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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition and Health
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0260-1060 - ISSN (Online) 2047-945X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Effect of milk and mustard oil consumption: A case study on youth in
           Delhi-NCR

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      Authors: Maurya Sharma, Pratyusha Vavilala, Archita Singh, Renu Baweja
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The diet is a major factor affecting the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an individual. BMI has long been the standard for measuring health and its normal range (18.5–24.9, according to the World Health Organization) is considered to be crucial for maintenance of proper health and to prevent various lifestyle disorders which are considered to have either direct or indirect effects on physical and mental well-being of our youth. Aim: To investigate the correlation between diet patterns and BMI, overall stamina and fatigue levels in the youth population residing in Delhi-NCR region of India. Methods: An online survey was conducted using a carefully designed Google form and the respondents were asked to give details about the basic health parameters and dietary lifestyle. Results: 67% of the respondents who consumed milk were found to have an ideal BMI. 64% of the respondents who consumed mustard oil as their predominant dietary fat showed normal BMI and more than 80% showed lower fatigue levels. Conclusion: Milk and mustard oil consumption is important for maintenance of an ideal BMI. Awareness should be created in the youth to have them as part of their daily diet.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T07:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221116198
       
  • Prevalence of, and factors associated with anaemia in children aged 1–3
           years in Aceh, Indonesia: A cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Madeleine Randell, Mu Li, Cut Novianti Rachmi, Hafizah Jusril, Olivia Fox, Lindawati Wibowo, Jee Hyun Rah, Paul Pronyk, Marcus Harmiko, Natassya Phebe, Aripin Ahmad, Iwan Ariawan, Joel Negin, Camille Reynes-Greenow
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Child anaemia continues to represent a major public health challenge in lower-and-middle income countries. It has serious long-term consequences for child growth and development. In Indonesia, there was a 10% increase in the national prevalence of child anaemia between 2013 and 2018. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of, and factors associated with anaemia among children aged one to three years in eight districts in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1148 mother-child dyads aged one to three years between November and December 2018. The sampling process involved a three-stage cluster sampling design using the probability proportionate to size methodology. Anaemia status was determined using haemoglobin level (Hb 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221116195
       
  • Advancing the assessment of mindful eating: Exploring the psychometric
           properties and validating the mindful eating behaviour scale in English

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      Authors: Michail Mantzios, Helen Egan, Deborah J Wallis, Jeffrey Wood
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Mindful eating has been described as significant in motivating research and clinical outcomes in weight regulation and healthy eating. The use of psychometric tools to measure mindful eating is problematic, with results often leading to interpretations that are not reflective of mindful eating theory and fundamentals of mindfulness. Aim: In this research, we explored the Mindful Eating Behaviour Scale (MEBS) within a British sample to validate the factorial structure, and widen the use of a scale that appears appropriate for measuring mindful eating. Methods: A community sample (n = 742) was recruited via social media, and the findings supported the factorial structure proposed through the original Dutch sample. Predictive validity was also assessed, with the scale and subscales predicting fat and sugar consumption. Results: Cronbach's α values were acceptable and similar to the original findings, also supporting the internal consistency of the scale. Conclusion: While factorial structure, predictive validity and internal consistency propose a scale that can be adopted with English speaking populations, we propose the potential of furthering scientific inquiry on mindful eating research by highlighting the behavioural aspects of the scale.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:51:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221116164
       
  • Food insecurity and medication restricting behavior among persons with
           diabetes in the United States

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      Authors: Heather F. McClintock, Brittany E. Imel
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundMedication restricting behaviours are common among persons with diabetes increasing risk for poor health outcomes. Persons with diabetes are more likely to experience food insecurity than persons without diabetes.AimThis study aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and medication restricting behaviour among persons with diabetes in the United States.MethodsData from the 2019 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data conducted in the United States was used for this analysis. Medication restricting behaviour was assessed by questions asking whether four restricting behaviours were present (skipped medication, took less medication, delayed filling a prescription and/or took less medication due to cost). Food insecurity status was obtained through a 10-item scale and participants were categorized as either food secure, low food security, or very low food security. Poisson regression evaluated the relationship between medication restricting behaviour and food insecurity controlling for confounders.ResultsParticipants with very low food security had a significantly higher mean number of medication restricting behaviours than participants who were food secure (adjusted mean ratio (AMR) = 4.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) = (3.09, 5.21)). Similarly, participants with low food security had a significantly higher mean ratio than participants who were food secure (AMR = 3.76; 95% CI = (2.86. 4.94).ConclusionPersons with diabetes who have low or very low food security are at an increased risk for engaging in medication restricting behaviours.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:51:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221115588
       
  • We got nuts! use deep neural networks to classify images of common edible
           nuts

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      Authors: Ruopeng An, Joshua Perez-Cruet, Junjie Wang
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundNuts are nutrient-dense foods that contribute to healthier eating. Food image datasets enable artificial intelligence (AI) powered diet-tracking apps to help people monitor daily eating patterns.AimThis study aimed to create an image dataset of commonly consumed nut types and use it to build an AI computer vision model to automate nut type classification tasks.MethodsiPhone 11 was used to take photos of 11 nut types—almond, brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut. The dataset contains 2200 images, 200 per nut type. The dataset was randomly split into the training (60% or 1320 images), validation (20% or 440 images), and test sets (20% or 440 images). A neural network model was constructed and trained using transfer learning and other computer vision techniques—data augmentation, mixup, normalization, label smoothing, and learning rate optimization.ResultsThe trained neural network model correctly predicted 338 out of 440 images (40 per nut type) in the validation set, achieving 99.55% accuracy. Moreover, the model classified the 440 images in the test set with 100% accuracy.ConclusionThis study built a nut image dataset and used it to train a neural network model to classify images by nut type. The model achieved near-perfect accuracy on the validation and test sets, demonstrating the feasibility of automating nut type classification using smartphone photos. Being made open-source, the dataset and model can assist the development of diet-tracking apps that facilitate users’ adoption and adherence to a healthy diet.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221113928
       
  • No association between infant growth and adherence to the dietary
           approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet in lactating women

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      Authors: Farzaneh Jahangir, Elnaz Daneshzad, Maedeh Moradi, Mohammad Reza Maraci, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveBreastmilk is considered an optimal food for infant development especially during the first 6 months of life. However, little evidence exists regarding maternal dietary intake and infant growth. We evaluated how adherence to the DASH diet in lactating women is associated with the infant weight, height and head circumference at birth, 2 and 4 months of age.Study designA cross-sectional study.MethodsThe present study was conducted with 292 lactating mothers and their infants. A validated and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess mothers’ dietary intakes. To evaluate adherence to the DASH diet among lactating mothers, we scored food items based on the Fung method.ResultLactating mothers in the highest tertile of adherence to the DASH diet consumed significantly lower amounts of fat, cholesterol, salt, red and process meats and higher amounts of vitamin C, B1, B9, whole grains, low-fat dairy, fruits, vegetables and dietary fiber compared to lactating mothers in the lowest tertile (P < 0.05). No significant association was found between mothers’ adherence to the DASH dietary pattern and any of the infant growth indices (P > 0.05).ConclusionLactating mothers’ adherence to the DASH diet was not associated with growth indices among exclusively breastfed infants.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221114711
       
  • The association of dietary intake and plasma fatty acid panel in
           pancreatic cancer patients: Results from Golestan cohort study

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      Authors: Neda Ghamarzad Shishavan, Sahar Masoudi, Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Hossein Poustchi, Azita Hekmatdoost, Akram Pourshams
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background & AimsHigh mortality rate of pancreatic cancer (PC) as one of the most common cancers worldwide made it a center of attention for recent researches on its pathology, etiology, screening and early diagnosis. In previous researches, association of dietary intake and plasma levels of fatty acids with risk of pancreatic cancer was investigated. In this study we aimed to evaluate the correlation between dietary and plasma fatty acids in case and control groups.MethodsFrom 50,045 adults between 40–75 years old participated in Golestan cohort study, fifty incident cases of PC were diagnosed and 150 controls matched by age, sex and residence place were randomly selected. Dietary intakes and plasma levels of fatty acids was evaluated by validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), respectively. Then, Spearman's correlation was used to measure the correlation between dietary and plasma levels of fatty acids in case and control groups.ResultsAmong all the fatty acids, there was a significant association between plasma and dietary intake of a few fatty acids including trans fatty acids (TFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 22:6n-3 and 14:0 only in control group. Only total PUFA intake modified plasma level of some fatty acids in case group. There was no difference between association of desaturase enzymes and fatty acids in case and controls.ConclusionsSince, plasma levels of fatty acids might be influenced by recent diet, we did not find any specific differences between the associations of plasma levels of fatty acids with dietary intake of fats in case and control groups.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T04:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221114712
       
  • The influence of food environments on dietary behaviour and nutrition in
           Southeast Asia: A systematic scoping review

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      Authors: Josephine Gaupholm, Andrew Papadopoulos, Aiza Asif, Warren Dodd, Matthew Little
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Food environments are crucial spaces within the food system for understanding and addressing many of the shared drivers of malnutrition. In recent years, food environment research has grown rapidly, however, definitions, measures, and methods remain highly inconsistent, leading to a body of literature that is notably heterogeneous and poorly understood, particularly within regions of the Asia-Pacific. Aim: This scoping review aims to synthesize the nature, extent, and range of published literature surrounding the role of the food environment on influencing dietary behaviour and nutrition in Southeast Asia. Methods: A systematic search of 5 databases was conducted following PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed research with adult participants living in Southeast Asia that examined the food environment as a determinant of dietary behaviour or nutrition. Results: A total of 45 articles were included. Overall, studies indicated that dietary behaviours in Southeast Asia were primarily driven by social, cultural, and economic factors rather than physical (e.g. geographical) features of food environments. Food price and affordability were most consistently identified as key barriers to achieving healthy diets. Conclusion: This work contributes to the establishment of more robust conceptualizations of food environments within diverse settings which may aid future policymakers and researchers identify and address the barriers or obstacles impacting nutrition and food security in their communities. Further research is needed to strengthen this knowledge, particularly research that explicitly explores the macro-level mechanisms and pathways that influence diet and nutrition outcomes.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T06:30:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221112810
       
  • Self-reported consumption frequency of meat and fish products among young
           adults in Kazakhstan

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      Authors: Venera Akhmetova, Yuriy Balji, Yelena Kandalina, Ainara Iskineyeva, Akmaral Mukhamejanova, Akmaral Baspakova, Yassin Uzakov, Kuralay Issayeva, Galia Zamaratskaia
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Meat and dairy products are important ingredients in Kazakhstan, although there are indications that high consumption of red and processed meat is associated with a risk of several non-communicable diseases and has an adverse impact on the environment. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits of young adults in Kazakhstan, particularly meat and fish consumption frequency among university students in five regions of Kazakhstan. Methods: The assessment of meat and fish consumption was based on the food frequency questionnaire. Region of residence, age, sex, weight, height and parental education were also self-reported. Results: Meat consumption among the participants was lower than recommended consumption of 1500 g per week in Kazakhstan but almost two-fold higher than the World Cancer Research Fund recommendations of 500 g per week. Approximately 24% of the participants reported to consume meat every day. Only 8.6% of the participants reported fish consumption in line with the recommendation of approximately 270 g per week in Kazakhstan. Meat and fish consumption was fairly homogeneous across regions and sex. Conclusion: The results from this study contribute to the relatively limited information on meat and fish consumption in Kazakhstan. Further knowledge on dietary habits and probably improved nutrition recommendations on meat consumption in Kazakhstan are needed to protect public health and the environment.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T06:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221114230
       
  • Protocol: The effects of nutrient- vs food- vs food-substitution-based
           dietary recommendations for reducing free sugar intakes, on free sugar
           intakes, dietary profiles and sweet taste outcomes: A randomised
           controlled trial

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      Authors: Lucy R. Boxall, Emily Arden-Close, Janet James, Katherine M. Appleton
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundDietary guidelines are intended to inform and aid the general public, with the aim of improving healthy diets and reducing health risk. The effectiveness of these guidelines, however, is rarely investigated.AimThis work investigates the effects of three different types of dietary recommendations for reducing free sugars, on free sugar intakes over 12 weeks. Secondary aims will also investigate how these different recommendations affect secondary outcomes, outcomes in subsets of the trial population, and identify barriers and facilitators to dietary change.MethodsUsing a randomised controlled parallel-group trial with three intervention and one control arms, 240 individuals consuming>5% total energy intake from free sugars will be randomized to receive: nutrient-based, nutrient- and food-based, nutrient-, food- and food-substitution-based recommendations or no recommendations, with outcomes assessed for the following 12 weeks. Our primary outcomes are free sugar intakes and adherence to the recommendations. Secondary outcomes are daily energy intake, dietary composition, anthropometry, sweet food perceptions and preferences, sweet food choice, attitudes towards sweet foods, eating behaviour and food choice, knowledge and lifestyle variables, quality of life, adverse events, and barriers and facilitators towards intervention adherence.ResultsData will contribute to three distinct analyses: 1) Analyses to investigate the effects of the three different dietary recommendations versus control; 2) Analyses of the effects of the dietary recommendations in different population subgroups, and 3) Investigation of the barriers and facilitators to success.ConclusionThis work offers new perspectives on the effects of different dietary recommendations to enact behaviour change.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T09:42:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221111234
       
  • Pre-hospital caloric deficits in surgical patients

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      Authors: John K Sadeghi, Rusell J Hollis, Jane E Cerise, Leo T Li, Matthew Cal, Vihas M Patel, Gene F Coppa, Rafael Barrera
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe timing, route, and amount of nutrition for surgical patients with substantial caloric deficits remain active areas of study. Current guidelines are based on in-hospital days NPO after admission to the hospital. This historic process neglects the multiple days of caloric deficit patients experience prior to hospital admission.AimTo determine the impact of pre-hospital caloric deficit (PHCD) for surgical patients on their outcomes.Methods313 patients admitted with a diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, pancreatitis, or diverticulitis were analyzed for their PHCD's. PHCD's were estimated using patient-reported days with significant emesis, and absent oral intake. Patients with PHCD's were compared to patients with no PHCD for length of stay, status on discharge, disposition, and 30-day readmission rate.ResultsThere were 313 patients and 42% of the patients were male. The median age was 65 years. Median number of days sick prior to hospital admission was 1 (IQR: 1 to 2). Median PHCD was 1882 kcal (IQR: 1355 to 3650). Median number of days NPO while in-hospital was 3 (IQR: 2 to 5). Median in-hospital caloric deficit was 4268 kcal (IQR: 2825 to 6610). No significant association was observed between discharge disposition, complication rate, ambulatory status, 30-day readmission rate and PHCD. In-hospital caloric deficit was associated with complications after surgery (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T07:08:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221113409
       
  • Psychometric evaluation of three-factor eating questionnaire -R18 in aging
           Finnish men with increased risk for type 2 diabetes

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      Authors: Katriina Malkki-Keinänen, Maria Lankinen, Leila Karhunen, Ursula Schwab
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundDeeper comprehension of eating-related behaviour (how and why people eat) can reveal new aspects to support health and prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, such research is largely missing in aging men.AimThe aim was to investigate suitability of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18) in Finnish aging men which is widely used to examine factors: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE).MethodsStudy population consisted of 420 men aged 50–75, who completed the TFEQ-R18 at the baseline of the T2D-GENE lifestyle intervention study. Inclusion criteria were impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to study psychometrics (reliability, validity, and model fit) and factor structure of TFEQ-R18.ResultsThe items loaded to the three factors (CR, UE, EE) as in previous studies, except two items at CR factor and one at UE factor, which were therefore omitted. UE was also discovered split into two sub factors (named as ‘craving’ and ‘loss-of-control’), UE being a higher-order (h) factor. The resultant revised version was named as Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised to 15-items with higher-order factor (TFEQ-R15h).ConclusionThe original 18-item version of the TFEQ was not optimal in the population consisting of Finnish aging men with elevated T2D risk. A modified 15-item version of the TFEQ could be used to describe EB in this population instead.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T03:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221112178
       
  • Effects of different diets on glycemic control among patients with type 2
           diabetes: A literature review

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      Authors: Maryam E Al-Adwi, Zinab M Al-Haswsa, Karmen M Alhmmadi, Yasmin A Eissa, Aya Hamdan, Hiba Bawadi, Reema F Tayyem
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Globally, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common diseases, and the incidence is gradually increasing. Diet management could improve the elevated HbA1c levels. Aim: This review aims to examine the effects of different types of diets on glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Methods: PubMed and Google scholar databases were searched. Reports published from the years 1991 to 2021 that focused on the effect of different diets on diabetes control were selected. Results: All the studies reported that the type of diet can affect insulin secretion and glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The recommended macronutrient distribution for patients with diabetes is 30% of fat, 45–60% of carbohydrates, and 15–35% of protein. Consuming more or less of these macronutrients may lead to changes in glucose metabolism and may affect insulin secretion. In fact, following alow-fat diet improves glycemic control and decreases HbA1c levels. Studies reported that a low-carbohydrate diet had the greatest effect on improving glycemic control and insulin parameters. A low-calorie diet reduced fasting plasma glucose, while a very low-calorie diet resulted in a long-term decrease in HbA1c level. A healthy diet free of processed foods and sugar, and rich in nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals contributed to maintaining controlled blood sugar and lipid plasma levels. Although studies show a low-salt diet improves blood pressure, which is common inT2DM, other findings show that restricting salt intake is associated with increased sugar consumption. Conclusion: Healthy diet with adequate intake of energy and low-fat and low-sugar foods can enhance the glycemic control and reduce T2DM complications.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T06:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221112805
       
  • Montmorency tart cherry supplementation does not impact sleep, body
           composition, cellular health, or blood pressure in healthy adults

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      Authors: Angela R Hillman, Olivia Trickett, Christopher Brodsky, Bryna Chrismas
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Sleep disturbances are linked with cardiovascular and metabolic disease as well as poor body composition. Aim: To investigate the use of tart cherry supplements, which are high in antioxidants and may contain melatonin, on parameters of health such as sleep, body composition, cellular health, and blood pressure (BP). Methods: Forty-four participants had completed sleep record data and were included in this analysis. Participants consumed either two 240 ml bottles per day of Montmorency tart cherry (MTC) juice or placebo or two capsules per day of powdered MTC or placebo for 30 days. Participants tracked their sleep daily via questionnaire and completed body composition and BP assessments at baseline, 14 days, and 30 days after supplementation. Results: There were no significant differences in sleep time or quality between groups, though both increased over 30 days. The capsule groups had significantly lower body mass (BM) 14 days versus baseline for placebo group (p = 0.01, mean difference: 0.70 kg) and at 30 days versus 14 days in MTC group (p = 0.02, mean difference: 0.75 kg). No other differences in body composition or cellular health were found. BP was unaffected by MTC supplementation over 30 days. Despite the potential benefits of antioxidants and melatonin, we did not find improvements in sleep time or quality, cellular health or BP in participants consuming MTC for 30 days, though BM decreased in capsule groups. Conclusion: These results conflict with previous data on MTC and sleep and BP, therefore further investigation is warranted.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T01:43:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221111230
       
  • Lack of supplement regulation: A potential for ethical and physiological
           repercussions

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      Authors: Shamiram Benjamin, Tsz Yuen Au, Chanika Assavarittirong
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The sale and utilization of dietary and fitness supplements in America, with industry revenue totaling 140.3 billion in 2020 alone, has proven significant. Unfortunately, these supplements are not held to high standards of manufacturing or marketing, leading to ethical, financial, and physiological repercussions for consumers. Aim: The aim of this study is to discuss specific examples of a prevalent issue within the supplementation industry; we suggest the implementation of regulatory processes in the sale and marketing of such products. Methods: Studies from 2007 to 2021 which illustrate positive or negative effects of specific supplements based on gross revenue or a high level of publicity were analyzed. Results: Within this paper, we outline potential regulations which could assist in mitigating the negative impact that a lack of oversight has precipitated. These regulations include an initial approval request which reviews supplement ingredients, effects, risks, and therapeutic index. Conclusion: If the proposed regulations are introduced, the data collected via supplement applications may be utilized in classifying the supplement by its risk before it is marketed to the general population with supervision by pharmacists when indicated, ultimately reducing the adverse effects of inappropriate supplementation.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T06:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221108145
       
  • Lipid profiles and lifestyle habits of stroke survivors in the east coast
           region of peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary findings

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      Authors: Hui Jie Wong, Sakinah Harith, Pei Lin Lua, Khairul Azmi Ibrahim
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Stroke survivors are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events if no prevention strategies are undertaken. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the fasting serum lipid profiles and lifestyle habits in stroke survivors, and the factors associated with suboptimal lipid profiles. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in three public hospitals in Malaysia. Stroke survivors' data regarding the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, fasting serum lipid profiles, dietary adherence, and physical activity levels were acquired. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with suboptimal lipid goals. Results: A total of 104 stroke survivors were recruited from patients attending the neurology and rehabilitation departments. Only 22% of the stroke survivors attained the targeted low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (LDL-C < 1.8 mmol/L). Meanwhile, more than two thirds of patients achieved the targeted total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Patients with a longer stroke duration (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.33, 95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.09, 10.13, p  =  0.034), elevated blood pressure (AOR 4.74, 95% CI: 1.65, 13.62, p  =  0.004), chronic kidney disease (AOR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 10.34, p  =  0.041), abdominal obesity (AOR 3.14, 95% CI: 1.20, 8.21, p  =  0.020), excessive energy intake (AOR 2.72, 95% CI: 1.07, 6.91, p  =  0.036), and excessive saturated fatty acids intake (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.02, 7.93, p  =  0.045) were significantly associated with suboptimal lipid profiles. Conclusion: The lipid goals attainment was low, particularly the LDL-C levels among Malaysian stroke survivors. Greater efforts are warranted to fully utilise the lipid-lowering therapy and the lifestyle changes in these high-risk patients.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T05:31:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221097459
       
  • Caffeine intake in adults with cardiovascular diseases; A cross-sectional
           study

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      Authors: Çiğdem Bozkır, Sergen Tuğgüm, Nursena Kağan, Beydanur Nizam, Şeref Alpsoy
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Caffeine in the safe dose range has been associated with a reduction in the risk of chronic diseases. There is evidence that caffeine intake has both protective and negative effects on cardiovascular diseases. Aim: This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake in cardiovascular patients. Methods: The study sample was selected from individuals who applied to the Cardiology policlinic of Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University Hospital. A questionnaire was applied using face-to-face interview method to determine their demographic information, nutritional status and anthropometric measurements. Moreover, the nutritional status of the participants was determined by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the type of cardiovascular disease was determined by a physician. The blood parameters of the sample for the last three months were questioned. The sample has been ninety people of whom fifty cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were diagnosed and forty were non-diagnosed (ND). Results: The mean age of individuals (n = 90) was 43.2 ± 14.4. The BMI and waist circumference of the CVDs group were statistically significantly higher than the ND group (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T05:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221105030
       
  • Diet quality predicts hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Asian and
           Pacific Islander Cohort

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      Authors: Corrie Miller, Carol Boushey, Paula Benny, Shani Ma, Joyce Huang, Eunjung Lim, Men-Jean Lee
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: There is limited data on diet quality during pregnancy and its impact on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Aim: Examine the association with diet quality and development of HDP in an Asian and Pacific Islander Cohort Methods: Pregnant women from the 4 largest ethnic groups in Hawai’i were recruited for participation. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire during each trimester. Adherence to three diet quality indices (DQIs) were scored—The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), The Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED), and the Dietary approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Mean scores were compared among those who did and did not develop HDP. Logistic Regression models were used to examine the association between diet quality and HDP accounting for confounders (age, parity, obesity, ethnicity, gestational weight gain). Results: Among 55 participants with complete follow-up, there was a high incidence of HDP (23%). There was no significant change of DQIs over time. Non-Hispanic White participants had higher DQIs than Filipinas, Japanese, or Native Hawaiians (not statistically significant). Across gestation, participants who did not have HDP had better diet quality than those who did. Logistic regression showed that HEI and DASH indices are predictive of HDP development, with the high DASH diet score having the greatest reduced odds. Every point higher of DASH diet score portended approximately 30% reduced odds of developing HDP. Conclusions: The DASH diet had the strongest association with reduced odds of HDP, but better diet quality in any of the indices was also predictive.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221109668
       
  • The effects of three different types of macronutrient feedings on golf
           performance and levels of fatigue and alertness

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      Authors: Daniel J. Thompsett, Kaila A Vento, Cheryl Der Ananian, David Hondula, Floris C Wardenaar
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundNo study has evaluated the effect of macronutrient feedings on golf performance.AimDetermine the effect of feedings during simulated golf game using a randomized cross-over study design.MethodsMale participants (n = 6, USGA handicap index 8.5 ± 6.72) played three standardized nine-hole rounds, consuming 30 g of carbohydrate, 15 g + 15 g protein and carbohydrate, or a zero-calorie control. Measurements of driving, chipping, and putting distance and accuracy were taken, as well as perceived levels of fatigue and alertness.ResultsNo relevant differences (P > 0.05) were seen in golf performance or alertness, but self-reported fatigue differed between conditions (P = 0.02), with scores of 2.5 (0.8 to 3.6) for the combination of carbohydrate and protein, 3.0 (1.5 to 4.3) for carbohydrate, and 4.0 (2.9 to 6.5) for the control, with higher levels indicating more fatigue.ConclusionMacronutrient feedings led to a significantly lower level of self-reported fatigue without affecting golf performance and alertness compared to a control.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:11:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221110367
       
  • Socioeconomic differences associated with consumption of a plant-based
           diet: Results from the national health and nutrition examination survey

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      Authors: Mia R. Gonzalgo, Sirpi Nackeeran, Ali Mouzannar, Ruben Blachman-Braun
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundA plant-based diet (PBD) has been associated with potential health benefits, but factors that may affect access to and consumption of a PBD are not well defined.AimTo determine the association between socioeconomic status and plant-based dietary consumption among participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the NHANES database. The following covariates were assessed: age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, marital status, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol use, history of diabetes, and hypertension. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to poverty-income ratio (PIR). Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate previously validated plant-based diet index (PDI) and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was performed to determine the association between PIR, clinical, demographic, and plant-based diet indices.ResultsA total of 5037 participants were in the final analytic sample. Median age of participants was 51 ± 18.5 years. Overall PDI and hPDI were 50 [46–54] and 52 [47–57], respectively. Median PDI index was significantly different among PIR groups (PDI, p = 0.018; hPDI, p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T07:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221109669
       
  • Lifestyle choices following head and neck cancer treatment: A qualitative
           study

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      Authors: Claire Hanika, Nicola Porter, Kate Blick, Jeewaka Mendis
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe benefits of a healthy lifestyle in reducing risk of cancer and chronic disease are well-documented. Many individuals who have had head and neck cancer (HNC) report complex social situations with a history of poor dietary habits, smoking and alcohol abuse. Survivorship can be a strong motivator to make positive lifestyle changes, reducing risk of cancer recurrence and ill-health. Research investigating whether HNC survivors adopt healthy lifestyle recommendations is lacking.AimTo explore the health-related practices of post-treatment HNC patients, seeking to identify barriers and motivators to following recommended health guidelines.MethodsTape-recorded interviews were conducted with 20 HNC survivors, and comparisons made to Department of Health recommendations.Results80% of participants made lifestyle changes following HNC treatment. The most prevalent changes were to diet and alcohol intake. Key motivators were reducing cancer risk and ill-health; barriers included lack of motivation, support and misinformation. Treatment side-effects presented both motivators and barriers. There was widespread recognition of the “5 a day” message, and harm caused by smoking. Other public health recommendations were less well-known; 98% were unaware of current alcohol guidelines, physical activity was overestimated, and only one participant took vitamin D.ConclusionIn this study HNC survivors were highly motivated to make healthy lifestyle changes. Further work is required to increase awareness of Government guidelines, as health messages are not always reaching the public or are misinterpreted.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221106624
       
  • Assessment of energy and nutrient intakes among undergraduate students
           attending a University in the North of England

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      Authors: Helen R. Martin, Deborah A. Pufal, John Stephenson
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Unhealthy diets are typical of university students and are often thought to be unrepresentative of the general population. The main aim was to determine the energy and nutrient intakes of a large cohort of undergraduate university students; and to compare to gender-specific dietary reference values (DRVs) and nutrient data from the general population. Methodology: Data was collected from 639 university students aged 18–24 years who completed 4-day diet diaries. The energy and nutrient intake was determined and percentage energy values calculated and compared with dietary reference values (DRVs) and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and Family Food Statistics. Logistic regression methods were used to identify micronutrients functioning as predictors of exceeding DRVs. Results: Energy intakes were lower than the DRV. The percentage total energy values for protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate exceeded DRVs but the percentage energy from alcohol was below the maximum 5%. The DRVs were met for vitamin C, thiamin, and sodium/salt. Iron and calcium intakes were met in males but not in females. Intakes for fibre and vitamin A were below the DRV. Student data was comparable to the NDNS, with the exception of alcohol, fibre, vitamin A, calcium and sodium/salt, which were all lower than the NDNS. Conclusions: This study contradicts the stereotypical assumption that students are following a high energy, fat, saturated fat, total sugars, salt and alcohol diet compared with the general population.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221096932
       
  • The relationship between height and fruit/vegetable intakes in adults: A
           nationwide cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Rafaela Rosário, Cesar Agostinis-Sobrinho, Patrícia Padrão, Oscar Lopes, Pedro Moreira
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Worldwide, fruit and vegetable intake is below recommendations. There is increasing evidence to suggest an association between height and diet. Aim: to analyse the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with attained height in Portuguese adults. Methods: A representative sample of 17 480 Portuguese adults (56.7% women) participated in this cross-sectional study. The survey comprised sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported height and weight. We performed regression models to assess the associations between height and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results: Compared with no intakes, those men with higher fruit and vegetables intake had 0.54 cm (95% CI 0.04; 1.04) greater height. Also, women with higher intakes of vegetables, fruit and vegetables combined were directly associated with a greater height of 0.29 cm (95% CI 0.03; 0.56 in vegetables) and 0.51 cm (95% CI 0.09; 0.93 in fruit and vegetables combined). Conclusion: Greater consumption of fruit and vegetables was directly associated with higher height in adults. From a health promotion perspective, intervention programmes aiming at improving fruit and vegetable intake should be highlighted so that full height potential is achieved.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:47:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221108152
       
  • Ractopamine residues in meat might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

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      Authors: Frank S Fan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The overall prevalence of diabetes in the world has risen substantially in the past several decades, so have complications and mortalities associated with it. Aim: Prevention strategies for diabetes thus become an urgent public health need for reducing the burden of diabetes. Methods: Ractopamine, a β1/2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been approved for use in finishing swine, cattle, and turkey in countries where meat exporting brings tremendous economic benefits. This leanness enhancer is recently found to be a full agonist at trace amine-associated receptor 1 also. A thorough literature review was performed to assess possible effects of ractopamine on glucose metabolism. Results: Activating β-adrenoceptor could lead to glucose-lowering effects independent of insulin while activation on trace amine-associated receptor 1 induces an incretin-like signaling on insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Conclusion: Accordingly, it is hypothesized that long-term consuming meat containing ractopamine might lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221108146
       
  • A comparison of the nutritional content and price between dairy and
           non-dairy milks and cheeses in UK supermarkets: A cross sectional analysis
           

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      Authors: Alex Glover, Helen E. Hayes, He Ni, Vassilios Raikos
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Non-Dairy (ND) food consumption is rapidly increasing in the UK and for many consumers plant-based diets are presumed to be healthier than standard diets. ND alternatives have different nutritional compositions, and their consumption could present challenges on a public-health level. Aim: To compare the price and nutritional composition of dairy and ND milks and cheeses in UK supermarkets. Methods: Macro and micronutrient data was recorded from Alpro's website and the 6 leading UK grocers for their own-label ND milks and cheeses. For missing micronutrient values the McCance & Widdowson's dataset was used. 99 total products were extracted: 57 ND milks, 7 dairy milks, 10 dairy cheeses and 25 ND cheeses. Dairy milk and cheese were used as control against which all ND products were compared. Results: Soya and coconut milks had lower values of carbohydrates, sugars, calcium, iodine, and potassium (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T06:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221105744
       
  • A critical comparison of the Indian school food and nutrition guidelines
           with the WHO-nutrition friendly school initiative and the review of
           existing implementation scenario

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      Authors: Hema Matela, Pooja Panchal, Surabhi Singh Yadav, Arti Muley, Srujana Medithi, Kavitha Menon
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The school-based food and nutrition guidelines approach has the potential to combat undernutrition, overnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among children and adolescents and set the foundation for a healthy adult lifestyle. Aim: To critically compare the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative (NFSI) of the World Health Organization (WHO) with the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) guidelines to gauge the strengths and limitations. Additionally, to summarize the existing studies on implementing school food and nutrition guidelines. Methods: Policy documents of the above guidelines were critically evaluated, and narrative analysis was conducted. An electronic search was conducted for full-text research articles published in the English language between January 2007 to September 2021 in Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases. Results: Upon critical comparison of the three guidelines, it was found that the NFSI and FSSAI guidelines shared similarities in many components and the FSSAI guidelines, if implemented adequately, could improve the school food environment and combat the triple malnutrition burden in India. After screening the articles based on the eligibility criteria, 11 studies were included in the preparation of the review. Studies reported partial or inadequate implementation and poor compliance with the guidelines or approach. A few studies identified barriers to guideline implementation. Conclusion: Implementation of school food and nutrition guidelines could improve the nutritional outcomes in children and adolescents. To sustain the effective implementation, adequate resources and preparedness are essential in low-and middle-income countries, including India.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T06:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221105734
       
  • Sugars measured enzymatically in a fasting overnight urine sample are not
           sensitive biomarkers of dietary added sugar intake in postmenopausal women
           

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      Authors: Kellie R. Weinhold, Rebecca R. Andridge, Joshua A. Bomser, Geoffrey Y. Sasaki, Richard S. Bruno, Tonya S. Orchard
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundRestricting dietary sugar is a leading recommendation, but limited biomarkers assessing intake exist. Although 24-h urinary sucrose (U-Suc) and urinary fructose (U-Fruc) excretion has been used with mixed success, collection is burdensome.AimThis study aimed to test the sensitivity of an enzymatic assay of U-Suc and U-Fruc to detect changing added sugar intake using low-burden overnight urine samples in 30 postmenopausal women.MethodsWomen consumed usual dietary intake during day 1 and usual intake plus a sugar sweetened beverage during day 2. Weighed, photographed food records assessed intake. Enzymatic assay measured U-Suc and U-Fruc from fasting overnight samples; liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) validated U-Suc findings.ResultsDietary added sugars increased significantly during day 2 (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T03:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221106819
       
  • Associations among diet costs, food prices and income: Elasticities of
           risk and protection food groups for cardiometabolic diseases in Sao Paulo,
           Brazil (2003–2015)

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      Authors: Aline Veroneze de Mello, Flávia Mori Sarti, Regina Mara Fisberg
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Economic dimension comprises important determinants of food choices, particularly income and prices. Aim: Identification of the influence of food prices and diet costs on the consumption of food groups considered protection and risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Methods: Food groups classification follows the proposal of “What we eat in America'” from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), adapted to Latin America. Data on food consumption from the Health Survey of Sao Paulo (2003, 2008, and 2015), representative at population level, was used. Log-linear regressions were estimated for food groups, controlling for endogeneity through augmented regression-test Results: Results showed increase in prices per calorie of whole grains and red meat from 2003–2015 and a decrease in prices per calorie of fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, oilseeds and fish/seafood. Food groups had price elasticities between −0.01 and −1.6, i.e., decrease in consumption associated with increase in prices. Results showed statistically significant effects of substitution and complementarity, particularly substitution between sweetened beverages and fruits (2003, β = 0.606; 2008: β = 0.683; 2015, β = 0.848), complementarity between nuts and seeds and whole grains (2003, β = −0.646; 2008, β = −0.647; 2015,β = −0.901), and vegetables and processed meat (2003, β = −1.379; 2015, β = −1.685). Conclusion: Findings of the study represent relevant evidence for design strategies towards the adoption of healthier diets, particularly through subsidies to protection food groups, promoting lower prices and higher diet quality. The evidence may be useful for policymakers and researchers in fields of nutrition and health in diverse countries worldwide, especially due to absence of robust evidence in literature.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221104579
       
  • Nutrient intake and adherence to the Nordic nutrition recommendations in a
           Swedish cohort with abdominal obesity

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      Authors: Åsa Sedin, Mona Landin-Olsson, Lieselotte Cloetens
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) are developed to promote public health and to prevent food-related diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases.ObjectiveTo investigate the nutrient intake and adherence to the NNR in a Swedish cohort with abdominal obesity.DesignDietary intake data were collected using 3-day food diaries and anthropometry and clinical chemistry parameters were measured at baseline of a long-term intervention studying weight-loss management.ResultsEighty-seven subjects with abdominal obesity successfully completed a 3-day food diary. Twelve of these subjects were excluded for further analysis due to implausible low-energy reporting. The remaining 75 subjects (76% females) had mean age of 52.3 ± 10.1 years and a mean body mass index of 34.3 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Mean total fat intake (41.2 ± 7.0E%) was exceeded by 56% of the sample size compared to the maximum recommended intake (RI) of 40E%, whereas mean carbohydrate intake (40.4 ± 8.0E%) was lower than the RI (45–60E%). The intake of saturated fatty acids was high compared to the NNR with only 2 women and none of men reported intakes within the RI of
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T08:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221105751
       
  • Association between plant and animal proteins intake with lipid profile
           and anthropometric indices: A cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Atefeh Kohansal, Ali Zangene, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Hamed Hooshang, Kimia Leilami, Shirin Gerami, Maryam Najafi, Mehran Nouri, Shiva Faghih
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundResults of studies on the effects of plant and animal proteins on lipid profile are controversial. So we aimed to assess the relationship between plant and animal protein intake with lipid profile and novel anthropometric indices in healthy individuals.MethodIn this cross-sectional study, 236 participants have selected from Shiraz medical centers (Iran) through random cluster sampling. Food intakes were assessed using a 168-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Anthropometric indices including a body shape index (ABSI), abdominal volume index (AVI), buddy roundness index (BRI), and conicity index (CI) were calculated.ResultsIn the crude and fully adjusted models, more consumption of plant proteins was associated with TG levels (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.95; P = 0.03 and OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.03, 5.15; P = 0.04). Also, there was a significant direct association between plant proteins and BRI in the curd model (OR = 3.55; 95% CI: 1.32, 9.54; P = 0.01), and after adjusting for age and energy intake (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.21, 9.14; P = 0.01). More consumption of plant proteins was related to higher CI in the crude model (OR = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.31; P = 0.03), but not in the fully adjusted model.ConclusionWe found that a higher intake of plant proteins was associated with a higher TG level, BRI, and CI index. However, more research is needed to confirm these relations and provide the evidence needed to exert these findings into clinical practice.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T08:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221104311
       
  • Weekday breakfast habits and mood at the start of the school morning

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      Authors: Masato Kawabata, Stephen Francis Burns, Hui-Cheng Choo, Kerry Lee
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundGood nutrition, regular physical activity, and adequate sleep are important for promoting health. However, it is not well characterized how these lifestyle behaviours are associated with mood at the start of school days.AimTo identify the weekday health-related behaviours (breakfast intake, physical activity, and sleep) of Singaporean adolescents and explore their associations with mood at the beginning of the school morning.Methods365 adolescents (52.3% boys, 47.7% girls) aged 14–19 years (M = 16.9, SD = 1.3 years) completed a survey set on breakfast habits, physical activity participation, sleep duration, and mood.ResultsMore than one-third (38.6%) of participants never (15.0%) or irregularly (23.6%) consumed breakfast on weekdays. Adolescents consuming breakfast irregularly reported significantly higher negative mood scores than regular breakfast consumers (p = .002; d = .404). Almost two-thirds (64.1%) of adolescents did
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T05:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221105413
       
  • Rational Use of vitamins during pregnancy and The pregnancy multivitamin
           products’ available in Turkey

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      Authors: Nilay Aksoy, Nur Ozturk
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Despite the imperative role of sufficient vitamin intake during pregnancy, not all women are capable of following a balanced diet during these times. As an attempt to resolve the issue of micronutrient deficiencies, many women resort to the use of multivitamins; ones often made for pregnant women. Aim: The review aims to compare the Daily Recommended Dietary Allowance of each vitamin, micronutrient, and macronutrient with the doses available in a sample of products found in the Turkish markets, whether imported or manufactured in Turkey. Methods: The Daily Recommended Dietary Allowance doses were collected from the CDC, WHO, and IOM databases. The doses present in each product were gathered using the database offered by the Turkish pharmacist association “Tebrp” as well as RxMediaPharma. Elevit® and decavit® were selected as they've been approved by the Turkish Ministry of Health, while the other products were randomly chosen using a computer program. Results: Several formulations available in Turkey display higher or lower daily contents of vitamins and minerals than is normally ideal for pregnant women as specified by the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Formulations that exceed the recommended RDA while remaining underneath the tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) range for specific vitamins includes Pregnacare®, Decavit®, and Elevit®. Conclusion: All of these variances in multivitamin content must be considered by physicians and clinical pharmacists when selecting the appropriate multivitamin for pregnant women, taking into account all of the hazards and benefits that vitamin supplements may bring to fetus health and development.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T05:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221104313
       
  • Effectiveness of nutrition education and counselling programme on iron
           deficiency anaemia among adolescents: A study protocol of a randomized
           trial

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      Authors: Michael Akenteng Wiafe, Charles Apprey, Reginald Adjetey Annan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background[GQ4]Adolescents tend to explore their dietary environment without prior consideration of their nutritional needs. This attitude is due to low nutrition knowledge and it contributes to micronutrient deficiency such as anaemia. The study aims to investigate the effect of nutrition education and counselling on dietary iron intake and iron status of early adolescents.Methods/DesignOne hundred and twenty-six early adolescents will be recruited and randomized to receive nutrition education (intervention group) and no nutrition education (control group) in the Asante-Akim South Municipality of Ghana. Data on socio-demographics, dietary factors, dietary intake, knowledge of iron and anaemia will be collected at baseline and post-intervention. Blood samples will be collected for haemoglobin, ferritin and c-reactive protein analyses. The primary outcome measures include haemoglobin and ferritin levels, secondary outcomes such as dietary iron intake, dietary vitamin C intake and knowledge level of iron will be assessed at pre-and post-intervention (6 months). The study will comply with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for randomized trials.DiscussionThe effectiveness of iron dietary guidelines developed will serve as a manual to aid, prevent and manage iron deficiency anaemia as well as reduce the prevalence of anaemia in the long term in Ghana.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T04:18:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221074433
       
  • Mediterranean diet diminishes the effects of Crohn's disease and improves
           its parameters: A systematic review

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      Authors: Mawada Jaber, Mohammad Altamimi, Almothana Altamimi, Sara Cavaliere, Francesca De Filippis
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe pathogenesis and clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is influenced by diet. Mediterranean Diet (MD) helps Crohn's patients through many mechanisms.AimsThis study aimed to evaluate the effect of the MD on CD patients and to evaluate such effect on body parameters.MethodsPubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, MEDLINE and Cochrane central library were searched for MD and CD from 2010 to 2020. Included studies met the following criteria: (1) male and female adults (18–75 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of CD; (2) MD as an intervention; (3) original interventional Trial, Cross-Sectional Analysis, or Prospective Cohort Studies.ResultsFive studies were included, involving 83,564 participants. A small number of patients with CD fulfilled the P-MDS criteria, the overall scores were low, 4.7 and 4.5 for females and males respectively. Patients with an inactive disease whose adherence to MD was greater, the MD score was negatively correlated with disease activity (p 50% from baseline.ConclusionsMD showed anti-inflammatory properties. Adherence to MD was associated with improvement in CD patients and negatively correlated with the disease activity, in addition to a lower risk of developing CD later in life.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:12:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221102281
       
  • Decreased Serum zinc, selenium, and vitamin E as possible risk factors of
           hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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      Authors: Ahmed Alamir Mahmoud Abdallah, Mona Mohammed Abdelrahman, Haitham Mohammad Al-Amir Shahat Attia, Alshimaa Hafez, Shimaa Anwar Rashed, Yasser Abdelkarim Amin, Shimaa Badawy Hemdan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundsThe incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been significantly growing in recent years. Although the pathophysiology of fibrosis progression in NAFLD is not yet known, oxidative stress and inflammation have been known to have a major role in the development of NASH. Understanding the impact of micronutrients in NAFLD could potentially help us better understand NAFLD pathogenesis.AimsAssessing the serum levels of Zn, Se, and Vitamin E and their relation to the development of hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD patients.MethodsThis study included 80 NAFLD patients and 40 healthy controls. All of the patients were subjected to abdominal ultrasound and FibroScan examination (to estimate hepatic fibrosis and steatosis degree), and the serum levels of Zn, Se, and vitamin E were evaluated.ResultsA statistically significant difference in the serum levels of Zn and Se was observed between the NAFLD group and the control group (P-value = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). The serum levels of Zn and Se were independently related to the presence of hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD. However, serum vitamin E was not related to the severity of NAFLD. Furthermore, no significant difference in the levels of Zn, Se, and vitamin E was observed between the different groups of NAFLD patients categorized according to the degree of steatosis and the control group.ConclusionsReduced serum levels of Zn and Se can be considered a possible risk factor for hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD. Deficiency in these micronutrients could play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221103032
       
  • The relationship of prognostic nutritional index with prognosis and
           inflammation in patient with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

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      Authors: Gul Busra Davran, Ahmet Çetin Davran, Turgut Karabag
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Malnutrition is closely associated with heart failure, and known to be closely associated with mortality and morbidity in these patients. Aims: We investigated the relationship of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which is a criterion of nutritional status in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with prognosis and parameters indicating inflammation. Methods: 139 patients admitted to the coronary intensive care unit with symptoms of decompensated congestive heart failure were included to the study. Patients were with heart failure with ejection fraction
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:18:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221103017
       
  • Impact of dietary vitamin A deficiency on body physiology and liver
           metabolism of Wistar rats

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      Authors: Elaine Cristina de Lara Spada, Guilherme Nunes da Cruz, Fhelipe Jolner Souza de Almeida, Daniela de Souza Vial Dahmer, Edgar Willibaldo Allebrandt Neto, Anderson de Oliveira Souza, Mayara Peron Pereira, Suelem Aparecida de França Lemes
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Studies suggest that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can cause night blindness or xerophthalmia, hepatic and metabolic changes in the blood. Aim: Therefore, this work aimed to stablish a model of hypovitaminosis A in rats and to evaluate the effects of vitamin A deficiency on metabolic and oxidative parameters in the liver of rats. Methods: Male (n = 19), Wistar, rats (21-day-old) weighing 50g, divided into two experimental groups: Control Group (C), received AIN 93G diet and Vitamin A Deficiency Group (VAD), received AIN 93G vitamin A-free diet for 45 days. In this work, the parameters analyzed were: body mass, food and water intake, biochemical aspects in the blood, lipids and glycogen content, lipid peroxidation, carbonyl proteins and catalase activity in the liver. Results: In the VAD group, final body mass (9%), liver mass (28%), glycemia (14%), Total -cholesterol (17%), HDL -cholesterol (31%) and VLDL -cholesterol (30%) showed reduced (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:18:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221103005
       
  • The Philippines’ snapshot situation of pregnancy-related and child
           feeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Eva A Goyena, Ma Lynell V Maniego
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundMaternal, infant and young child health and nutrition are affected during the COVID-19 pandemic.AimThis study aimed to present the snapshot situation of maternal health practices of pregnant women including infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices of children under two during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA rapid nutrition assessment survey (RNAS) was conducted through phone interview in nine selected areas from November 3 to December 3, 2020. A multi-stage sampling design was employed in the selection of areas with low, medium, and high risk categories across the islands of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao in the Philippines. A total of 792 mother-child pairs, and 148 pregnant women were covered.ResultsMajority (84.5%) of pregnant women availed pre-natal check-ups, 82.4% of them had micronutrient supplements, of which 20.5% took IFA tablets. Almost 60.0% of children under two were currently breastfed during the pandemic, with 60.8% of infants less than 6 months receiving breastmilk exclusively. Appropriate complementary feeding practices based on this study were not drastically affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, access to pregnancy-related information, along with breastfeeding and complementary feeding messages and advice were disrupted during the community lockdown.ConclusionAlthough maternal and child feeding practices were unchanged, innovative delivery of community health and nutrition services such as tele-visits by midwives, and community health workers are some of the ways to move forward in improving the health and nutrition of women and children in the wake of the pandemic and during subsequent waves.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:18:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221103004
       
  • Association between dietary creatine and visuospatial short-term memory in
           older adults

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      Authors: Edimar F Oliveira, Scott C Forbes, Elvis Q Borges, Lacy F Machado, Darren G Candow, Marco Machado
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Aims: The purpose was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary creatine intake obtained in food and visuospatial short-term memory (VSSM). Methods: Forty-two participants (32 females, 10 males;> 60 yrs of age) completed a 5-day dietary recall to estimate creatine intake and performed a cognitive assessment which included a visuospatial short-term memory test (forward and reverse corsi block test) and a mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Pearson correlation coefficients were determined. Further, cohorts were derived based on the median creatine intake. Results: There was a significant correlation between the forward Corsi (r  =  0.703, P 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:17:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221102273
       
  • Assessment of the social quality of life and the physical activity of
           adult celiac disease patients following a gluten-free diet in Lebanon

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      Authors: Priscilla Bouery, Randa Attieh, Lea Sacca, Yonna Sacre
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      To date, the primary and only treatment recommended for effective management of celiac disease (CD) is adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) which entails a new approach to eating that affects the social quality of life (QoL) and physical activity (PA) of patients. This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the social QoL and PA of adult Lebanese CD patients aged between 18 and 59 years old who are following a GFD. An online CD questionnaire was administered to 136 Lebanese celiac participants on a GFD. The findings of this study show a significant association between celiac patients following a GFD and their social QoL (P-value = 0.0001). The results also showed a significant association between the same population and their PA (p-value = 0.0001). Further awareness-raising and learning activities about gluten-free products are needed to improve the adherence to a strict GFD to facilitate its availability to the Lebanese population.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:17:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221095685
       
  • Barriers and potential facilitators to implement nutrition care program in
           athletes’ training centers in Indonesia

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      Authors: Mustika Cahya Nirmala Dewinta, Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih, Digna Niken Purwaningrum
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: In order to improve national sport achievement in Indonesia, a new policy of nutritionist placement in every training center in Indonesia was proposed. The understanding of barriers and potential facilitators was needed to identify problems and arrange policy implementation strategies. Aim: This study aims to determine the barriers in nutrition intervention practices for athletes and opportunities in implementing the proposed policy of sport nutritionist placement in athlete training centers. Methods: The study was conducted using Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR) as the guideline for data collection and analysis. In-Depth Interview (IDI) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were conducted on 9 participants from the Ministry of Youth and Sport, the Republic of Indonesia. Results: This study indicates that there are several potential barriers, which are influential on the implementation of nutrition support for athletes. These include the lack of facilitation of athletes’ nutritional needs, lack of supervision for food catering service, lack of communication, and limited funding. In contrast, the potential facilitators are strong relationship with sport-related stakeholders, compatibility with the existing policy, relative advantages, and trialability of the proposed policy. Conclusions: The Indonesia Ministry of Youth and Sports should utilize these facilitators as opportunities to design, develop, and implement a policy that requires nutrition support available for all athletes at every PPLP in Indonesia.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:23:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221102681
       
  • The path between breakfast eating habit, sleep duration and physical
           activity on obesity status: An epidemiological study in schoolchildren

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      Authors: Rena I Kosti, Aikaterini Kanellopoulou, Konstantina Morogianni, Venetia Notara, George Antonogeorgos, Triada Kourtesa, Andrea Paola Rojas-Gil, Ekaterina N Kornilaki, Areti Lagiou, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Although the literature suggests that skipping breakfast, insufficient sleep, and reduced physical activity are associated with childhood obesity their co-influence and their in-between interactions on weight status have rarely been studied. Aim: To examine the co-influence of breakfast eating habits, sleep duration, and physical activity on the weight status of children 10–12 years old from several schools of Greece. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1688 students in Greece, during 2014–2016. Children's Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and classified according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) classification. Logistic regression models and path analysis were used. Results: Overweight/obesity prevalence was higher in boys (32.5% vs. 20.4%; p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221102270
       
  • A structural equation modeling examining the influence of body mass index
           on the lipid profile of type II diabetes patients

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      Authors: Gayathry CP
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: High Body Mass Index (BMI) has a two times greater risk of developing type II diabetes compared to low BMI. The results showed that general obesity had a risk of 2.24 times while abdominal obesity had a risk of 2.44 times for the occurrence of diabetes. Aim: Based on the background described, the researcher was interested in examining the influence of BMI on the lipid profile of type II diabetes patients. Methods: A considerably large sample of 500 type II diabetes patients who attended the outpatient department of Endocrinology wing of NIMS Medicity (NICER-Noorul Islam Centre for Endocrinology Research), Kerala, India were selected to the macrosample pool following purposive random sampling method. Height and weight of the patients were taken following standard methods and BMI of the patients was computed. Biochemical investigations such as their lipid profile along with Fasting, Post Prandial Blood Glucose values and HbA1C were obtained from patients’ medical records. Finally, the hypothesized model was developed and tested by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique using SPSS AMOS 22.0. Results: The results show that height and weight highly influenced the BMI, among which weight, as shown by Standardized Regression Weights (SRW) Estimate- 1.102, Statistically Significant) influenced more than height (SRW Estimate:-0.683, Statistically Significant), weight had a positive influence, whereas height had a negative influence in selected Type II Diabetes patients. The model could not establish any relationship between BMI and lipid profile (SRW Estimate:-0.037, Statistically not Significant). Conclusion: The findings suggest that in diabetes patients increase in BMI alone does not lead to any alterations in their lipid profile.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221101715
       
  • Clinical nutrition approach in medical management of COVID-19 hospitalized
           patients: A narrative review

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      Authors: Fatemeh Roudi, Effat Saghi, Samaneh Sadat Ayoubi, Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Malnutrition in COVID-19 hospitalized patients is associated with a high-risk condition to increase disease severity and prolonging the recovery period. Therefore, nutritional therapy, including supplements plays a critical role to reduce disease-related complications and the length of hospital stay.Aim:To review the latest evidence on nutritional management options in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, as well as possibly prescribed supplements.Methods:This review was conducted by considering the latest recommendations, using the guidelines of the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral (ASPEN) and the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral (ESPEN), and searching Web of Science, PubMed/Medline, ISI, and Medline databases. The relevant articles were found using a mix of related mesh terms and keywords. We attempted to cover all elements of COVID-19 hospitalized patients’ dietary management.Results:Energy demand in COVID-19 patients is a vital issue. Indirect Calorimetry (IC) is the recommended method to measure resting energy expenditure. However, in the absence of IC, predictive equations may be used. The ratio of administered diet for the macronutrients could be based on the phase and severity of Covid-19 disease. Moreover, there are recommendations for taking micronutrient supplements with known effects on improving the immune system or reducing inflammation.Conclusions:Nutritional treatment of COVID-19 patients in hospitals seems to be an important element of their medical care. Enteral nutrition would be the recommended feeding method for early nutrition support. However, data in the COVID-19 nutritional domain relating to micronutrient supplementation are still fragmentary and disputed, and further study is required.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:33:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221101696
       
  • The effect of vitamin D on sleep quality: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis

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      Authors: Zahra Mirzaei-Azandaryani, Somyieh Abdolalipour, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Poor sleep quality is a common problem in the general population that affects the quality of life of individuals. Aim: This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of vitamin D on sleep quality (primary outcome) and side effects (secondary outcome). Methods: A systematic search was performed using Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, and Magiran databases with no limit at the time of publication. Cochrane collaboration instrument was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. RevMan software was used for meta-analysis. Mean Difference was calculated due to the same sleep quality measurement tools in all studies. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I-squared ([math]). Due to high heterogeneity ([math] > 75%), Random Effect was used instead of Fixed Effect. Results: Out of a total of 1637 titles and abstracts found, after removing duplicate items (23 items), 1596 items were removed due to irrelevance and lack of inclusion criteria. 18 articles were fully studied due to insufficient abstract information and finally, 5 articles were entered into systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that the use of vitamin D supplementation significantly improves sleep quality (MD: −1.32; 95%CI: −2.55 to −0.09; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Also, according to the findings of this study, receiving vitamin D supplementation did not cause any side effects. According to the results of this review study, sleep quality in people receiving vitamin D significantly improved compared to the control group.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T05:19:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082367
       
  • Prognostic value of circulating macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1-growth
           differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15) in obesity: Relation with vascular
           endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and markers of oxidative stress

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      Authors: Roghayeh Rahbar Parvaneh, Mahdi Vajdi, Ata Nikfam Shiraz, Mohammad Khani, Sara Ebadpour Farshbaf, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1-Growth differentiation Factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are novel regulators of obesity and energy homeostasis and food intake. Aims: In the current cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate MIC-1 and VEGF concentrations and their association with serum lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress in obese individuals. Methods: Fifty six obese subjects, aged between 20–50 years old, participated in the current study. Anthropometric and nutritional parameters were assessed and serum and blood concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15, VEGF, markers of oxidative stress and serum lipids were evaluated. Results: Serum VEGF was strongly associated with serum lipids and MIC-1/GDF15 concentrations while serum MIC-1/GDF15 was associated with total cholesterol (TC) and VEGF levels. In multivariate regression analysis, serum VEGF, appetite and GPX were potent determinants of MIC-1/GDF15 concentrations while VEGF was only associated with serum MIC-1/GDF15. Conclusion: The findings of the current study demonstrated the association between MIC-1/GDF15 and VEGF. Moreover, a positive association between these cytokines and serum lipids, was also observed. The results suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 and VEGF might be considered as prognostic markers in obesity-related metabolic disorders. Although further mechanistic studies are needed to better clarify the underlying mechanism.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T07:01:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221099716
       
  • An analysis of nutrient facts labels of pediatric multi-vitamin and
           mineral supplements: Is there a risk of overexposure'

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      Authors: Lalitha Samuel, Danna Ethan, Corey Basch, Stephanie Dunne, Christine Quinn
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundVoluntary and mandatory fortification of pediatric foods, along with widespread consumption of dietary supplements have resulted in an increased proportion of children with excessive micronutrient intake.AimThis study aimed to analyze the proportion of pediatric dietary supplements that exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Tolerable Upper Limit for the individual micronutrients. We further identified the proportion of supplements with large amounts of micronutrients that were marketed through child-friendly and parent-geared promotional language and graphics on the packaging.MethodsThe nutrient facts label on pediatric supplement packages sold by three large retail pharmacy chains was analyzed for micronutrient content. Labels were examined for the presence of trademarked or generic cartoon characters and parent-geared health promotional statements.ResultsMore than a third and almost a fifth of the samples contained vitamin A and niacin respectively in amounts equivalent to or above the established tolerable upper limit for one- to three-year-old children. A major proportion of these supplements had child-friendly and parent-targeted promotional language on the package.ConclusionThe potential for pediatric supplements as a source for excessive micronutrient consumption underscores the need for parents and health care professionals to use nutrition labels as a valuable tool to prevent micronutrient toxicity.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221100926
       
  • Nutritional status and feeding regimen of critically ill patients in
           General Hospital of Agriculture in Hanoi, Vietnam

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      Authors: Diep Pham Thi, Tuong Pham Duy
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Fully nutrition support for patients in developing countries like Vietnam is challenging. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of patients with nutritional risk at admission and describe feeding regimen of critically ill patients in a suburban hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: An observational study was conducted among 154 patients at department of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) were used for screening nutritional risk at admission. Body Mass Index (BMI), Mild-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), and personal information were recorded. The feeding regimen of patients was monitored from the first to seventh day. Results: the patients were aged 66.5 ± 15.4 years, with an APACHEII of 13.0 ± 5.5 and SOFA 3.1 ± 2.6: 47.4% were malnutrition by MUAC, 16.2% had a severely low BMI (
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221100673
       
  • Exploring the association between self-compassion, mindfulness and mindful
           eating with eating behaviours amongst patients with obesity

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      Authors: Misba Hussain, Helen Egan, Rebecca Keyte, Rachel Strachan, Abd A Tahrani, Michail Mantzios
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: People who have obesity often experience problematic eating behaviours, contributing towards their excessive weight gain. Aims: Understanding problematic eating behaviours and their association to self-compassion, mindfulness and mindful eating is important for the development of future interventions that improve weight-loss and weight-regulation. Methods: One hundred and one participants attending their first session of a 6-session dietetic programme within a Tier 3 medical weight management service in the West Midlands, UK were recruited to complete questionnaires on self-compassion, mindfulness, mindful eating and eating behaviours, such as, emotional, restrained, external, fat and sugar consumption and grazing. Results: The findings suggested all three constructs, self-compassion, mindfulness and mindful eating were significantly and negatively associated with grazing and emotional eating, but mindful eating was the only construct that also displayed a significant and negative association with other eating behaviours that are often barriers to successful weight regulation, such as external eating and fat consumption. Further investigation suggested mindful eating had an indirect effect on fat consumption and grazing via external eating. Conclusion: Whilst, self-compassion, mindfulness and mindful eating displayed a negative relationship with grazing and emotional eating, mindful eating also displayed a negative relationship with fat consumption and external eating. Possible explanations and directions for future work are discussed with an emphasis on the need for more empirical work.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221094671
       
  • A systematic nutrition intervention for low iron status in collegiate
           distance runners

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      Authors: Joseph R. Stanzione, Gracie Bell, Daniel A. Greenwood
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Iron is a trace mineral that plays a significant role in oxygen transport and energy production during exercise. In deficiency, iron can have a significant negative impact on sports performance. Due to its relative simplicity, supplementation is a common treatment to combat deficiency. However, there is a paucity of analyses combining supplementation with dietary education as a method of treatment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a systematic iron intervention combining nutrition education and supplementation stages to combat low ferritin levels in collegiate runners. Methods: Twenty four distance runners (13 women; 11 men; 19.5 ± 0.8 years of age) were measured for serum ferritin, daily iron, calcium and vitamin C intake at the start of the fall semester and again after 100 days of supplementation. A dependent groups t-test was applied to delineate changes in Ferritin levels and iron, vitamin C and calcium intake. Alpha levels were maintained a priori at p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T11:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221100337
       
  • Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements: Disparities in usage and potential
           for harm

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      Authors: Bradley Kaptur, Nicholas Peterman, Jan Lee
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The use of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements has a complex history. Aim: This work seeks to discuss the current state of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, with a particular focus on the ambiguity of these terms, their current usage, potential harms, roles within the healthcare system, and associated disparities. Methods: This work reviews recent literature spanning the history of nutraceuticals and expands upon recommendations made by previous authors. Results: While a substantial portion of the United States population consumes these substances, their safety profiles are rarely well characterized. Taking a broad definition of these terms paints a picture of harmless use by a population that is middle-aged, educated, and white. However, focusing on specific substances reveals concerning disparities in race, ethnicity, income, physical health, and health literacy. This is of particular concern when looking at the side effects of these supplements both in isolation and due to drug-supplement interactions. Conclusions: In this work, the authors build upon the recommendations of others to propose ways in which physicians and healthcare systems can work to reduce the disproportionate harms of these substances on historically marginalized groups.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221099690
       
  • Inadequate fruits and vegetables consumption among Malaysian adults during
           the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Yi Liang Lo, Siew Siew Lee, Shi-Hui Cheng
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the eating behaviours of people especially fruits and vegetable intake. No study has addressed the fruits and vegetables intake during the COVID-19 in Malaysia. Aim: to assess the daily intake of fruits and vegetables among Malaysian adults during the COVID-19 outbreak, perceived changes in intake, as well as factors associated with the changes in intake. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through online platforms and a total of 506 participants were recruited. Semi food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess participants’ fruit and vegetable intake. Socio-demographics information, knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of fruits and vegetables were collected. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results: The majority of participants (99.8%) did not achieve the recommended five servings per day, in which they consumed an average of 0.84 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. 46.4% of participants reported no changes in intake compared to before the outbreak. Fruits and vegetables intake was associated with physical activity level, knowledge, and beliefs of foods that may prevent/cure COVID-19. Binary logistic regression identified two significant risk factors of daily fruits and vegetables intake namely, being a non-Chinese (AOR = 1.905, 95% CI = 1.114–3.257) and having good practices scores (AOR = 2.543, 95% CI = 1.611–4.015). Conclusion: The study found a low daily intake of fruits and vegetables. The findings suggested that nutritional interventions are necessary to improve awareness on consuming more fruits and vegetables to improve overall health.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T03:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221099782
       
  • Birth weight, skeletal maturity and dietary patterns are associated with
           body composition compartments differently in male and female physically
           active adolescents

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      Authors: Tamara de Paula Mancilha, Fabia Albernaz Massarani, Filomena Vieira, Carmen Marino Donangelo, Josely Correa Koury
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Adequate body composition is important for health and performance of physically active adolescents; however, some factors can influence body composition. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between body composition and birth weight, skeletal maturity and dietary patterns, in male (n = 124) and female (n = 107) physically active adolescents. Methods: Birth weight was obtained from health booklets. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to estimate fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal adipose tissue (ASAT). Skeletal maturity was assessed by a hand and fist scanner using DXA. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns by factorial analysis. Results: Seventy one percent (male = 16%, female = 55%) of the participants were mature. Two dietary patterns (in natura/minimally processed and processed/ultra-processed) were identified. In males, FM (>15%, P = 0.043) and ASAT (>30%, P = 0.042) were higher in those with low-median compared to high-median birth weight. FFM (>24%) was higher in skeletally mature compared to those immatures (P = 0.001), and VAT (>28%) was higher in processed/ultra-processed compared to in natura/minimally processed dietary patterns (P = 0.015). In females, FFM (>9%) was higher in those with low-median compared to high-median birth weight (P = 0.019); and FFM (>16%), FM (>28%) and ASAT (>45%) were higher in skeletally mature compared to those immatures (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the complex association among body composition, birth weight, skeletal maturity and dietary patterns and in physically active adolescents, differently according to sex.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221096514
       
  • The efficacy of fermented foods in the treatment and management of
           diarrhoeal diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Adetokunbo Olayanju, Duane Mellor, Yunus Khatri, Neil Pickles
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Diarrhoeal disease is a major cause of global infant mortality, and compromises the ability of many countries with respect to achieving sustainable development goals. The WHO’s recommendation of Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) and zinc in the management of this disease, may not be readily available. Consideration and assessment of cultural practices in its management has been an area of increased interest over the last decade. Aim: This study aims to systematically evaluate efficacy of the consumption of traditional fermented foods as functional products for the treatment and management of diarrhoea. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline and Pubmed) databases with no restrictions on language and publication date for RCTs that investigated the effect of consumption of fermented foods on the treatment of diarrhoea in children under five years of age. Results: Seven RCTs were included. Meta-analysis showed that compared to control, consumption of fermented foods significantly reduced mean duration of diarrhoea, −0.61 days; (95% CI, −1.04, −0.18); length of hospitalization, −0.35 days (95% CI, −0.69, −0.02); but not mean daily frequency of stool −2.00 (95% CI,-7.03, 3.04). Conclusion: Limited available evidence suggests that consumption of fermented foods may help reduce duration and severity of symptoms as a treatment of diarrhoea. More high quality research needs to be undertaken to investigate the efficacy of fermented food as an effective alternative to ORS as a potential WHO recommendation for management of diarrhoeal disease.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T04:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221095678
       
  • Are dietary patterns becoming more processed' The effects of different
           dietary patterns on cognition: A review

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      Authors: Brittany Harriden, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Jane Kellett, Stephen Isbel, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Nenad Naumovski
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Identifying dietary patterns that promote healthy aging has become increasingly important due to changes in food processing and consumption of processed foods. Recently, the effects of these foods and unhealthy dietary patterns on cognitive function have become more widely recognized. Aim: The aim of this review is to discuss the association between various dietary patterns and cognition in older age, while also highlighting growing evidence that ultra processed food (UPF) may negatively impact healthy aging. Methods: We have performed a non-systematic literature review searches in Google Scholar electronic database with pre-defined terms relating to UPF, diet, dietary patterns, cognition and ageing. Results: The most prevalent diets in the literature include the Western, Mediterranean, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurogenerative Delay (MIND), Japanese, Nordic, and plant-based diets. Based on the findings, higher intakes of fresh fruit and vegetables, wholegrains and oily fish are common components of dietary patterns that are positively associated with better cognitive function. In contrast, the characteristics of a Western style dietary pattern, consisting of high amounts of UPF's, are increasing in many countries even where the staple dietary pattern was identified as healthy (i.e. Japan). Conclusion: The consumption of UPF, classified by the NOVA food classification system as industrially manufactured foods containing high levels of starches, vegetable oils, sugar, emulsifiers, and foods additives, has a negative impact on the overall nutritional quality of individual diets.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T06:41:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221094129
       
  • Vitamin D status and its relationship with obesity indicators in Moroccan
           adult women

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      Authors: Slimane Mehdad, Hakim Belghiti, Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou, Hassania Guerinech, Fatima Zahra Mouzouni, Amina El hajjab, Hicham El Berri, Laila El Ammari, Souad Benaich, Hasnae Benkirane, Amina Barkat, Hassan Aguenaou
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various populations, there are few data on its prevalence and associated factors among Moroccan women. Aim: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and investigate its association with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in a sample of Moroccan adult women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Mohammed V Military Hospital of Instruction, Rabat. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses were performed using standard procedures Results: A total of 714 women aged 18–65 years participated in this study. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 74.4%. Approximately 24% and 51% of women had severe and moderate vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were inversely correlated with BMI in vitamin D-deficient subjects (P = 0.036) and with parathyroid hormone 1–84 (PTH1-84) levels in the study sample (P = 0.010). PTH1-84 concentrations were greater among overweight/obese individuals compared to their non-overweight peers (P = 0.001) and tended to be higher among vitamin D-deficient women than vitamin D-sufficient women (P = 0.053). Conclusion: This study showed a very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this sample of Moroccan women. Lower serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased BMI in vitamin D-deficient women and with elevated PTH1-84 levels among the study sample. Although these findings come from a convenience sample of women that attended a nutrition clinic, they underscore the urgent need to develop public health interventions to improve women’s vitamin D status.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:33:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221094376
       
  • Does the 2019 Canada’s Food Guide meet the needs of young
           athletes'

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      Authors: Alexandra J. Heidl, Kathleen Litzenberger, Tamara R. Cohen, Hugues Plourde
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) encourages Canadians to consume a balanced plate. However, this recommendation may not meet the nutritional needs of young athletes who have increased nutritional requirements. Aim: To evaluate how the 2019 CGF can be used to meet the nutritional needs of young athletes. Method: Five menu scenarios were created using the CFG’s balanced plate and recipes from Health Canada. Each menu was analyzed to compare nutrient and energy needs of an index athlete (15-year-old male, 71 kg). Estimated energy requirements were based on nutrition guidelines set by National and International sports-nutrition position statements. Results: The adjusted CFG balanced plate plus an energy dense beverage at every meal was the closest to meeting the index athlete’s nutrient requirements. Conclusion: The 2019 CFG’s balanced plate needs to be adjusted to meet the nutritional requirements of individuals with active lifestyles.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T02:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221093430
       
  • A systemic challenge in dietetics: Methodological inadequacies, erroneous
           claims, and misleadinginterpretations, and transparency of
           post-publication scrutiny

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      Authors: Ognjen Arandjelović
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Obesity is sweeping across the developed world. Yet, the public remains largely confused when it comes to the nature of dietary habits which would serve to counteract this trend. Aim: I highlight the responsibility that the scientific community bears when it comes to the confusion, and explain the kind of actions that are needed if the public trust in science is to be maintained. Methods: Starting from an example of a recently published and prominently featured article in a leading journal, I analyse various common methodological aspects of dietetics research and the consequent claims, contextualizing this within the broader environment which includes the scientific publishing process and the mainstream media. Results: Methodological inadequacies, erroneous claims, and misleading interpretations of findings are often found in dietetics research, highlighting the deficiencies of the system which fails to uphold the fundamental principles of scientific inquiry. Conclusion: It is imperative that individual scientists speak out and challenge poor science, unsatisfactory publishing processes, and bombastic and misleading communication of research.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:29:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221094126
       
  • Effect of soy-based meal replacement on weight loss: A systematic review
           and meta-analyses protocol

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      Authors: Wei Kai Heng, Jin Yi Choo, Yen Ping Ng, Kok Shen Loh, Yoke Hwa Chua
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that is strongly associated with multiple comorbidities and mortality. Weight reduction in overweight and obese patients was highly desired to minimize future complications. Meal replacement is emerging as one of the effective tools to promote weight loss. Isoflavones and soy protein present in soybean are able to promote weight loss and alleviate obesity. Aim: Our systematic review aims to investigate the weight loss effect of soy-based meal replacement among the overweight and obese population. Methods: We will conduct a systematic review of RCTs that evaluated the effect of a soy-based meal replacement on weight loss in overweight and obese patients. The primary outcome of this review is weight loss. Besides that, we will assess BMI, body fat, waist circumference and hip circumference as the secondary outcome. We will search PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract information and assess the risk of bias of individual studies. We will conduct meta-analyses using a random-effect model if sufficient data are available. If meta-analysis is not performed, we will present a systematic qualitative synthesis. Summary: This systematic review will identify the weight loss effect of soy-based meal replacement among the overweight and obese adult population. We expect the result may strengthen the evidence on the role of soy-based meal replacement in optimal body weight management.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221089105
       
  • Effect of Ramadan fasting on salivary IgA, serum IgA, IL-17, and IL-22
           levels

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      Authors: Narjes Soleimanifar, Sara Assadiasl, Mohammad Hassan Alamolhoda, Mehdi Nateghpour, Mahmoud Motavassel Arani, Maryam Sadr, Bahareh Mohebbi, Hanieh Mojtahedi, Mohammad Hossein Nicknam
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: nutritional factors might affect the number and function of immune cells for instance the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins. Ramadan fasting is intermittent abstinence from eating and drinking for almost four weeks. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the influence of intermittent fasting on serum IgA, salivary IgA (sIgA), interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-22 levels. Methods: 40 healthy men aged 19–29 years were evaluated before and during the fourth week of Ramadan fasting for IgA levels by the nephelometric method as well as salivary IgA (sIgA), IL-17, and IL-22 amounts using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: serum IgA levels reduced significantly at the end of Ramadan fasting (225.8 ± 87 vs. 196 ± 70 mg/dl) (p-value
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T02:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221092203
       
  • Adherence to Mediterranean Diet among athletes participating at the XXX
           summer universiade

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      Authors: Patrizia Calella, Francesca Gallè, Giuseppe Cerullo, Nunzia Postiglione, Roberta Ricchiuti, Giorgio Liguori, Stefania D’Angelo, Giuliana Valerio
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: A well-balanced diet is essential in sport. Due to its typical content in high-quality proteins, low glycemic index foods, and unsaturated fats, Mediterranean Diet (MD) may represent a good choice to cover nutritional needs of athletes. The aim of this study was to explore how the dietary habits of elite athletes, such as those competing at the XXX Summer Universiade, comply with the MD model. A comparison between athletes coming from the Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries was also assessed. Methods: The Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS) questionnaire was administered to a sample of 433 university student athletes from all over of the world to evaluate the level of adherence to the MD pattern and possible differences between geographical areas. Results: The total sample showed a medium adherence to the MD, with a mean MDSS of 15.73 ± 3.71 out of a total of 23 points. A satisfactory consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported. Athletes from Northern European countries had a lower MD pattern adherence than the other ones. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the MD model is common among elite athletes, and it may be promoted as a healthy dietary pattern in the sport setting.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T12:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221089118
       
  • Effects of flaxseed consumption on plasma lipids, lipoprotein-associated
           phospholipase A2 activity and gut microbiota composition in patients with
           coronary artery disease

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      Authors: Nafiseh Khandouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Ata Firoozi, Javad Nasrollahzadehp
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Clinical studies have demonstrated possible beneficial effects of flaxseed on cardiovascular disease risk factors, but limited studies have evaluated the effects of flaxseed on the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and gut microbial composition in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of flaxseed consumption on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, Lp-PLA2 activity, as well as the relative abundance of some gut microbiota in CAD patients. Methods: In a randomized controlled parallel trial, 50 patients with CAD were randomly allocated to 12 weeks of supplementation of flaxseed (30 g/day) or control (usual care). Before and after the intervention, plasma lipids, Lp-PLA2 activity, and some gut microbiota composition (4 different bacterial genera, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes) were measured. Results: Compared to control, flaxseed consumption was associated with improved Lp-PLA2 activity. After 12 weeks of intervention, no significant changes were observed in plasma lipids and fecal microbial composition in the two study groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that in patients with CAD, flaxseed supplementation reduced plasma Lp-PLA2 activity but had no effect on plasma lipids and the composition of some intestinal bacteria.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T06:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221091016
       
  • Exploring the risk factors of child malnutrition in Sub-Sahara Africa: A
           scoping review

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      Authors: Niza Rean Simwanza, Mwamba Kalungwe, Thamary Karonga, Catherine M Mumba Mtambo, Mandu S Ekpenyong, Mathew Nyashanu
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Malnutrition prevents children from reaching their full physical and mental potential. Health and physical consequences of prolonged states of malnourishment among children are: delay in their physical growth and motor development; lower intellectual quotient (IQ), greater behavioural problems and deficient social skills; susceptibility to contracting diseases. According to the 2015 Millennium development goal (MDG) report, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for one third of all undernourished children globally, highlighting that malnutrition still remains a major health concern for children under 5 years in the sub-region, thus buttressing the need for urgent intervention. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the risk factors of child malnutrition in sub–Saharan Africa through a scoping review. Methods: The scoping review was conducted using the following specific subject databases: EBSCOhost, google scholar, Pub med, demographic research and research gate. Attention was paid to keywords during navigation to ensure consistency of searches in each database. Two limiters were applied in all five databases. These included the use of the English language and articles published on child malnutrition in sub Saharan Africa. Results: The researchers identified eight themes for inclusion in the findings. The themes fell into four major categories being maternal related, family related, child related as well as context related factors. These themes reflect factors associated with child malnutrition. Conclusion: This scoping review revealed that there are quite a number of risk factors that lead to child malnutrition. Therefore, there is an urgency for strategic interventions aimed at improving child nutrition through female education if the 2030 end malnutrition SDG 2.2 are to be achieved.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T08:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221090699
       
  • Associations between body image, eating behavior, and diet quality

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      Authors: Alexandra Malia Jackson, Louise Parker, Yoshie Sano, Anne E Cox, Jane Lanigan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Weight-neutral interventions that promote adaptive eating behaviors are becoming a growing area of practice. Understanding whether adaptive eating behaviors are associated with improved diet quality is essential. Body image may be an important factor in this relationship given its close connection to eating behaviors. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships between positive and negative body image, adaptive and maladaptive eating behaviors, and diet quality. Methods: We recruited 288 adults 18 years and older who were living in the US using Prolific Academic. Participants completed an online survey including measures of positive and negative body image, adaptive and maladaptive eating behaviors, and a dietary screener questionnaire (DSQ). We ran a hierarchical linear regression and tested whether body image and diet quality were mediated by eating behavior. Results: Body image and maladaptive eating behaviors were not associated with diet quality. Body-food choice congruence (B-FCC), an adaptive eating behavior, was associated with diet quality. B-FCC mediated the relationship of positive and negative body image to diet quality. Conclusions: Our findings provide additional support for weight-neutral or adaptive eating interventions as a mechanism to promote diet quality. Additional research may benefit from exploring indirect effects of body image on diet intake, the relationship between eating behavior and diet quality using qualitative data, and the comparison of weight-neutral or non-diet interventions with traditional behavior change interventions.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T08:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221090696
       
  • Lessons learned about online engagement and implementation of an intuitive
           eating programme for university employees

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      Authors: Jaime Gnau, Melinda G. Novik, Sara M. Powell, Daniela Novotny
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Intuitive eating (IE) principles present an evidence-based strategy for improving one's relationship with food while reducing the incidence of weight cycling and health risks associated with chronic dieting and weight regain. Offering online programming provides improved access to education while reducing barriers to programme enrollment but is also associated with high rates of attrition. Aim: To examine the process of programme implementation and identify barriers and facilitators of engagement for an online IE programme for employees at a large Midwestern university. Methods: The web-based programme Finding Peace with Food: An Intuitive Eating Approach consisted of an online community with discussion prompts, 10 weekly modules containing videos, activities, and counsellor interviews and was developed using recognized health behaviour theory and evidence-based practices. Participants were university employees (n = 20). Qualitative data were assessed using a phenomenological approach to discern the themes of barriers and facilitators of programme participation. Participation rates were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results: All participants were Caucasian, 85% were female, and their ages ranged from 26–64. The module-based structure was well received. The primary barriers to participation were time constraints, overwhelming amount of information, and aversion to Flipgrid platform use. The quality and usefulness of the programme information were identified as facilitators of participation. Conclusion: Program participation was influenced by the time frame available to complete the programme modules and participants’ ease of use of platform applications.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T08:05:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221090346
       
  • Vitamin D in the news: A call for clear public health messaging during
           Covid-19

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      Authors: Randeep S Heer, Preeti Sandhu, Charlotte Wenban, Amit K J Mandal, Constantinos G Missouris
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The public are increasingly reliant on the internet and media to access healthcare related information during the Covid-19 pandemic. Vitamin D is essential for musculoskeletal and immune health, with daily supplementation advised by public health bodies. Several studies assessing a possible link between vitamin D and Covid-19 severity have arrived at conflicting results and news articles have been rapidly disseminating such research to the public. There has been little focus on studying the quality of information available. Aim: To identify if online search interest in vitamin D increased with pandemic burden and analyse the accuracy of public health messaging relating to vitamin D in online news articles. Methods: Online search interest data for vitamin D was correlated with pandemic burden, defined as the number of Covid-19 deaths. Online news articles discussing vitamin D and Covid-19 were analysed using qualitative coding. Results: Online search interest for vitamin D increased as pandemic burden increased (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:30:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221090293
       
  • Home food access and children's heart healthy dietary intake at home and
           child care

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      Authors: Ruth A. Rasmussen, Susan B. Sisson, Janis E. Campbell, Beth DeGrace, Jonathan D. Baldwin
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: About 12 million children under 5 years of age attend early care and education centers (ECEs). Child intake at home can be impacted by food insecurity, which is higher among low income, rural, and racially diverse families. Aim: Determine whether greater access to fruits, vegetables, and snacks at home was associated with heart-healthy diet score at home and at ECEs in preschool-age children, and to determine whether there is a difference in heart-healthy diet score between home and ECEs. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children (3-to-5-year-old, n  =  88) who attended 16 licensed ECEs across Oklahoma. Caregivers completed the Healthy Home Survey and 3-Dinner Dietary recall to report children's home food access and home dinner dietary intake, respectively. Researchers recorded children's ECE lunch consumption using the Dietary Observation for Child Care. Heart-healthy diet score was derived from composite scores for six variables: consumption of fish, fruits, vegetables, sodium, fiber, and sugary drinks. Results: Home access to total fruits and vegetables (16.2  ±  6.3) outnumbered snacks (5.5  ±  3.0). No difference in composite heart-healthy diet score between ECEs (1.50  ±  0.8) and home (1.27  ±  0.9, P  =  0.0851). Children within neither environment met recommendations for most variables (vegetables [18–24%], fruit [6–10%], fish [5–10%], fiber [1%], sodium [22–39%]). No relationship between home food access variables and the heart-healthy diet scores at home or ECEs. Conclusion: Dietary intake of children at home and ECEs does not meet heart-healthy diet score recommendations. Interventions should support preschool aged children from families that are located rurally, low-income, racial minorities, and whose primary caregivers work outside the home.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T06:57:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221090695
       
  • Effect of zinc supplementation on blood glucose level in different age
           groups of diabetes type 2

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      Authors: Mahwish Aslam, Shahid Bashir, Aurang Zeb
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Studies on humans have revealed the beneficial effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation in patients with type-2 diabetes. Aim: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on blood glucose level in type-2 diabetic patients and determine the interaction between age and zinc supplementation on type-2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized placebo-control trial conducted in Bashir Hospital of Sialkot, Allama Iqbal Memorial Hospital Sialkot and Civil Hospital of Daska, Sialkot. 144 diabetic patients were selected including an expected drop-out rate of 20%. All the participants were randomly divided into Group 1 (Treatment group with intervention given Zn tablets 20 mg/day) and Group 2 (control group with placebo effect). Each group was further divided into 2 age categories Category 1 (30–50 years of age) and Category 2 (51–70 Years of age). Demographic data, Anthropometric measurements, 24-h dietary recall, serum blood glucose analysis, HbA1C, and serum zinc levels were recorded at the beginning (0 day) and end of the study (60 days). Results: Final fasting serum glucose levels were significantly lowered in group 1 with (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T08:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221088382
       
  • Prevalence and Demographic Profiles of Food Insecure College Students at
           Main and Satellite Campuses in Northwestern USA

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      Authors: Madison Keller, Bridgett Von Kahle, Barbara Gordon, Irene van Woerden
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Recent studies demonstrated that food insecurity rates among college students surpass that of the general population. Both academic and health implications have been associated with food insecurity. Aim: This study compared the prevalence of food insecurity among students at three satellite campuses with those at the main campus of a 4-year, public university. Methods: In this cross-sectional design study, data were collected for four weeks using an anonymous, online questionnaire (10 demographic questions plus the USDA’s Adult Food Security Survey 10-item module). A sample of 983 students was recruited from the 9064 undergraduate and graduate students attending a state university. Chi-square tests were used to assess demographic differences between food insecure students on the main and satellite campuses. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the odds of food insecurity by campus (satellite vs. main), after controlling for demographics. Statistical significance was assessed at P 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T08:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082388
       
  • The effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation as a nutritional
           intervention strategy on biochemical and inflammatory factors in adults
           with COVID-19: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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      Authors: Zahra Khorasanchi, Ali Jafazadeh Esfehani, Payam Sharifan, Elahe Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Reza Shadmand Foumani Moghadam, Omid Ahmadi, Reyhaneh Ebrahimi, Seyede Zahra Lotfi, Nasrin Milani, Mahnaz Mozdourian, Reza Rezvani, Hasan Vatanparast, Reza Assaran Darban, Gordon Ferns, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: Low serum vitamin D has been shown to be a risk factor for Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation on hs-CRP, ESR and clinical outcomes, including duration of hospitalization, quality of life and New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification, in adults with COVID-19. Methods: This double-blind, randomized control trial will be conducted on patients with RT-PCR and/or chest CT scan diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Participants will be randomized into control and intervention groups based on randomization sampling. The intervention group will receive soft gel containing 50,000 IU vitamin D on the first day followed by 10,000 IU/day through a supplement drop daily for 29 days. The control group will receive 1000 IU vitamin D daily through supplement drop and a placebo soft gel. All participants will undergo laboratory assessment including inflammatory markers, serum 25)OH)D, complete blood count (CBC), liver and renal profile, lipid profile and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline and at day 30. The mortality rate will be recorded in both groups. Results: Data will be presented using descriptive statistics. Comparison of changes in study parameters over the study period will be performed using analysis of covariance adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions: The findings of this will provide evidence on the effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T11:38:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082384
       
  • The association between dietary acid load and odds of non-alcoholic fatty
           liver disease: A case-control study

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      Authors: Hadi Emamat, Hossein Farhadnejad, Hossein Poustchi, Farshad Teymoori, Alireza Bahrami, Azita Hekmatdoost
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Data on the association between dietary acid load and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are scarce and controversial. Aim: This study aimed to assess the association between dietary acid-base loads and odds of NAFLD. Methods: In the current study, 196 cases of NAFLD (proven by a gastroenterologist using Fibroscan) and 803 age-matched controls were enrolled from the same clinic. Dietary intakes of patients with NAFLD and controls without hepatic steatosis were evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary acid load was estimated using the validated potential renal acid load (PRAL) algorithm. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds of NAFLD across quintiles of PRAL. Results: The mean ± SD age of the study population (43% male) was 43.28 ± 14.02 years. The mean ± SD of PRAL was −1.90 ± 7.12 for all participants. After adjustment for all known confounders, subjects in the third quintile of PRAL (nearly with neutral PRAL) had a 54% lower odds of NAFLD compared with those in the lowest quintiles of the PRAL [(OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.24–0.89), (P = 0.021)]. However, the odds of NAFLD in the highest quintiles of PRAL was not different in comparison to the lowest quintiles (OR: 0.90; 95%CI: 0.41–1.57). Conclusion: In conclusion, our results have shown a modest U shaped relationship between PRAL and NAFLD. Further studies with acid-base biomarkers are needed to confirm the role of dietary acid load in the development of NAFLD and its potential mechanisms.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:41:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221088383
       
  • An overview on ethnic fermented food and beverages of India: Interplay of
           microbes, immunity and nutrition

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      Authors: Upasana Sarma, Suchandra Gupta
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: India is a land of diverse food culture and habits and has a plethora of ethnic fermented foods to boast of. Ranging from the north east to the western part of the country and from northern Indian states to the southern tip of the country, fermented ethnic foods have become part of everyday meals and have been able to bridge nutritional gaps and improve general immunity of the people. Most ethnic fermented foods have a rich content of protein, vitamins, fibres and minerals. Aim: Our review attempts to bring forth and summarise the most popular, immune boosting fermented foods of various regions in India, the role microbes’ play in their making and how they have impacted the nutritional aspects and immunity of people in various regions of the country. It also highlights the lack of clinical findings in proving the effectiveness of most fermented foods. Methods: Pubmed central and Google scholar were extensively searched from inception to July 2021 for study concepts and topic related keywords. Results: Ethnic fermented food of various Indian regions has shown a definitive role in improving health and immunity. Conclusion: The diverse ethnic fermented foods maybe be meat based, cereal based, pulses based and even vegetable based. Their health benefits and immune boosting abilities are still to be explored to its maximum potential. Often the role of microbes in these fermented foods have also been underplayed and left unexplored.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:40:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221085138
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on college student diet quality and physical activity

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      Authors: Melissa D. Olfert, Rachel A. Wattick, Emily G. Saurborn, Rebecca L. Hagedorn
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic can cause in increase in stress experienced by college students and consequently, potentially adversely affect their health behaviours. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate how COVID-19 impacted college-attending young adults diet quality and physical activity. Methods: Students attending an Appalachian university in spring 2020 participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were surveyed on their eating habits, diet quality, and physical activity before and since COVID-19. Frequencies of responses were analyzed and Bowker's test was used to determine differences in responses before and since COVID-19. Alpha was set at 0.05. Results: Almost one third (32.6%) of students reported eating somewhat more since COVID-19 and 67.9% of these students stated it was due to boredom. Students showed a significant increase in frequency of eating and in consumption of almost every food group. The number of students engaging in low physical activity increased from 27.8% to 51.9% and the number of students engaging in high physical activity decreased from 59.5% to 34.0% (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T08:17:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221086772
       
  • Nutritional and food education as a complementary treatment approach in
           severe obese individuals

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      Authors: Erika Aparecida Silveira, Andrea Batista Canheta, Matias Noll, Ana Paula Santos Rodrigues, Cesar de Oliveira
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The treatment for obesity, specifically severe obesity, is a challenge for health professionals and services. It requires a multidisciplinary and holistic approach covering the complexity and difficulties of incorporating healthy habits to prevent associated diseases and mortality. Individual intervention's methods are not enough to change eating habits. Objective: To describe and investigate the contribution of nutritional and food education as a complementary therapeutic approach in the treatment of individuals with severe obesity and their family members. Methods: A multidisciplinary team adopted a group approach. A different topic was addressed at each therapeutic meeting to assist in the nutritional treatment of obesity, such as diet and healthy habits i.e. barriers to lifestyle changes. The topics were developed based on different methodological and teaching approaches to facilitate adherence to non-drug treatment. Results: Overall, there was a greater understanding towards the adoption of healthy eating habits of the whole family, greater motivation to adhere to dietary changes and adoption of a more physical active lifestyle. This interventional educational support methodology had been accepted in such a positive way for patients and their relatives. Family member participation expands the possibilities of establishing necessary and lasting changes in the lifestyle of not only the patients, but their whole families. Conclusion: Health education actions constitute an important complementary therapeutic approach in promoting health and preventing complications in individuals with severe obesity. This article can be useful to enlarge the debate on the subject and face the challenges related to the effective treatment of obesity, notably severe obesity.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T09:16:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221080246
       
  • Feasibility of parents promoting fruit-infused water to reduce preschool
           children’s sugar-sweetened beverage consumption

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      Authors: Susan B. Quelly, Dawn O. Eckhoff, Geraldine Luzincourt, Jeanette Garcia, Sharlene Smith
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Increasing water and decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in preschoolers provide a strategy to reduce lifelong obesity risks. Aim: To determine feasibility/acceptability and examine preliminary findings of an innovative intervention for preschooler parents to promote fruit-infused water (FIW) to decrease SSB intake. Methods: Fourteen parents of preschoolers completed a pre-intervention survey, attended a presentation with a FIW demonstration/taste-testing, received pitchers/strainers, cutting boards, and FIW recipes/instructions, and received 8 supportive text messages over one month. Feasibility/acceptability was determined from analyzing parents’ responses about participating. Descriptive statistics were conducted to analyze pre-/post-intervention survey data. Results: Three themes emerged: “Healthy Option Alternative”; “Feasible to Make FIW at Home”; and “Benefits for Parents”. Preliminary findings from ten parents completing both pre-/post-intervention surveys indicated a decrease in preschoolers’ total SSB amount/kcal intake, and an increase in parent self-efficacy and FIW knowledge/consumption. Conclusion: Preliminary findings provide valuable feasibility/acceptability information to guide a larger future study
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221086113
       
  • Daily consumption of ultra-processed foods and cardiometabolic risk
           factors in children aged 7 to 10 years in Northeast Brazil

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      Authors: Isabella da Costa Ribeiro, Tafnes Laís Pereira Santos de Almeida Oliveira, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Isabele Góes Nobre, Ravi Marinho dos Santos, Camilla Peixoto Santos Rodrigues, Maria Vitória dos Santos Costa, Maria Carla Melo Damasceno, Wylla Tatiana Ferreira e Silva, Carol Góis Leandro
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption is associated with pediatric overweight and obesity. Aim: To evaluate the UPFs consumption in children classified either as eutrophic or with excess weight (overweight and obesity). It was also described the fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the correlation between UPFs consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: A total of 139 children aged 7–10years of both sexes, living in Northeast Brazil were classified as eutrophic (n = 65) or excess weight (n = 62). Waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fatness (% BF), fat-free-mass and fat mass were evaluated. Fasting blood sample were collected for biochemical analysis. Food consumption was classified according to the degree of processing. Results: Children with excess weight had a reduction in plasma HDL concentration (45.00; IQR:36.00–54.50 mg/dL vs. 40.00; IQR:35.75–45.25 mg/dL; p = 0.021) and an increase in blood glucose (82.00; IQR:79.00–86.00 mg/dL vs. 86.00; IQR:81.00–90.00 mg/dL; p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:51:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221084816
       
  • Low-carbohydrate diets and men's cortisol and testosterone: Systematic
           review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Joseph Whittaker, Miranda Harris
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Low-carbohydrate diets may have endocrine effects, although individual studies are conflicting. Therefore, a review was conducted on the effects of low- versus high-carbohydrate diets on men's testosterone and cortisol. Methods: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021255957). The inclusion criteria were: intervention study, healthy adult males, and low-carbohydrate diet: ≤35% carbohydrate. Eight databases were searched from conception to May 2021. Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used for quality assessment. Random-effects, meta-analyses using standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals, were performed with Review Manager. Subgroup analyses were conducted for diet duration, protein intake, and exercise duration. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included, with a total of 309 participants. Short-term (
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T04:31:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221083079
       
  • Identify the report as a systematic review

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      Authors: Cummins-Williams Kirsty, Hickson Mary, Jonathan Sumner
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: To examine the relationship of vitamin B12 and folate concentrations to cognitive function, fatigue measures, physical function, quality of life (patient-centred outcomes) and homocysteine plasma concentrations (intermediate marker of cobalamin and folate deficiency) for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Methods: Systematic searches for eligible articles of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and OpenGray databases were conducted from 1983 in March 2021. Heterogeneity, Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) and Confidence Intervals (CI) calculated using Random Effects Model. Results: Sixteen studies were included involving; 616 MS patients and 655 healthy controls. 14 of these had acceptable or better quality but there was high heterogeneity. No difference was found between MS, healthy controls for folate and cobalamin concentrations; WMD 0.00ug/L (95% CI: −0.01, 0.01) and WMD 7.01pmol/L (95% CI: −25.54, 39.55) respectively. MS group showed mild-to-moderate disability WMD was 2.78 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.56). MS may be associated with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations on average 2.47µmol/L more than healthy controls. Discussion: Physical ability of MS group was worse than healthy controls, but there was no difference in folate and cobalamin concentrations. This suggests folate and cobalamin are not influential factors in worsening physical function. There may be an association between worse cognitive function, and increased homocysteine concentrations. Results were inconclusive due to high heterogeneity and limited number of studies. A core outcome set would enable easier synthesis of future results.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T04:31:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221080240
       
  • Determinants of nutritional status among under-five children receiving
           Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in India

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      Authors: Manas Ranjan Pradhan, Mahesh Rajendra Shete
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Undernutrition is a significant public health problem and the leading risk factor for India's disease burden. Aim: To understand the determinants of nutritional status among under-five children receiving Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in India. Methods: The study used the National Family Health Survey–4 (2015–16) data. The analysis was carried out for under-five children who have availed of any ICDS services in the 12 months preceding the survey (n = 1,27,813). Stunting, wasting, and underweight were estimated following the World Health Organization guideline and used as the outcome variables. The binary logistic regression was conducted to examine the association of ICDS utilization and socioeconomic-demographic predictors with under-five children's nutritional status. STATA (V 13) was used for statistical analyses. Results: A sizable proportion of under-five children receiving any ICDS services suffer from undernutrition. The undernutrition prevalence varied considerably by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression found an insignificant association of ICDS utilization with the nutritional status of under-five children. Children not immunized in ICDS centers were less likely to be stunted (OR: 0.93; P 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T10:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221085809
       
  • Improvement of vitamin D status through consumption of either fortified
           food products or supplement pills increased hemoglobin concentration in
           adult subjects: Analysis of pooled data from two randomized clinical
           trials

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      Authors: Bahareh Nikooyeh, Maliheh Zahedirad, Ali Kalayi, Nastaran Shariatzadeh, Bruce W. Hollis, Tirang R. Neyestani
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: It is documented that vitamin D may have a role in erythropoiesis as its deficiency is accompanied by an increased risk of anemia. Aim: This study aimed to examine whether improvement of vitamin D status through daily consumption of either fortified foods or supplements could impinge on certain hematologic parameters in adults. Methods: We pooled data from our two separate clinical trials and made five experimental groups. As part of their usual diet, one group consumed 500 mL/day of yogurt drink fortified with 1000 IU of vitamin D (D-yogurt, n = 27) whereas one group consumed 500 mL/day of the plain yogurt drink (P-yogurt, n = 27). In addition three other groups consumed either 50 g/day bread fortified with 1000 IU of vitamin D (D-bread) or supplement containing 1000 IU vitamin D (D-supplement, n = 27) or placebo (placebo, n = 27). Biochemical measurements were performed before and after the intervention. Results: In all three vitamin D-supplemented groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased after the intervention period, which was interestingly accompanied by a significant increment of hemoglobin (D-yogurt, p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T10:48:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221085351
       
  • Prevalence and predictive factors of malnutrition in Thai children with
           congenital heart disease and short-term postoperative growth outcomes

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      Authors: Saviga Sethasathien, Suchaya Silvilairat, Rekwan Sittiwangkul, Krit Makonkawkeyoon, Kulnipa Kittisakmontri, Yupada Pongprot
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Growth restriction is still a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Evidence demonstrates that performing cardiac surgery in appropriate timing may result in better growth outcome. Aim: To investigate prevalence and associated factors of malnutrition in pediatric patients with CHD who underwent cardiac surgery. In addition, post-operative growth outcomes at two weeks following cardiac surgery were also assessed. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in pediatric patients who underwent cardiac surgery at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January and September 2014. Results: One hundred patients with a median age of 28.5 months (range 14–62 months) were enrolled. Two-third of these patients had at least one form of malnutrition before receiving surgical treatment while wasting, stunting and combined wasting-stunting accounted for 23%, 28%, and 15% of patients, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that congestive heart failure-related symptoms were significantly associated with increasing risk of malnutrition (adjusted OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.78–11.26, p = 0.001). Two weeks after hospital discharge, wasting patients with regardless of stunting had significantly improved weight for height (WHZ) and weight for length Z-scores (WLZ) compared to growth parameters at the time of cardiac surgery, p = 0.012 and p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T10:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082382
       
  • Dietary patterns and risk of multiple sclerosis: Results of a
           double-center case-control study in Iran

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      Authors: Tohid Rouzitalab, Nitin Shivappa, Elnaz Daneshzad, Azimeh Izadi, Meisam Sanoobar, Nafiseh Khandouzi, Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Mohammad khalili
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: It has been suggested that nutrition might contribute to multiple sclerosis etiology (MS). Aim: This case-control study aimed to determine the role of food habits and dietary patterns in preventing or developing MS in a multicenter study in Iran (Tehran and Shiraz). Methods: In this study, food intake of (106 patients with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 72 healthy controls in Tehran) and (75 patients with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 72 healthy controls in Shiraz) were collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis. The association between dietary patterns and the risk of MS was analyzed by Logistic regression. Results: Two major dietary patterns were extracted: the “healthy” and the “unhealthy” patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, in Tehran city, subjects in the highest tertile of the unhealthy dietary pattern score had greater odds of having MS, compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.95–2.41]; p for trend  =  0.01). In Shiraz city, subjects in the highest tertile of the unhealthy dietary pattern score had greater odds with MS than those in the lowest tertile (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: [1.27-7.38]; p for trend  =  0.01). However, in both groups, no significant association was found between healthy dietary pattern and MS risk. Conclusions: Adherence to unhealthy dietary pattern may increase the risk of MS in Iran. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for preventing MS.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082379
       
  • Associations among Self-Reported Mental Health, Physical Activity, and
           Diet during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Jennifer A. Andersen, Brett Rowland, Erin Gloster, Don E. Willis, Nestor Hernandez, Holly C. Felix, Christopher R. Long, Pearl A. McElfish
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Understanding the relationship between physical activity, diet, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic may help inform resources encouraging healthy lifestyle choices during the time of an increased threat to health and wellbeing. Aim: Our objective was to examine how self-rated mental health was associated with engagement in physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study utilized cross-sectional survey data from adults (≥18 years of age) living, working, and/or receiving healthcare in Arkansas (n  =  754). Multivariable regression models were used to examine the associations between self-rated mental health and the number of days respondents engaged in 30 min of physical activity and the number of days respondents consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables. Results: Respondents who reported somewhat poor/poor mental health reported engaging in at least 30 min of physical activity fewer days per week (β  =  -.77, p  =  .018) compared with those reporting excellent mental health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors and self-rated health. The significant association observed in the first two models between mental health and number of days consuming five or more servings of fruits and vegetables became non-significant after inclusion of self-rated health. Conclusion: The relationship between mental health and physical activity and diet reaffirms a need for healthcare providers to promote the importance of maintaining both a healthy physical activity level and a nutrient-rich diet in the face of challenging circumstances, such as a global pandemic.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:20:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082362
       
  • Complementary feeding practices and associated factors among children aged
           6-23 months in rural Haramaya district, Eastern Ethiopia: A
           community-based cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Mahdi Ebroshe, Lemessa Oljira, Bezatu Mengiste, Hassen Abdi Adem, Addisu Alemu, Gelana Fekadu
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The age of children up to 59 months is a critical period for children's growth and development and the age when optimal complementary feeding is crucial. Aim: To assess optimal complementary feeding practices and associated factors among children aged 6–23 months in rural Haramaya district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24 was used for the analyses. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted at p-value 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082373
       
  • Changes in eating habits, sleep, and physical activity during coronavirus
           disease (COVID-19) pandemic: A longitudinal study in young Brazilian adult
           males

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      Authors: Cinthia Rejane Corrêa, Bruno Gonçalves Galdino da Costa, Talissa Dezanetti, Richard Emanuel Filipini, Everson Araújo Nunes
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has promoted changes in lifestyle behaviors, such as food consumption, sleep, and physical activity (PA). Few longitudinal studies have investigated these changes in young adults. Aim: This study aimed to assess lifestyle behaviors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in young adult males. Methods: 50 young adult males (18–35 years) recruited by posters and social media in Florianopolis, Brazil, provided data on food consumption, PA, and sleep in 2018–2019 (baseline) and during the pandemic in 2020 (follow-up). PA and sleep variables were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Food records were used to evaluate food consumption. Weight was measured using Bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and using self-reported at follow-up. Multilevel linear regression models and generalized linear multilevel were used to test differences between baseline and follow-up. Results: The findings indicated significant changes at follow-up, compared to baseline. Decreased consumption of total fat (β = −13.32, 95% CI (−22.45; −4.18), p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221081653
       
  • The nutritional status of community-dwelling elderly in Lesotho and
           factors associated with malnutrition

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      Authors: Rose Kokui Dufe Turkson, Jennifer Ngounda, Riette Nel, Corinna May Walsh
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: The elderly living in Africa are prone to malnutrition which is complicated by the high prevalence of poverty. This study assessed the nutritional status of the elderly and factors associated with malnutrition. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, the nutritional status of 300 participants aged 65 years and older was determined using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire consisting of 18 questions. Socio-demographic data was obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty-six percent were at risk of malnutrition, while 14.6% (n = 44) were malnourished. Participants that did not use electricity as a fuel for cooking versus those that did, had higher odds of being malnourished/ at risk of malnutrition (OR = 1.85 [1.04; 3.31]). Those that did not experience psychological stress or acute disease versus those that did, had lower odds of being malnourished/at risk of malnutrition (OR = 0.33 [0.12; 0.90]). Participants that did not perceive nutritional problems versus those that did, had lower odds of being malnourished/at risk of malnutrition (OR = 0.18 [0.09; 0.34]). Similarly, those that did not perceive their health status as poor versus those that did, had lower odds of being malnourished/at risk of malnutrition (OR = 0.17 [0.08; 0.34]). Discussion: The findings indicate that the elderly with more resources, less stress, and better actual and perceived health were less likely to be malnourished. In such communities, routine screening in the elderly is required to identify those with compromised health and nutritional status.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221082368
       
  • Prevalence of night eating syndrome among inbound call centre employees in
           Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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      Authors: AN Anthonisamy, S Misra, A Barua
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Night eating syndrome (NES) is described as a disordered eating pattern relative to sleep, where consumption of food occurs in the evening and night. Numerous studies had been conducted in various populations but studies on (NES) among call centre employees are limited. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NES and its determinants among selected inbound call centre employees in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 217 inbound call centre employees were recruited through random sampling. A self-administered socio-demographic and work-related questionnaire was used to collect data on the background of the respondents. Information on NES and well-being was obtained by using the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) and World Health Organisation-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) respectively. Data on dietary intakes, smoking habits, alcohol intakes and life stress were acquired using a Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ) while eating behaviour of the respondents was studied using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-18). Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24.1 ± 6.0 years. The prevalence of NES was 12.0% (95% CI = 8.12–17.24). The binary logistic regression identified that NES is significantly associated with adequate exercise (AOR = 4.250, p = 0.012) and emotional eating (AOR = 6.510, p = 0.014). Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of NES was high in the call centre and repeated nocturnal eating can have multiple adverse health effects. Therefore, promoting healthy eating habits are crucial to reduce the impacts of NES.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T05:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221081198
       
  • What determines omnivores’ meat consumption and their willingness to
           reduce the amount of meat they eat'

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      Authors: Irene Roozen, Mariet Raedts
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Some meat eaters are faced with a dilemma: they like to eat meat, but they are also concerned about animal welfare, the environmental impact of meat production, and health risks associated with meat consumption. Aim We investigated the interrelationship between ‘meat attachment’ (people's affective connection towards meat) and the ‘4Ns’ (four defence arguments omnivores use to justify their meat consumption: eating meat is normal, necessary, nice, and natural), two constructs often used by researchers to measure omnivores justifications for meat consumption. Second, we compared the predictive power of both constructs on omnivores’ (willingness to reduce) meat consumption in a regression model that also included age, gender, educational level, financial status, and participants’ beliefs concerning environmental, ethical and health issues of eating meat. Methods: In total 203 Belgian omnivores (47.4% men) completed an online questionnaire in February 2020. Their ages ranged from 18 to 55 (M = 23.57, SD = 4.64). Results: Results indicate that the correlations between the different dimensions of ‘meat attachment’ and the 4Ns are significantly positive (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T04:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221080255
       
  • Association between perceived discrimination and food insecurity among
           sexual minority men

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      Authors: Alvin Tran, Nick Birk, Timothy Skalaban, Selena Chom
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Despite numerous studies focusing on the burden of food insecurity, few have assessed its impact among sexual minority (LGB) populations. Sexual minority individuals are subject to chronic levels of stress, including stigma, prejudice, and discrimination as a result of their sexual orientation identity. While few studies have documented food insecurity among sexual minorities, the relationship between food insecurity and discrimination among this stigmatized population remains unclear. Aim: This study aimed to assess the toll of food insecurity among a sample of sexual minority men (i.e. bisexual and gay men) in the U.S. Guided by the Minority Stress Theory, the study also assessed the relationship between food insecurity and perceived discrimination. Methods: Researchers disseminated an online survey and recruited gay and bisexual men in the U.S. The survey collected participants’ demographic information, perceived discrimination, and food insecurity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and food insecurity. Results: A total of 504 sexual minority men (49.2% bisexual and 50.8% gay) completed the survey. Results from logistic regression models suggest perceived discrimination was significantly associated with food insecurity (OR = 1.14, CI: 1.11–1.18). Those living with a partner demonstrated lower odds of food insecurity (OR = 0.38, CI: 0.18–0.71). Conclusion: The present study found a significant association between perceived discrimination and food insecurity among sexual minority men. The findings need to be replicated and further explored through additional research, including qualitative methods, to better elucidate how discrimination is related to experiences with food insecurity among gay and bisexual men.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T01:32:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221080242
       
  • Exploring perceptions about Mindfulness and Mindful Eating Programs for
           low-income women with overweight in primary health care

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      Authors: Vera Salvo, Mariana Cabral Schveitzer, Adriana Sanudo, Maria Lucia Favarato, Marcelo Demarzo
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Obesity and overweight are public health problems of multifactorial etiology, aggravated by the challenge that is maintaining weight loss. Used in the context of general health, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have also showed positive effects when targeting changes to overweight-related eating behaviors. Methods: This study consists of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial conducted with 284 women from primary health care units. Data were collected from the last session with 16 focus groups, considering each intervention group (mindfulness or mindful eating) Aim: This article aims to present the perceptions of low-income overweight women who participated in Mindfulness and Mindful Eating intervention groups in primary health care according to each type of intervention. Results: Seven themes were identified: course challenges; valorization of the teacher's attitudes; mindfulness understanding; self-awareness development; change of expectations; development of a different food–weight relationship; and discover of a wide range of benefits. Conclusion: Mindfulness and Mindful eating interventions affect not only an individual's relationship with body and food, but also life and human relations. The results indicate the feasibility of the intervention, which addresses a large number of patients who lack treatment options for overweight or emotional and psychological issues associated with this condition. MBIs such as mindful eating are applicable in primary health care facilities, targeting overweight women and supporting treatment by addressing a repressed demand in the system. Similar to mind-body therapies, these interventions allow for comprehensive care.ClinicalTrials.gov, (NCT02893150) on 30 March 2017.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T01:43:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221075537
       
  • Adequacy of total usual micronutrient intakes among pregnant women in the
           United States by level of dairy consumption, NHANES 2003–2016

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      Authors: Kelly A Higgins, Xiaoyu Bi, Benjamin JK Davis, Leila M Barraj, Carolyn G Scrafford, Mary M Murphy
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Dairy products are a rich source of nutrients of public health concern, though most women do not meet the recommended intake of 3 cup-eq/day. Aim: The objective of this analysis was to examine micronutrient adequacy among pregnant women in the US by level of dairy consumption. Methods: Pregnant women (n  =  791) ages 20–44 years in NHANES 2003–2016 were categorized by level of dairy consumption (
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211072325
       
  • Eligibility and Prevalence of the American Heart Association Heart Check
           Certification Program in the US Packaged Food and Beverage Supply: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

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      Authors: Mianzhao (Tracy) Guo, Abigail S. Baldridge, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Linda V. Van Horn, Kranti Rumalla, Brooke Bright, Dagan Xavier, Mark D. Huffman
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Consumers in the US make choices within a food supply dominated by processed packaged foods and beverage products. Front-of-package nutrition labels (FOPL) equip consumers to make healthier choices, but further evaluation and regulation regarding FOPL format, scope, and display have been recommended by the World Health Organization. As a leader in consumer FOPL guidance, the American Heart Association's (AHA) Heart Check programme certifies food companies seeking to add an AHA Heart Check logo as a FOPL for qualifying heart healthy products. A cross-sectional assessment of the AHA Heart Check Standard Certification was conducted within the US packaged food and beverage supply to assess the eligibility and prevalence of the programme as a FOPL. Methods: Data were derived from Label Insight's Open Data initiative, which is the largest publicly-available US branded food composition database. The proportions of products that were certified and eligible to be certified for the Standard Certification were reported by nutrient attributes, grocery aisles and food brands. Results: Among 153,453 products examined, fewer than 1% exhibited the Heart Check certification on their label. Among products that were not Heart Check certified,13.8% were eligible for Standard Certification. The most common reason for ineligibility was the saturated fat content (52%), followed by total fat content (47%) and sodium content (47%). Heart Check certification and eligibility differed substantially across grocery aisle categories. Conclusions: The abundance of unhealthy products in the US packaged food and beverage supply and absence of harmonized FOPL policies suggest the need for FOPL like the Heart Check label to promote adherence to healthy diets. There are opportunities for food manufacturers and the AHA to certify more heart healthy foods and beverages. However, more consistent criteria and transparent labelling could enhance Heart Check certification to facilitate consumers’ ability to make more informed and healthful purchases.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T05:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221075536
       
  • The effect of food prescription programs on chronic disease management in
           primarily low-income populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Alyson Haslam, Jennifer Gill, Tori Taniguchi, Charlotte Love, Valarie Bluebird Jernigan
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Having low-income limits one's ability to purchase foods that are high in nutritional value (e.g. vegetables and fruits (V/F)). Higher V/F intake is associated with less diet-related chronic disease. Food pharmacy programs are potential solutions to providing V/F to low-income populations with or at-risk for chronic disease. Aim: This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of food pharmacy programs, including interventions targeting populations at-risk for chronic disease. Methods: We searched Pubmed and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting on food pharmacy interventions and outcomes (hemoglobin A1c, body mass index (BMI), V/F intake, and blood pressure). We calculated pooled mean differences using a random-effects model. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria; 13 studies used a pre/post study design, three used a randomized controlled trial, and one was a post-survey only. Results: We found that the pooled mean daily servings of V/F (0.77; 95% CI: 0.30 to 1.24) was higher and BMI (−0.40; 95% CI: −0.50 to −0.31) was lower with food pharmacy interventions We did not find any differences in the pooled mean differences for hemoglobin A1c or systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Findings posit that food pharmacy programs delivered to primarily low-income individuals with comorbidities may be a promising solution to improving V/F intake and possibly overall diet in these populations.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T05:41:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211070718
       
  • Social Influence on Fad Diet Use: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Mandy Spadine, Megan S. Patterson
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: A fad diet is a broad term used to describe dieting methods that recommend altering the intake of macronutrients to specific proportions or instruct people to intake or avoid particular foods, often with the goal of rapid weight loss. Previous literature reviews report social influence impacts general diet behaviour, but have yet to examine fad diets, specifically. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize literature related to social influence on an individual's fad diet use and understand the sociocultural factors related to diet use. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases were searched to identify articles investigating the impact of social on fad diet use. Covidence was used to manage the review process and Garrard's Matrix Method was used to extract data from reviewed articles (n   =   13). Results: A majority of reviewed studies examined interpersonal influence (62%) and reported social influence impacting a variety of fad diet behaviours (92%). Interpersonal and media influence were highlighted as motivating factors for adopting unhealthy dieting methods (54%), and studies showed interpersonal support impacted adoption and maintenance of fad diet use (23%). Also, social norms were reported to influence unhealthy weight control behaviours (15%). Discussion: This review revealed social influence is associated with the adoption, adherence, and termination of fad diets. The prevalence of fad diets in society and the lack of research on this topic warrants further examination of factors related to fad diets use and the spread among interpersonal networks.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211072370
       
  • Caloric adequacy of parenteral nutrition and its influence on the clinical
           outcome of hospitalised patients

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      Authors: Carmen de Cáceres, Teresa Rico, Cristina Abreu, Ana Isabel Velasco, Rafael Lozano, Maria Carmen Lozano
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The adaptation of Parenteral Nutrition (PN) to actual energy requirements of hospitalised patients is essential, since excessive and insufficient nutritional intake have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Aim: To evaluate the adaptation of prescribed PN to the estimated nutritional requirements using three predictive equations and the influence of excessive/insufficient nutrient intake on patient clinical outcomes (nutritional parameters, metabolic and infectious complications). Methods: Prospective, observational study in hospitalised patients nutritionally assessed. Data was collected the first and fifth/sixth day of PN with clinical (infection, length of hospital stay), biochemical (visceral proteins, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, lymphocytes, CRP) and anthropometric parameters (skin folds, height, weight). Theoretical requirements were calculated using Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin-St Jeor (MF) and 25 Kcal/Kg/day formulas. The HB formula was used to compare estimated and provided requirements. Results: A total of 94 patients (mean: 72 ± 13.7 years old) were included with initial mean weight and height of 69.2 Kg and 162.8 cm, respectively (mean BMI: 26.1 Kg/m2). No statistically significant differences were found between the actual (1620 Kcal/day) and estimated caloric mean calculated with HB (1643 Kcal/day) and MF (1628 Kcal/day). When comparing with the caloric estimation, 31.9% of patients were underfed, while 14.9% were overfed. Intergroup analysis demonstrated significant variations in albumin, prealbumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and MUAC, with a significant increase of hyperglycaemia (+37.86; p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:07:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211070108
       
  • Potential therapeutic effects of green tea on obese lipid profile –
           a systematic review

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      Authors: Ana Paula Azevêdo Macêdo, Mariane dos Santos Gonçalves, Jairza Maria Barreto Medeiros, Jorge Mauricio David, Cristiane Flora Villarreal, Simone Garcia Macambira, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Ricardo David Couto
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Green tea, obtained from the plant Camellis sinensis, is one of the oldest drinks in the world and contains numerous bioactive compounds. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of green tea in preventing obesity and cardiovascular diseases that may be related to the reduction of lipid levels. Aim: This study aimed to evidence, through a systematic review, the therapeutic potential of green tea on the lipid profile in preclinical studies in obese animals and clinical studies in obese individuals. Methods: This systematic review follows the recommendations of the preferred report items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The electronic databases, PubMed (Medline), Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science were consulted. Articles from January 2009 to December 2019 were selected. Results: This search resulted in twenty-nine articles were included cirtically reviewed. In experimental studies, green tea administration has been shown to reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in animals exposed to obesity-inducing diet. In humans’ studies green tea was not shown to be effective for obese lipid control. Because supplementation with green tea extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein for three months at a specific dose. Conclusion: Therefore, green tea appears to act as a protective agent for dyslipidemia in obesity-induced animals. In human studies, green tea has not been shown to be effective in controlling obese lipids.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T03:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211073236
       
  • Dietary intake patterns, nutrient adequacy and associated factors in a
           multi-ethnic Caribbean population

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      Authors: Selby Nichols, Nequesha Dalrymple, Patrice Prout, Anisa Ramcharitar-Bourne
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Diet is a significant contributor to health and wellbeing of individuals. Aim: In this study we investigated patterns of dietary intakes, levels of nutrient inadequacies and associated sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors among adults in Trinidad and Tobago. Method: The study was cross-sectional in nature. A convenience sample of 11783 persons from districts throughout Trinidad and Tobago completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising socio-demographic and lifestyle items. Anthropometry was self-reported with 15% of participants having measurements done according to recommended procedures. Dietary patterns were determined by principal component analysis (PCA) while nutrient intakes and adequacy were assessed using the NutriGenie 7.0 software and nutrient adequacy ratio (MAR) respectively. Foods were categorised as unprocessed/minimally processed and processed/ultra-processed. The University of The West Indies Ethics Committee approved the study. Results: Approximately 72.5% of participants met the Goldberg criteria for plausible reporting. The three predominant dietary patterns ‘Typical’, ‘Fruits and Vegetables’, and ‘High Fat’ explained 45% of the total variance in foods consumed. Processed/ultra-processed foods accounted for most of the energy (80%) and nutrients consumed. Nutrient inadequacies were observed for potassium, vitamins B12, D, E, K, fibre, magnesium; and iron among females. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for participants was 67%. MAR was positively associated with predominant dietary patterns independent of socioe demographic and lifestyle factors (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T03:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211070907
       
  • Identifying correlates of salt reduction practices among rural,
           middle-aged Muslim Indonesians with hypertension through structural
           equation modeling

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      Authors: Mayumi Mizutani, Junko Tashiro, Heri Sugiarto, Maftuhah, Riyanto, Jeremiah Mock, Kazuhiro Nakayama
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: In 2016, the World Health Organization recommended salt reduction strategies. In most low- and middle-income countries, little is known about what causes people to reduce their salt intake. Aim: In rural West Java, Indonesia, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to describe self-reported salt reduction practices among middle-aged Muslims with hypertension (n = 447) and to identify correlates of salt reduction. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with Likert scales to measure self-reported frequency of efforts to reduce salt intake, and degree of agreement/disagreement with 51 statements about variables hypothesized to influence salt reduction practices. We compared groups using t-tests and one-way ANOVAs. Through one-factor confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, we identified correlates of salt reduction practices. Results: About 45% of participants reported regularly reducing their salt intake; only 12.8% reported never attempting. Men reported higher social barriers, while women reported higher family support and spiritual support. Overall, we found that participants’ frequency of effort to reduce their salt intake was associated with a constellation of six correlates. Salt reduction practices were directly positively associated with prior health/illness experiences (β = 0.25), and by seeking health information (β = 0.24). Seeking health information was in turn positively associated with prior health/illness experiences (β = 0.34), receiving support from health professionals (β = 0.23) and Islamic spiritual practice (β = 0.24). Salt reduction practices were negatively associated with environmental barriers to healthful eating practices (β = -0.14). Conclusion: In this population, reinforcing positive correlates identified in this study and mitigating against negative correlates may foster salt reduction practices.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T03:23:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211057624
       
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Successful aging in Greeks living
           in Greece and abroad: the epidemiological Mediterranean Islands Study
           (MEDIS)

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      Authors: Anastasia Papadimitriou, Alexandra Foscolou, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Antonia Thodis, Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Laima Brazionis, Amalia C. Sidossis, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Peter Kokkinos, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Labros S. Sidossis
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Whether older immigrant populations from the Mediterranean region, continue to follow the MD long after they immigrated is not known. Aim: Compare adherence to the MD and successful aging levels between Greeks living in Greece (GG) and Greeks living abroad (GA). Methods: Anthropometrical, clinical, psychological, sociodemographic, dietary and lifestyle parameters were assessed in a cross-sectional manner in a sample of 252 GG and 252 GA. Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietScore range 0-55) was used to assess adherence to the MD. Successful aging was evaluated with the validated successful aging index (SAI range 0-10). Results: GA presented higher adherence to MD (p 
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T03:14:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060211072363
       
  • Editorial

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      First page: 135
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T11:25:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221100266
       
  • Effects of mood on self-regulating physical activity and sweets intake
           within obesity treatments

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      Authors: James J Annesi
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Although emotional eating is associated with obesity in women, psychological correlates of their treatment-based weight-reduction behaviors are unclear. Aim: To test new model-based propositions of effects of mood on self-regulating physical activity and eating to inform interventions. Methods: Women in community-based obesity treatments with emphases on either self-regulation (n = 56) or weight-management education (n = 54) were assessed on psychological and behavioral variables over 12 months. Results: Emotional eating scores were significantly higher than general samples. Overall significant improvements were found in physical activity- and eating-related self-regulation, mood, physical activity, and sweets consumption. Improvements were more pronounced in the self-regulation-emphasis group. Mood significantly moderated self-regulation-behavior change relationships. Increased physical activity predicted improved mood. Discussion: Findings (a) suggested propensities for emotional eating in women with obesity seeking behavioral treatment, (b) clarified treatment effects and the effect of mood in the self-regulation of physical activity and eating behaviors, and (c) supported model-based treatment targets.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T10:34:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221078157
       
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food and drink consumption and related
           factors: A scoping review

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      Authors: Misa Shimpo, Rie Akamatsu, Yui Kojima
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The lockdown imposed due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused several lifestyle changes. Aim: This scoping review aimed to report the present status of studies conducted on changes and factors related to food and drink consumption worldwide. Methods: Searches were performed in PubMed and EBSCO between August 6 and August 22, 2020 using the following criteria: (1) studies reporting changes in the current individual consumption of specific foods and snacks compared to that before the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) participants aged 18 years or older and without any diagnosable disease; and (3) articles that are peer-reviewed publications available in English. Studies were excluded if they involved an intervention related to diet or investigated the change in COVID-19 incidence. Results: Twelve articles were included in this review. The included studies revealed that there were various changes in food and drink consumption, such as the frequency and amount of consumption of snacks (n = 9), alcohol (n = 7), and vegetables and fruits (n = 5). These changes showed both increasing and decreasing trends. Of the 12 studies, 10 reported factors related to dietary changes, such as age, body mass index, psychological conditions, and residence; however, most of the results regarding these factors were inconsistent. Conclusions: Future studies should investigate long-term dietary changes and examine the factors that influence these changes to determine the pandemic's long-term impact.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T03:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221078161
       
  • Thymic Dysfunction and Atrophy in COVID-19 Disease Complicated by
           Inflammation, Malnutrition and Cachexia

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      Authors: Kate Chander Chiang, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Ajay Gupta
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has put millions of people, especially children at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) by pushing them into poverty and disrupting the global food supply chain. The thymus is severely affected by nutritional deficiencies and is known as a barometer of malnutrition. Aim: The present commentary provides a novel perspective on the role of malnutrition-induced thymic dysfunction, involution and atrophy on the risk and severity of disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A review of pertinent indexed literature including studies examining the effects of malnutrition on the thymus and immune dysfunction in COVID-19. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies of zinc, iron and vitamin A are known to promote thymic dysfunction and thymocyte loss in children. Malnutrition- and infection-induced thymic atrophy and immune dysfunction may increase the risk of first, progression of COVID-19 disease to more severe forms including development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); second, slow the recovery from COVID-19 disease; and third, increase the risk of other infections. Furthermore, malnourished children may be at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection due to socioeconomic conditions that promote viral transmission amongst contacts and create barriers to vaccination. Conclusion: National governments and international organizations including WHO, World Food Program, and UNICEF should institute measures to ensure provision of food and micronutrients for children at risk in order to limit the health impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221083160
       
  • The effectiveness of nutritional interventions on COVID-19 outcomes: A
           protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Azam Doustmohammadian, Cain CT Clark, Maryam Amini
      First page: 213
      Abstract: Nutrition and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Despite global efforts to treat and alleviate the outcomes of COVID-19, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal approach. Some nutrients have been known to be vital for the integrity of the immune system. Although limited interventional studies support this idea, the findings of some cross-sectional and case studies have been encouraging. Aim: The present study will seek to determine the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on the outcomes of COVID-19. Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar will be searched for articles published from October 1st, 2019, to January 12th, 2022. Different study designs, both randomized and nonrandomized trials, cross-sectional or cohort studies, and pre and post-interventions will be included. Screening, selection, and extraction of data as well as quality assessment of included studies, will be carried out by two separate reviewers. Any potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion. An appropriate risk of bias assessment tool will be used to appraise the included studies. Then, the results will be synthesized and pooled for meta-analysis. If the meta-analysis is not performed, the reason will be provided. After summarizing the results and providing conclusions, the specific features associated with effective interventions will be presented based on the power of each study.
      Citation: Nutrition and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T06:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02601060221080241
       
 
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