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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Current Nutrition Reports
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2161-3311
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Appraisal of Gene-Environment Interactions in GWAS for Evidence-Based
           Precision Nutrition Implementation

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review aims to analyse the currently reported gene-environment (G × E) interactions in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving environmental factors such as lifestyle and dietary habits related to metabolic syndrome phenotypes. For this purpose, the present manuscript reviews the available GWAS registered on the GWAS Catalog reporting the interaction between environmental factors and metabolic syndrome traits. Recent Findings Advances in omics-related analytical and computational approaches in recent years have led to a better understanding of the biological processes underlying these G × E interactions. A total of 42 GWAS were analysed, reporting over 300 loci interacting with environmental factors. Alcohol consumption, sleep time, smoking habit and physical activity were the most studied environmental factors with significant G × E interactions. Summary The implementation of more comprehensive GWAS will provide a better understanding of the metabolic processes that determine individual responses to environmental exposures and their association with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This will facilitate the development of precision approaches for better prevention, management and treatment of these diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Survival–Epidemiologic Evidence and
           Potential Biologic Mechanisms

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review To review the biologic mechanisms that may be operative between physical activity and survival after breast cancer. Recent Findings Physical activity decreases risk of mortality from breast cancer by up to 40%. Several biologic mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this association. Previous cohort studies and randomized trials have examined the primary mechanisms that appear to be operative, which involve a decrease in sex hormone levels, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The evidence is still inconsistent and several limitations in the existing literature exist. Summary Understanding the biologic mechanisms involved in the association of physical activity and breast cancer survival will provide more precision to physical activity guidelines for cancer survival. To achieve this objective, future research should include direct measurements of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related fitness to provide a more comprehensive assessment of these factors and their association with biomarkers and survival after breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Endometriosis-Related Pain: A
           Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This study was conducted to determine the effects of antioxidant supplementation on endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases and the Google Scholar search engine were searched from early 2012 to 2022 using appropriate keywords for clinical trials receiving antioxidant supplements and reporting endometriosis-related pelvic pain (PROSPERO registration number CRD42022318924). The qualities of the included studies were evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Checklists Critical Appraisal Tools and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment tool for before-after (Pre-Post) study with no control group. This systematic review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Results In this systematic review, 8 studies (5 RCTs and 3 non-comparative trials) published in 2012–2022 were included. Conclusions The studies we included showed promising results in the use of antioxidants in endometriosis-related pain. However, many scientific studies are needed for clear statements.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Therapeutic Potential of GLP-2 Analogs in Gastrointestinal Disorders:
           Current Knowledge, Nutritional Aspects, and Future Perspectives

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Although Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists have been used for almost two decades in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and, lately, in obesity, recent years have seen an increasing interest in the pharmacological agonism of other proglucagon-derived peptides, including GLP-2. Herein, we aimed to review the available evidence on the effects of GLP-2 agonism from animal and clinical studies. Furthermore, we summarize the current clinical applications of GLP-2 agonists among patients with intestinal failure associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS-IF) as well as potential future expansion of their indications to other intestinal disorders. Recent Findings Evidence from preclinical studies has highlighted the cellular trophic and functional beneficial actions of GLP-2 on small intestinal and colonic mucosa. Subsequently, pharmacologic agonism of GLP-2 has gathered interest for the treatment of patients with conditions pertaining to the loss of intestinal anatomical and/or functional integrity to a degree requiring parenteral support, collectively referred to as intestinal failure. GLP-2 analogs positively influence nutrient absorption in animal models and humans, although continued therapy is likely needed for sustained effects. The degradation-resistant GLP-2-analog teduglutide has received approval for the treatment of SBS-IF, in which it may decisively reduce patient dependency on parenteral support and improve quality of life. Another two longer-acting analogs, glepaglutide and apraglutide, are currently undergoing phase III clinical trials. Summary The use of GLP-2 analogs is effective in the management of SBS-IF and may show promise in the treatment of other severe gastrointestinal disorders associated with loss of effective intestinal resorptive surface area.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Improving Iodine Status in Lactating Women: What Works'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Iodine deficiency is a global concern, and in recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the number of countries identified as being iodine-sufficient. This review considers the best strategies to ensure iodine sufficiency among breastfeeding women and their infants. Recent Findings Fortification strategies to improve iodine intake have been adequate for school-age children (SAC); however, often, iodine deficiency remains for breastfeeding women and their infants. Daily supplementation with iodine is not an ideal strategy to overcome deficiency. Summary Countries defined as iodine-sufficient, but where pregnant and breastfeeding women have inadequate intake, should consider increasing salt iodine concentration, such that the median urinary iodine concentration of SAC can be up to 299 µg/L. This will ensure adequate intake for mothers and infants, without SAC being at risk thyroid dysfunction. Consensus is required for thresholds for iodine adequacy for breastfeeding women and infants.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
       
  • The Role of Betaine in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: a Narrative
           Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This narrative review aimed to explore the functions of betaine and discuss its role in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent Findings Some studies on CKD animal models have shown the benefits of betaine supplementation, including decreased kidney damage, antioxidant recovery status, and decreased inflammation. Summary Betaine (N-trimethylglycine) is an N-trimethylated amino acid with an essential regulatory osmotic function. Moreover, it is a methyl donor and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Additionally, betaine has positive effects on intestinal health by regulating the osmolality and gut microbiota. Due to these crucial functions, betaine has been studied in several diseases, including CKD, in which betaine plasma levels decline with the progression of the disease. Low betaine levels are linked to increased kidney damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal dysbiosis. Furthermore, betaine is considered an essential metabolite for identifying CKD stages.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
       
  • Pregnancy as a Fundamental Determinant of Child Health: a Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Maternal conditions and exposures during pregnancy including over- and undernutrition are associated with poor childbirth outcomes, growth, development and chronic childhood diseases. We examined contemporary pregnancy-related determinants of child health. Recent Findings While maternal undernutrition remains a major contributor to low birth weight, maternal obesity affects foetal growth, birth weight, survival and is associated with childhood obesity, asthma and autistic spectrum disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes, the prenatal microbiome and maternal immune activation (MIA), a neuroinflammatory process induced by diet and other exposures cause foetal programming resulting in these chronic childhood diseases. Summary Maternal diet is potentially a modifiable risk factor for controlling low birth weight, obesity and chronic disease in childhood. Further studies are warranted to refine guidance on dietary restriction and physical activity during pregnancy and determine how MIA and prenatal microbiota can be applied to control childhood diseases arising from programming.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
       
  • The Underexplored Dimensions of Nutritional Hormesis

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Hormesis is biphasic response wherein low and high doses of chemical and nutrient confer beneficial and toxic effects respectively, typically in a U-shaped manner. Hormesis is intricately related to bioenergetic state of a cell, and therefore, nutrition impacts it. Excessive nutrition can halt the endogenous antioxidant synthesis leading to cytotoxic effects. While low and optimum doses of the same bring about hormetic stimulation that can exalt the antioxidant response and reduce susceptibility towards degenerative diseases. The sirtuin family of proteins is triggered by mild stress of calorie restriction and exerts hormesis. Similarly, several phytochemicals and micronutrients are known to bring about health benefits at optimum dose and deleterious effects at high doses. Despite this attribute, nutritional hormesis is not very well researched upon because the magnitude of hormetic effect observed is generally quite modest. There is no precise regulation of optimal intake of certain foods to witness hormesis and no characterization of any biomarker that reports stress responses at various doses above or below optimal intakes. There is a major gap in research between nutrition and hormesis being affected by sirtuin family of proteins, phytochemicals, and micronutrients. Recent Findings Mild stress of calorie restriction elevates sirtuin protein and effect of sirtuin protein on hormesis has been recently reported. Summary More foods that enhance sirtuin protein, phytochemicals, and micronutrients need to be explored in relation to hormesis and associated health benefits.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
       
  • Prevalence and Determinants of the Double Burden of Malnutrition with a
           Focus on Concurrent Stunting and Overweight/Obesity in Children and
           Adolescents

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review To determine the prevalence and determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight/obesity (CSO) in the same child or adolescent. Recent Findings After searching PubMed and the Web of Science, 26 articles comprised the prevalence and/or determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight/obesity. Summary Most of the articles were published from 2018 onwards. There is great variation in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight/obesity across the globe. For children under five years the prevalence of CSO is higher among children under two years compared with those 2-<5 years. The main determinants of this condition appear to be associated with gender, age, and urban versus rural ones. Income varied greatly between studies. However, a few additional variables were mentioned including having a mother with a short stature, time of weaning, having an improved toilet facility, being dewormed in the past few months, and the level of education of the mother. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Diet, Microbes, and Cancer Across the Tree of Life: a Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Cancers are a leading cause of death in humans and for many other species. Diet has often been associated with cancers, and the microbiome is an essential mediator between diet and cancers. Here, we review the work on cancer and the microbiome across species to search for broad patterns of susceptibility associated with different microbial species. Recent Findings Some microbes, such as Helicobacter bacteria, papillomaviruses, and the carnivore-associated Fusobacteria, consistently induce tumorigenesis in humans and other species. Other microbes, such as the milk-associated Lactobacillus, consistently inhibit tumorigenesis in humans and other species. Summary We systematically reviewed over a thousand published articles and identified links between diet, microbes, and cancers in several species of mammals, birds, and flies. Future work should examine a larger variety of host species to discover new model organisms for human preclinical trials, to better understand the observed variance in cancer prevalence across species, and to discover which microbes and diets are associated with cancers across species. Ultimately, this could help identify microbial and dietary interventions to diagnose, prevent, and treat cancers in humans as well as other animals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • A Review: Cereals on Modulating the Microbiota/Metabolome for Metabolic
           Health

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Diet can modulate both the composition and functionality of the human gut microbiota. Cereals are rich in specific macro and functional elements that are considered important dietary components for maintaining human health; therefore, it is important to examine precise nutritional mechanism involved in exerting the health benefits via modulating gut microbiota. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research on how different cereals in the diet can regulate the microbiota for health and disease. Recent Findings There is an increased interest in targeting the gut microbiome for the treatment of chronic diseases. Cereals can alter the gut microbiome and may improve energy and glucose homeostasis, interfere with host energy homeostasis, appetite, blood glucose regulation, insulin sensitivity, and regulation of host metabolism. However, more human research is necessary to confirm the beneficial health outcomes of cereals via modulating gut microbiota. Summary Cereals play an essential role in shaping the intestinal microbiota that contributes to exerting health effects on various diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13668-022-00424-1
       
  • The Niche of n-of-1 Trials in Precision Medicine for Weight Loss and
           Obesity Treatment: Back to the Future

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The n-of-1 clinical trials are considered the epitome of individualized health care. They are employed to address differences in treatment response and adverse events between patients, in a comparative effectiveness manner, extending beyond the delivery of horizontal recommendations for all. Recent Findings The n-of-1 design has been applied to deliver precision exercise interventions, through eHealth and mHealth technologies. Regarding personalized and precision medical nutrition therapy, few trials have implemented dietary manipulations and one series of n-of-1 trials has applied comprehensive genetic data to improve body weight. With regard to anti-obesity medication, pharmacogenetic data could be applied using the n-of-1 trial design, although none have been implemented yet. Summary The n-of-1 clinical trials consist of the only tool for the delivery of evidence-based, personalized obesity treatment (lifestyle and pharmacotherapy), reducing non-responders, while tailoring the best intervention to each patient, through “trial and error”. Their application is expected to improve obesity treatment and mitigate the epidemic.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Weight Gain Recommendations for Athletes and Military Personnel: a
           Critical Review of the Evidence

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Sports nutrition guidelines typically state that athletes desiring weight gain follow a regimen that includes increasing energy intake by ~ 300–500 kcal/day with an emphasis on adequate protein and carbohydrate and judicious inclusion of energy-dense foods, in combination with rigorous resistance training. This regimen is thought to promote weekly gains of ~ 0.45 kg (1 lb), mostly as lean body mass (LBM). This review summarizes the evidence supporting these intentional weight gain regimens in athletes. Recent Findings Although some research has been conducted in the past 5 years, research on intentional weight gain is lacking. Summary Currently, available data suggests that weekly weight gain of 0.45 kg (1 lb), primarily as LBM, may be difficult for some athletes to achieve. Available evidence, however, suggests that commonly recommended strategies to promote calorie surplus, including consuming larger portions, incorporating energy-dense foods, and prioritizing liquid over solid foods, may prove helpful.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • RMR Ratio as a Surrogate Marker for Low Energy Availability

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Low energy availability (EA) poses severe consequences to athlete performance and overall health. Suppressed resting metabolic rate (RMR) has been observed during periods of low EA. Thus, it has been suggested that the ratio of RMR measured via indirect calorimetry to predictive RMR using a standard predictive equation (RMR ratio) may be a useful assessment of EA in athletes. This review evaluated the use of RMR ratio as a surrogate marker for low EA in athletes and compared methodologies for measuring RMR ratio. Recent Findings Decreased RMR ratio in recent studies often correlates with signs of low EA; however, athletes with less severe cases of energy deficiency may not present with a low RMR ratio. Additionally, the methodology for RMR ratio measurements lacks standardization and varies in recent studies. Summary Use of RMR ratio has promise as a complementary EA measurement when used in combination with other assessment tools.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Metabotyping for Precision Nutrition and Weight Management: Hype or
           Hope'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Precision nutrition requires a solid understanding of the factors that determine individual responses to dietary treatment. We review the current state of knowledge in identifying human metabotypes – based on circulating biomarkers – that can predict weight loss or other relevant physiological outcomes in response to diet treatment. Recent Findings Not many studies have been conducted in this area and the ones identified here are heterogeneous in design and methodology, and therefore difficult to synthesize and draw conclusions. The basis of the creation of metabotypes varies widely, from using thresholds for a single metabolite to using complex algorithms to generate multi-component constructs that include metabolite and genetic information. Furthermore, available studies are a mix of hypothesis-driven and hypothesis-generating studies, and most of them lack experimental testing in human trials. Summary Although this field of research is still in its infancy, precision-based dietary intervention strategies focusing on the metabotype group level hold promise for designing more effective dietary treatments for obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Epigenetic Aging in Early Life: Role of Maternal and Early Childhood
           Nutrition

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Early life presents a pivotal period during which nutritional exposures are more likely to cause epigenetic modifications, which may impact an individual’s health during adulthood. This article reviews the current evidence regarding maternal and early childhood nutritional exposures and their role in epigenetic aging. Recent Findings Maternal and early life consumption of diets higher in fiber, antioxidants, polyphenols, B vitamins, vitamin D, and ω-3 fatty acids is associated with slower epigenetic aging. Conversely, diets higher in glycemic load, fat, saturated fat, and ω-6 fatty acids demonstrate a positive association with epigenetic aging. Summary Maternal and early life nutrition directly and indirectly influences epigenetic aging via changes in one-carbon metabolism, cardiometabolic health, and the microbiome. Clinical trials are warranted to determine the specific foods, dietary patterns, and dietary supplements that will normalize or lower epigenetic aging across the life course.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Use of Medications and Dietary Supplements by Masters Athletes —
           a Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Masters athletes (MA) are generally considered healthier than their sedentary peers. However, the prevalence of chronic conditions in any population increases with age. Treatments involve pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. A substantial proportion of the general population also use dietary supplements (DS). This raises questions about the potential for drug-nutrient interactions which may lead to adverse effects. We sought to determine the potential for drug-nutrient interactions MA may be exposed to by examining the prevalence of chronic conditions treated with medications and their DS use. Recent Findings Common conditions in MA include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, osteoarthritis, depression and anxiety. Treatments may involve prescribed medications. Few recent studies were identified on DS use; however, indications are for around 60% prevalence of supplement usage. Summary The higher prevalence of DS use by MA may result in drug-nutrient interactions that impact the effectiveness and safety of prescribed medications for chronic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13668-022-00398-0
       
  • Correction to: Weight Gain Recommendations for Athletes and Military
           Personnel: a Critical Review of the Evidence

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      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13668-022-00419-y
       
  • Vitamin D and Asthma: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

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      Abstract: Purpose of the review To perform a systematic review of prospective clinical trials to determine whether improving vitamin D status improves asthma control. Recent findings In cross sectional studies suboptimal viramin D status is often associated with poor asthma control. However, decreased 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25 (OH) D) concentrations might not be causally associated with asthma control. Summary We performed a systematic review until December 15, 2021 according to PRISMA guideline, searching MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Two searches were performed, the first using “vitamin D” and the second using “Vitamin D” or “ergocalciferol” or “cholecalciferol” and “Asthma”. From 419 retrieved papers, after removal of duplicate and after using exclusion criteria, 28 full-text articles were eligible, of which 6 remained for quantitative analysis and 11 (9 studies) for qualitative analysis. From both analyses, prospective studies do not support that improving the vitamin D status of asthmatic children improves asthma control.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13668-022-00411-6
       
  • Comparison of the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet, Anti-Inflammatory
           Diet, Seventh-Day Adventist Diet, and Ketogenic Diet Relative to Cognition
           and Cognitive Decline

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Increasing evidence points toward the importance of diet and its impact on cognitive decline. This review seeks to clarify the impact of four diets on cognition: the Mediterranean diet, the anti-inflammatory diet, the Seventh Day Adventist diet, and the Ketogenic diet. Recent Findings Of the diets reviewed, the Mediterranean diet provides the strongest evidence for efficacy. Studies regarding the anti-inflammatory diet and Seventh Day Adventist diet are sparse, heterogeneous in quality and outcome measurements, providing limited reliable data. There is also minimal research confirming the cognitive benefits of the Ketogenic diet. Summary Increasing evidence supports the use of the Mediterranean diet to reduce cognitive decline. The MIND-diet, a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH diets, seems especially promising, likely due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The Ketogenic diet may also have potential efficacy; however, adherence in older populations may be difficult given frequent adverse effects. Future research should focus on long-term, well-controlled studies confirming the impact of various diets, as well as the combination of diets and lifestyle modification.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13668-022-00407-2
       
 
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