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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Journal of Nutritional Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.984
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2048-6790 - ISSN (Online) 2048-6790
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • List of reviewers

    • First page: 1
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.105
  • Women have higher levels of CoQ10 than men when supplemented with a single
           dose of CoQ10 with monoglycerides omega-3 or rice oil and followed for 48
           h: a crossover randomised triple blind controlled study

    • Authors: Beaulieu; Sandrine, Vachon, Annick, Plourde, Mélanie
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid involved in ATP synthesis, exhibits very limited oral absorption, and its endogenous production decreases with ageing and with the occurrence of oxidative stress. Our group previously showed that monoglycerides omega-3 (MAG-OM3) increase OM3 plasma concentrations. Since CoQ10 is liposoluble, we hypothesised that its 48 h pharmacokinetics is higher when provided with MAG-OM3 compared to CoQ10 alone (in powder form) or added to rice oil (a neutral triacylglycerol oil). A randomised triple-blind crossover study was performed with fifteen men and fifteen women consuming the three supplements providing 200 mg of CoQ10 in a random order. Blood samples were collected before (t = 0) and 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 24 and 48 h after the supplement intake. Plasma total CoQ10 concentrations were analysed on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Participants were 26⋅1 ± 4⋅8 years old. When CoQ10 was provided with rice or MAG-OM3 oils, the 48 h area under the curve (AUC 0–48 h) was approximately two times higher compared to when provided without an oil. The delta max concentration (ΔCmax) of plasma CoQ10 was, respectively, 2 (MAG-OM3) and 2⋅5 (rice oil) times higher compared to CoQ10 alone. There was a significant sex by treatment interaction (P = 0⋅0250) for the AUC 0–6 h supporting that in postprandial, men and women do not respond the same way to the different supplement. Women had a higher CoQ10 concentration 48 h after the single-dose intake compared to men. We conclude that CoQ10 supplements must be provided with lipids, and their kinetics is different between men and women.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.106
  • Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess
           cardiovascular health-related food intake among Mexican adolescents

    • Authors: Terminel-Zaragoza; Ricardo, Vega-López, Sonia, Ulloa-Mercado, Gabriela, Serna-Gutiérrez, Araceli, Gortares-Moroyoqui, Pablo, Díaz-Tenorio, Lourdes, Rentería-Mexía, Ana
      First page: 3
      Abstract: There is a lack of region-adapted tools to evaluate diet as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adolescents. The study aim was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a paper-based and region-adapted food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to assess CVD-related food and nutrient intakes of adolescents from Northwest México. The study design was cross-sectional. The FFQ was developed in a two-step process: prototype designing and a pilot test, with re-tested in a 3-month period, along with two administrations of 24 h-recall (24 hR). Pearson's and intra-class correlation coefficients (PCC and ICC) were assessed. Bland–Altman plots, limits of agreement and quintile classifications were carried out. Participants (n 221) were 53·8 % male, 18·5 ± 0·4 years old. Reproducibility had a median PCC = 0·66 for processed meats, ranging from 0·40 (saturated fat) to 0·74 (fish & shellfish), P = 0·001. ICC ranged from 0·53 (saturated fat) to 0·80 (sodium; and nuts, seeds and legumes), P = 0·001. Validity comparing FFQ1 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·12 (P = 0·06) to 0·95 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·20 (P = 0·048) to 0·88 (P = 0·001); comparing FFQ2 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·07 (P = 0·25) to 0·46 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·15 (P = 0·106) to 0·58 (P = 0·001). The FFQ overestimated the intake of all food groups and nutrients (P < 0·05), while Cohen's κ showed coefficients lower than 0·20. The proposed FFQ represents a moderately validated tool to estimate CVD-related food and nutrient intakes as a risk factor, which can be used in combination with multiple administrations of 24 hRs, as a critical mean in future interventions intended to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.1
  • Factors associated with minimum dietary diversity failure among Indian

    • Authors: Rai; Rajesh Kumar, Kumar, Sandhya S., Kumar, Chandan
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Recognising the importance of infant and young child feeding practices during the first 2 years of life, the World Health Organization's Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework developed a minimum dietary diversity (MDD) indicator for feeding children aged 6–23 months. MDD is defined as the consumption of food items from five or more groups out of a total of eight food groups. Food intake from less than five food groups is considered minimum dietary diversity failure (MDDF). Using the nationally representative National Family Health Survey (NFHS) dataset, the present study assessed the trend in MDDF between 2005–6 and 2015–16 and the factors associated with MDDF among children aged 6–23 months during 2015–16. The NFHS conducted in 2005–6 and 2015–16 covered a sample of 14 419 and 74 078 children aged 6–23 months, respectively. Overall, the MDDF reduced from 87⋅4  % (95  % confidence interval (95  % CI) 86⋅8  %, 87⋅9  %) in 2005–6 to 80⋅6  % (95  % CI 80⋅1  %, 81⋅0  %) in 2015–16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased child's age, second and third birth order children, higher maternal age and education, mass media exposure of mothers and more than four antenatal care visits had a negative association with the MDDF. Children living in rural areas and residing in high-focus states of India were observed with higher odds of experiencing MDDF. Exposure to community healthcare services was negatively associated with MDDF, and anaemic children were more likely to have MDDF. Socioeconomic status of mothers and children and encouragement of maternal and child healthcare use could be helpful in devising context-specific intervention to mitigate MDDF.
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.2
  • A live yeast supplementation to gestating ewes improves bioactive molecule
           composition in colostrum with no impact on its bacterial composition and
           beneficially affects immune status of the offspring

    • Authors: Dunière; Lysiane, Renaud, Justin B., Steele, Michael A., Achard, Caroline S., Forano, Evelyne, Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Colostrum quality is of paramount importance in the management of optimal ruminant growth and infectious disease prevention in early life. Live yeast supplementation effect during the last month of gestation was evaluated on ewes’ colostrum composition. Two groups of ewes (n = 14) carrying twin lambs were constituted and twins were separated into groups (mothered or artificially fed) 12 h after birth. Nutrient, oligosaccharides (OS), IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were measured over 72 h after lambing, and bacterial community was described in colostrum collected at parturition (T0). Immune passive transfer was evaluated through IgG measurement in lamb serum. In both groups, colostral nutrient, OS concentrations and IgG concentrations in colostrum and lamb serum decreased over time (P < 0⋅01), except for lactose, which slightly increased (P < 0⋅001), and lactoferrin, which remained stable. Bacterial population was stable over time with high relative abundances of Aerococcaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae and Staphylococcaceae in T0 colostrum. No effect of supplementation was observed in nutrient and lactoferrin concentrations. In supplemented ewes, the level of colostral IgG was higher at T0 and a higher level of serum IgG was observed in lambs born from supplemented mothers and artificially fed, while no effect of supplementation was observed in the mothered lamb groups. Using a metabolomic approach, we showed that supplementation affected OS composition with significantly higher levels of colostral Neu-5Gc compounds up to 5 h after birth. No effect of supplementation was observed on bacterial composition. Our data suggest that live yeast supplementation offsets the negative impact of early separation and incomplete colostrum feeding in neonate lambs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.3
  • Serum ferritin levels are associated with frequent consumption of iron-
           and ascorbate-rich foods among women of childbearing age in Nandi County,

    • Authors: Nyakundi; Patrick Nyamemba, Kiio, Juliana, Munyaka, Ann Wambui
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Information on consumption patterns of iron- and ascorbate-rich foods and their influence on iron status among women of childbearing age (WCA) is scarce in Kenya despite iron deficiency being rampant. The present study investigated consumption patterns of iron- and ascorbate-rich foods on iron status among WCA in Kapsabet Ward, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional analytical design. A sample of 160 respondents was systematically selected proportionately in the eight villages. Consumption patterns of iron- and ascorbate-rich foods were assessed using a modified 7-d Food Frequency Questionnaire. Venous blood (2 ml) was drawn from participants. Serum ferritin and C-reactive proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Consumption patterns of iron- and ascorbate-rich foods were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable regression was conducted to investigate the association between iron- and ascorbate-rich foods consumption and iron status. Confounding variables such as consumption of foods high phytate levels, milk and milk products, recent major blood losses and parasitic infections were controlled for during analysis. The prevalence of iron deficiency among the WCA was 45⋅0 %. Iron-rich foods were rarely (
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.5
  • Validation of an instrument for perceived factors affecting fruit and
           vegetable intake based on Pender's health promotion model

    • Authors: Khatti-Dizabadi; Freshteh, Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid, Amani, Reza, Mostafavi, Firoozeh
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake has a protective role against chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The present study aimed to validate an instrument for measuring the perception of effective factors on consumption behaviour of F&V based on Pender's health promotion model (HPM).This cross-sectional validation survey has consisted of five steps: literature review in order to plan and develop an instrument, face validity assessment, content validity assessment, reliability assessment and construct validity assessment with the cooperation of experts in health education, nutritionists and the target group (government employees). In the present study, reliability and validity of constructs were determined through Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively, in SPSS 22. The mean impact score was acceptable for 96·42 % of items in face validity. The mean scores of content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI) and reliability were 0·92, 0·97 and 0·96, respectively. According to the principal component analysis with varimax rotation, 104 items were identified in 15 factors contributing to 61·17 % of the model cumulative variance. Given the favourable scores of the research instrument in face validity, content validity and reliability as well as its ability to predict the extracted factors from the model, it can be used as a suitable instrument in future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.90
  • Predictors of wasting among children under-five years in largely food
           insecure area of north Wollo, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Anato; Anchamo
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Child undernutrition is widespread in low- and middle-income countries and is linked with weakened immunity and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia has made a marked reduction in stunting, but there has, however, been little progress in wasting reduction and limited evidence in food insecure areas may hamper the design of effective interventions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the contributing factors to persistent high prevalence of wasting among 6–59-month-old children. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed in February to March 2020, and included 384 mother–child pairs. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. The overall prevalence of wasting was 12⋅8 % (95 % CI 9⋅1, 16⋅1); with 5⋅8 % severely wasted. Factors significantly associated with wasting were child age 6–23 (v. 24–59 months), delayed initiation of breast-feeding, diarrhoeal illness in the last 2 weeks, poor dietary diversity and low socioeconomic status. The present findings support that aligning poverty reduction interventions and healthcare services is important to accelerate wasting reduction more equitably and achieve the World Health Assembly's target and SDG goal #2 in the coming years. Improving accessibility and affordability of nutritious foods and early diagnosis and treatment of childhood morbidity are critical to address childhood wasting in the context of food insecure areas.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.8
  • Plant-based meat and dairy substitutes on the Norwegian market: comparing
           macronutrient content in substitutes with equivalent meat and dairy

    • Authors: Tonheim; Live Edvardsen, Austad, Elisabeth, Torheim, Liv Elin, Henjum, Sigrun
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the macronutrient and salt content in meat and dairy substitutes available on the Norwegian market. Design: Comparison between substitute products and two groups of meat and dairy products where one group represented the healthiest option (Keyhole) and one the most used option (Regular). Kruskal–Wallis test with pairwise comparison was conducted on categories with more than two groups, and Mann–Whitney U test was conducted on categories with two groups. Setting: Online stores in Norway. Hundred and two meat substitute products and 173 milk and dairy substitute products on sale spring and autumn 2020 were assessed; additionally, ninety-eight equivalent meat products and 105 milk and dairy products. Results: While Keyhole and Regular meat did not contain fibre, meat substitutes contained 3⋅5–5⋅0 g fibre per 100 g. The saturated fat content in meat substitutes was on average 1⋅9 times lower than in Keyhole products and 5⋅8 times lower than in Regular products. Milk and dairy substitutes contained 3⋅2 and 3⋅4 times less protein than Keyhole and Regular products, respectively. Conclusions: The study results indicate that meat and dairy substitutes on the Norwegian market vary in nutritional composition. Compared to Keyhole and Regular, substitutes contained lower levels of saturated fat, meat substitutes contained higher levels of fibre and milk and dairy substitutes less protein. Future studies should include content of micronutrients for a more comprehensive assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.6
  • Reliability and validity of a clinical competence test for dietitians
           caring patients with early chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Márquez-Herrera; Roxana M., Cortés-Sanabria, Laura, Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M., Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R., Rojas-Campos, Enrique, Orozco-González, Claudia N., González-Palacios, Aaron
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a test to evaluate dietitian's clinical competence (CC) about nutritional care in patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study was conducted through five steps: (1) CC and its dimensions were defined; (2) test items were elaborated, and choice of response format and scoring system was selected; (3) content and face validity were established; (4) test was subjected to a pilot test and those items with inadequate performance were removed; (5) criterion validity and internal consistency for final validation were established. A 120-items test was developed and applied to 207 dietitians for validation. Dietitians with previous CKD training obtained higher scores than those with no training, confirming the test validity criterion. According to item analysis, Cronbach's α was 0⋅85, difficulty index 0⋅61 ± 0⋅22, discrimination index 0⋅26 ± 0⋅15 and inter-item correlation 0⋅19 ± 0⋅11, displaying adequate internal consistency.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.4
  • Potassium intake is associated with nutritional quality and actual diet
           cost: a study at formulating a low sodium high potassium (LSHP) healthy

    • Authors: Farapti; Farapti, Buanasita, Annas, Atmaka, Dominikus R., Setyaningtyas, Stefania W., Adriani, Merryana, Rejeki, Purwo S., Yamaoka, Yoshio, Miftahussurur, Muhammad
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Increasing potassium and reducing sodium intake have been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. A low sodium high potassium (LSHP) healthy diet can be a predictor of overall dietary quality and is associated with higher diet costs. The present study was a randomised controlled-feeding trial, formulating menus of low sodium and potassium-rich healthy diet and comparing with usual diet (a control diet based on typical Indonesian diet) to assess the association of potassium intake in the menus with other nutritional contents and diet cost. Totally seventy menus, which consisted of LSHP diets and the usual diets for a 7-d cycle, were composed from the analysis of the Indonesian food composition database. The correlation coefficient of the potassium content of all menus with nutritional quality and diet cost was analysed using the Pearson test. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the most important nutrient in determining diet cost. A comparison of nutrition quality and diet cost from the two menus was analysed using the independent t-test. LSHP diet had significantly higher carbohydrate, protein, fibre, magnesium, calcium, vitamin C, potassium density and diet cost but lower total fat, saturated fat and energy density than the usual diet (P < 0⋅05). Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation between fibre, potassium and diet cost (coefficient correlation of>0⋅8). Potassium is a nutrient that is closely related to diet quality although the cost of the diet often may inhibit its intake. A targeted and effective strategy is required to provide affordable food for achieving a sustainable nutrient-rich diet.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.104
  • Relationship between the double burden of malnutrition and mental health
           in overweight and obese adult women

    • Authors: Gholizadeh; Mohammad, Setayesh, Leila, Yarizadeh, Habib, Mirzababaei, Atieh, Clark, Cain C. T., Mirzaei, Khadijeh
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The co-existence of overweight or obesity with concurrent deficiency of one or more nutrients is referred to as double burden of malnutrition (DBM), and numerous mental health impairments have been associated with a variety of nutrient deficiencies. Although DBM is relevant for several health outcomes, the ubiquitous involvement of vitamin D across multiple systems and tissues suggests D insufficiency as a viable target for nutritional modification. The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of DBM and mental health among adult women. Study participants included 300 women, aged 18–59 years, who presented to one of the 25 health centres in Tehran. Participants with a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 25 kg/m2 and a plasma concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] of>20 ng/ml were considered to have DBM. The 147-item food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate their dietary intake. Mental health status was assessed using the depression, anxiety and stress scales-21 (DASS-21). The mean ± standard deviation age, weight and BMI of the participants were 36⋅49 ± 8⋅38, 80⋅89 ± 12⋅45 kg and 31⋅04 ± 4⋅31 kg/m2, respectively. DBM was significantly associated with stress, after adjusting for potential confounders, including age, energy and marital status in model 1 (OR = 1⋅28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅00, 1⋅65, P < 0⋅04) v. the crude model (OR = 1⋅22; 95 % CI 0⋅96, 1⋅55, P = 0⋅09). No significant association was seen among DBM and DASS-21 outcomes. In this cross-sectional study, stress and DBM were significantly associated. While vitamin D insufficiency was associated with mental health and obesity in opposing directions. Elucidation of whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mental health impairments requires further evaluation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.7
  • Physiological significance of vitamin D produced in skin compared with
           oral vitamin D

    • Authors: Fraser; David R.
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Since the discovery of vitamin D, it has been accepted that its physiological supply is either from food or by endogenous synthesis in skin exposed to solar UV light. Yet vitamin D is a component of very few foods and its supply as a natural nutrient is unable to maintain good vitamin D status for human populations. One aspect of vitamin D physiology that has been ignored is that the mechanisms for its transport and processing from these two sources are quite different. Excess intake of vitamin D causes hypercalcaemic toxicity. However, experiments with different animal species have shown that long-term supply of oral vitamin D in apparently non-toxic amounts causes atherosclerosis in large arteries. A mechanism for this toxicity is proposed. Alternative strategies for addressing widespread vitamin D deficiency by food fortification should be considered in light of the angiotoxicity caused by oral vitamin D in animal experiments.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.11
  • Alterations in taste and smell associated with SARS-CoV-2: an exploratory
           study investigating food consumption and subsequent behavioural changes
           for those suffering from post-acute sequelae of COVID-19

    • Authors: Khatri; Yunus
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Objective: To explore food consumption and subsequent behavioural changes amongst PASC suffers associated with alterations in taste and smell. Design: A qualitative study involving five focus groups. Setting: Birmingham and Leicester, England, United Kingdom. Participants: Forty-seven Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 sufferers. Results: Shifts in taste and odour were very common with disgusting or unpleasant notes being perceived in many foods, including animal products rich in protein. Food consumption patterns varied affecting nutrition status, individuals weight, types of foods consumed, cooking habits, coping mechanisms, anxieties, family and social interactions. Individuals expressed the need to taste something or experience normal tastes and flavour. Low pH foods, highly processed foods which may contain large amounts of refined sugars as well as cold processed food were the preferred items for consumption. Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction was related to the consumption of nutrients that require moderation and to the quality of life. Intervention at an early stage is necessary in order to help avoid such complications and thus, this work informs medical practitioners and health workers of the variety of food choices that are more acceptable for people suffering from altered tastes and odour perception.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.19
  • Evaluating tolerability of resistant starch 2, alone and in combination
           with minimally fermented fibre for patients with irritable bowel syndrome:
           a pilot randomised controlled cross-over trial

    • Authors: So; Daniel, Yao, Chu K., Gibson, Peter R., Muir, Jane G.
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Resistant starch 2 (RS2) may offer therapeutic value to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients particularly in combination with minimally fermented fibre, but tolerability data are lacking. The present study evaluated the tolerability of RS2, sugarcane bagasse and their combination in IBS patients and healthy controls. Following baseline, participants consumed the fibres in escalating doses lasting 3 d each: RS2 (10, 15 and 20 g/d); sugarcane bagasse (5, 10 and 15 g/d); and their combination (20, 25 and 30 g/d). Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed daily. Six IBS patients and five controls were recruited. No differences in overall symptoms from baseline were found across the fibre doses (IBS, P = 0⋅586; controls, P = 0⋅687). For IBS patients, all RS2 doses led to increased bloating. One IBS patient did not tolerate the low combination dose and another the high sugarcane bagasse dose. Supplementation of RS2 ≤ 20 g/d caused mild symptoms and was generally tolerated in IBS patients even when combined with minimally fermented fibre.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.9
  • Changes in body weight in response to pecan-enriched diets with and
           without substitution instructions: a randomised, controlled trial

    • Authors: Guarneiri; Liana L., Paton, Chad M., Cooper, Jamie A.
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Substantial evidence suggests that regular tree nut consumption does not lead to changes in body weight (BW). However, these studies used a variety of dietary substitution instructions which may confound the interpretation of prior BW outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of daily pecan consumption, with or without isocaloric substitution instructions, on BW and composition. This was an 8-week randomised, controlled trial with three treatments: a nut-free control group (n 32) and two pecan groups. ADD (n 30) consumed pecans (68 g/d) as part of a free-living diet, and SUB (n 31) substituted the pecans (68 g/d) for isocaloric foods from their habitual diet. BW and total body fat percentage (BF) were measured, and theoretical changes in these outcomes if pecans were consumed without compensation were determined. BW increased in all groups across the intervention, and there was a trend (P = 0⋅09) for an increase in ADD (1⋅1 ± 0⋅2 kg) and SUB (0⋅9 ± 0⋅3 kg) compared to control (0⋅3 ± 0⋅2 kg). In addition, there was increased BF in SUB (1⋅0 ± 0⋅3 %; P = 0⋅005) but not ADD (0⋅1 ± 0⋅2 %) or control (−0⋅2 ± 0⋅3 %) There was a large difference in the actual v. theoretical change in BW regardless of pecan treatment (actual: 1⋅1 ± 0⋅2 and 0⋅9 ± 0⋅3 v. theoretical: 3⋅3 ± 0⋅0 and 3⋅2 ± 0⋅0 kg in ADD and SUB, respectively; P < 0⋅001). Furthermore, there was a difference in actual v. theoretical change in BF in ADD (0⋅1 ± 0⋅2 v. 1⋅2 ± 0⋅1 %; P = 0⋅002) but not SUB or control. In conclusion, daily pecan consumption for 8 weeks did not result in significant weight gain, regardless of dietary substitution instructions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.14
  • The role of soy and soy isoflavones on women's fertility and related
           outcomes: an update

    • Authors: Rizzo; Gianluca, Feraco, Alessandra, Storz, Maximilian Andreas, Lombardo, Mauro
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Soy is a key food in human nutrition. It is widely used in eastern traditional cuisine and it has recently diffused among self-conscious and vegetarian diets. The success of soy mainly depends on versatility and supposed healthy properties of soy foods and soy components. Meanwhile, the possible influence on endocrine system, in particular by isoflavones, raised concerns among some researchers. The present paper aims to conduct a review of available data on the effect of soy, soy foods and soy components on women's fertility and related outcomes. Eleven interventional studies, eleven observational studies and one meta-analysis have been selected from the results of queries. A weak, not clinically relevant effect has been highlighted on cycle length and hormonal status. However, a suggestive positive influence has been shown among women with fertility issues and during assisted reproductive technologies. Overall, soy and soy components consumption do not seem to perturb healthy women's fertility and can have a favourable effect among subjects seeking pregnancy. However, because of the paucity of studies exploring the impact of soy intake on women's fertility, as well as the limited population sample size, the frequently incomplete specimens’ collection to investigate all cycle phases and the insufficient characterisation of participants, the evidence is suggestive and it needs further in-depth research taking into account all these aspects.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.15
  • ‘Big History’, history and citations in nutritional science

    • Authors: Trayhurn; Paul
      First page: 18
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.16
  • Iron supplementation during the first trimester of pregnancy after a
           national change of recommendation: a Danish cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Løvschal; Line B., Høgh, Stinne, Bergholt, Thomas, Maslin, Kate, Shawe, Jill, Hegaard, Hanne K., de Wolff, Mie G.
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In 2013, the Danish Health Authorities recommended a change in prophylactic iron supplementation to 40–50 mg/d from gestational week 10. Hence, the aims of the present study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of women who follow the Danish recommendation on iron supplementation during the last 3 weeks of the first trimester of pregnancy and (2) to identify potential sociodemographic, reproductive and health-related pre-pregnancy predictors for iron supplementation during the first trimester. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data from the hospital-based Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Characteristics were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between predictors and iron supplementation during the last 3 weeks of the first trimester. The study population consisted of 23 533 pregnant women attending antenatal care at Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet from October 2013 to May 2019. The prevalence of iron supplementation according to recommendations was 49⋅1 %. The pre-pregnancy factors of ≥40 years of age, the educational level below a higher degree and a vegetarian or vegan diet were identified as predictors for iron supplementation during the first trimester of pregnancy. Approximately half of the women were supplemented with the recommended dose of iron during the first trimester of pregnancy. We identified pre-pregnancy predictors associated with iron supplementation. Interventions that target women of reproductive age are needed. An enhanced focus on iron supplementation during pregnancy should be incorporated in pre-pregnancy and interpregnancy counselling.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.18
  • Levels of dietary diversity and its associated factors among children aged

    • Authors: Belete; Kefyalew T., Daba, Derese B., Shallo, Seifadin A., Yebassa, Mecha A., Danusa, Kababa T., Gadisa, Diriba A.
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Dietary diversity is one of the eight core indicators of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. It is also a proxy for nutrient adequacy of the diet of individuals. There are minimal studies showing the level of dietary practice in urban and rural settings comparably. Hence, the present study intended to assess and compare differences in the level of dietary diversity and its contributing factors in urban and rural settings of the West Shoa zone of Oromia, Ethiopia. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 674 pairs of mothers/caregivers and children aged 6–23 months using a multistage sampling technique. Data were analysed and descriptive summaries were presented with tables, charts and graphs. A linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that were associated with the level of dietary diversity. The dietary diversity score (DDS) was 26⋅1 % (95 % CI 22⋅8, 29⋅5) both in urban and rural (P < 0⋅001), and also the minimum meal frequency was 56⋅5 % (95 % CI 52⋅7, 60⋅2) (P < 0⋅038). Child from merchant mother, own production of foods at the household level and frequent advice of IYCF practices during Post natal care (PNC) visit in urban residents, maternal secondary educational level, living with caregiver only, having a merchant father, advice of IYCF practice during PNC visit and utilisation of horse as a means of transportation in rural were positively associated with the level of dietary diversity. Generally, infant and young children who received the recommended dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency were low in the study area both in the urban and rural settings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.17
  • Decreasing the RAG:SAG ratio of granola cereal predictably reduces
           postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a report of four randomised
           trials in healthy adults

    • Authors: Wolever; Thomas M.S., Jenkins, Alexandra L., Campbell, Janice E., Ezatagha, Adish, Dhillon, Simarata, Johnson, Jodee, Schuette, John, Chen, Yumin, Chu, YiFang
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Dietary starch contains rapidly (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG). To establish the relationships between the RAG:SAG ratio and postprandial glucose, insulin and hunger, we measured postprandial responses elicited by test meals varying in the RAG:SAG ratio in n 160 healthy adults, each of whom participated in one of four randomised cross-over studies (n 40 each): a pilot trial comparing six chews (RAG:SAG ratio 2·4–42·7) and three studies comparing a test granola (TG1-3, RAG:SAG ratio 4·5–5·2) with a control granola (CG1–3, RAG:SAG ratio 54·8–69·3). Within studies, test meals were matched for fat, protein and available carbohydrate. Blood glucose, serum insulin and subjective hunger were measured for 3 h. Data were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The relationships between the RAG:SAG ratio and postprandial end points were determined by regression analysis. In the pilot trial, 0–2 h glucose incremental areas under the curve (iAUC0–2; primary end point) varied across the six chews (P = 0·014) with each 50 % reduction in the RAG:SAG ratio reducing relative glucose response by 4·0 %. TGs1-3 elicited significantly lower glucose iAUC0–2 than CGs1–3 by 17, 18 and 17 %, respectively (similar to the 15 % reduction predicted by the pilot trial). The combined means ± sem (n 120) for TC and CG were glucose iAUC0–2, 98 ± 4 v. 118 ± 4 mmol × min/l (P < 0·001), and insulin iAUC0–2, 153 ± 9 v. 184 ± 11 nmol × h/l (P < 0·001), respectively. Neither postprandial hunger nor glucose or hunger increments 2 h after eating differed significantly between TG and CG. We concluded that TGs with RAG:SAG ratios 54. However, compared with CG, TG did not reduce postprandial hunger or delay the return of glucose or hunger to baseline.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.22
  • Clustering of motivational constructs based on self-determination theory
           for diet and physical activity and their associations with behaviour: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Coumans; Juul M. J., Lechner, Lilian, Bolman, Catherine A. W., Oenema, Anke
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The present study explored whether motivational constructs for diet and physical activity (PA) cluster and how these motivational constructs relate to dietary and PA behaviour. Data of 1142 participants were used from a randomised controlled trial examining the effects of a web-based diet and PA promotion intervention based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Motivation was assessed using the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire and Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. The dietary outcomes were measured using an adapted Food Frequency Questionnaire. PA was assessed using the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health. Spearman rank-order correlations showed large correlation coefficients (rs ≥ 0⋅63) between similar motivational constructs between the two lifestyle domains, except for intrinsic motivation where a medium correlation coefficient was found (rs = 0⋅41). Furthermore, the exploratory factor analysis illustrated that more self-determined forms of motivation seem to be more domain-specific. In contrast, non-self-determined forms of motivation seem to be domain-independent. Last, regression analyses demonstrated that intrinsic motivation towards PA was the only motivational construct significantly positively associated with all PA sub-behaviours (standardised regression coefficients ranging from 0⋅17 to 0⋅28, all P < 0⋅0125). Intrinsic motivation to eat healthily was significantly positively associated with fruits, vegetables and fish intake (standardised regression coefficients ranging from 0⋅11 to 0⋅16, all P < 0⋅0125), but not with unhealthy snacks. Insight of this exploratory study is useful for understanding the interrelationships of motivational induced behaviours, the development of interventions targeting multiple behaviours, and the construction of questionnaires.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.12
  • Diagnostic ability of mid-upper arm circumference-to-length ratio in
           detecting wasting among infants aged 1–6 months in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Jima; Beshada Rago, Hassen, Hamid Yimem, Bahwere, Paluku, Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is an age-sensitive anthropometric measurement in infants. However, exact age is difficult to know, particularly in low-income countries. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an age-independent mid-upper arm circumference-to-length (MUAC/L) ratio measurement in detecting wasting among infants aged 1–6 months in Ethiopia. A facility-based diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on 467 in-patient infants aged 1–6 months from March to May 2019. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the ability of MUAC/L to detect wasting. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The magnitude of severe wasting was 21⋅6 % and moderate wasting was 13⋅0 %. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of MUAC/L was 0⋅77 (95 % CI 0⋅73, 0⋅81) for detecting moderate wasting and 0⋅92 (95 % CI 0⋅89, 0⋅94) for detecting severe wasting. MUAC/L had a sensitivity of 91⋅1 % (95 % CI 81⋅3, 94⋅4), a specificity of 84⋅7 % (95 % CI 80⋅6, 88⋅2), a positive likelihood ratio of 5⋅82 (95 % CI 4⋅53, 7⋅48) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0⋅13 (95 % CI 0⋅07, 0⋅22) in total infants. The optimal MUAC/L cut-off was
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.21
  • Dietary practice among cohort pregnant women who gave birth to neonates
           with and without neural tube defect: a comparative cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Berhane; Anteneh, Fikadu, Tewodros, Belachew, Tefera
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Despite the high burden of neural tube defects (NTD) in eastern Ethiopia, there is no evidence that it is related to maternal dietary practice. The aim of the present study was to compare dietary practice between women who gave birth to newborns with and without NTDs. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed on a total of 276 (138 in each group) mothers who delivered neonates with or without NTD. Study participants were selected from three hospitals found in the eastern part of Ethiopia. The dietary practice was determined using the indicators including meal frequency, dietary diversity score (DDS), food variety score (FVS) and consumption of animal source food (ASF) generated from the dietary data collected using validated and pre-tested Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to isolate independent predictors of dietary practices. The prevalence of good dietary practice was 29 % (95 % CI 23·6 %, 34·3 %). There was a significant difference in dietary practices (P = 0·034), in FVS (P = 0·01), in DDS (P = 0·045) between the two groups. In multivariable logistic regression, independent predictors of having good dietary practice were: not being the mother of a newborn with NTDs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2·1, 95 % CI 1·07, 4·1], being from a rural residence area (AOR 0·29, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·7) and being illiterate (AOR 0·16, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·8). The present study found that dietary practice is associated with the development of NTDs. Nutrition education, food fortification and supplementation are needed to address this issue, and further research is needed to explore the mechanism.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.20
  • Complete nutrition drink with retrograded starch is low glycemic, and the
           individual glucose response to the low glycemic complete nutrition drink
           depends on fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in a randomized cross-over
           control trial

    • Authors: Wongniyomkaset; Warisara, Rungraung, Numphung, Muangpracha, Niramol, Winuprasith, Thunnalin, Trachootham, Dunyaporn
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Complete nutrition drinks with a low glycemic index (GI) provide nutritional support and prevent hyperglycaemia. The present study identified GI and factors predicting individual glucose response to a new complete nutrition drink. A randomised cross-over controlled trial was conducted in eighteen healthy volunteers (FPG < 100 mg/dl). Complete nutrition drinks containing retrograded starch, glucose solution and white bread were assigned in a random sequence with 14-day wash-out intervals. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured from baseline to 180 min after consuming each food. Results show the adjusted GIs of the drink was 48.2 ± 10.4 and 46.7 ± 12.7 with glucose and white bread as the reference, respectively. While the drink has low GI (
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.23
  • Associations between intakes of foods and their relations to
           overweight/obesity in 16-year-old adolescents

    • Authors: Tell; Maria Norburg, Hedin, Katarina, Nilsson, Mats, Golsäter, Marie, Lingfors, Hans
      First page: 26
      Abstract: There is limited knowledge about the associations between intakes of different foods and inconsistency in the literature of the relation between the quality of food intake and bodyweight in adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how healthy self-reported food intakes are associated with each other and with overweight/obesity in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of seven cohorts of adolescents (n 13 451) who turned sixteen from 2009/2010 up to 2015/2016 and responded to a health questionnaire used by the School Health Services in southeast Sweden. Associations between intakes of ten self-reported foods as well as between food intakes and weight groups based on the International Obesity Task Force standards (isoBMI) were explored by multivariable logistic regression. Healthy intakes of different foods were mostly associated with each other with the strongest association between a high intake of fruit and a high intake of vegetables (odds ratio (OR) = 25 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 20⋅0–33⋅1)). A low-frequency intake of sweets/snacks (OR = 2⋅35 (95 % CI 1⋅84–3⋅00)) was associated with overweight/obesity as well as a healthy choice of butter/margarine (≤40 % fat) (OR = 1⋅82 (95 % CI 1⋅39 to 2⋅41)), but a high-frequency intake of vegetables was negatively associated with overweight/obesity 0⋅77 (0⋅62–0⋅95). To promote health and achieve a healthy weight among adolescents, it is important to take both diet quality and total food amount into consideration.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.24
  • Development of a mobile application to assess Brazilian schoolchildren's
           diet: CADE – food consumption at home and at school

    • Authors: Freitas; Jade Veloso, Crispim, Sandra Patricia, Araujo, Marina Campos
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The development of technologies for children's dietary assessment shows important potential for reducing the occurrence of inherent errors in traditional methods. The present study aimed to describe the development of a mobile app for the dietary assessment of Brazilian schoolchildren. The mobile app assesses schoolchildren's diet with self-report by their parents or guardians in the home environment, through multiple-pass 24-hour recall coupled with a food propensity questionnaire; and by an adult in the school environment, through a food record. The tool presents a database of food items usually consumed by Brazilian schoolchildren, including modes of preparation, probing foods and types of food quantification such as digital photos of household measurements and food portions. The CADE app (food consumption at home and at school) contains 2125 food items, 9 options for preparation methods and 18 options for probing items. There are 75 options for household measurements, also including 26 digital photos of four types of household measurements and 440 photos of portion sizes of 90 foods from the Brazilian Manual of Child Food Portion Quantification. Some innovative features include an interface to take photos of the child's meals and report seconds and leftover food consumption, besides the possibility of receiving notifications on the mobile device to remember to report the diet. The CADE app can assist the standardisation and automation of dietary data collection from schoolchildren, support food and nutrition data in childhood and promote research in nutritional epidemiology while reducing data collection costs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.25
  • Effect of maternal employment on child nutritional status in Bale Robe
           Town, Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional analysis

    • Authors: Ketema; Bezawit, Bosha, Tafese, Feleke, Fentaw Wassie
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Adequate nutrition is essential for early childhood to ensure healthy growth, proper organ formation, and function, a strong immune system, neurological and cognitive development. The main aim of the present study was to assess the effect of maternal employment on nutritional status among children aged 6–23 months in the town of Bale Robe, Ethiopia. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on about 597 (293 unemployed and 304 employed) having children aged 6–23-month-old children sampled were employed with a multistage sampling technique. A face-to-face interview was conducted using a structured pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. The magnitude of stunting (39.9 %), underweight (39⋅9 %) and wasting (22⋅2 %) was greater in 6–23-month-old children born to employed mothers than their counterparts in unemployed ones [stunted (31⋅3 %), underweight (24⋅0 %) and wasted (11⋅8 %)]. Being a girl [AOR 0⋅31; 95 % CI (0⋅17, 0⋅54)] in employed mothers and [AOR 0⋅29; 95 % CI (0⋅16, 0⋅51)] in unemployed people significantly protected stunting. This study demonstrated that the nutritional status of 6–23-month-old children is better among unemployed mothers than among employed mothers. Therefore, concerted efforts may decrease child undernutrition in a study area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.26
  • Food and nutrient intake in dietary supplement users: a nationwide
           school-based study in Japan

    • Authors: Ishitsuka; Kazue, Asakura, Keiko, Sasaki, Satoshi
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Dietary supplements can be used to compensate for an inadequate diet. However, some studies indicate that supplement users consume healthier diets than non-users, although such data are lacking in Japanese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the food and nutrient intake of dietary supplement users among school-aged children in Japan. A nationwide school dietary survey was conducted at fourteen elementary schools and thirteen junior high schools in twelve prefectures in Japan. Three-day non-consecutive semi-weighed dietary records were obtained on two weekdays and one weekend day. Analysis of covariance was performed to investigate differences in food and nutrient intake from meals consumed at school and outside of school between dietary supplement users and non-users, adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. Of the 910 children included in this analysis, 80 (8⋅8 %) reported supplement use. Based on 3-d dietary records, dietary supplement users consumed higher mean amounts of oils and lower amounts of fruits and vegetables than non-users. In school lunches, users consumed significantly higher amounts of oils and lower amounts of protein than non-users. In meals consumed outside of school, dietary supplement users consumed significantly higher amounts of confectioneries and lower amounts of fruits and vegetables, folate, vitamin C and dietary fibre than non-users. Collectively, our findings indicate that dietary supplement users consumed less healthy diets than non-users. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these results and identify factors contributing to poorer dietary habits in supplement users.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.96
  • Association between protein intake and lean body mass in a group of
           Masters Athletes

    • Authors: Stanzione; Joseph R., Boullata, Joseph I., Bruneau, Michael L., Volpe, Stella L.
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Recommendations for protein intake are based on total body weight; however, these recommendations do not consider lean body mass (LBM). The purpose of the present study was to identify the average protein intake in g/kg LBM in a group of healthy Masters Athletes (≥26 years of age, exercising ≥2 d/week). Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. Body weight (kg), height (cm) and LBM via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Dietary intake was measured using a 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The average energy intake, the percent energy from protein and the average protein intake in g/kg LBM were calculated. Differences between protein intake and the US Recommended Dietary Allowance (US RDA) (0⋅8 g/kg body weight) were determined. Alpha levels were set a priori to P < 0⋅05. A total of 176 participants (94 women, 82 men; 39 ± 11 years of age; body mass index: 24⋅6 ± 3⋅4 kg/m2) were analysed. The average energy intake, the percent protein energy and the average protein intake were 7996⋅9 ± 110⋅9 kilojoules (kJ)/d (1,910⋅4 ± 26⋅5 kcal), 15⋅5 ± 2⋅6 % and 1⋅43 ± 0⋅53 g/kg LBM, respectively. No differences existed between women and men for protein intake/kg LBM. Both sexes had significantly higher protein intakes than the US RDA (P < 0⋅001). We identified the average protein intake (g/kg LBM) in healthy Masters Athletes that may contribute to evolving perspectives on the determination of protein needs. The present study helps establish the relationship between protein intake and LBM so that we may further increase our accuracy when developing future protein recommendations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.10
  • A high-fibre personalised dietary advice given via a web tool reduces
           constipation complaints in adults

    • Authors: Rijnaarts; Iris, de Roos, Nicole M., Wang, Taojun, Zoetendal, Erwin G., Top, Jan, Timmer, Marielle, Hogenelst, Koen, Bouwman, Emily P., Witteman, Ben, de Wit, Nicole
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Constipation can greatly impact the quality of life (QoL), which can be relieved by dietary fibres; however, preserving a higher fibre intake remains a challenge. We investigated the effects of a personalised dietary advice (PDA) on fibre intake and mild constipation complaints. A total number of twenty-five adults with mild constipation complaints were included in a 4-week observation period followed by a 4-week personalised intervention. The PDA provided high-fibre alternatives via a web tool. In weeks 1, 4 and 8, dietary intake, constipation complaints and QoL were assessed. Furthermore, participants collected a faecal sample at weeks 1, 4 and 8 to determine microbiota diversity and composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Participants completed questions daily for 8 weeks regarding abdominal complaints, stool frequency and stool consistency. Fibre intake in week 8 was significantly higher compared to week 1 (Δ = 5·7 ± 6·7 g, P < 0·001) and week 4 (Δ = 5·2 ± 6·4 g, P < 0·001). Constipation severity and QoL significantly improved at week 8 compared to the observation period (P < 0·001). A higher fibre intake significantly reduced constipation severity (β = −0·031 (−0·05; −0·01), P = 0·001) and the QoL (β = −0·022 (−0·04; −0·01), P = 0·009). Stool consistency (P = 0·040) and abdominal pain (P = 0·030) improved significantly during the intervention period (P = 0·040), but stool frequency did not. Average microbial alpha diversity and composition and SCFA concentrations did not change over time, but indicated individual-specific dynamics. Several SCFAs were associated with constipation complaints. To conclude, a PDA effectively increased fibre intake and subsequently reduced constipation complaints, indicating that guided dietary adjustments are important and feasible in the treatment of mild constipation complaints.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.27
  • Undergraduate nursing and medical students’ perceptions of food security
           and access to healthy food in Qatar: a photovoice study

    • Authors: Al-Hamad; Areej, MacNevin, Shannan, Daher-Nashif, Suhad
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The present study explored nursing and medical students’ perceptions of food security, their access to healthy food and the circumstances that affect their access to healthy food in Qatar. The photovoice method was adopted in the present study. Students submitted their photos pertaining to food security and their access to healthy food in Qatar. Afterwards, the students completed an online synchronous semi-structured interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. After the data analysis, a focus group discussion was conducted for member checking. The present study is a collaborative project between two universities in Qatar: The University of Calgary in Qatar (UCQ) and Qatar University (QU). Undergraduate students (seven nursing students and nine medical students) were recruited, asked to collect photos and interviewed. Four themes emerged from the data. First, food retail environments promoted unhealthy eating. Second, fast food under stressful circumstances: a sense of comfort. Third, food as a symbol of culture and socialisation. Finally, the paradox of access to affordable and healthy food in Qatar. Undergraduate students highlighted various circumstances that affect their perceptions of food security and their access to healthy food in Qatar. Future research that aims at understanding the facilitators and barriers to access healthy food at the university campus may help to improve nutrition interventions targeting those students. Future initiatives should focus on leveraging various resources to assist universities in tailoring their food initiatives to suit their students’ local needs.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.28
  • The association of socio-demographic and environmental factors with
           stunting among under-five children in Hawassa City, Sidama National
           Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Kibemo; Berhanu, Mulugeta, Afework, Hailu, Dejene, Gelaw, Baye
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Undernutrition in children is a challenging problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Stunting is the most prevalent form of undernutrition. The majority of studies on childhood stunting and its associated factors focused on children, maternal and socioeconomic components. However, a few studies reported poor WaSH status and antibiotic exposure as environmental risk factors for child stunting, and the case of socio-demographic factors also lacks consistency. Concerning this, there is a lack of information in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study assessed the association of socio-demographic, WaSH, and antibiotic exposure with stunting among under-five children. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 340 mother–child pairs. Anthropometric data were collected using standard and calibrated height and weight scales. For factorial data, an interviewer-guided standard questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors determining childhood stunting. In the present study, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting was 14⋅7 % (95 % CI 10⋅9, 18⋅5), 4⋅4 % (95 % CI 2⋅4, 6⋅8) and 2⋅1 % (95 % CI 0⋅6, 3⋅5), respectively. Low dietary diversity, being born from a mother with an education level of secondary school, and belonging to a female-headed household were positively associated (P < 0⋅05) with stunting. The prevalence of overall undernutrition was lower (21⋅2 %) in the study area. Stunting was significantly associated with dietary diversity, maternal educational level and sex of households head. The government policy should focus on enhancing the dietary diversity of households, and encouraging women's education.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.29
  • Dietary diversity score (DDS) and odds of colorectal cancer and adenoma: a
           case–control study

    • Authors: Bahrami; Alireza, Shirani, Pedram, Sohouli, Mohammadhassan, Nasab, Saeede Jaafari, Rafiee, Pegah, Naja, Farah, Sheikhimobarakeh, Zahra, Hejazi, Ehsan
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Despite mounting evidence that dietary factors might have a protective role against risk of cancer, few studies have assessed the relationship between diet diversity with colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal adenoma (CRA). Thus, we examined the relationship between dietary diversity score (DDS) and the odds of CRC and CRA. Overall, 129 CRC diagnosed patients, 130 CRA diagnosed cases and 240 healthy hospitalised controls were studied. DDS was calculated based on information on the usual diet that was assessed by a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between DDS and odds of colorectal cancer and adenoma. After adjusting for potential confounders, the diversity of grains is associated with the increased odds of CRC (ORgrains: 2·96 (1·05–8·32); P = 0·032), while the diversity of vegetables and fruits are associated with decreased odds of CRC (ORvegetables: 0·31 (0·16–0·62); P = 0·001, ORfruits: 0·37 (0·23–0·61); P < 0·001). The diversity of vegetables, fruits and dairy are inversely associated with odds of CRA (ORvegetables: 0·41 (0·21–0·78); P = 0·007, ORfruits: 0·58 (0·36–0·93); P = 0·021, ORdairies: 0·56 (0·37–0·83); P = 0·004). Also, higher DDS was related to decreased odds of both CRC (OR: 0·41 (0·23–0·72); P for trend = 0·002) and CRA (OR: 0·36 (0·21–0·65); P for trend = 0·001). Our results indicated that higher dietary diversity and particularly a diet varied in fruits and vegetables may reduce the odds of CRC and CRA. Also, the consumption of dairy products may decrease the odds of CRC, whereas the consumption of grains may increase the odds of CRC.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.30
  • Nutritional quality of lunch meals and plate waste in school lunch
           programme in Southern Thailand

    • Authors: Petchoo; Jaruneth, Kaewchutima, Narisara, Tangsuphoom, Nattapol
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Food waste globally affects food security and sustainability. There currently are few studies focusing on food waste in schools. The present study aimed to determine the meal quality and plate waste in school lunch programme in Thailand. This cross-sectional study was conducted in canteens of representing kindergarten and elementary schools in Southern Thailand within their real-life context. The assessment was carried out over five consecutive school days in July–August 2020 for each school, at which two types of menus, including rice with side dish and one-dish meal were served. Waste collection and quantification were conducted by selective aggregate weighing, according to the Food Loss and Waste Protocol. All lunch menus contained excess rice but insufficient meats, fruits, vegetables and eggs, regarding the national lunch standard. For each serving portion, 7–33 % rice, 9–22 % meats, 7–65 % vegetables, 1–19 % fruits and 3–14 % eggs were discarded. Plate waste from rice with side dish menus (10–29 %) was more than one-dish meals (7–17 %). By estimation, each kindergartener generated 71⋅4 g plate waste daily, accounting for the caloric and monetary values of 146 kcal and 0⋅16 US dollar. The amount of plate waste and the respective caloric and monetary losses were less obvious at the elementary school. Plate waste affected the adequacy of food intakes of schoolchildren from lunch meals. The data obtained from the present study will be useful for planning and implementation of school lunch programme in Thailand and countries with similar context.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.31
  • Haemoglobin status to determine nutritional anaemia and its association
           with breakfast skipping and BMI among nursing undergraduates of Farasan
           Island, KSA

    • Authors: Sayed; Shabihul Fatma, Nagarajan, Sumathi
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine nutritional anaemia using haemoglobin levels of female nursing undergraduates studying at Farasan Island with the purpose to intervene at a point, before the potential problems become serious later in life. In total, 130 apparently healthy, female students of Department of Nursing were recruited by a random sampling method to collect information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropogenic characteristics, and dietary habits including breakfast skipping. Haemoglobin content was estimated using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and observations were interpreted as per WHO's criteria for anaemia. Body mass index (BMI) was recorded using a digital weighing machine. Correlation between haemoglobin concentration, breakfast skipping and body mass index of study participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation. Data analyses were done using Origin software. Overall, 51⋅6 % (n = 67) students were all together anaemic with 28⋅5 % (n = 37) had mild anaemia, 15⋅4 % (n = 20) moderate and 7⋅69 % (n = 10) had severe anaemia. Of these, 20⋅8 % (n = 27) were underweight, 63⋅8 % (n = 83) normal weight and 15⋅4 % (n = 20) were above normal weight (over weight and obese). The Hb content showed a positive correlation with the BMI and exhibited an increasing trend with increase in the BMI among study participants (P < 0⋅05). Questionnaire analyses revealed that the majority (96⋅9 %, n = 126) of students were taking junk food as bulk of their meal. A strong negative correlation was recorded between Hb contents and breakfast skipping tendencies (r = −0⋅987, P < 0⋅05). Findings of the present study are of high significance for public health professionals and educators to prioritise actions that could motivate these future nurses to adapt healthy lifestyles to strategically combat nutritional anaemia.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.33
  • Effect of maternal nutrition education on early initiation and exclusive
           breast-feeding practices in south Ethiopia: a cluster randomised control

    • Authors: Admasu; Jatani, Egata, Gudina, Bassore, Dereje Getahun, Feleke, Fentaw Wassie
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Introduction: Optimal breast-feeding practices make a major contribution to the promotion of healthy growth and development through much prevention of diarrheal and respiratory diseases which majorly cause morbidity and mortality in under-five children. However, breast-feeding practices remain suboptimality in Ethiopia. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of maternal nutrition education on early initiation and exclusive breast-feeding practice in the Hawela Tulla sub-city. Methods: A cluster randomised, parallel-group, single-blinded trial was used. About 310 pregnant women (155 for the intervention group and 155 for the control group) were included. Result: An early initiation of breast-feeding was significantly higher among women who received breast-feeding education than those who did not receive (104(72·7 %) v. 85(59·9 %), P = 0·022) and exclusive breast-feeding practice was also significantly higher among women who received breast-feeding education than those who did not receive (106(74·1 %) v. 86(60·6 %), P = 0·015). Breast-feeding education [AORs 1·55, 95 % CI (1·02, 2·36)], institutional delivery [AOR 2·29, 95 % CI (1·21, 4·35)], vaginal delivery [AOR 2·85, 95 % CI (1·61, 5·41)] and pre-lacteal feeding [AOR 0·47, 95 % CI (0·25, 0·85)] were predictors of early initiation of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding education [AOR 1·72, 95 % CI (1·12, 2·64)] and institutional delivery [AOR 2·36, 95 % CI (1·28, 4·33)] were also determinants of exclusive breast-feeding practices. Conclusion: Breast-feeding education improved early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding practices. Providing sustained education to women regarding early initiation and exclusive breast-feeding practice should be strengthened.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.36
  • Relationship between fatty acid intake and chronic neck/shoulder/upper
           limb pain without elevated CRP in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional
           analysis of the Shika study

    • Authors: Asai; Atsushi, Suzuki, Fumihiko, Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa, Hara, Akinori, Miyagi, Sakae, Kannon, Takayuki, Suzuki, Keita, Nakamura, Masaharu, Shimizu, Yukari, Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu, Pham, Kim Oanh, Kasahara, Tomoko, Nakai, Shingo, Hayashi, Koichiro, Shibata, Aki, Amatsu, Takashi, Konoshita, Tadashi, Kambayashi, Yasuhiro, Tsuboi, Hirohito, Tajima, Atsushi, Nakamura, Hiroyuki
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Although chronic pain (CP) is classified as inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the involvement of fatty acid intake in this process has not yet been examined in detail. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the relationship between CP and fatty acid intake differs between high and low C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals in the Shika study. One-thousand and seven males and 1216 females with mean ages of 68⋅78 and 69⋅65 years, respectively, participated in the present study. CRP was quantified by blood sampling from participants who responded to a CP questionnaire. The brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) was used to assess fatty acid intake. Interactions were observed between CP and CRP on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eicosadienoic acid in a two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex, age, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, current smoking and drinking status, and BMI. MUFA (OR 1⋅359) and eicosadienoic acid (OR 1⋅072) were identified as significant independent variables for CP in a multiple logistic regression analysis, but only in the low CRP group. Only a high intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid was associated with chronic neck/shoulder/upper limb pain without elevated CRP. In psychogenic and neuropathic pain without elevated CRP, an increased intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid, a family member of n-6 fatty acids, appears to affect CP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.37
  • Ethnic differences in adverse iron status in early pregnancy: a
           cross-sectional population-based study

    • Authors: Quezada-Pinedo; Hugo G., Cassel, Florian, Muckenthaler, Martina U., Gassmann, Max, Huicho, Luis, Reiss, Irwin K., Duijts, Liesbeth, Gaillard, Romy, Vermeulen, Marijn J.
      First page: 39
      Abstract: We studied ethnic differences in terms of iron status during pregnancy between Dutch women and other ethnicities and explore to what extent these differences can be explained by environmental factors. This cross-sectional population-based study (2002–2006) was embedded in the Generation R study and included a total of 4737 pregnant women from seven ethnic groups (Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdean, Surinamese-Hindustani, Surinamese-Creole and Antillean). Ethnicity was defined according to the Dutch classification of ethnic background. Ferritin, iron and transferrin were measured in early pregnancy. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 7 %, ranging from 4 % in both Dutch and Surinamese-Creoles, to 18 % in Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese-Hindustani women. Iron overload was most prevalent in Surinamese-Creole (11 %) and Dutch (9 %) women. Socioeconomic factors accounted for 5–36 % of the differences. Income was the strongest socioeconomic factor in the Cape Verdean and Surinamese-Hindustani groups and parity for the Turkish and Moroccan groups. Lifestyle determinants accounted for 8–14 % of the differences. In all groups, the strongest lifestyle factor was folic acid use, being associated with higher iron status. In conclusion, in our population, both iron deficiency and iron overload were common in early pregnancy. Our data suggest that ethnic differences in terms of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors only partly drive the large ethnic differences in iron status. Our data support the development of more specific prevention programmes based on further exploration of socioeconomic inequities, modifiable risk and genetic factors in specific ethnic subgroups, as well as the need for individual screening of iron status before supplementation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.35
  • The effects of an 8-year individualised lifestyle intervention on food
           consumption and nutrient intake from childhood to adolescence: the PANIC

    • Authors: Sallinen; Taisa, Viitasalo, Anna, Lintu, Niina, Väistö, Juuso, Soininen, Sonja, Jalkanen, Henna, Haapala, Eero A., Mikkonen, Santtu, Schwab, Ursula, Lakka, Timo A., Eloranta, Aino-Maija
      First page: 40
      Abstract: We aimed to investigate the effects of a long-term, individualised, family-based lifestyle intervention on food consumption and nutrient intake from childhood to adolescence. We conducted an 8-year diet and physical activity intervention study in a population sample of children aged 7–9 years at baseline in 2007–2009. We allocated the participants to the intervention group (n 306) and the control group (n 198). We assessed diet by 4-d food records at baseline, 2-year follow-up and 8-year follow-up. We analysed the data using linear mixed-effects models adjusted for age at baseline and sex. The consumption of vegetables and vegetable oil-based spreads (fat ≥60 %) increased in the intervention group but did not change in the control group (P < 0⋅001 for time×group interaction). The consumption of fruits and berries increased in the intervention group but decreased in the control group (P = 0⋅036). The consumption of high-fat cheese (P = 0⋅029), butter-based spreads (P = 0⋅001) and salty snacks (P = 0⋅028) increased less, and the consumption of low-fat cheese (P = 0⋅004) increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. Saturated fat intake (P = 0⋅001) increased less, and the intakes of dietary fibre (P = 0⋅003), vitamin D (P = 0⋅042) and vitamin E (P = 0⋅027) increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. The intakes of vitamin C (P < 0⋅001) and folate (P = 0⋅001) increased in the intervention group but decreased in the control group. To conclude, individualised, family-based lifestyle intervention altered food choices towards more recommended diet and resulted in enhanced diet quality from childhood to adolescence.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.13
  • Effect of high nitrate vegetable juice supplementation on plasma nitrate
           and blood pressure in adults: a pilot randomized crossover intervention in
           healthy volunteers

    • Authors: Elsahoryi; Nour A., Cardwell, Christopher, Gilchrist, Sarah, Woodside, Jayne V.
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Beetroot juice (BRJ) has been demonstrated to decrease blood pressure (BP) due to the high inorganic nitrate content. This pilot randomized crossover trial aimed to investigate the effect of two different high nitrate vegetable juices on plasma nitrate concentrations and BP in healthy adults. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 115 ml of BRJ or 250 ml of green leafy vegetable juice for 7 d which contained similar amounts of nitrate (340 mg) daily. Blood samples were collected, and clinic BP measured at baseline and at the end of each juice consumption. Daily home BP assessment was conducted 2 h after juice consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were analysed using a commercially available kit on a Triturus automated ELISA analyser. Hills and Armitage analysis was used for the two-period crossover design and paired sample t-tests were performed to compare within-group changes. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations significantly increased and there was a significant reduction in clinic and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean during the BRJ period (P-values 0⋅004 and 0⋅002, respectively). Home diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reduced significantly during green leafy vegetable juice consumption week (P-value 0⋅03). The difference between groups did not reach statistical significance during the formal crossover analysis adjusted for period effects. BRJ and green leafy vegetable juice may reduce SBP or DBP, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two juices, although this was only a pilot study.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.34
  • Tella intake among pregnant and lactating mothers: may it affect child

    • Authors: Tafese; Zelalem, Berhan, Yifru, Stoecker, Barbara J.
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Alcohol abuse among women is a public health importance that may impair prenatal and postnatal growth. Tella is among the most common homemade alcoholic beverages in rural Ethiopia, but little is known about the magnitude of tella intake during pregnancy and lactation or its effects on child growth. The present study investigated associations between maternal tella intake and the growth of their children. A cross-sectional mixed-methods study was conducted with mothers (n 228) and their 12–36-month-old children and with key informants (n 12). Tella intake during most recent pregnancy and lactation was estimated retrospectively by glasses per drinking event and frequency of events. Nearly 80 % of mothers had consumed some amount of tella during their most recent pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, 72 % of children had tasted or drunk tella at some time during their life. Stunting was 42 % and was significantly associated with maternal tella consumption at least every other day during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4⋅97, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2⋅20, 11⋅25), male sex (AOR 2⋅31, 95 % CI 1⋅27, 4⋅19), two or more under-5-year-old children in the household (AOR 3⋅52, 95 % CI 1⋅49, 8⋅33) and family size>5 (AOR 1⋅84, 95 % CI 1⋅01, 3⋅36). Underweight was 24⋅6 % and was associated with the child drinking tella with their mother (AOR 4⋅23, 95 % CI 1⋅99, 8⋅97), being male (AOR 3⋅73, 95 % CI 1⋅73, 7⋅94), having ≥3 diarrhoeal episodes in the last 3 months (AOR 11⋅83, 95 % CI 4⋅22, 33⋅14) and being in the older age group (AOR 2⋅98, 95 % CI 1⋅09, 8⋅13). The associations between tella intake and child growth suggest the need to mitigate the effects of tella on child anthropometry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.40
  • Relationship between caesarean section delivery and risk of
           overweight/obesity among children aged 6–23 months in the Tamale
           Metropolis of Ghana

    • Authors: Sulley; Issahaku, Saaka, Mahama
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The recent exponential increase in caesarean section (CS) rates in many countries including Ghana requires an understanding of the potential long-term consequences on child health. The present study investigated the relationship between CS delivery and risk of childhood overweight/obesity. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from October 2019 to March 2020 in Ghana. Using multi-stage sampling, 553 mother–child pairs aged 6–23 months were selected from ten health facilities during child welfare clinic (CWC) services. We assessed the association between delivery mode (caesarean v. vaginal) and subsequent body mass index for age (BMI/age Z-score) using hierarchical multivariable linear regression analysis. The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI/age Z-score> +2 sd) in children was 3⋅6 %. After adjusting for maternal gestational weight gain, macrosomia and child feeding practices, children who were born through CS had mean BAZ which was 0⋅105 standard units significantly higher than their colleagues who were delivered through normal vaginal [beta coefficient (β) 0⋅105, (95 % CI 0⋅03, 0⋅55)]. CS birth was also associated with 3⋅2 times higher odds of overweight/obesity than vaginal delivery (AOR 3⋅23; 95 % CI 1⋅14, 9⋅13). Consequently, CS delivery was associated positively with increased body mass (adiposity) in the study sample. The association between CS delivery and risk of childhood obesity was attenuated after adjusting for macrosomia. These results would be important for informing clinicians and expectant mothers in considering CS delivery.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.39
  • Western diet associated with increased post-stroke depressive symptoms

    • Authors: Cherian; Laurel, Agarwal, Puja, Holland, Thomas, Schneider, Julie, Aggarwal, Neelum
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The present study examines the association of diet with depressive symptoms among stroke survivors from a community cohort of older adults. Depression is common after stroke. A healthy diet has previously been associated with fewer depressive symptoms in older individuals, but it is unknown if this effect is also seen in stroke survivors. Eighty-six participants from the Memory and Aging Project with a history of stroke at their study baseline enrolment, complete dietary data and two or more assessments for depression were included in this observational prospective cohort analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Diet was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Diet scores were based on analysis of participants’ reported intakes of 144 food items. A generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was applied to examine the association of diet score with depressive symptoms. The study participants had a mean age of 82 ± 7⋅17 years and 14⋅42 ± 2⋅61 years of education, and 82⋅56 % were female. Western diet score was positively associated with depressive symptoms over time (diet score tertile 3 v. tertile 1: β = 0⋅22, se = 0⋅09, P = 0⋅02; P for trend = 0⋅022). Interaction with sex suggested a stronger effect in females. A Western diet was associated with more post-stroke depressive symptoms, suggesting nutrition is important not only for reducing cerebrovascular risk, but for protecting post-stoke mental health as well.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.38
  • Development of the Vietnamese Healthy Eating Index

    • Authors: Van; Duong T. T., Trijsburg, Laura, Do, Ha T. P., Kurotani, Kayo, Feskens, Edith J. M., Talsma, Elise F.
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Poor dietary quality is a major contributor to malnutrition and disease burden in Vietnam, necessitating the development of a tool for improving dietary quality. Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) have been proposed to do this by providing specific, culturally appropriate and actionable recommendations. We developed the Vietnamese Healthy Eating Index (VHEI) to assess the adherence to the 2016–2020 Vietnamese FBDGs and the dietary quality of the general Vietnamese population. This VHEI consists of eight component scores, ‘grains’, ‘protein foods’, ‘vegetables’, ‘fruits’, ‘dairy’, ‘fats and oils’, ‘sugar and sweets’ and ‘salt and sauces’, representing the recommendations in the FBDGs. Each component score ranges from 0 to 10, resulting in a total VHEI score between 0 (lowest adherence) and 80 (highest adherence). The VHEI was calculated using dietary intake data from the Vietnamese General Nutrition Survey 2009–2010 (n = 8225 households). Associations of the VHEI with socio-demographic characteristics, energy and nutrient intakes and food group consumptions were examined. The results showed that the mean and standard deviation score of the VHEI was 43⋅3 ± 8⋅1. The component ‘sugar and sweets’ scored the highest (9⋅8 ± 1⋅1), whereas the component ‘dairy’ scored the lowest (0⋅6 ± 1⋅6). The intake of micronutrients was positively associated with the total VHEI, both before and after adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the VHEI is a valuable measure of dietary quality for the Vietnamese population regarding their adherence to the FBDGs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.44
  • Prevalence of postpartum anaemia and iron deficiency by serum ferritin,
           soluble transferrin receptor and total body iron, and associations with

    • Authors: Næss-Andresen; Marthe-Lise, Jenum, Anne Karen, Berg, Jens Petter, Falk, Ragnhild Sørum, Sletner, Line
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Worldwide, there are limited data on the prevalence of postpartum anaemia and iron status. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) by three iron indicators 14 weeks postpartum, their relations to haemoglobin (Hb) and associations with ethnicity and clinical factors in a multi-ethnic population. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 573 women followed from early pregnancy. The prevalence of postpartum anaemia (Hb
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.45
  • Healthy lifestyle changes favourably affect common carotid intima-media
           thickness: the Healthy Lifestyle Community Programme (cohort 2)

    • Authors: Koeder; Christian, Husain, Sarah, Kranz, Ragna-Marie, Anand, Corinna, Alzughayyar, Dima, Schoch, Nora, Hahn, Andreas, Englert, Heike
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) progression is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas healthy lifestyle habits are associated with lower ccIMT. The objective of the present study was to test whether a healthy lifestyle intervention can beneficially affect ccIMT progression. A community-based non-randomised, controlled lifestyle intervention was conducted, focusing on a predominantly plant-based diet (strongest emphasis), physical activity, stress management and social health. Assessments of ccIMT were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Participants had an average age of 57 years and were recruited from the general population in rural northwest Germany (intervention: n 114; control: n 87). From baseline to 1 year, mean ccIMT significantly increased in both the intervention (0⋅026 [95 % CI 0⋅012, 0⋅039] mm) and control group (0⋅045 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅056] mm). The 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was lower in the intervention group (P = 0⋅022; adjusted for baseline). In a subgroup analysis with participants with high baseline mean ccIMT (≥0⋅800 mm), mean ccIMT non-significantly decreased in the intervention group (−0⋅016 [95 % CI −0⋅050, 0⋅017] mm; n 18) and significantly increased in the control group (0⋅065 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅096] mm; n 12). In the subgroup, the 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was significantly lower in the intervention group (between-group difference: −0⋅051 [95 % CI −0⋅075, −0⋅027] mm; P < 0⋅001; adjusted for baseline). The results indicate that healthy lifestyle changes may beneficially affect ccIMT within 1 year, particularly if baseline ccIMT is high.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.46
  • Preconception of folic acid supplementation knowledge among Ethiopian
           women reproductive age group in areas with high burden of neural tube
           defects: a community based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Begashaw; Beyene, Tariku, Zerihun, Berhane, Anteneh
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is effective in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). The aim of the present study was to determine the level of knowledge about the benefits of preconceptional folic acid supplementation in a sample of women of childbearing age and its associated factors. A cross-sectional community-based study design was carried out on a total of 441 women of childbearing age. Questionnaires included knowledge of preconception of folic acid supplements and socio-demographic characteristics. The χ2 was used to compare categorical data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to isolate the predictive variables and examined individually by calculating the adjusted odds ratio. Statistical significance is declared as P < 0·05. We found that 35·1 % (n 155) knew preconceptional folic acid supplementation could prevent NTDs, and 3·8 % (n 17) knew the right time to take preconceptional folic acid supplementation and only 1·7 % (n 7) who had a history of NTDs. Attended secondary education (OR 2·7; 95 % CI 1·1, 6·0, P = 0·017), governmental employee (OR 3·5; 95 % CI 2·3, 17·8, P < 0·001), current pregnancy status (OR 3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·2, P = 0·043), history of visiting the antenatal care service during pregnancy (OR 2·9; 95 % CI 1·07, 7·8, P = 0·03), history of taking folic acid supplement (OR 4·5; 95 % CI 2·9, 7·1, P < 0·001) were associated. More than half of the participant women did not know about preconception of folic acid supplements that reduce the risk of NTDs. Identification of the level of knowledge on preconception of folic acid may allow for targeted educational or other interventions to further encourage folic acid use.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.32
  • Increased vegetable intake improves glycaemic control in adults with type
           2 diabetes mellitus: a clustered randomised clinical trial among
           Indonesian white-collar workers

    • Authors: Yen; Tan Shot, Htet, Min Kyaw, Lukito, Widjaja, Bardosono, Saptawati, Setiabudy, Rianto, Basuki, Endang S., Wibudi, Aris, Martianto, Drajat, Subekti, Imam, Fahmida, Umi
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Dietary patterns high in fibre and green leafy vegetables have shown an inverse association with lower risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus and improved glycaemic control. The study aimed to investigate the effects of increased vegetable intake and conventional diabetes diet on glycaemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. White-collar workers from one telecommunication company with type 2 diabetes were assigned to two treatment groups by cluster randomisation. Individuals with known type 2 diabetes and poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥8 g%) were eligible and a total of 84 subjects were recruited. Subjects in the intervention group (n 41) were offered to attend seminars and intensive coaching weekly to encourage them to increase raw vegetable intake. The control group (n 40) followed the conventional diet according to the guidelines of the Indonesian Society of Endocrinology. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma lipids, blood pressure, vegetable intake and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and end line of 12 weeks intervention. A regression analysis was conducted using differences in HbA1C between baseline and 12 weeks as the dependent variable. Student's t test was conducted for the changes of biochemical indicators from baseline to end line during the period of 12 weeks intervention. Glycaemic control improved in the intervention group and mean HbA1C, fasting blood glucose and post-prandial blood glucose in the intervention group decreased significantly along with body weight, waist circumference and total cholesterol. The finding suggested that the intervention which emphasised raw vegetable intake contributed to improved glycaemic control among Indonesian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.41
  • Suggested explanations for the (in)effectiveness of nutrition information
           interventions among adults with a low socioeconomic status: a scoping

    • Authors: van Meurs; Tim, Oude Groeniger, Joost, de Koster, Willem, van der Waal, Jeroen
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Unhealthy diets are a major threat to population health and are especially prevalent among those with a low socioeconomic status (SES). Health promotion initiatives often rely on nutrition information interventions (NIIs), but are usually less effective among adults with a low SES than in their high-SES counterparts. Explanations for this lower effectiveness are set out in extant studies. These have been conducted across a wide range of disciplines and subject fields and using a variety of methodological approaches. We have therefore conducted a scoping review to identify and synthesise the following: (1) explanations suggested in studies carried out in high-income countries for why NIIs are (in)effective among adults with a low SES and (2) whether these suggested explanations were studied empirically. Eight databases were searched for relevant studies published since 2009 across various disciplines. This identified 4951 papers, 27 of which were included in our review after screening. Only fifteen of these proposed an explanation for the (in)effectiveness of NIIs among adults with a low SES. The following four main themes were uncovered: health literacy, economic resources, social resources and convenience. Ten studies tested their explanations empirically, but the results were inconsistent. The reasons why NIIs are (in)effective among low-SES adults are therefore still largely unclear. Also, current literature predominantly relies on individualistic explanations, most notably focusing on psychological and economic attributes. Consequently, if the effectiveness of NIIs among low-SES populations is to be improved, future studies should examine a wider range of explanations and test them systematically and empirically.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.42
  • Contribution of base diet, voluntary fortified foods and supplements to
           micronutrient intakes in the UK

    • Authors: Bird; Julia K., Barron, Rebecca, Pigat, Sandrine, Bruins, Maaike J.
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of voluntary fortified foods and supplements to reducing micronutrient shortfalls in the UK population. A secondary analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey was conducted (2012/13–2013/14, N 2546, 1·5–95 years). Micronutrient intakes were derived from food consumption intake data and food composition data and calculated as the proportion below or above the Dietary Reference Values for males and females of different age groups, for those on a base diet only, users of fortified foods but no supplements and users of fortified foods and supplements. Of the population consuming a base diet only, 21–45 % and 5–29 % fell below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for minerals and vitamins, respectively. About 3–13 % fewer consumers of fortified foods fell below the EAR for vitamins and minerals. Supplements barely reduced the prevalence of intakes below the EAR. Among supplement non-users and users, 99 and 96 % failed to meet the reference intakes for vitamin D. More women than men were at risk of inadequacies of micronutrient intakes. The prevalence of inadequacies declined with increasing age. Voluntary fortified foods but not supplements made a meaningful contribution to intakes of vitamin and minerals, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. These insights may help the UK to define approaches to address micronutrients of concern in vulnerable groups.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2022.47
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