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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Journal of Nutritional Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.984
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2048-6790 - ISSN (Online) 2048-6790
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • The association of parathyroid hormone with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin during

    • Authors: Kazemian; Elham, Madreseh, Elham, Azizi, Fereidoun, Ashrafivand, Sepideh, Gargari, Soraya Saleh, Mansournia, Mohammad Ali, Wagner, Carol L., Amouzegar, Atieh
      First page: 1
      Abstract: It is currently debated whether vitamin D requirements during pregnancy differ from those during non-gravid states. In current analyses, we aimed to determine the best model for the association between PTH and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the threshold for circulating 25(OH)D at which serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) is suppressed. This multicenter prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 227 Iranian pregnant women aged 15–45 years in their third trimester of pregnancy. The locally weighted smoothing scatter plot (LOWESS) was used to determine the curvilinear shape of the 25(OH)D/PTH relationship. Linear and non-linear methods were employed to determine the best fit and cut-point for serum 25(OH)D concentration. The median serum 25(OH)D and corresponding serum PTH concentration were 17⋅26 (13⋅44–23⋅08) ng/ml and 19⋅46 (15⋅08–25⋅04) pg/ml in our study population, respectively. The LOWESS curve suggested a non-linear and monotonic with a negative slope relation between PTH (pg/ml) and serum 25(OH)D (ng/ml). The optimal model for the association between PTH and serum 25(OH)D was a one-term fractional polynomial (FP1) (AIC = 1640⋅463). The FP1 analysis identified the 25(OH)D threshold of 12⋅48 ng/ml at which serum PTH rapidly rose. The expected degree of PTH stimulation seems to have a linear trend as 25(OH)D falls below 40 ng/ml. 25(OH)D (ng/ml) and PTH (pg/ml) had a non-linear and monotonic relationship with a negative slope. Our data suggest that a 25(OH)D threshold of 12⋅48 ng/ml is sufficient for parathyroid hormone suppression, which could be used to screen for deficient individuals.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.110
  • Validation of a sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire for athletes in
           the United Kingdom and Ireland

    • Authors: Edmonds; Caitlin, Tam, Ryan, Madigan, Sharon, Gubb, Louise, Beck, Kathryn L., Gifford, Janelle A., Flood, Victoria M., Prvan, Tania, Gemming, Luke N., O'Connor, Helen
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Sound general and sports nutrition knowledge in athletes is essential for making appropriate dietary choices. Assessment of nutrition knowledge enables evaluation and tailoring of nutrition education. However, few well-validated tools are available to assess nutrition knowledge in athletes. The objective of the present study was to establish the validity of the Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge Sports – Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ) for use in the United Kingdom and Irish (UK-I) athletes. To confirm content validity, twenty-three sports nutritionists (SNs) from elite, UK-I sports institutes provided feedback on the PEAKS-NQ via a modified Delphi method. After minor changes, the UK-I version of the PEAKS-NQ was administered to UK-I SN from the British Dietetic Association Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register, and elite athletes (EA) training at elite sports institutes in the UK and Ireland. Independent samples t-test and independent samples median tests were used to compare PEAKS-NQ total and subsection scores between EA and SN (to assess construct validity). Cronbach's alpha (good ≥ 0⋅7) was used to establish internal consistency. The SN achieved greater overall [SN (n 23) 92⋅3 (9⋅3) v. EA (n 154): 71⋅4 (10⋅0)%; P < 0⋅001] and individual section scores (P < 0⋅001) except Section B, Identification of Food Groups (P = 0⋅07). Largest knowledge differences between SN and EA were in Section D, Applied Sports Nutrition [SN: 88⋅5 (8⋅9) v. EA: 56⋅7 (14⋅5)%; P < 0⋅00]. Overall ES was large (2⋅1), with subsections ranging from 0⋅6 to 2⋅3. Cronbach's alpha was good (0⋅83). The PEAKS-NQ had good content and construct validity, supporting its use to assess nutrition knowledge of UK-I athletes.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.109
  • Development and validation of the ASKFV-SE tool to measure children's
           self-efficacy for requesting fruits and vegetables

    • Authors: Amin; Sarah, Hafner, Sabrina, McNamara, Jade, Raymond, Joanna, Balestracci, Kate, Missimer, Amanda, Potvin, Jacquelyn, Greene, Geoffrey
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop the ASKFV-SE tool to measure self-efficacy (SE) towards requesting fruits and vegetables (FV) in the home and school environment with school-age children (grades 4–5) from urban, ethnically diverse, low-income households. Cognitive interviews reduced the tool from eleven items to seven. The 7-item questionnaire was tested with 444 children. The items loaded on two factors: home SE (four items) and school SE (two items) with one item was excluded (
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.59
  • Associations between self-reported symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and dietary
           supplement use over the previous year during the first pandemic wave

    • Authors: Ellis; Amy, Bui, Chuong, Ferguson, Christine, Azarmanesh, Deniz, Park, Han-A
      First page: 4
      Abstract: During the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, symptoms of infection varied widely among adults younger than 60 years. This cross-sectional investigation of adults ages 18–59 years explored associations between SARS-CoV-2 symptomatology and supplementation of micronutrients involved in immune function, such as multivitamins, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc. Between August and December 2020, an online survey was completed by 287 respondents, averaging 33⋅3 ± 10⋅5 years, who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection within the previous 4 months. In regression models, intake of supplements over the previous year was not protective against number of symptoms or symptom severity. Despite higher rates of supplementation over the previous year, smokers experienced more symptoms and greater symptom severity than non-smokers. Micronutrient supplementation did not protect young adults from experiencing symptoms of SARS-CoV-2, but our results suggest that smoking cessation may be a more effective modifiable lifestyle factor.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.115
  • Importance of palm's heart for pregnant women

    • Authors: Kushi; Efrem Negash, Belachew, Tefera, Tamiru, Dessalegn
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The consumption of locally nutrient-rich edible plants in rural areas can be used to satisfy the dietary diversity of pregnant women. Date palm is one of the wild edible plants in different parts of the world. Studies on wild edible plants in Ethiopia cover only about 5 % of the country's districts. Furthermore, the nutrient composition of the palm heart of Phoenix reclinata is not yet investigated as it is commonly consumed by indigenous people in western Ethiopia. The utilization of such plants requires strong policy support based on scientific evidence to maintain the nutrition security of pregnant women. Homogeneous samples of 1000 grams (g) of palm hearts were collected randomly. The macronutrient contents were determined using standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2000). The flame Photometric method was used for potassium and sodium determination. The carbohydrate concentration (g/100 g) was 78⋅2. It covers approximately 78⋅5 % of the total daily Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). In line with this, the concentrations of minerals such as potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+), per milligram (mg/100 g) of the sample were 1962⋅3 and 7⋅9, respectively. The palm heart of Phoenix reclinata has many nutritional values and is important for pregnant women. Its nutrient composition is comparable with different staple foods of the country and can contribute to household food security in rural communities.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.112
  • Plum supplementation and lipid profile: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    • Authors: Askarpour; Moein, Ghalandari, Hamid, Setayesh, Leila, Ghaedi, Ehsan
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Plums are abundant in bioactive compounds which have been associated with numerous health benefits. In the present study, we aimed at examining the impact of plum supplementation on lipid profile of individuals. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched for relevant randomised clinical trials. Articles meeting our eligibility criteria were included for data extraction and final analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was estimated using a random-effect model. Of the total articles retrieved in the initial search, nine articles were found to be eligible to be included in the analysis. Our results show that plum supplementation significantly improves total cholesterols levels in the unhealthy individuals. Moreover, plum supplementation reduces the LDL-c levels in the pooled sample (WMD = −11⋅52 mg/dl; 95 % CI −21⋅93, −1⋅11, P = 0⋅03, I2 = 98⋅7 %) and also in some of the subgroups of individuals (dried plum, unhealthy subjects, duration more than 8 weeks). Moreover, it had a significant reducing effect on TC levels just in unhealthy subjects. Although plum supplementation did not have any significant impact on serum levels of TG nor HDL-c. Our results show that supplementation with plums is potentially effective in reducing serum total cholesterol and LDL-c.
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.101
  • Dietary diversity and associated factors among adult cancer patients
           attending treatment at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa,

    • Authors: Girma; Helen, Nana, Amanuel
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Cancer has become a significant public health issue around the world and an increasingly important contributor to disease burdens. In countries like Ethiopia with high nutrient demands, people with chronic diseases like cancer are at a high risk of macro and micronutrient deficiencies. Therefore, the present study attempted to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among adult cancer patients attending treatment at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method and Materials: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 22 April 2021 to 22 May 2021 on 416 adult cancer patients at Black Lion Specialized Hospital (BLSH). A systematic random sampling technique was applied to select study subjects. Quantitative data were collected using a structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised the standard dietary diversity measurement tool, which was adopted from the Food and Technical Assistance (FANTA) then data were entered into EPI INFO software and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Frequency, mean and standard deviation were used to describe variables. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to elicit factors associated with the dietary diversity of cancer patients and a P-value of less than 0⋅2 was used as a cut-off for further analysis. Logistic regression analysis with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) was estimated to measure the strength of association at P < 0⋅05. Results: The present study revealed that 61⋅5 % of patients had low dietary diversity. Being from a family size of five and more (AOR = 1⋅48, 95 % CI 1⋅28, 1⋅83), having no permanent income (AOR = 1⋅31, 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅67), alcohol consumption (AOR = 3⋅97, 95 % CI 1⋅20, 13⋅1), not doing regular physical exercise (AOR = 1⋅83, 95 % CI 1⋅07, 3⋅12), lack of nutritional information (AOR = 2⋅23, 95 % CI 1⋅30, 3⋅82), poor nutritional knowledge (AOR = 1⋅84, 95 % CI 1⋅05, 3⋅25) and minimum meal frequency (AOR = 10⋅7, 95 % CI 5⋅04, 22⋅7) were factors associated with inadequate dietary diversity. Conclusion: The present study showed that the majority of cancer patients had low dietary diversity, suggesting that they are highly vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies. Therefore, efforts should be strengthened to improve patients’ income level, access to nutrition information and nutritional knowledge.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.114
  • What happened among Japanese children from school closure due to COVID-19
           after school re-opening' Changes in sleep habits and dietary intake

    • Authors: Sugimoto; Minami, Murakami, Kentaro, Sasaki, Satoshi
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The present study aimed to (1) examine the changes in sleep habits and dietary intake among school-aged children after the school re-opening from a 3-month closure (without school lunch) due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) examine whether the changes differ between those with different temporal patterns of sleep and eating during school closure, namely, ‘Very early’, ‘Early’, ‘Late’ and ‘Very late’. The latter patterns were characterised by later timings of wake up, breakfast and lunch. Questionnaires were answered twice by 4084 children (aged 8–15 years), themselves and/or their parents: first in June 2020 (for assessing lifestyle during school closure) and second, from July 2020 to February 2021 (for assessing lifestyle after school opening). After school re-opening, the participants’ wake-up time became an hour earlier (95 % CI 1⋅0, 1⋅1) and sleep duration got 0⋅94 h shorter (95 % CI 0⋅91, 0⋅97) than during school closure. An increase in dietary intake was observed for thiamine, vitamin B6, potassium, fruits and dairy products, and a decrease was observed for sugars (as foods) and confectioneries and sweetened beverages, despite small effect sizes (Cohen's d: 0⋅20–0⋅30). Significant changes in wake-up time, sleep duration and sweetened beverage intake were observed among children with the latter temporal patterns. Thus, children wake up earlier and sleep for shorter durations after school re-opening than during school closure; however, changes in dietary intake were generally insignificant. Dietary intake among school-aged children in Japan during school closure (without school lunch) might not be worse than that during school days with universal school lunch.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.116
  • Development of the Ethiopian Healthy Eating Index (Et-HEI) and evaluation
           in women of reproductive age

    • Authors: Bekele; Tesfaye Hailu, de Vries, Jeanne H. M., Feskens, Edith J. M., de Weijer, Anneloes, Brouwer, Inge D., Covic, Namukolo, Trijsburg, Laura
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Ethiopia announced its first food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) on 15 March 2022. The present study aims to develop and evaluate the Ethiopian Healthy Eating Index (Et-HEI) based on the FBDG. Data were collected from 494 Ethiopian women of reproductive age sampled from households in five different regions. The Et-HEI consists of eleven components, and each component was scored between 0 and 10 points, the total score ranging from 0 to 110, with maximum adherence to the FBDG. The Et-HEI score was evaluated against the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) and the probability of nutrient adequacy. The average Et-HEI score for women of reproductive age was 49 out of 110. Adherence to the recommendations for grains, vegetables, legumes, fat and oils, salt, sugar and alcohol contributed the most to this score. Most women had low scores for fruits, nuts and seeds, and animal-sourced foods, indicating low intake. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient, indicating the reliability of the Et-HEI to assess its diet quality, was 0⋅53. The low mean Et-HEI score agreed with a low mean score of the MDD-W (3⋅5 out of 10). Also, low nutrient adequacies confirmed poor adherence to nutrient-dense components of the FBDG. The Et-HEI was not associated with the intake of vitamin B12, vitamin C and calcium in this study population. Women who completed secondary school and above had relatively lower Et-HEI scores. The newly developed Et-HEI is able to estimate nutrient adequacy while also assessing adherence to the Ethiopian FBDG though there is room for improvement.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.120
  • Nutrient density and cost of commonly consumed foods: a South African

    • Authors: Madlala; Samukelisiwe S., Hill, Jillian, Kunneke, Ernesta, Faber, Mieke
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Food-based dietary guidelines promote consumption of a variety of nutritious foods for optimal health and prevention of chronic disease. However, adherence to these guidelines is challenging because of high food costs. The present study aimed to determine the nutrient density of foods relative to cost in South Africa, with the aim to identify foods within food groups with the best nutritional value per cost. A checklist of 116 food items was developed to record the type, unit, brand and cost of foods. Food prices were obtained from the websites of three national supermarkets and the average cost per 100 g edible portion was used to calculate cost per 100 kcal (418 kJ) for each food item. Nutrient content of the food items was obtained from the South African Food Composition Tables. Nutrient density was calculated using the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) Index. Nutrient density relative to cost was calculated as NRF9.3/price per 100 kcal. Vegetables and fruits had the highest NRF9.3 score and cost per 100 kcal. Overall, pulses had the highest nutritional value per cost. Fortified maizemeal porridge and bread had the best nutritional value per cost within the starchy food group. Foods with the least nutritional value per cost were fats, oils, foods high in fat and sugar, and foods and drinks high in sugar. Analysis of nutrient density and cost of foods can be used to develop tools to guide low-income consumers to make healthier food choices by identifying foods with the best nutritional value per cost.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.119
  • Dietary intake of pistachios or mixed nuts results in higher systemic

    • Authors: Wickman; Brooke E., Clayton, Zachary S., Rochester, Eric, Kern, Mark, Hong, Mee Young, Liu, Changqi, Hooshmand, Shirin
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Nutrition is a key determinant of bone health and attainment of peak bone mass. Excess oxidative stress induces bone loss while increasing antioxidant capacity promotes protective effects on bone. Nuts are rich in antioxidants; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that compared to a control diet high in fat (40 % energy) and cholesterol, diets containing isocaloric amounts of pistachios (8·1 % g/g) or mixed nuts (7·5 % g/g) for 8 weeks would result in greater bone health in male adolescent (3 weeks; a state of continued skeletal growth) Sprague-Dawley rats. We found no difference in bone mechanical properties among groups. Tibial apparent density was ~5 % higher in the pistachio and mixed nuts groups v. control (P < 0·05) with no clear difference detected for the femur. Expressions of genes known to impact bone turnover and serum bone turnover biomarkers were unaffected by either diet relative to control. Serum antioxidant capacity was ~2-fold higher in the pistachio and mixed nuts groups compared with control (P < 0·05) but were similar between groups. Therefore, pistachios and mixed nuts may increase tibial density, in part, due to increasing antioxidant capacity. Longer dietary interventions may be necessary to elicit detectable changes in other bones (e.g. femur) and to detect potential mechanisms for the possible bone protective effects of nuts.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.121
  • Comparison and convergent validity of five Mediterranean dietary indexes
           applied to Brazilian adults and older adults: data from a population-based
           study (2015 ISA-Nutrition)

    • Authors: Bastos; Amália A., Félix, Paula V., Castro, Michelle A., Fisberg, Regina M., Silva, Antônio A. M., Yannakoulia, Mary, Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Different dietary indexes are proposed to investigate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD). However, they are based on different methodologies, and limited research has compared them to each other, particularly in non-Mediterranean populations. We aimed to compare five indexes intended to measure adherence to the MD. The sample was composed of adults and older adults (n 1187) from 2015 ISA-Nutrition, a cross-sectional population-based study in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Dietary data obtained through two 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) from which the Mediterranean diet scale (MDS), Mediterranean diet Score (MedDietscore), Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) and Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS) were calculated. The correlations and agreements between them were analysed by Spearman's correlation and linearly weighted Cohen's Kappa coefficients, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were applied to investigate their convergent validity. The highest correlations were found between MDP and MAI (r = 0⋅76; 95% CI 0⋅74–0⋅79) and between MDP and MDS (r = 0⋅72; 95% CI 0⋅69–0⋅75). The greatest agreements observed were moderate, between MDP v. MAI (κ = 0⋅57, P < 0⋅001) and MDP v. MDS (κ = 0⋅48, P < 0⋅001). The goodness-of-fit of CFA for MedDietscore (RMSEA = 0⋅033, 90% CI 0⋅02–0⋅042; SRMR = 0⋅042) and MSDPS (RMSEA = 0⋅028, 90% CI 0⋅019–0⋅037; SRMR = 0⋅031) had acceptable values for absolute fit indices. Vegetables, olive oil, MUFA:SFA ratio and cereals with legumes were more relevant to characterise the MD (factor loadings ≥0⋅50). The MDS, MAI and MDP classified the population similarly, but the MedDietscore showed better performances in evaluating adherence to the MD. These results provided guidance for the most appropriate Mediterranean dietary index to be applied in non-Mediterranean populations.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.123
  • A peer support dietary change intervention for encouraging adoption and
           maintenance of the Mediterranean diet in a non-Mediterranean population
           (TEAM-MED): lessons learned and suggested improvements

    • Authors: Appleton; Katherine M., McEvoy, Claire T., Lloydwin, Christina, Moore, Sarah, Salamanca-Gonzalez, Patricia, Cupples, Margaret E., Hunter, Steven, Kee, Frank, McCance, David R., Young, Ian S., McKinley, Michelle C., Woodside, Jayne V.
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Peer support interventions for dietary change may offer cost-effective alternatives to interventions led by health professionals. This process evaluation of a trial to encourage the adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high CVD risk (TEAM-MED) aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing a group-based peer support intervention for dietary change, positive elements of the intervention and aspects that could be improved. Data on training and support for the peer supporters; intervention fidelity and acceptability; acceptability of data collection processes for the trial and reasons for withdrawal from the trial were considered. Data were collected from observations, questionnaires and interviews, with both peer supporters and trial participants. Peer supporters were recruited and trained to result in successful implementation of the intervention; all intended sessions were run, with the majority of elements included. Peer supporters were complimentary of the training, and positive comments from participants centred around the peer supporters, the intervention materials and the supportive nature of the group sessions. Attendance at the group sessions, however, waned over the intervention, with suggested effects on intervention engagement, enthusiasm and group cohesion. Reduced attendance was reportedly a result of meeting (in)frequency and organisational concerns, but increased social activities and group-based activities may also increase engagement, group cohesion and attendance. The peer support intervention was successfully implemented and tested, but improvements can be suggested and may enhance the successful nature of these types of interventions. Some consideration of personal preferences may also improve outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.2
  • Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire
           to assess free sugar intake among Sri Lankan preschool children

    • Authors: Mututanthri; Shanika, Thoradeniya, Tharanga, Harris, Rebecca
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The present study aims to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess free sugar intake as a whole and at the food group levels, retrospectively, over the past 3 months among 4 to 5-year-old preschool children in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Then, to assess its reliability and relative validity. In the development phase, three 24-hour dietary recalls (24 hDRs) of 518 preschool children were collected from caregivers. Based on that, a 67-item FFQ was developed, including commonly consumed free sugar-containing food items. The validation study was conducted among another 108 preschool children. The relative validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing it with the 24 hDRs. The test–retest reliability was assessed by repeated application of the FFQ to the same population after 6 weeks. Wilcoxon sign rank test, cross-classification with weighted Kappa statistic, Spearman rank correlation and Bland–Altman plots were used for comparison. Comparing the free sugar intake calculated by the two methods showed no difference (P = 0⋅13), a good correlation (0⋅89), good agreement in cross-classifying participants (78⋅4 % correctly classified) and a good agreement in Bland–Altman plots. Repeated application of the FFQ yielded; no differences in free sugar intake values (P = 0⋅45) a good correlation (0⋅71), acceptable agreement in cross-classifying participants (52⋅3 % correctly classified) and acceptable agreement in the Bland–Altman plot. Results were the same for all food groups. According to the results, the newly developed quantitative FFQ provides a relatively valid and reliable measure for quantifying free sugar intake among preschool children as a whole or by food group.
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.5
  • Rate, risk factors and estimated time to develop attrition after
           under-five children started moderate acute malnutrition treatment in
           Gubalafto, North East Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mekonen; Yimer, Kebede, Fassikaw
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Lost from follow-up, after starting moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is an ongoing challenge of public health until the admitted children reached the standard weight of a reference child. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the rate and estimated time to attrition after under-five children started treatment for MAM in the Gubalafto district. A facility-based retrospective cohort study was employed among 487 participant children who had been managed targeted therapeutic feeding from 1 June 2018 to 1 May 2021. The overall mean (±sd) age of the participants’ children was 22⋅1 (±12⋅6) months. At the end of the study period, 55 (11⋅46 %) under-five children developed attrition from the treatment after starting ready use of therapeutic feeding. After checking all assumptions, a multivariable Cox regression model was used to claim independent predictors for time to attritions. The median time of attrition after starting treatment of MAM was 13 (IQR ±9) weeks, with the overall incidence of attrition rate reported at 6⋅75 children Per Week (95 % CI 5⋅56, 9⋅6). In the final model of multivariable Cox regression, the hazard of attrition was significantly higher for children from rural residence (AHR 1⋅61; 95 % CI 1⋅18, 2⋅18; P = 0⋅001), and caregivers with their dyads did not get nutritional counselling at baseline (AHR 2⋅78; 95 % CI 1⋅34, 5⋅78; P = 0⋅001). The findings of the present study showed that nearly one in every eleven under-five children was attrition (lost to follow-up) in a median time of 13 (IQR ±9) weeks. We strongly recommended for caregivers provisions of diversification of daily nutrition supplementation of their dyads.
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.4
  • Association between a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns and the
           risk of type 2 diabetes: a representative cohort study in Taiwan

    • Authors: Lin; Rong, Chien, Kuo-Liong, Tsai, Ming-Chieh, Wang, Yi-Jie, Hsu, Le-Yin
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Taiwanese individuals. Data were collected using a nationwide cohort study (2001–15) from the Triple-High Database. Dietary intake was assessed using the twenty-group food frequency questionnaire and used to calculate alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression were used to derive dietary patterns, with incident T2DM as the outcome. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression analysis, and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 4705 participants were enrolled in the study, and 995 had newly developed T2DM during the median 5⋅28-year follow-up period (30⋅7 per 1000 person-years). Six dietary patterns were extracted (PCA: Western, prudent, dairy and plant-based; PLS: health-conscious, fish-vegetable and fruit-seafood). The highest aMED score quartile had a 25 % (hazard ratio 0⋅75; 95 % CI 0⋅61, 0⋅92; P = 0⋅039) lower risk of T2DM than the lowest quartile. This association remained significant after adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio 0⋅74; 95 % CI 0⋅60, 0⋅91; P = 0⋅010), and no effect modifier was found for aMED. The DASH scores, PCA and PLS dietary patterns were not significant after adjustment. In conclusion, high adherence to a MED-type dietary pattern by Taiwanese foods was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in the Taiwanese population, regardless of unhealthy lifestyle habits.
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.8
  • Iodine nutrition with North Atlantic living: the Faroese adolescents

    • Authors: Johannesen; Herborg Líggjasardóttir, Andersen, Stig, Andersen, Stine Linding, Nielsen, Kári Rubek, Weihe, Pál, Petersen, Maria Skaalum, Veyhe, Anna Sofía
      First page: 17
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.111
  • Caecal digestibility as an approximation of ileal protein digestibility
           evaluation in rats

    • Authors: Guillin; Florence M., Gaudichon, Claire, Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia, Lefranc-Millot, Catherine, Khodorova, Nadezda, Besançon, Stéphane, Calvez, Juliane
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The rat model can be used to assess ileal protein digestibility rapidly and in first intention, but no standardised method exists. Our objective was to compare methods to assess protein digestibility, depending on collection site (ileum/caecum) and use of a non-absorbable marker. A meal containing either casein, gluten or pea protein and chromium oxide as non-absorbable marker was given to male Wistar rats and the entire digestive content was collected 6 h later. Total chromium recovery was incomplete and variable, depending on protein source. We observed no significant difference in digestibility between the methods for any of the protein sources tested. Although none of the methods tested is optimal, our results suggest that caecal digestibility can be used as a proxy of ileal digestibility in rats without using a non-absorbable marker. This simple method makes it possible to evaluate protein digestibility of new alternative protein sources for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.3
  • Emotional and intuitive eating: an emerging approach to eating behaviours
           related to obesity

    • Authors: Ayyıldız; Feride, Akbulut, Gamze, Karaçil Ermumcu, Merve Şeyda, Acar Tek, Nilüfer
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Emotional and intuitive eating are associated with obesity. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating and emotional eating behaviours in adults with anthropometric measurements of obesity-related disease risk and gender. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist, hip and neck circumferences were taken. Emotional Eater Questionnaire and Intuitive Eating Scale-2 were used for the assessment of eating behaviour. A total of 3742 adult individuals (56⋅8 % (n 2125) female and (n 1617) male) were participated voluntarily. The total score and subscales of EEQ were higher in females than males (P < 0⋅001). The scores of the IES-2 subscales and the total score were higher in males than females (P < 0⋅05). In metabolic risk classification according to waist and neck circumference, EEQ scale scores (except type of food) were higher in the metabolic risk group, while IES-2 (except body-food congruence in neck circumference) scores were higher in the non-risk group (P < 0⋅05). While there was a positive correlation between EEQ and body weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, a negative correlation was found between age and waist-hip ratio. There was a negative correlation between IES-2 and body weight, BMI, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio. In addition, a negative correlation was found between IES-2 and EEQ. Intuitive eating and emotional eating differ by gender. Anthropometric measures and metabolic disease risk is associated with emotional eating and intuitive eating. Interventions to increase intuitive and decreasing emotional eating behaviour can be effective in preventing both obesity and obesity-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.11
  • Validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaire used in
           age-related eye disease studies in Turkish adults

    • Authors: Akpınar; Şerife, Köksal, Eda
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The present study aimed to perform the validity and reliability study of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) on the frequency of foods rich in antioxidant nutrients and used in Age-Related Eye Diseases (AREDs). In the first interview of the study, the first application of FFQ was carried out, and blank forms of Dietary Records (DRs) were given. For the validity of the FFQ, a total of 12 d (3 days * 4 weeks) of DR were taken. For the reliability of the FFQ, a test–retest application was made with an interval of 4 weeks. The daily intake means of antioxidant nutrients, omega 3 and total antioxidant capacity data obtained from both the FFQ and DR were calculated, and the concordance between the two methods was evaluated with the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and Bland–Altman graphs. The present study was carried out at Ege University İzmir/Turkey, Department of Ophthalmology, Retina Unit. The study was conducted with individuals aged ≥50 years who suffered from Age-Related Macular Degeneration (n 100, 72⋅0 ± 8⋅03 years). The values obtained from the test–retest applications for FFQ reliability were the same. The nutrient intake means obtained from the FFQ were similar or significantly higher than DR (P < 0⋅05). In the Bland–Altman graphical approach, the nutrient data were within the limits of agreement, and the PCCs between the two methods were moderately related. Considered together, this FFQ is a suitable tool for determining the dietary intakes of antioxidant nutrients in the Turkish population.
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.10
  • Serving size estimates using digital food photographs among Japanese
           adults: a critical analysis

    • Authors: Gawash; Ahmed, Zia, Hasan, Lo, David F.
      First page: 21
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.14
  • Food combination questionnaire for Japanese: relative validity regarding
           food and nutrient intake and overall diet quality against the 4-day
           weighed dietary record

    • Authors: Murakami; Kentaro, Shinozaki, Nana, Livingstone, M. Barbara E., Kimoto, Nana, Masayasu, Shizuko, Sasaki, Satoshi
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative validity of food and nutrient intakes and overall diet quality scores derived using a newly developed dietary assessment questionnaire (food combination questionnaire, FCQ). Dietary data were collected from 222 Japanese adults (111 for each sex) aged 30–76 years using the online FCQ and then the 4-non-consective-day weighed dietary record (DR). The median of Spearman correlation coefficients for sixteen food groups was 0⋅32 among women and 0⋅38 among men. The median of Pearson correlation coefficients for forty-six nutrients was 0⋅34 among women and 0⋅31 among men. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the total scores of Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) derived from the DR and FCQ was 0⋅37 among women and 0⋅39 among men. The corresponding value for the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3) total scores was 0⋅39 among women and 0⋅46 among men. Bland–Altman plots for these diet quality scores showed poor agreement at the individual level, although mean difference was small for the HEI-2015 (but not NRF9.3). Similar results were obtained using the paper version of FCQ, which was answered after conducting the DR, except for somewhat high Pearson correlation coefficients for the total scores of HEI-2015 (0⋅50 among both women and men) and NRF9.3 (0⋅37 among women and 0⋅53 among men). In conclusion, this analysis may lend support to the possible use of the FCQ as a rapid dietary assessment tool in large-scale epidemiologic studies in Japan, but further refinement of this tool should be pursued.
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.7
  • Response to Ahmed G et al. concerning ‘Accuracy of estimates of serving
           size using digitally displayed food photographs among Japanese adults’

    • Authors: Shinozaki; Nana, Murakami, Kentaro
      First page: 23
      PubDate: 2023-02-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.15
  • Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with spinal cord injury at
           admission: a single-centred study in the UK

    • Authors: Wong; Samford, Dong, Honglin, Hirani, Shashivadan P., Gainullina, Irina, Ussef, Ibrahim, Graham, Allison
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been implicated as an aetiologic factor of osteoporosis and various skeletal and extra-skeletal issues in SCI patients. Few data were available regarding vitamin D status in patients with acute SCI or immediately assessed at hospital admission. This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D status in SCI patients at admission to a UK SCI centre in January–December 2017. A total of 196 eligible patients with serum 25(OH)D concentration records at admission were recruited. The results found that 24 % were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l), 57 % of the patients had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l. The male patients, patients admitted in the winter–spring time (December–May), and patients with serum sodium < 135 mmol/l or with non-traumatic causes had a significant higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than their counterparts (28 % males v. 11⋅8 % females, P = 0⋅02; 30⋅2 % in winter–spring v. 12⋅9 % in summer–autumn, P = 0⋅007; 32⋅1 % non-traumatic v. 17⋅6 % traumatic SCI, P = 0⋅03; 38⋅9 % low serum sodium v. 18⋅8 % normal serum sodium, P = 0⋅010). There was a significant inverse association of serum 25(OH)D concentration with body mass index (BMI) (r = −0⋅311, P = 0⋅002), serum total cholesterol (r = −0⋅168, P = 0⋅04) and creatinine concentrations (r = −0⋅162, P = 0⋅02) that were also significant predictors of serum 25(OH)D concentration. Strategies for systematic screening and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in SCI patients need to be implemented and further investigated to prevent the vitamin D deficiency-related chronic complications.
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.12
  • Spatial distribution of stunting and wasting in 6–59 months children in
           Nepal: analysis using a Bayesian distributional bivariate probit model

    • Authors: Vatsa; Richa, Ghimire, Umesh, Sapkota, Suman, Subedi, Raj Kumar
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The combined burden of stunting and wasting in children under five years is a serious public health concern. The present study aimed to estimate the joint burden of stunting and wasting among children aged 6–59 months and explore its spatial variation across Nepal. The 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data was used to study acute and chronic childhood malnutrition. A Bayesian distributional bivariate probit geoadditive model was designed to study the linear association and geographical variation of stunting and wasting among 6–59 months, children. Child-related factors such as low birth weight, fever in the last 2 weeks preceding the survey and fourth or greater birth order were associated with a higher likelihood of stunting. The likelihood of a child being stunted was significantly less in the wealthiest households, having improved toilet facilities, and if mothers were overweight. Children from severely food insecure households were significantly more likely, and children from poorer households were significantly less likely to suffer both acute and chronic malnutrition simultaneously. Results from spatial effect showed that children from Lumbini and Karnali had a higher burden of stunting, and the likelihood that achild would have been wasted was significantly higher in Madhesh and Province 1. Immediate nutritional efforts are vital in low-income and severely food insecure households to lessen the risk of stunting and wasting in under children. Disproportionate geographic variations in stunting and wasting warrant sub-regional-specific nutrition intervention to achieve nutrition targets and reduce the burden of childhood malnutrition across the country.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.9
  • Letter to the Editor of the Journal of Nutritional Science

    • Authors: Kerac; Marko, McGrath, Marie, Berkley, James A., Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S., Lelijveld, Natasha, Mwangome, Martha, Rogers, Eleanor
      First page: 26
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.99
  • Response to letters provided from Marko Kerac, Marie McGrath, James A
           Berkley, Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod, Natasha Lelijveld, Martha Mwangome,
           and Eleanor Rogers (Manuscript ID JNS-LE-22-0110)

    • Authors: Jima; Beshada Rago
      First page: 27
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.100
  • Tiered dietary exposure assessment of steviol glycosides in the Belgian

    • Authors: Van Loco; Joris, Janssens, Raphael, Goscinny, Séverine, Van Hoeck, Els, Vleminckx, Christiane, Andjelkovic, Mirjana
      First page: 28
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.13
  • Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing body mass index and
           lipid profile in healthy young adults in Colombia: a pilot randomised
           controlled clinical trial

    • Authors: Serrano; Norma C., Rojas, Lyda Z., Gamboa-Delgado, Edna M., Suárez, Diana Paola, Salazar Acosta, Isail, Romero, Sandra L., Forero, Mario, Quintero-Lesmes, Doris C.
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of vitamin D supplementation in reducing BMI and lipid profile in adolescents and young adults from a cohort in Bucaramanga, Colombia. One hundred and one young adults were randomly assigned to one of two doses of vitamin D [1000 international units (IU) or 200 IU] administered daily for 15 weeks. The primary outcomes were serum 25(OH)D levels, BMI and lipid profile. The secondary outcomes were waist-hip ratio, skinfolds and fasting blood glucose. We found a mean ± sd plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was 25⋅0 ± 7⋅0 ng/ml at baseline, and after 15 weeks, it increased to 31⋅0 ± 10⋅0 ng/ml in the participants who received a daily dose of 1000 IU, (P < 0⋅0001). For the participants in the control group (200 IU), it went from 26⋅0 ± 8⋅0 ng/ml to 29⋅0 ± 8⋅0 ng/ml (P = 0⋅002). There were no differences between groups in body mass index. There was a statistically significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol between the intervention group v. the control group (mean difference −11⋅50 mg/dl (95 % CI −21⋅86 to −1⋅15; P = 0⋅030). The conclusions of the present study were two different doses of vitamin D supplementation (200 IU v. 1000 IU) produced changes in serum 25(OH)D levels over 15 weeks of administration in healthy young adults. No significant changes were found in the body mass index when the effect of the treatments was compared. A significant reduction in LDL-cholesterol was found when comparing the two intervention groups.Trial registration: NCT04377386
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.108
  • Experiences with energy drink consumption among Norwegian adolescents

    • Authors: Kaldenbach; Siri, Strand, Tor Arne, Holten-Andersen, Mads Nicolaj
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to describe adolescents’ habits and experiences with energy drink (ED) consumption and the relation to the amount of ED consumed. We used the national cross-sectional study Ungdata, conducted in 2015–16 in Norway. A total of 15 913 adolescents aged 13–19 years answered questions about ED consumption related to the following topics: reasons for, experiences with, habits and parental attitudes. The sample comprised only adolescents reporting to be ED consumers. We estimated the association between the responses and the average daily consumption of ED in multiple regression models. Those who consumed ED ‘to concentrate’ or ‘to perform better in school’ consumed on average 73⋅1 (CI 65⋅8, 80⋅3) and 112⋅0 (CI 102⋅7, 121⋅2) ml more daily, respectively, than those who did not consume ED for these reasons. Up to 80 % of the adolescents reported that ‘my parents think it is OK that I drink energy drink’, but at the same time almost 50 % reported that ‘my parents say that I shouldn't drink energy drink’. Apart from increased endurance and feeling stronger, both desired and adverse effects of ED consumption were reported. Our findings indicate that the expectation created by the ED companies have great influence on the adolescents’ consumption rate and that parental attitudes towards ED have little to no influence on the adolescents’ consumption rate.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.17
  • A scoping review of nutrition education interventions to improve
           competencies, lifestyle and dietary habits of medical students and

    • Authors: Mogre; Victor, Amoore, Bright Yammaha, Gaa, Patience Kanyiri
      First page: 31
      Abstract: We reviewed the available research and gave an overview of the effects of nutrition education interventions (NEIs) on medical students’ and residents’ knowledge of nutrition, attitudes towards nutrition care, self-efficacy, dietary practices and readiness to offer nutrition care. From 28 May through 29 June 2021, we searched Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane and ProQuest to retrieve 1807 articles. After conducting de-duplication and applying the eligibility criteria and reviewing the title and abstract, 23 papers were included. The data were descriptively and narratively synthesised, and the results were displayed as frequencies, tables and figures. Twenty-one interventions were designed to increase participants’ knowledge of nutrition-related topics, and eighteen studies found that nutrition knowledge had significantly improved post-intervention. Only four of the eleven studies that reported on attitudes about nutrition post-intervention showed a meaningful improvement. The self-efficacy of participants was examined in more than half of the included studies (n 13, 56⋅5 %), and eleven of these studies found a significant increase in the participants’ level of self-efficacy to offer nutrition care post-intervention. At the post-intervention point, seven interventions found that dietary and lifestyle habits had significantly improved. The review demonstrated the potential of NEIs to enhance participants’ dietary habits and nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. Reduced nutrition knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy scores during the follow-up, point to the need for more opportunities for medical students and residents to learn about nutrition after the intervention.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.16
  • Identification of anthropometric surrogate measurements and their cut-off
           points for the detection of low birth weight and premature newborn babies
           using ROC Analysis

    • Authors: Sintayehu; Eskedar, Sintayehu, Yitagesu, Oumer, Abdu, Berhane, Anteneh
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Despite the fact that health facilities in Ethiopia are being built closer to communities in all regions, the proportion of home deliveries remains high, and there are no studies being conducted to identify low birth weight (LBW) and premature newborn babies using simple, best, alternative, and appropriate anthropometric measurement in the study area. The objective of the present study was to find the simple, best, and alternative anthropometric measurement and identified its cut-off points for detecting LBW and premature newborn babies. A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Dire Dawa city administration, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included 385 women who gave birth in health facility. To evaluate the overall accuracy of the anthropometric measurements, a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic curve was used. Chest circumference (AUC = 0⋅95) with 29⋅4 cm and mean upper arm circumference (AUC = 0⋅93) with 7⋅9 cm proved to be the best anthropometric diagnostic measure for LBW and gestational age, respectively. Also, both anthropometric measuring tools are achieved the highest correlation (r = 0⋅62) for LBW and gestational age. Foot length had a higher sensitivity (94⋅8 %) in detecting LBW than other measurements, with a higher negative predictive value (NPV) (98⋅4 %) and a higher positive predictive value (PPV) (54⋅8 %). Chest circumference and mid-upper arm circumference were found to be better surrogate measurements for identifying LBW and premature babies in need of special care. More research is needed to identify better diagnostic interventions in situations like the study area, which has limited resources and a high proportion of home deliveries.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.20
  • Undernutrition and anaemia among Indian adolescents: role of dietary
           diversity and hygiene practices

    • Authors: Kumar; Mukesh, Mohanty, Pratap Chandra
      First page: 33
      Abstract: In 2021, the Lancet Commission on adolescent nutrition highlighted the need to prioritise the elimination of adolescent malnutrition to tap the human capital potential and break the intergenerational malnutrition trap. The nutritional requirement during adolescence reaches its peak. The present study aims to appraise the prevalence of undernutrition (stunting and thinness) and anaemia among adolescents (10–19 years) in India and the role of socioeconomic, individual-level hygiene behaviour and dietary diversity in nutritional outcomes. We have used the nationally representative Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS-2016–18) that covers children and adolescents (0–19 years) in India. The prevalence of stunting, anaemia and thinness among adolescents was 27⋅2, 28⋅5 and 24⋅1 %, respectively. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to estimate the likelihood of undernutrition. The likelihood of stunting was higher for late adolescence (OR 1⋅21, 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27), low dietary diversity (OR 1⋅37, 95 % CI 1⋅26, 1⋅49) and low hygiene behaviour compliance (OR 1⋅53, 95 % CI 1⋅42, 1⋅64). Adolescents from the poorest quintile were more likely to be stunted (OR 3⋅20, 95 % CI 2⋅94, 3⋅48), anaemic (OR 1⋅66, 95 % CI 1⋅47, 1⋅87) and thin (OR 1⋅68, 95 % CI 1⋅54, 1⋅82). We found that lower hygienic compliance was significantly associated with undernutrition and anaemia. Therefore, promoting hygienic practices should be emphasised to tackle undernutrition and anaemia. Furthermore, dietary diversity and poverty were strong predictors of stunting and thinness, therefore targeting the poor and focusing on improving dietary diversity should be the priority.
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.19
  • Oral supplementation of vitamin D is safe and can be an effective strategy
           to fill the nutritional gap

    • Authors: Dierkes; Jutta, Eggersdorfer, Manfred
      First page: 34
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.1
  • Selenium intakes in the Irish adult population

    • Authors: Buffini; Maria, Nugent, Anne P., Walton, Janette, Flynn, Albert, McNulty, Breige A.
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element which has an important role as a constituent of seleno-proteins involved in various physiological processes. Previous research in Irish adults suggests that intakes of this important nutrient are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to estimate the current intakes and major food sources of Se by Irish adults. Mean daily intakes (MDIs) of Se were calculated using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey which involved 1500 Irish adults aged 18–90 years. The Se content of foods and drinks consumed over a 4-d period was determined using data from the Irish Total Diet Study (TDS). Adequacy of Se intakes was assessed by calculating the proportion of the population with intakes below the adequate intake (AI) of 70 μg/d and lower reference nutrient intake of 40 μg/d (LRNI). The MDI of Se in the total population was 71⋅7 μg/d, with significantly higher intakes reported in men (80⋅2 μg/d) compared with women (63⋅4 μg/d, P < 0⋅01). Meat and meat products were the major contributing food group to Se intakes for both men (37 %) and women (31 %). Overall, 47 % of the population were not meeting the recommended AI, while 4 % of the total population were not meeting the LRNI. Although the average intake of Se is above the AI, a significant proportion of the population is not meeting this recommendation and continued monitoring of Se intakes is necessary, particularly by at-risk groups and also in the context of sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.23
  • Consumer behaviour and experiences in a naturalistic online grocery store:
           implications for nutrition research

    • Authors: Grummon; Anna H., Tucker, Anna Claire, Noe, Violet, Rummo, Pasquale E., Prestemon, Carmen E., Hall, Marissa G., Jaacks, Lindsay M., Lippuner, Veronica, Taillie, Lindsey Smith
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Naturalistic online grocery stores could provide a novel setting for evaluating nutrition interventions. In 2021–2022, we recruited US adults (n 144, 59% low-income) to complete two weekly study visits: one in a naturalistic (‘mock’) online grocery store developed for research and one in a real online grocery store. Participants selected groceries and responded to survey questions. Analyses examined survey responses and expenditures on fifteen food categories (e.g., bread, sugar-sweetened beverages). Nearly all enrolled participants completed both visits (98% retention). Moreover, nearly participants all reported that their selections in the naturalistic store were similar to their usual purchases (95%) and that the naturalistic store felt like a real store (92%). Participants’ spending on food categories in the naturalistic store were moderately-to-strongly correlated with their spending in the real store (range of correlation coefficients: 0⋅36–0⋅67, all P-values < 0⋅001). Naturalistic online grocery stores may offer a promising platform for conducting nutrition research.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.21
  • Orange juice intake and lipid profile: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    • Authors: Amini; Mohammad Reza, Sheikhhossein, Fatemeh, Bazshahi, Elham, Rahimi, Hamed, Ghalandari, Hamid, Ghaedi, Ehsan, Askarpour, Moein
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Dyslipidaemia is a metabolic anomaly which has been related to numerous morbidities. Orange juice (OJ) is a popular flavonoid-rich drink consumed worldwide. Due to the existing controversies regarding its impact on blood lipids, we decided to investigate the impact of OJ supplementation on lipid profile parameters. Major scientific databases (Cochrane library, Scopus, PubMed and Embase) were searched. Pooled effects sizes were reported as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Out of 6334 articles retrieved by the initial search, 9 articles met our inclusion criteria. Overall, supplementation with OJ did not exert any significant effects on blood levels of TG (WMD −1·53 mg/dl, 95 % CI −6·39, 3·32, P = 0·536), TC (WMD −5·91 mg/dl, 95 % CI −13·26, 1·43, P = 0·114) or HDL-C (WMD 0·61 mg/ dl, 95 % CI −0·61, 1·82, P = 0·333). OJ consumption did reduce LDL-C levels significantly (WMD −8·35 mg/dl, 95 % CI −15·43, −1·26, P = 0·021). Overall, we showed that the consumption of OJ may not be beneficial in improving serum levels of TG, TC or HDL-C. Contrarily, we showed that daily intake of OJ, especially more than 500 ml/d, might be effective in reducing LDL-C levels. In the light of the existing inconsistencies, we propose that further high-quality interventions be conducted in order to make a solid conclusion.
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.22
  • Assessment of the vitamin D status and its determinants in young healthy
           students from Palestine

    • Authors: Lenz; Janina Susann, Tintle, Nathan, Kerlikowsky, Felix, Badrasawi, Manal, Zahdeh, Rana, Qasrawi, Radwan, Hahn, Andreas, Schuchardt, Jan Philipp
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high. Poor vitamin D status, especially in women, has been reported in several countries in the Middle East despite adequate year-round sunlight for vitamin D synthesis. However, data on vitamin D status in Palestine are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate vitamin D status based on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25-(OH)D] among young healthy Palestinian students (18–27 years) and to assess associations between 25-(OH)D concentrations and several predictors. The mean 25-(OH)D concentration of women (n 151) was 27⋅2 ± 14⋅5 nmol/l, with the majority having insufficient (31⋅1 %) or deficient (
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.25
  • Effects of acute strawberry consumption on serum levels of vitamin C and
           folic acid, the antioxidant potential of LDL and blood glucose response: a
           randomised cross-over controlled trial

    • Authors: Kishimoto; Yoshimi, Taguchi, Chie, Iwashima, Tomomi, Kobayashi, Toshihiro, Kikoku, Yutaka, Nishiyama, Hiroshi, Masuda, Yasunobu, Kondo, Kazuo
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Strawberry contains many bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and polyphenols as well as folate, a vitamin that is especially important for women of childbearing age. We investigated the effects of the acute consumption of strawberry on the serum levels of vitamin C and folate, and on the antioxidant potential of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, twenty-three healthy female volunteers (age 22⋅5 ± 1⋅4 years) ingested 500 g of a strawberry purée beverage or a sugar content-matched placebo beverage. Blood samples were collected at fasting and at 0⋅5, 1, 2 and 4 h post-ingestion. The serum concentrations of vitamin C and folate were significantly elevated from 0⋅5 to 4 h after the strawberry beverage ingestion (P < 0⋅001); the levels peaked at 2 h, with peak levels of 15⋅0 ± 2⋅5 μg/ml for vitamin C and 14⋅4 ± 7⋅0 ng/ml for folate. Notably, at 1 h after the strawberry beverage ingestion, the LDL oxidation lag time was significantly prolonged (P < 0⋅05), suggesting that the antioxidant potential of LDL was increased. After the ingestion of either beverage, the serum levels of glucose and insulin reached a peak at 0⋅5 h and then quickly returned to baseline levels. These results suggest that strawberries are a useful source of vitamin C and folate and may help enhance the antioxidant potential of LDL in healthy young women.
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.117
  • Optimal complementary feeding practices of children aged 6–23 months in
           three agro-ecological rural districts of Jimma zones of southwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Gebretsadik; Meseret Tamrat, Adugna, Dessalegn Tamiru, Aliyu, Anteneh Dirar, Belachew, Tefera
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Despite the critical importance of complementary feeding, large proportions of children in developing countries are sub-optimally fed during 6–23 months of age. In Ethiopia, even though the government has been rolling out infant and young child feeding (IYCF) guidelines, the proportion of mothers adhering to the recommended optimal practices and its associated factors have not been assessed in different agro-ecological areas. Hence, the present study aimed to determine optimal complementary feeding practices and associated factors in three agro-ecological rural districts (high, mid and lowland) of southwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 845 mothers-index young children 6–23 months Jimma zone. Multistage sampling was employed to select the study participants. Structured and pretested questionnaires were used to collect data and entered into Epi Data V. The data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with optimal child-feeding practices. The significance of the association was determined at P < 0⋅05. The overall proportion of optimal complementary feeding practice (OCFP) was 9⋅4 % at 95 % CI (7⋅19, 11⋅08). The timely initiation of complementary feeding, minimum meal frequency, minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet was 52⋅2, 64⋅1, 17⋅2 and 12⋅2 %. Multivariable logistic regression showed that being in the highland districts, having good maternal knowledge, and mothers having primary school education, having a family size of less than six were positively associated with optimal complementary feeding practices. The findings showed that OCFP was low, especially in the midland agro-ecological districts.
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.26
  • Minimum acceptable diet and its associated factors among children aged
           6–23 months in Lalibela, northeast Ethiopia: a community-based
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Dejene; Yaregal, Mezgebu, Getachew Sale, Tadesse, Sisay Eshete
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The first 2 years of life are a critical window of opportunity for ensuring optimal child growth and development. In Ethiopia, the magnitude of the minimum acceptable diet ranges from 7 to 74⋅6 %. The evidence revealed the variation and unrelated data on the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the minimum acceptable diet and its associated factors among children aged 6–23 months in Lalibela town administration, northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lalibela town administration, northeast Ethiopia among 387 mothers/caregivers with children aged 6–23 months from May 1 to 30, 2022. The data were entered by Epidata version 3.1 and analysed by SPSS version 25.0. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with minimum acceptable diet. The degrees of association were assessed using an adjusted odds ratio with a 95 % confidence interval and P-value of 0⋅05. The magnitude of minimum acceptable diet in the study area was 16⋅7 % (95 % confidence interval: 12⋅8–20⋅6 %). Sex of child, getting infant and young child feeding counselling at antenatal care, infant feeding practice-related knowledge and childhood illness are the variables that were found to be an independent predictor of minimum acceptable diet. Health facilities should strengthen infant feeding counselling starting from antenatal care visits during pregnancy for the recommended minimum acceptable diet is crucial.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.24
  • Food knowledge level among Tanzanian women of childbearing age: developing
           a score for the food knowledge questionnaire

    • Authors: Conti; Maria Vittoria, Gnesi, Marco, Mshanga, Naelijwa, De Giuseppe, Rachele, Giampieri, Francesca, Cena, Hellas
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Food knowledge (FK) is one of the factors that contribute to malnutrition conditions in developing countries, together with food safety, food security and food access. FK is defined as ‘the competence to understand healthy nutrition concepts’; it impacts individuals’ life due to its relationship with food behaviour and eating habits. Therefore, acting on FK can represent a starting point for improving the health status of vulnerable populations. The authors present a total score of an FK questionnaire (FKQ) and its relation to the socio-demographic characteristics of a specific target population: Tanzanian women of childbearing age. The results of the manuscript complement evidence of construct validity of the FKQ by providing an algorithm to compute a total score as a measure of FK. The strength of this tool, and its score, lies in the fact that the questionnaire has been validated and is easy to administer.
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.28
  • Technological tools for assessing children's food intake: a scoping review

    • Authors: Mata; Jonas de Souza, Freitas, Jade Veloso, Crispim, Sandra Patricia, Interlenghi, Gabriela S., Magno, Marcela Baraúna, Ferreira, Daniele Masterson Tavares Pereira, Araujo, Marina Campos
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Technological innovations can standardise and minimise reporting errors in dietary assessment. This scoping review aimed to summarise the characteristics of technological tools used to assess children's food intake. The review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual. The main inclusion criterion was studied that assessed the dietary intake of children 0–9 years of age using technology. We also considered articles on validation and calibration of technologies. We retrieved 15 119 studies and 279 articles were read in full, after which we selected 93 works that met the eligibility criteria. Forty-six technologies were identified, 37 % of which had been developed in Europe and 32⋅6 % in North America; 65⋅2 % were self-administered; 27 % were used exclusively at home; 37 % involved web-based software and more than 80 % were in children over 6 years of age. 24HR was the most widely used traditional method in the technologies (56⋅5 %), and 47⋅8 % of the tools were validated. The review summarised helpful information for studies on using existing tools or that intend to develop or validate tools with various innovations. It focused on places with a shortage of such technologies.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.27
  • Food for our future: the nutritional science behind the sustainable fungal
           protein – mycoprotein. A symposium review

    • Authors: Derbyshire; Emma J., Theobald, Hannah, Wall, Benjamin T, Stephens, Francis
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Mycoprotein is a well-established and sustainably produced, protein-rich, high-fibre, whole food source derived from the fermentation of fungus. The present publication is based on a symposium held during the Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2022 in Sheffield that explored ‘Food for our Future: The Science Behind Sustainable Fungal Proteins’. A growing body of science links mycoprotein consumption with muscle/myofibrillar protein synthesis and improved cardiometabolic (principally lipid) markers. As described at this event, given the accumulating health and sustainability credentials of mycoprotein, there is great scope for fungal-derived mycoprotein to sit more prominently within future, updated food-based dietary guidelines.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.29
  • Food security among SNAP participants 2019 to 2021: a cross-sectional
           analysis of current population survey food security supplement data

    • Authors: Brady; Patrick J., Harnack, Lisa, Widome, Rachel, Berry, Kaitlyn M., Valluri, Sruthi
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Surveillance data indicate that food security rates increased among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020 and 2021) compared with pre-pandemic (2019), but this could have been due to increased participation from better resourced households. Our objective was to examine if demographic differences between SNAP-participating households in each year were responsible for the increased prevalence of food secure households. We calculated the observed 30-d food security prevalence among SNAP-participating households for each year. We used indirect standardisation to produce expected 2020 and 2021 prevalences with 2019 as the standard population using household size, income, age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, presence of children, single parent household, metropolitan status and census region. We calculated standardised prevalence ratios (SPRs) to understand if the observed prevalence was higher than expected given any changes in the demographic profile compared to 2019. The Current Population Survey data were collected by the United States Census Bureau and Department of Agriculture. Our sample included 5,245 SNAP-participating households. The observed prevalence of food secure households increased by 3⋅6 percentage points comparing 2019 to 2020 (SPR = 1⋅06, 95 % confidence interval = 1⋅00, 1⋅11) and by 8⋅6 percentage comparing 2019 to 2021 (SPR = 1⋅13, 95 % confidence interval = 1⋅07, 1⋅18). The greater prevalence of food secure SNAP households during the pandemic did not appear to be attributable to socio-demographic differences compared to pre-pandemic. Despite hesitance among policymakers to expand or enhance social safety net programmes, permanently incorporating COVID-19-related policy interventions could lessen food insecurity in years to come.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.32
  • Selenium intakes in the Irish adult population – CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: Buffini; Maria, Nugent, Anne P., Walton, Janette, Flynn, Albert, McNulty, Breige A.
      First page: 46
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.35
  • Effects of dietary vitamins on obesity-related metabolic parameters

    • Authors: Lee; Chooi Yeng
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Genetic factors, some underlying medical conditions, and obesity are risk factors of T2DM. Unlike other risk factors which are non-modifiable, obesity is preventable and usually treatable, and is largely contributed by lifestyle factors. Management of these lifestyle factors may curb the development of T2DM and reduces T2DM prevalence. Dietary vitamins have been recommended as a lifestyle modification intervention to support obesity treatment. Vitamins correlate negatively with body weight, body mass index and body composition. Some of the vitamins may also have anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, results from pre-clinical and clinical studies of the effects of vitamins on obesity are inconsistent. A clear understanding of the effects of vitamins on obesity will help determine dietary intervention that is truly effective in preventing and treating obesity as well as obesity-related complications including T2DM. This article reviews existing evidences of the effects of vitamin supplementation on obesity and obesity-related metabolic status.
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.30
  • Relationship between overweight and obesity and insufficient micronutrient
           intake: a nationwide study in Taiwan

    • Authors: Lin; Shih-Pi, Fang, Hsin-Yu, Li, Ming-Chieh
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine whether overweight or obese people in Taiwan have an inadequate intake of selected micronutrients. A population-based study was conducted using data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2013–2016. We evaluated fourteen nutrient intakes using the 24 h dietary recall method. The dietary reference intake (DRI) adherence was estimated by the prevalence of participants whose intake was lower than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) or adequate intakes (AIs) for selected micronutrients. Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC), with men having WC ≥ 90 cm or women having WC ≥ 80 cm, were defined as obesity. A total of 3075 participants aged 19 years and above were included. After adjusting for confounders, we found that obese women have a lower DRI adherence of vitamin C (odds ratio (OR) 0⋅73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0⋅56, 0⋅95) and magnesium (OR 0⋅72, 95 % CI 0⋅54, 0⋅95), compared with normal-weight women. Obese men have a higher DRI adherence of vitamin B3 (OR 1⋅70, 95 % CI 1⋅29, 2⋅23), iron (OR 1⋅46, 95 % CI 1⋅06, 2⋅00) and zinc (OR 1⋅41, 95 % CI 1⋅07, 1⋅85), compared with normal-weight men. Similar findings were found using WC to define obesity. We conclude that obese women may have insufficient intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C and magnesium.
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.31
  • REDD1 deletion and treadmill running increase liver hepcidin and
           gluconeogenic enzymes in male mice

    • Authors: Barney; David E., Gordon, Bradley S., Hennigar, Stephen R.
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is transcriptionally up-regulated by gluconeogenic signals. Recent evidence suggeststhat increases in circulating hepcidin may decrease dietary iron absorption following prolonged exercise, however evidence is limited on whether gluconeogenic signals contribute to post-exercise increases in hepcidin. Mice with genetic knockout of regulated in development and DNA response-1 (REDD1) display greater glycogen depletion following exercise, possibly indicating greater gluconeogenesis. The objective of the present study was to determine liver hepcidin, markers of gluconeogenesis and iron metabolism in REDD1 knockout and wild-type mice following prolonged exercise. Twelve-week-old male REDD1 knockout and wild-type mice were randomised to rest or 60 min treadmill running with 1, 3 or 6 h recovery (n = 5–8/genotype/group). Liver gene expression of hepcidin (Hamp) and gluconeogenic enzymes (Ppargc1a, Creb3l3, Pck1, Pygl) were determined by qRT-PCR. Effects of genotype, exercise and their interaction were assessed by two-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests, and Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationships between Hamp and study outcomes. Liver Hamp increased 1- and 4-fold at 3 and 6 h post-exercise, compared to rest (P-adjusted < 0⋅009 for all), and was 50% greater in REDD1 knockout compared to wild-type mice (P = 0⋅0015). Liver Ppargc1a, Creb3l3 and Pck1 increased with treadmill running (P < 0⋅0001 for all), and liver Ppargc1a, Pck1 and Pygl were greater with REDD1 deletion (P < 0⋅02 for all). Liver Hamp was positively correlated with liver Creb3l3 (R = 0⋅62, P < 0⋅0001) and Pck1 (R = 0⋅44, P = 0⋅0014). In conclusion, REDD1 deletion and prolonged treadmill running increased liver Hamp and gluconeogenic regulators of Hamp, suggesting gluconeogenic signalling of hepcidin with prolonged exercise.
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.37
  • Association between low-carbohydrate diet score and incidence of type 2
           diabetes among Japanese adults: the JACC Study

    • Authors: Yaegashi; Akinori, Kimura, Takashi, Hirata, Takumi, Iso, Hiroyasu, Tamakoshi, Akiko
      First page: 50
      Abstract: We prospectively examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japanese adults using Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) data. A total of 19 084 (7052 men and 12 032 women) Japanese non-diabetic participants aged 40–79 years, who enrolled in the JACC study between 1988 and 1990, were included in our analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The overall, animal and vegetable LCD scores were calculated by dividing the study participants into eleven categories based on the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein and fat. The incidence of T2D was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of incident T2D across the quintile of each LCD score, with adjustment for potential confounders. During the 5-year study period, 490 adults (247 men and 243 women) developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted OR of incident T2D for the highest v. lowest quintiles of overall and animal LCD scores, respectively, were 0·64 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·99) and 0·83 (95 % CI 0·55, 1·27) for men, 0·78 (95 % CI 0·51, 1·18) and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·24) for women. The vegetable LCD score was associated with a lower risk of T2D in men (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·77). Our results suggest that diets lower in carbohydrates and higher in fat and protein are unlikely to higher the T2D risk among Japanese individuals.
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.122
  • Usual intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients in a young adult
           population aged 19–30 years: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Jindasereekul; Phachara, Jirarattanarangsri, Wachira, Khemacheewakul, Julaluk, Leksawasdi, Noppol, Thiennimitr, Parameth, Taesuwan, Siraphat
      First page: 51
      Abstract: One-carbon nutrients play an important role in epigenetic mechanisms and cellular methylation reactions. Inadequate intake of these nutrients is linked to metabolic perturbations, yet the current intake levels of these nutrients have rarely been studied in Asia. This cross-sectional study surveyed the usual dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients (folate, choline and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) among Thai university students aged 19–30 years (n 246). Socioeconomic background, health information, anthropometric data and 24-h dietary recall data were collected. The long-term usual intake was estimated using the multiple-source method. The average usual intake levels for men and women were (mean ± sd) 1⋅85 ± 0⋅95 and 2⋅42 ± 8⋅7 mg/d of vitamin B2, 1⋅96 ± 1⋅0 and 2⋅49 ± 8⋅7 mg/d of vitamin B6, 6⋅20 ± 9⋅5 and 6⋅28 ± 12 μg/d of vitamin B12, 195 ± 154 and 155 ± 101 μg dietary folate equivalent/d of folate, 418 ± 191 and 337 ± 164 mg/d of choline, respectively. Effect modification by sex was observed for vitamin B2 (P-interaction = 0⋅002) and choline (P-interaction = 0⋅02), where every 1 mg increase in vitamin B2 and 100 mg increase in choline intake were associated with a 2⋅07 (P = 0⋅01) and 0⋅81 kg/m2 (P = 0⋅04) lower BMI, respectively, in men. The study results suggest that Thai young adults meet the recommended levels for vitamins B2, B6 and B12. The majority of participants had inadequate folate intake and did not achieve recommended intake levels for choline. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. This trial was registered at www.thaiclinicaltrials.gov (TCTR20210420007).
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.38
  • List of Reviewers

    • First page: 52
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.6
  • Socio-demographic factors associated with hunger among food pantry users
           in Eastern Massachusetts

    • Authors: Codner; Alyson, Zack, Rachel M., Liu, Xinyang, Bangham, Candice, Nelson, Eva, Hicks, Jacqueline Milton, Greece, Jacey A.
      First page: 53
      Abstract: To assess the determinants of hunger among food pantry users, the present study used a cross-sectional survey that included a modified Household Hunger Scale to quantify hunger. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between hunger categories and various household socio-demographic and economic characteristics, such as age, race, household size, marital status and experience of any economic hardship. The survey was administered to food pantry users from June 2018 to August 2018 at various food pantries across Eastern Massachusetts with 611 food pantry users completing the questionnaire at any of the 10 food pantry sites. One-fifth (20⋅13 %) of food pantry users experienced moderate hunger and 19⋅14 % experienced severe hunger. Food pantry users who were single, divorced or separated; had less than a high school education; working part-time, unemployed or retired; or, who earned incomes less than $1000 per month were most likely to experience severe or moderate hunger. Pantry users who experienced any economic hardship had 4⋅78 the adjusted odds of severe hunger (95 % CI 2⋅49, 9⋅19), which was much larger than the odds of moderate hunger (AOR 1⋅95; 95 % CI 1⋅10, 3⋅48). Younger age and participation in WIC (AOR 0⋅20; 95 % CI 0⋅05–0⋅78) and SNAP (AOR 0⋅53; 95 % CI 0⋅32–0⋅88) were protective against severe hunger. The present study illustrates factors affecting hunger in food pantry users, which can help inform public health programmes and policies for people in need of additional resources. This is essential particularly in times of increasing economic hardships recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.118
  • Dietary behaviours during COVID-19 among households at risk for food

    • Authors: Almohamad; Maha, Marshall, Allison, Dave, Jayna Markand, Chuang, Ru-Jye, Markham, Christine, Sharma, Shreela
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to examine associations between variables of COVID-19-related concerns and changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a sample of participants from the Brighter Bites program at risk for food insecurity. Cross-sectional data were collected during April–June 2020 using a rapid-response survey to understand social needs, COVID-19-related concerns and diet-related behaviours among families with children participating in Brighter Bites (n 1777) in the 2019–2020 school year at risk for food insecurity, within the surrounding Houston, Dallas, Austin, Texas area; Southwest Florida; Washington, D.C., United States. Of the 1777 respondents, 92 % of households reported being at risk for food insecurity. Among those from food insecure households, the majority were of Hispanic/Mexican-American/Latino (84⋅1 %) ethnic background, predominantly from Houston, Texas (71⋅4 %). During the pandemic, among individuals from food insecure households, 41 % (n 672) reported a decrease in FV intake, 32 % (n 527) reported an increase in FV intake, and 27 % (n 439) reported no change in FV intake. Those who reported concerns about financial stability had a 40 % greater risk of decreased FV intake compared to those not concerned about financial stability (RR 1⋅4; 95 % CI 1⋅0, 2⋅0; P = 0⋅03). The present study adds to this current body of sparse literature on how the initial phase of the pandemic impacted FV consumption behaviours among food insecure households with children. Effective interventions are needed to diminish the negative impact of COVID-19 on the population's health.
      PubDate: 2023-05-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.36
  • Macadamia nut effects on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomised trial

    • Authors: Jones; Julie L., Sabaté, Joan, Heskey, Celine, Oda, Keiji, Miles, Fayth, Rajaram, Sujatha
      First page: 55
      Abstract: We sought to examine the effects of daily consumption of macadamia nuts on body weight and composition, plasma lipids and glycaemic parameters in a free-living environment in overweight and obese adults at elevated cardiometabolic risk. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five adults with abdominal obesity consumed their usual diet plus macadamia nuts (~15 % of daily calories) for 8 weeks (intervention) and their usual diet without nuts for 8 weeks (control), with a 2-week washout. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance; dietary intake was assessed with 24-h dietary recalls. Consumption of macadamia nuts led to increased total fat and MUFA intake while SFA intake was unaltered. With mixed model regression analysis, no significant changes in mean weight, BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat or glycaemic parameters, and non-significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol of 2⋅1 % (−4⋅3 mg/dl; 95 % CI −14⋅8, 6⋅1) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) of 4 % (−4⋅7 mg/dl; 95 % CI −14⋅3, 4⋅8) were observed. Cholesterol-lowering effects were modified by adiposity: greater lipid lowering occurred in those with overweight v. obesity, and in those with less than the median percent body fat. Daily consumption of macadamia nuts does not lead to gains in weight or body fat under free-living conditions in overweight or obese adults; non-significant cholesterol lowering occurred without altering saturated fat intake of similar magnitude to cholesterol lowering seen with other nuts.Clinical Trial Registry Number and Website: NCT03801837
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.39
  • Adherence to Mediterranean diet and dietary changes according to the fear
           of COVID-19 during the pandemic: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Gumus; Damla, Topal, Gulsum Gizem, Sevim, Sumeyra, Kizil, Mevlude
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the implementation of restrictions to reduce transmission worldwide. The restrictions and measures have affected the psychological health and eating habits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate dietary habits, lifestyle changes, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and fear of COVID-19 in Turkey during the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle habits was used for data collection. The fear of COVID-19 levels of the participants was determined by the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S). The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) was used to evaluate participants’ adherence to the MD. The differences between the FCV-19S and MEDAS according to gender were compared. Eight hundred and twenty subjects (76⋅6 % women and 28⋅4 % men) were evaluated within the study. The mean of MEDAS (ranged between 0 and 12) was 6⋅4 ± 2⋅1, and almost half of the participants moderately adhered to the MD. The mean of FCV-19S (ranged between 7 and 33) was 16⋅8 ± 5⋅7, while women's FCV-19S and MEDAS were significantly higher than men's (P < 0⋅001). The consumption of sweetened cereals, grains, pasta, homemade bread and pastries of the respondents with high FCV-19S were higher than in those with low FCV-19S. High FCV-19S was also characterized by decreased take-away food and fast food consumption in approximately 40 % of the respondents (P < 0⋅01). Similarly, women's fast food and take-away food consumption decreased more than men's (P < 0⋅05). In conclusion, the respondents’ food consumption and eating habits varied according to the fear of COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.40
  • Association between selenium intake and cognitive function among older
           adults in the US: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    • Authors: Ferdous; Khondoker Adeba, Knol, Linda L, Park, Han-A
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Cognitive decline occurs commonly as people age. Despite the complexity of cellular mechanisms, oxidative stress is a critical contributor to age-associated cognitive impairment. Selenium plays an important role in antioxidant defense systems. The purpose of the present study was to assess the correlation between selenium intake and cognitive function among older adults. The participants were individuals ≥65 years old (n=1681) who participated in the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a country-wide cross-sectional survey. Dietary selenium intake and adequacy were evaluated with 2 d of 24-h recalls and the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, respectively. Cognitive function was assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) score, which was significantly higher when selenium intake was adequate. After adjusting for energy intake, the association was no longer significant. Inadequate intake of selenium is rare in the US and dependent on caloric intake in older adults.
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.43
  • Effect of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) supplementation on
           faecal microbiota, body composition and iron status markers in overweight
           and obese postmenopausal women: a randomised, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled trial

    • Authors: Abshirini; Maryam, Coad, Jane, Wolber, Frances M., von Hurst, Pamela, Miller, Matthew R., Tian, Hong Sabrina, Kruger, Marlena C.
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the effect of whole meat GSM powder on gut microbiota abundance, body composition and iron status markers in healthy overweight or obese postmenopausal women. This was a 3-months trial involving forty-nine healthy postmenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 35 kg/m2 who were randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d of either GSM powder (n 25) or placebo (n 24). The gut microbe abundance, serum iron status markers and body composition were measured at the baseline and the end of the study. The between-group comparison at the baseline showed a lower abundance of Bacteroides and Clostridium XIVa in the GSM group compared with the placebo (P = 0⋅04). At the baseline, the body fat (BF)% and gynoid fat% were higher in the GSM group compared with the placebo (P < 0⋅05). No significant changes were found in any of the outcome measures, except for ferritin levels that showed a significant reduction over time (time effect P = 0⋅01). Some trend was observed in bacteria including Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium which tended to increase in the GSM group while their abundance decreased or remained at their baseline level in the control group. Supplementation with GSM powder did not result in any significant changes in gut microbe abundance, body composition and iron markers compared with placebo. However, some commensal bacteria such as Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria tended to increase following supplementation with GSM powder. Overall, these findings can expand the knowledge surrounding the effects of whole GSM powder on these outcome measures in healthy postmenopausal women.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.41
  • Food insecurity and sleep health by race/ethnicity in the United States

    • Authors: Alhasan; Dana M., Riley, Nyree M., Jackson II, W. Braxton, Jackson, Chandra L.
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Food insecurity, poised to increase with burgeoning concerns related to climate change, may influence sleep, yet few studies examined the food security-sleep association among racially/ethnically diverse populations with multiple sleep dimensions. We determined overall and racial/ethnic-specific associations between food security and sleep health. Using National Health Interview Survey data, we categorised food security as very low, low, marginal and high. Sleep duration was categorised as very short, short, recommended and long. Sleep disturbances included trouble falling/staying asleep, insomnia symptoms, waking up feeling unrested and using sleep medication (all ≥3 d/times in the previous week). Adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and other confounders, we used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for sleep dimensions by food security. Among 177 435 participants, the mean age of 47⋅2 ± 0⋅1 years, 52⋅0 % were women, and 68⋅4 % were non-Hispanic (NH)-White. A higher percent of NH-Black (7⋅9 %) and Hispanic/Latinx (5⋅1 %) lived in very low food security households than NH-White (3⋅1 %) participants. Very low v. high food security was associated with a higher prevalence of very short (PR = 2⋅61 [95 % CI 2⋅44–2⋅80]) sleep duration as well as trouble falling asleep (PR = 2⋅21 [95 % CI 2⋅12–2⋅30]). Very low v. high food security was associated with a higher prevalence of very short sleep duration among Asian (PR = 3⋅64 [95 % CI 2⋅67–4⋅97]) and NH-White (PR = 2⋅73 [95 % CI 2⋅50–2⋅99]) participants compared with NH-Black (PR = 2⋅03 [95 % CI 1⋅80–2⋅31]) and Hispanic/Latinx (PR = 2⋅65 [95 % CI 2⋅30–3⋅07]) participants. Food insecurity was associated with poorer sleep in a racially/ethnically diverse US sample.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.18
  • Rate, risk factors and estimations of time to develop severe acute
           malnutrition after children receiving antiretroviral therapy at selected
           health facilities in northwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tsegaye; Dejen, Kebede, Tsehay, Kebede, Fassikaw
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects up to 50 % of children with HIV, especially those who reside in resource-constrained healthcare setting like Ethiopia. During subsequent follow-up of children factors related to incidence of SAM after antiretroviral therapy (ART) is set on, however, there is no prior evidence. An institution-based retrospective cohort study was employed among 721 HIV-positive children from 1 January to 30 December 2021. Data were entered using Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Bi-variable and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard models were employed at 95 % confidence intervals to identify significant predictors for SAM. According to this result, the overall mean (±sd) age of the participants was found to be 9⋅83 (±3⋅3) years. At the end of the follow-up period, 103 (14⋅29 %) children developed SAM with a median time of 30⋅3 (13⋅4) months after ART initiation. The overall incidence density of SAM was found to be 5⋅64 per 100 child (95 % CI 4⋅68, 6⋅94). Children with CD4 counts below the threshold [AHR 2⋅6 (95 % CI 1⋅2, 2⋅9, P = 0⋅01)], disclosed HIV status [AHR 1⋅9 (95 % CI 1⋅4, 3⋅39, P = 0⋅03)] and Hgb level ≤10 mg/dl [AHR 1⋅8 (95 % CI 1⋅2, 2⋅9, P = 0⋅03)] were significant predictors for SAM. Significant predictors of acute malnutrition were having a CD4 count below the threshold, children who had previously reported their HIV status, and having haemoglobin
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.42
  • Effects of dietary lipid level and environmental temperature on lipid
           metabolism in the intestine and liver, and choline requirement in Atlantic
           salmon (Salmo salar L) parr

    • Authors: Siciliani; Daphne, Kortner, Trond M., Berge, Gerd M., Hansen, Anne Kristine, Krogdahl, Åshild
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Choline was recently established as an essential nutrient for Atlantic salmon at all life stages. Choline deficiency is manifested as an excessive accumulation of dietary fat within the intestinal enterocytes, a condition known as steatosis. Most of today's plant-based salmon feeds will be choline-deficient unless choline is supplemented. Choline's role in lipid transport suggests that choline requirement may depend on factors such as dietary lipid level and environmental temperature. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate whether lipid level and water temperature can affect steatosis symptoms, and thereby choline requirement in Atlantic salmon. Four choline-deficient plant-based diets were formulated differing in lipid level of 16, 20, 25 and 28 % and fed to salmon of 25 g initial weight in duplicate tanks per diet at two different environmental temperatures: 8 and 15 °C. After 8 weeks of feeding, samples of blood, tissue and gut content from six fish per tank were collected, for analyses of histomorphological, biochemical and molecular biomarkers of steatosis and choline requirement. Increasing lipid level did not affect growth rate but increased relative weight and lipid content of the pyloric caeca and histological symptoms of intestinal steatosis and decreased fish yield. Elevation of the water temperature from 8 to 15 °C, increased growth rate, relative weight of the pyloric caeca, and the histological symptoms of steatosis seemed to become more severe. We conclude that dietary lipid level, as well as environmental temperature, affect choline requirement to a magnitude of importance for fish biology and health, and for fish yield.
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.45
  • Determination of a steady-state isotope dilution protocol for carbon
           oxidation studies in the domestic cat

    • Authors: Pezzali; Julia Guazzelli, Lambie, Jocelyn G., Phillips, Stuart M., Shoveller, Anna K.
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The present study aimed to develop an isotope protocol to achieve equilibrium of 13CO2 in breath of cats during carbon oxidation studies using L-[1-13C]-Phenylalanine (L-[1-13C]-Phe), provided orally in repeated meals. One adult male cat was used in two experiments. In each experiment, three isotope protocols were tested in triplicate using the same cat. During carbon oxidation study days, the cat was offered thirteen small meals to achieve and maintain a physiological fed state. In experiment 1, the isotope protocols tested (A, B and C) had a similar priming dose of NaH13CO3 (0⋅176 mg/kg; offered in meal 6), but different priming [4⋅8 mg/kg (A) or 9⋅4 mg/kg (B and C); provided in meal 6] and constant [1⋅04 mg/kg (A and B) or 2⋅4 mg/kg (C); offered in meals 6–13] doses of L-[1-13C]-Phe. In experiment 2, the isotope protocols tested (D, E and F) had similar priming (4⋅8 mg/kg; provided in meal 5) and constant (1⋅04 mg/kg; provided in meals 5–13) doses of L-[1-13C]-Phe, but increasing priming doses of NaH13CO3 (D: 0⋅264, E: 0⋅352, F: 0⋅44 mg/kg; provided in meal 4). Breath samples were collected using respiration chambers (25-min intervals) and CO2 trapping to determine 13CO2:12CO2. Isotopic steady state was defined as the enrichment of 13CO2, above background samples, remaining constant in at least the last three samples. Treatment F resulted in the earliest achievement of 13CO2 steady state in the cat's breath. This feeding and isotope protocol can be used in future studies aiming to study amino acid metabolism in cats.
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.44
  • Stunting at birth: linear growth failure at an early age among newborns in
           Hawassa city public health hospitals, Sidama region, Ethiopia: a
           facility-based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ejigu; Haileyesus, Tafese, Zelalem
      First page: 63
      Abstract: On a global basis, 144 million people are stunted, and in Ethiopia, it remains a major public health problem. A limited number of studies have been conducted at the national level and in the study area to generate information on stunting at birth. The present study investigated the magnitude and predictors of stunting among newborns delivered at the Public Hospitals of Hawassa City, Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2021 among mothers and newborns (N 371). Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the mother in a waiting room after the delivery of the child at the hospital. Newborn length and weight were measured and converted to length-for-age Z-score using WHO standards. The prevalence of stunting at birth (35⋅6 %) and low birth weight (24⋅6 %) were high. In the adjusted model, factors significantly associated with stunting were birth interval
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2023.46
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