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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2166-5168 - ISSN (Online) 2166-5192
Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Determination of Mineral Content and Effect of Parboiling on Phytate
           Contents of Sahel 108, Sahel 328 and Sahel 329 Rice Varieties Grown in the
           Senegal River Valley

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 12, Number 2Fallou Sarr, Abdou Diouf, Stephany E. A. T. Maganga, Omar N. Faye, Amadou Tidiane GuiroThe purpose of this study was to determine the mineral contents (Fe, Ca, P, K) and to study the effect of parboiling on the phytate contents of rice varieties Sahel 108, Sahel 328 and Sahel 329 cultivated and consumed in Senegal. For each rice varieties studied, 1 kg of paddy was collected as a sample, cleaned and then soaked at 80°C for 16 hours. Afterwards, phytate and mineral contents were quantified. The study found a calcium content ranged from 108.96 to 142.25 mg/100g. For iron content, 3.61, 2.10 and 2.66 mg/100g were obtained for Sahel 108, Sahel 328 and Sahel 329, respectively. These different results shown that Sahel 108 presented the highest iron and calcium contents. Concerning phosphorus and potassium contents, 80.28, 100.89 mg/100g and 112.91 and 96.53, 92.99 and 127.83 mg/100g were, respectively for Sahel 108, Sahel 328 and Sahel 329. For these two minerals, Sahel 108 presented the lowest content. The results shown that all the untreated samples had similar phytate contents varying from 151.0 mg/100g to 170.1 mg/100g. The study revealed that, in one hand the rice varieties Sahel 108, Sahel 328 and Sahel 329 also contained phytates that inhibit the bioavailability of minerals like iron and in another hand, parboiling reduced significantly phytate levels while preserving mineral elements.
  • Investigation of Physicochemical and Biochemical Properties of Roasted
           Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) Flour

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 12, Number 1Bou Ndiaye, Seyni Ndiaye, Papa Guedel Faye, Ifeoma C. Orabueze, Abdou Diouf, Oumar Ibn Khatab Cisse, Edouard Mbarick Ndiaye, Alioune Sow, Mama Sakho, Nicolas C. M. AsseyouRoasting is a thermal process that has long been used in food processing. This study evaluates the effect of roasting on tiger nuts tuber’s physicochemical and biochemical parameters in order to produce high nutritional quality flour. The raw tiger nut were subjected to roasting procedure. The roasting was done using oven at a temperature of 147°C during 38 min. The nutritional properties analyses were performed on both dry raw tiger nut flour (DRTF) and roasted tiger nut flour (RTF). The data obtained for the analysis revealed that, moisture, total sugar, fat, protein contents, pH and L* index color decrease after roasting process. The contents decrease from 8.86 to 4.95% for moisture, 16.52 to 13,2% for total sugars, 6.11 to 5.04% for proteins, 24.33 for 23.83% for lipids. The pH and L index decrease respectively from 6.52 to 6.39 and 78.54 to 67.62. However, a significant increasing was constated in some parameters after roasting. Contents increase from 1.67 to 2.02% for reducing sugars, 58.29 to 63.76% for carbohydrate, 599.59 to 726.01 mg/100g for mineral elements (P, Mg, K, Ca, Na), 615.80 to 830.57 mgEAG/100g for total phenolic compounds and from 40.8 to 43.52 mgCE/100g for flavonoids. For antioxidant activity, inhibition varies from 32.94 to 60.03%, the energy value from 476.48 to 482.62 Kcal/100g, yellowing index (Y) from 31.33 to 48.20 after roasting. The browning index value were estimated from to 60.32 in roasted tiger nut flour. The infrared spectrum analysis reveals some functional groups and particular bonds in the two flours, and new bands appearing only in the roasted tiger nut flour (RTF). The roasting process reveals significant effects on color, water content, mineral elements, total sugar, polyphenols and antioxidant proprieties. It can be applied to improve the tiger nuts' nutritional value.
  • The Potential of Sprouted Sorghum Supplemented with Sprouted Soybeans in
           the Formulation of Preventive Diet for Osteoporosis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 12, Number 1Enemali Ojochenemi JohnPaul, Omede Ameh, Eneh William Nebechukwu, Ibrahim Iye Asenetu, Ovabor Bright, Suleiman Ibrahim Zainab, Hussaini Jonathan Solomon, Igwe Chinwe Vivian, Ishaya Daniel Bwala, Rita Ifeyinwa Hanson-AkpanOsteoporosis is a disease of the bone caused majorly by vitamin D deficiency, low calcium, bad eating habits, lack of oestrogen etc. Fortified diets had been used in the treatment of clinical disorders such as this. This study investigated the effect of sprouting on formulation of preventive diets for osteoporosis from sorghum and soyabeans flour blends. The sorghum and soyabeans were sprouted separately for five days. Sprouts with maximum nutrient were obtained and milled into flours. Sorghum flour was supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% soyabeans respectively. Proximate analysis of the samples showed that supplementation increased the crude protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents of the blends significantly (p
  • Gauging Cassava Land Use Trends in Nigeria's Lower South Region

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 12, Number 1E. C. Merem, Y. Twumasi, J. Wesley, D. Olagbegi, M. Crisler, C. Romorno, M. Alsarari, P. Isokpehi, A. Hines, G. Hirse, G. S. Ochai, E. Nwagboso, S. Fageir, S. Leggett, J. Offiah, S. EmakporCassava, as a staple in Nigeria, is not only commonly found and cultivated across many agro-ecological zones. But it serves a variety of purposes as essential raw material for industries and export commodity. Even at that, and with cassava’s external origins as a root crop introduced into the tropics. The physical conditions in Nigeria’s Lower South axis have for years provided essential bio-geoclimatic parameters like temperature, soil and climate that enabled continual boom in output. For that, cassava crop as basic farm produce, cash earner and calorie source vital to the nation’s menu, ranks high in the popular imagination and economy considering its various derivatives from gari to fufu. In fact, many locals familiar with these derivatives know that cassava as a staple responsible for 80% of the nation’s energy intake remains at the center of daily life in many Lower South communities along the South-South and Southeast zones where the produce features prominently on the daily menu. Said that, the primacy of Nigeria among the largest cassava producers globally is so obvious that her production capacity and land areas exceeds those of her competitors. Accordingly, in the last several years came unprecedented expansion and changes in several core land use indicators. Along these lines, the study area has seen widespread use of agrochemicals, rising prices, mounting threats to the ecosystem, proliferation of diseases and degradation coupled with volatility in farm commodity trade. This paradox is compounded by the underperformance of Nigeria’s cassava industry globally compared to her competitors, knowing full well that much of the output comes from the study area. In the context of all these challenges and recent efforts by government and state agencies to stem the tide and boost efficiency, the study remains an upgrade to the literature. Yet, despite the storied relevance in the political economy of the Southern region, very little exists in the literature on the state of cassava production trends and land use across time, together with a lack of knowledge on dispersion patterns essential for decision-making and elements located within the agricultural structure. Hence, this study will fill that void in research by analyzing the state of cassava land use trends in Nigeria’s Lower South with emphasis on the issues, trends, impacts, factors, efforts, and future lines of action. From the analysis, results point to changes in the form of gains and declines in many cassava land use indicators and threats to the surrounding ecology. Also, GIS mappings pinpointed a gradual diffusion in space where production, land use changes and fertilizer use held firm. With changes attributed to several socio-economic, physical (environmental) factors, the paper proffered solutions ranging from education, monitoring, regular mapping using GIS and the design of regional cassava land resource information system.
  • Improvement of Injera Shelf Life Through the Use of Silver (Ag) and Zinc
           Oxide (ZnO) Nano Particles

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 2Oli Legassa, Ashagrie Zewdu, Eyobel MulugetaAbout two-third of Ethiopian diet consists of Injera which is prepared from the flour of tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter), water and starter. Even though it is a nutritious food, the shelf life of Injera does not exceed 3 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green synthesized silver (AgNPs) and zinc oxide (ZnONPs) nano particles in improving Injera shelf life. Ag and ZnONPS were synthesized from Eucalyptus globulus and Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth extracts, respectively. Formation of nano particles were confirmed by characterization techniques (ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction). Antifungal test was conducted using disc diffusion method. Both nano particles were coated on the interior and external surface of packaging materials by dip-coated method and Injera was packed in the plastic bags. The shelf life was determined as one day before mold growth appearance. Moisture content and pH was determined by oven and pH meter, respectively. Pour plate method was used for mold and yeast count. Finally, migration level was determined by microwave plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy. The results from UV-vis spectroscopy showed that characteristic peaks observed at 420 and 300 to 400 nm for silver and zinc oxide nano particles, respectively. Silver nano particles were mostly an irregular with few rod shaped whereas that of zinc oxide was mostly rod shaped. Both of them had significant antifungal effect. The shelf life of the stored Injera samples was increased significantly up to 24 days at higher concentrations. Both nano particles have no significant effect on moisture and pH of stored Injera. The colony forming unit per gram of molds and yeast decreased as the coating percentage increased. At 50 % concentration, the migration was 1.34 and 375 mg/Kg for silver and zinc oxide nano particles, respectively. Their migration was relatively high. Because, it needs further study to use them for Injera storage. Thus, it would be advisable to incorporate them as ingredients of plastics to decrease migration problem.
  • Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Bitter and Sweet Lupine Cultivars
           as Protein Source

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 3Safaa A. Salem, Abd Allah A. M.Protein flours and concentrates were prepared from two species of bitter and sweet lupine. Chemical composition was determined for flours and protein concentrates, while physical properties were determined including; solubility, also emulsion, foaming, water and oil absorption capacity in the two types of lupine protein concentrate. Non significant differences were found in chemical composition between the two lupine species in both flour and lupine protein concentrate, while higher content in total amino acids was observed in sweet than in bitter lupine protein, on the other hand non significant differences were found in the aforementioned physical parameters. Effect of casein replacement with bitter lupine protein concentrate (BPC) or sweet lupine protein concentrate (SPC) in basal diet on serum protein and liver function of rats was studied using 32 rats which were divided into four groups, each of eight rats as follow; normal control fed on basal diet, negative control fed on low protein basal diet and tested groups I and II fed on basal diet in which casein was replaced with BPC or SPC, feeding period was 28 days. Weight gain, food intake, FER, feces dry weight, and feces nitrogen were for normal control group in values of 85.0g, 3360 g, 0.20, 12.5g and 2.41%, which were higher than tested groups in values of 75.0g, 3320g, 0.18, 11.0g and 2.30% for group I and 79.0g, 3332g, 0.19, 11.30g and 2.32% for group II with non significant differences between the two groups in the above parameters respectively. Also significant decreases were found in protein efficiency ratio, net protein ratio and biological value in the tested groups in values of 1.80, 2.02 and 63.72 for group I and 1.89, 2.11 and 64.67 for group II and 2.03, 2.25 and 70.77 for control group in the three parameters respectively, while true digestibility showed non significant difference among the two rested and control groups in values of 95.3, 95.5 and 94.1%. On the other hand, non significant differences were found in biological evaluation among tested and control groups in serum of rats including; total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, uric acid and creatinine, in values of 7.03g/dl, 3.33g/dl, 40.3 mg/dl, 36.1mg/dl, 0.82 mg/dl and 5.40mg/dl for group I and 7.13g/dl, 3.43g/dl, 43.2mg/dl, 37.4mg/dl, 0.84 mg/dl and 5.42mg/dl for group II and 7.19 g/dl, 3.90g/dl, 44.0 mg/dl, 38.2 mg/dl, 0.88 mg/dl and 5.3mg/dl for normal control group in the above parameters respectively.
  • Dietary Supplement Use and Dietary Intake among Adults in Westlands
           Constituency, Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 2Nomfundo Dlamini, Angela A. Andago, Sophia Ngala, Paul JuniorThe aim of the present study was to determine the nutritional practices of adult dietary supplement users and non-users in the Westlands constituency, Nairobi County. The comparison of food consumption data was obtained using a single 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire that was administered at the time of the harvest season (November 2019). Of the 139 adults who took part in the study, 14.4% (n= 20) took dietary supplements. Multivitamins were the common and widely used dietary supplements of 70% of dietary supplements. The main reason a majority of women took supplements was largely due to anaemia or Osteomalacia. In, contrast, the men who used supplements in this study wanted to alter the structure of the body (muscle hypertrophy), which led to the use of creatine and whey protein supplements. In contrast to Bennett’s Law, the nutritional assessment showed that 100% of the adults consumed foods belonging to the food group grains, roots, plantains and tubers. Eggs were consumed sparingly in this study and this was only by the proportion (25%) of men. The second largest group of foods consumed by 62.5% of adults was other fruits and vegetables. The average dietary diversity score given to adults in the Westlands constituency was low (3.09±1.201) and no adult scored high for dietary diversity score (6-7 food groups consumed). However, the values of nutritional diversity between dietary supplement consumers and non-consumers were not statistically significant (X2 /Likelihood ratio= 1.238, df= 1, p= 0.338). The average daily intake of calcium (mg) 134.341±103.253, folic acid (µg) 117.056±91.895 and vitamin C (mg) 34.953±41.057 were less than 50% of the recommended daily dose. While, the average daily intake of iron (mg) 8.034±5.728, magnesium (mg) 218.078±162.244 and vitamin E (mg) 10.253±12.375 was over 50% of the recommended daily dose. The nutrient uptake assessment showed that, with the exception of vitamin E, none of the adults reached the recommended daily allowance for the selected nutrients. However, the nutrient uptake for the supplement consumers in this study was slightly higher than that of the non-supplement consumers. Overall, a low prevalence of dietary supplement use and poor eating habits were observed in this study. This makes the study participants susceptible to micronutrient diseases. Therefore, public awareness of supplement use and the effects of micronutrient deficiencies due to poor eating habits are imperative. As a result, health professionals and nutritionists play a critical role in educating the general public about the importance of using nutritional supplements properly and in educating them about cost-effective ways to transition to healthier diets for better health outcomes.
  • Assessment of Minerals, Vitamins and Functional Properties of Flours from
           Germinated Yellow Maize (Zea mays L.) Seeds from Daloa (Côte D'Ivoire)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 2Mankambou Jacques Gnanwa, Jean Bedel Fagbohoun, Kouamé Claude Ya, Sika Hortense Blei, Lucien Patrice KouameThis study was proposed to assess the effect of germination on minerals, vitamins composition and some functional properties of sprouted yellow maize grains with a view to their valorization in the Ivorian diet. The mineral contents (Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Sodium, Potassium) of sprouted yellow maize samples are statistically different from those of ungerminated maize. Then, it was found that germination resulted in a significant increase in the contents of vitamins (A, B1, C, D and E). The germination of corn kernels led to a significant increase (p
  • Microbiological Quality and Amylase Activity of Weaning Flour Formulated
           from Taro (Colocasia Esculenta (L) Schott), Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) and
           Malted Maize (Zea Mays): Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characteristics
           of Weaning Mush

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 1Dago A. Gnahé, Abba P. Obouayeba, Niaba PV Koffi, Massé Diomandé, Avit M. BeugréExclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months of life, followed by appropriate complementary feeding, are major factors in the nutritional status of young children. The study aimed to produce infant flour from raw food ingredients available locally in Cote d’Ivoire. Infant flour has been proposed from mixed flours of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott), legumes (Cajanus cajan), malted maize (Zea mays) and sucrose in a proportion of 58:18:14:10, respectively. In a first step of the study, the formulated infant flour was evaluated for a microbiological examination such as the total viable count, fecal coliforms, yeasts and molds counts, the detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella and amylase activity was studied. Immediately after production, the total viable count (104 CFU / g) was below the maximum standard counts (105 CFU/g) and the flour was free from pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella). The count of fecal coliforms (1 CFU/g) and yeasts and molds (1 CFU/g) were significantly lower than standard levels (102 and 103 CFU/g, respectively). As for the amylase activity, it was 0.400 μmol reducing sugars / minute the first week of preparation but after one year of storage, this activity was stabilized at 0.010 μmol reducing sugars/min. A second stage concerned the physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the porridge made from formulated infant flour. The energy density of the porridge prepared from this infant flour was very high (approximately 119 kcal / 100 ml). A fluid consistency was 90 mm / 30 seconds.
  • Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Duku (Lansium domesticum)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2021Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, Volume 11, Number 1Roslan Arshad, Kamarul ‘Ain Mustafa, Che Abdullah Abu Bakar, Abd Jamil Zakaria, Noor Aida Aini Nawawi, Suziani Muda, Nurul Zaizuliana Rois Anwar, Wan Anwar Fahmi Wan MohamadA native fruit of Southeast Asia, duku (Lansium domesticum) fruit is grown in Malaysia, notably in the state of Terengganu, renowned for its premium quality. Physically, the fruit is signified by thick fairly leathery golden brown skin, shaped oval or almost circular whose short diameter range between 40 – 50 mm. Organoleptic attributes of the fruit are derived from the sweet-sour aromatic profile elicited from the juicy flesh. Recognition of fruits constituting healthy diets is a cornerstone for ascending global consumption trends. In this respect, this study of various components of duku fruit harvested in Terengganu aimed to evaluate the nutritional constituents as source of potent health promoting chemicals, and identify correlations between experimental variables. Proximate composition and mineral content analysis were based on the standard procedures of AOAC (2011). Crude fat, crude protein and carbohydrate content enabled mathematical derivation of caloric value. Inductive couple plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) facilitated mineral content analysis. Comparatively, duku peel had highest ash value, 1.2 g per 100 g, whereas duku flesh lowest, containing 0.4 g per 100 g, WB. Crude protein results proved seeds were highest, 3.0 g per 100g, in contrast to flesh at 0.9 g per 100 g. Crude fat were found in peel and seeds, 2.7 g and 0.1 g per 100 each, respectively but not detectable in flesh. Crude fibre tended to be significantly higher by 10 fold in seeds compared to flesh, evidently at 5.2 g in the former while 0.4 g in the latter based on 100 g sample weight each. Mineral elements analysis, specifically of potassium, calcium, and magnesium revealed superior valuations in peel recording 2692.9 mg, 361.5 mg and 144.1 mg respectively, on a 100 g sample weight basis. Relatively lowest were results obtained from flesh at 762.5 mg, 73.0 mg and 43.8 mg respectively, based on 100 g sample weight each. The spectrum of values attained from the variables researched points to future potential of duku fruit commercialization as a potent ingredient in food and beverage products. Nevertheless, related complementary research to augment this current work is required before the wholesome intrinsic qualities of this fruit can be realistically capitalized.
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