has an important role in the occurrence of early caries among preschool children.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.11181
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Global scientific research on elderly malnutrition:A bibliometric

    • Authors: Hua Tian, Jie Chen
      Abstract: Background: The malnutrition in older adults increases rapidly with the accelerating development of the global aging. Malnutrition was considered to be a public health problem characterized by multifactorial physiological state. Bibliometric analysis and visualization to this field in the past 30 years may provide profound insights.Methods: Scientific citation index database was identified publications with author name, affiliation and origin country from 1991 to 2021 in this field, and systematically compiled the corresponding bibliometric data. Web of science database and excel were used to analyze generally, while VOSviewer and Citespace were used for bibliometric analysis and visualization.Results: In total, 2239 publications were found. The total number of publications increased substantially and exponentially in recent years, suggesting that more and more researchers pay attention to this field. The most contributor is the United States, whereas the highest average citations is Switzerland. Bibliographic coupling, coauthorship, cocitation, and co-occurrence analyses revealed that nutrition dietetics was the most research area. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and journal of Nutrition Health & Aging were the most contribution institution and journal. The publication in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society by Kaiser MJ et al in 2010 had the most cited frequence. Co-occurrence analysis showed that the most research topics included “programming” “sarcopenia” “prevention” “risk” “nutrition support” “deglutition”.Conclusions: Through the visual analysis of publication in recent 30 years, we found the publication trends and research characteristics in this field. These findings will hopefully provide new insight into the study of elderly malnutrition.Implications for Practice: Malnutrition in older adults leads to heavy burdens to the individual, social and economic. Relevant professionals, such as doctors, nurses, psychologists and many other health practitioners, should raise broad awareness and attention to the research hot spots and frontiers of this topic, in order to promote the screening, evaluation, diagnosis and grading treatment for malnutrition in elderly people with different health and functional states.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12025
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Detection of a novel genetic variant of the Myf5 gene in Turkish Anatolian
           Water Buffalo

    • Authors: Mervan Bayraktar
      Abstract: Myf5 gene belongs to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) families and has an active role in muscle differentiation and the development of skeletal muscle cells. The study aimed to detect genetic variants of the Myf5 gene in Anatolian buffaloes. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect SNP regions of the Myf5 gene. Seven restriction enzymes were used to identify the polymorphic regions. Six enzymes (RsaI, SspI, DraI, HinfI, PstI, and EcoRI) showed monomorphic regions and only BsuRI enzyme showed a polymorphic region in the intron 2 site. It was detected a novel SNP in the C14553A site in the second intron of the Myf5 gene in Anatolian buffaloes. These novel findings may be used as a genetic marker and contribute to the performance of buffaloes in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12184
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Impact of Lifestyle and Diets Behaviors on Elderly Health: Questionnaire
           Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Hua Tian, Jie Chen
      Abstract: Background: Healthy lifestyle and diet behaviors have a great impact on the life of the elderly. Up to now, few objectively evaluate the relationship between the elderly health and related lifestyle behaviors and dietary behaviors from the three dimensions of self-rated health, objective physical health and mental health. Objective: The aim is to understand the elderly health over 65 in CLHLS-2018, the characteristics of participants related to elderly health, and the relationship between elderly health and lifestyle behaviors and dietary behaviors. Methods: 8777 elderly aged over 65 years old was drawn from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS-2018). SPSS was used for descriptive statistics of the participants. T-test was used to assess the association between participant characteristics (gender, residence, age, nationality, and living status) and three dimensions of elderly health. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between elderly health and lifestyle and diet behavior of the elderly(exercise, social activities, dietary supplements, sleep, drinking, smoking, BMI, staple food, fresh fruit, fresh vegetables and taste). Results: Among the 8777 participants, the elderly were mainly from female (53.65%), rural (74.30%), 65-79 years old (41.57%), han nationality (95.48%), and living with his/her family or nurses (80.40%). For lifestyle and diet behaviors, the unoptimistic indicators were regular exercise (35.91%), regular social activities (9.71%), regular dietary supplements (12.58%), fresh fruit (23.37%). There were significant differences between the indicators of gender, residence, age and living status. Participants in the healthy group had a healthier lifestyle and diet behaviors than those in the unhealthy group. Conclusions: The elderly health in China is not optimistic. Family members, friends and nurses must be encouraged to provide social support for the elderly in order to carry out more healthier lifestyle and diet behaviors together, which provides a new insight into the study of elderly well-being.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12532
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Determination of malnutrition risk in paediatrics patients with two
           screening tools: Is PYMS or STRONGkids effective'

    • Authors: Eda Başmısırlı, Habibe Şahin, Meltem Soylu, Neriman İnanç, Mustafa Kendirci
      Abstract: Early diagnosis of malnutrition is important in hospitalized children. Since the effectiveness of screening tools is still unclear, this study was conducted to assess the risk of malnutrition with PYMS and STRONGkids in inpatients children and to compare them with anthropometric measurements. In this cross-sectional study, the risk of malnutrition was determined by PYMS and STRONGkids in 222 patients aged from 1 to 16 years old. According to the BMI values of the patients, 84.7% were normal and 15.3% were acute malnourished. Severe and moderate stunting was detected in 8.1% and in 11.3% of chronic malnourished patients respectively. In patients without acute malnutrition, the lower malnutrition risk was found in 55.0% of the patients with PYMS whereas in 42.9% with STRONGkids. The detection rate of the moderate risk with STRONGkids (47.1%) was higher than PYMS (22.2%).In patients with acute malnutrition, PYMS could not detect low and moderate malnutrition risk. The detection rates with STRONGkids were 6.1% for low and 36.4% for moderate risk. STRONGkids' ability to detect patients with high malnutrition risk was lower (58.3%) than that of PMYS (100%). According to anthropometric measurements, PYMS was superior for detecting acute malnutrition while STRONGkids was superior for detecting chronic malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.10013
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Adherence to Vegetarian Diet and Weight Loss: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Ülkü Demirci, Ayşegül Kaptanoğlu
      Abstract: Background Veganism and vegetarianism, which are becoming popular worldwide, are not only a diet but a lifestyle, a philosophy of life, and an ethical approach. A vegetarian diet is thought to be the solution to the increasing food requirements of the growing population. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the correlation between a vegetarian diet and weight loss. Methods For the meta-analysis, PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature published in PubMed, Science Direct, and ResearchGate databases. Only randomized controlled trials and cohort studies published after 2007 were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the results on weight loss and contained appropriate statistical analysis data. Results The meta-analysis included 11 studies comprising of 934 participants, of which 10 were randomized controlled trials, and 1 was a cohort study. Applying the random effects model, it was concluded that compliance with the various types of vegetarian diets had a positive effect on weight loss. The effect size of the relation between vegetarian diet and weight loss was 0.954. It is between the lower limit (0.393) and the upper limit (1.515) values for the effect sizes of the relevant studies in the 95% confidence interval. There was no publication bias as the circles (representing each study) shown in the Funnel plot graph were spread symmetrically around the vertical line in the middle. Conclusions The vegetarian diets (vegan and lacto-ovo vegetarian diets) had beneficial effects on weight loss. One possible reason responsible for weight loss could be the varied nutritional composition, for example, high fiber and low protein diet. However, further interventional studies with vegetarian diets are warranted to investigate their long-term effects and clinical implications on weight loss.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.11950
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Among Nutrition and Dietetics Students

    • Authors: servet madencioğlu, Sevinç Yücecan
      Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet among Nutrition and Dietetics students. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted with the voluntary participation of students. 127 nutrition and dietetic students studying at Near East University. The thematic analysis had used to conduct the data by the SPSS version 18.0. ‘‘Mediterranean diet score-MDS’’ was used to determine to the adherence to Mediterranean diet. 3-day food record and 45-item food frequency questionnaire were used. In addition, the survey questioned dietary habits, lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements. Results: Adherence to Mediterranean diet was poor in 31% and moderate in 69% of the students. Adherence of the students to Mediterranean diet decreased towards their final year at the university (p= 0.001). Most of the students were minimal active. Male students were found more active than females (p=0.011). Female students had higher fat percentage (p=0.000), while males had higher waist circumstance (p=0.000). Female students were found to have increased body fat percentage as they continued the education (p=0.015). There was not found any significant correlation between physical activity, anthropometric measurements and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. In addition, students had higher bread (80.2%) and pasta (34.10%) consumption whereas lower vegetables (38.6%), fruits (34.6%) and fish (42.5%) consumption. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the eating and lifestyle habits of the students, even those studying nutrition, should be improved.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12168
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Salmonella in Food Environments in Canteens: A Focus on Antibiotic and
           Disinfectant Resistance Patterns

    • Authors: Şebnem Pamuk, Metin Erdoğan, Yeliz Yıldırım, Nurhan Ertaş Onmaz
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the molecular characterization and antibiotic and disinfectant resistance potential of Salmonella isolates from food related areas in canteens.This study was performed in food related areas as well as food handlers in student canteens in University campus to trace source of Salmonella contamination with a special focus on antibiotic and disinfectant resistance of the isolates. Salmonella isolates were identified by conventional and molecular techniques. Genetic similarity, antibiotic and disinfectant resistance patterns of the isolates were performed by sequence analyzing, disc diffusion and PCR, respectively. Salmonella contamination was determined from hand (Newport and Infantis), knife handle (Newport) and grilled chicken (Koessen) samples. The identity of the 16S rRNA sequence of two Newport isolates (knife handle and hand) from Canteen 4 and Canteen 6 were found 100% identic. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed among all Salmonella isolates with resistance to at least five or more antibiotics. sugE and qacEΔ1 disinfectant genes were determined in 2 and 1 isolate respectively while cross-resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants in three isolates were detected. The results of this study indicate that the food-handlers and food preparation equipments may serve as reservoirs for cross-resistant Salmonella, a potential public health concern. Therefore, periodic training programmes should effectively be implemented for food handlers. Owing to the growing concern that antibiotic resistant mutants could be induced by improper disinfectant use, unnecessary and misuse of disinfectants should be avoided, especially on food contact surfaces.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12292
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Assessing the level of knowledge and attitudes of young people about
           nutrition and oral health

    • Authors: Catalina Saveanu, Cosmin Constantin Cretu , Daniela Anistoroaei, Alexandra Ecaterina Saveanu, Loredana Golovcencu
      Abstract: Oral health is an important component of general health that directly influences the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding the interrelationship between diet and oral health, the testable hypothesis being that there are differences between the level of knowledge of food hygiene in the study group. Material and method: The study included 718 Romanian subjects, aged between 12-18 years old, randomly selected. The data were selected by the questionnaire method and collected using a link and were introduced into a database used SPSS 26.00 for Windows. Were applied 16 questions about the knowledge and attitudes regarding the diet. Results: About 20% of the subjects do not know that there is a link between food and oral diseases, p≤0.05 and about a third do not know the connection between the consumption and frequency of consumption of carbonated drinks and the pathology of the oral cavity. Smoking is considered a harmful activity for the oral cavity for 79.1% (568) of the subjects, alcohol for 52.1% (374) and drugs by 49.7% (357) with p≤0.05. Conclusion: There are differences between the level of knowledge about diet in the studied group, according to sex and level of education, the subjects require a sustained and targeted education on important aspects that influence the quality of oral health.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12747
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Relationship between measurement salt taste threshold and salt intake in
           japanese primary school students, parents and high school students using
           test papers of low concentration taste threshold

    • Authors: Asuka Sawai, Yuki Nagata, Fumiyo Kudo, Hitoshi Fujii, Shinya Sawai, Tetsuya Fujikawa
      Abstract: AIM: Because of the inspection of salty taste has a background developed mainly for extraction of taste disorders and the guidance on diet for patients, the information in healthy young people isn’t detail. Recently, it reported that salt taste thresholds in university students using low concentration threshold test paper was about 60% as concentration as previously reports using taste paper.We used test papers of low concentration taste threshold  to investigate the salt taste threshold in school children, their parents, and in high school students. METHODS: The subjects comprised 26 families (26 fathers, 26 mothers, and their 26 children) and 25 female high school students. Salt intake per day was determined by measuring urinary salt excretion. Different concentrations of salt taste test papers (Salsave®) were used to evaluate the salt taste threshold. RESULTS: Mean salt intakes (g/day) were 7.32±1.63 (children), 7.83±2.30 (mothers), and 9.05±2.73 (fathers). Mean salt taste thresholds (mg/cm2) were 0.28±0.33 (children), 0.33±0.25 (mothers), and 0.25±0.14 (fathers). High school students’ mean salt intake was 8.52±3.00, and salt taste threshold was 0.28±0.13. Those salt taste threshold concentration were accuracy lower than that of previously reports. Also, significant positive correlations between recognized salt taste thresholds and salt intake were found in the children, boy’s fathers and high school students (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using low concentration test papers which not for sale because of unprofitable previously, could analyze the salty taste threshold of healthy volunteers in detail. The results suggested a relationship between daily salt intake and the salt taste threshold.  
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.8353
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Poor nutritional status and growth retardation are associated with living
           in the orphanage: an observational cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Nilgün Seremet Kürklü, Kübra Tel Adıgüzel, Gözde Ede, Gülhan Samur
      Abstract: Objective: Adequate and balanced nutrition is crucial for optimal growth and development. However, children living in orphanages without a family are at risk of malnutrition. In this study, we aimed to compare the nutritional status and growth process of orphans and non-orphans. Methods: We recruited 111 orphans and 116 non-orphans aged 3-6 years. We excluded children with any acute or chronic disease and physical or mental problems. We assessed dietary intakes via the 3 days food record form. We took anthropometric measurements and evaluated the growth level of children using the Z-score tables of the World Health Organization. We analyzed the data using IBM SPSS. Results: Of the 227 children, the prevalence of undernutrition was as high as 54.8% among children in the orphans. According to Z-score of height for age values, 23.4% of orphans were only 4.3% of non-orphans were stunted. While the mean energy intake was significantly higher in orphans compared to non-orphans (1802.7±552.80 kcal vs. 1480.8±244.53 kcal, p<0.05), the proportion of energy from protein was lower (12.9±2.32% vs. 43.9±9.72%, p<0.05). The mean dietary vitamin C and calcium intakes were significantly lower in the orphans than non-orphans (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that children living in the orphanages have a significant risk in terms of nutritional deficiencies and developmental delays compared to children living with their families.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.11832
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Being “Nutritionally at Risk”: Its Effect on Health Expenses
           and Length of Hospital Stay

    • Authors: Anıl Evrim Güngör, Fatma Nişancı Kılınç, İrem Alparslan, Biriz Çakır, Esma Asil, A. Ezel Esatoğlu, Yasemin Yavuz, Seher Demirer
      Abstract: Objective: Hospital malnutrition is a critical, cost-increasing public health problem that is common in many countries. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of “being nutritionally at risk” on health expenses and length of stay (LOS) in hospital. Material and Method: Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) was used to screen 1069 adult patients on admission day. Patients’ anthropometric measurements, unintentional weight loss, hand grip strength (HGS), cancer diagnosis, as well as LOS were recorded. Health expenses for each patient was obtained from hospital billing system. Results: Of the patients, 19.1% had NRS-2002³3 (nutritionally at risk) which was more frequent among male patients (61.8%) than female patients (38.2%) (p<0.001). The odds of being nutritionally at risk increased by 1.029 times with one year increase in age (p<0.05). The median of HGS was lower in patients with NRS-2002³3 (p<0.05). Patients without nutritional risk (NRS-2002<3) had a LOS of 7.65±7.61 days, while corresponding figure was 16.5±15.64 days for patients with NRS-2002³3 (p<0.001). Patients’ health expenses with NRS-2002<3 and NRS-2002³3 were $384.19 and $873.89, respectively (p<0.01). One percent increase in involuntary weight loss and one unit decrease in HGS resulted in $2588 and $1066 increase in average expenses, respectively (p<0.05). The odds of becoming NRS-2002≥3 increased 1.566 times with 1% increase of involuntary weight loss (p<0.001). Cancer patients whose average LOS was 4.5 days longer had 4.93 times increased risk of developing nutritional risk during hospital stay (p<0.001). Conclusion: Nutritional status of patients should be assessed during hospitalization. Patients with nutritional risk have higher total costs and stay longer in the hospital than the patients with no risk.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12057
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Geriatric Nutrition Risk and Creatinine Indexes in Estimating the
           Nutritional Status of Elderly Hemodialysis Patients

    • Authors: Funda Datlı Yakaryılmaz, Irem Pembegül, Murat Kara
      Abstract: Objective: Malnutrition is a common complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients, although it cannot be evaluated adequately due to the limitations of available malnutrition screening tools. The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between Mini nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) and objective malnutrition tool Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and Creatinine Index (CI) in HD patients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 129 patients aged 65 years and older (female=61 (47.3%) and male=68 (52.7%), 68.88 ± 7.24 years) receiving maintenance HD therapy. Malnutrition was diagnosed with MNA-SF. GNRI and CI were calculated using existing formulas. Results: Of the participants, 26 (20.15%) were diagnosed with severe malnutrition, 25 patients (19.4%) were at risk of malnutrition and 78 (60.45%) were diagnosed with normal nutritional status. The optimal cut-off value for GNRI <95 was determined in predicting malnutrition with GNRI, sensitivity and specificity 85.4% and 88.6%, respectively. CI (< 20); It was not found effective in determining malnutrition patients due to its low sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity and specificity of 35.9% and 45.0%, respectively). GNRI (<95) is a better predictor of malnutrition screening than CI (<20). Conclusions: In the evaluation of undernourished elderly HD patients, GNRI was as effective as MNA-SF, but CI was insufficient in detecting malnutrition individuals. Keywords: GNRI, CI, hemodialysis, elderly  
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12228
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Depression Levels of University Students and Changes in their Nutritional
           Status in the COVID-19 Pandemic Quarantine Period: A study in Turkey

    • Authors: Hatice Baygut
      Abstract: Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the depression levels and nutritional changes of university students during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine process. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4528 university students, aged between 18-42 years, living in Turkey. A questionnaire form questioning demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary changes and BECK Depression Inventory was sent to the university students via the online system (via google form). Analysis results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and median (minimum – maximum) for quantitative data, and categorical data are presented as frequency (percentage). Results: There was a statistically significant relationship between gender and the BDI score (p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of general nutritional change in women compared to the BDI groups (p<0.001). Risk factors affecting nutritional changes were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis as univariate and multivariate models. According to the Univariate model result, the risk of nutritional changes increases 1.042 times when the BDI score increases (p<0.001). The risk of nutritional changes of women is 1.618 times higher than that of men (p<0.001). When the results of the multivariate model are examined, the risk of nutritional changes increases 1.038 times when the BDI score increases (p<0.001). The risk of nutritional changes of women is 1.339 times higher than that of men (p<0.001). Conclusion The quarantine period caused some changes in the nutritional changes and depression levels of university students. As a result, in this study conducted with university students, differences in food preferences and the presence of depressive state were observed during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine period. It is necessary to be aware of what university students are going through in this period and to take preventive measures to improve their health. Keywords: COVID-19, university students, nutrition, foods, depression
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12539
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Relationship Between Nutritional Behavior and Mental Well-Being Levels
           of Sports Science Students

    • Authors: Ahmet Dinç
      Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the nutritional behavior and mental well-being of Igdır University Sports Science Students. Descriptive method was used in the research. The research group of the study has been formed a total of (125 females, 168 males) students schooled at Igdır University Department of Physical Education and Sports College. In order to collect the data of the study, the Attitude Scale Towards Healthy Behavior (ASTHB) developed by Tekkursun Demir and Cicioglu (2019) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) scale adapted to Turkish by Keldal (2015) were used. The Attitude Scale for Healthy Nutrition Behavior and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale is a 5-point Likert-type scale. SPSS-24 package program was used for data analysis. The skewness and kurtosis values have been examined to find out whether the data had a normal distribution. As a result, it has been determined that the data had a normal distribution. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation analysis have been used in the analysis of the data. Considering the research findings, it has been seen that the nutrition and mental well-being levels of sports science students were high. As a result of the correlation analysis, it has been determined that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between information about nutrition and positive nutrition dimension and mental well-being.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.10722
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of Encapsulated Propolis on Microbial Quality and Antioxidant
           Activity of Yoghurt

    • Authors: Rabia Serpil Günhan, Şaban Keskin, Nihat Telli, Çiğdem Takma, Sevgi Kolaylı
      Abstract: Yoghurt, a functional food, has been gained much attention on its production and consumption in the world. It is a fermented dairy product that contains lots of nutrional components. Some manufacturers have used some additives to extend the shelf life of yoghurt. Propolis could be alternative food additive instead of synthetic ones. Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honeybees for hive protection. In this study functional yoghurt fortified with microencapsulated propolis was prepared. Ethanol extract of propolis was encapsulated by using sodium alginate, pectin and gelatin separately. The effect of microencapsulated propolis on physicochemical characteristics and microbial quality of yoghurts was tested. Especially the effect of propolis on unwanted microorganisms during storage was studied. Our results clearly showed that fortified yoghurt samples were better in terms of microbial quality during storage. It could be concluded that propolis could be a natural preservative for extending the shelf life of yoghurt.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.11998
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • Fixed and essential oil composition of Hypericum venustum, Hypericum
           scabrum and Hypericum spectabile species

    • Authors: Osman Gedik
      Abstract: This study attempts to determine the oil compositions of H. venustum Fenzl, H. scabrum L., and endemic H. spectabile Jaub. & Spach species by extracting the essential oil from the samples taken during the flowering period, the essential oil and fixed oils from the fruits taken during the seed period. Plant samples of these species were collected from the natural flora of Kahramanmaras in 2020. The essential oil content of these species was identified as 0.20- 0.27% in the flowering period, and 1.25%-2.62% in the fruits taken during the seed period. Essential oils were extracted in Neo-clevenger apparatus, fixed oils were extracted in Soxhlet device. The components of the extracted oils were analyzed by GC/MS in the West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute (BATEM) laboratory. The essential oil samples collected during the flowering period consisted of 35 components, and the main component was α-pinene. This component (α-pinene) was 15.06% in H. venustum, 73.77% in H. scabrum and 60.21% in H. spectabile. The essential oil obtained from the fruits in the seed period held a total of 13 different components, and the main component was similarly α-pinene. This component (α-pinene) was determined to be 90.55% in H. venustum, 89.96% in H. scabrum and 82.88% in H. spectabile. The fixed oil rate in the fruits taken during the seed period varied between 16.89% and 24.43%. In fruit samples, six of the fixed oil components had a ratio of over 91%. The rate of unsaturated fat (81.30-91.23%) in the fruits of the Hypericum plant was considerably higher than the saturated fat rate (7.74-9.78%). The main fixed oil component was unsaturated fatty acids linolenic and linoleic acid.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12172
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
  • A new investigation on biological activities and potential health
           functions of royal jelly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Authors: Seda Beyaz, Ozlem Gok, Abdullah Aslan
      Abstract: Study Objective: Royal jelly is a bee product that has a nutritious value and has been used in the treatment of many diseases since ancient times. Royal jelly has the ability to scavenge free radicals thanks to its antifungal, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Methods: In this study, four groups were created to investigate whether Royal jelly has a protective role against copper chloride (CuCl2) damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Study groups: (1) Control Group: Group in which only yeast was cultivated; (2) CuCl2 Group: the group given CuCl2 (30 mM); (3) Royal Jelly Group: The group given Royal jelly (10%); (4) Royal Jelly + CuCl2 Group: The group given Royal jelly (10%) + CuCl2 (30 mM). Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures were grown at 30 °C for 1, 3, 5 and 24 hours. Cell growth, GSH (glutathione) levels, CAT (catalase) activities and lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) analyzes were determined by spectrophotometer. Total protein concentrations were determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Lowry protein method.  Results: when compared with the CuCl2 group, cell growth (1, 3, 5 and 24 hours), total protein synthesis and GSH level (24 hours) increased in Royal jelly groups, while MDA level (24 hours) decreased. Conclusions: Thanks to the antioxidant properties of Royal jelly, it has been determined that it increases cell growth and total protein synthesis by reducing oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture. It has been concluded that these natural products also have strong therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.23751/pn.v24i2.12480
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 2 (2022)
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