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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access  
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal of Nutritional Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.984
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2048-6790 - ISSN (Online) 2048-6790
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • Perceived role of hot food in the pathogenesis of oesophageal cancer: a
           qualitative study in the Arsi Zone, Oromia, Central Ethiopia

    • Authors: Deybasso; Haji Aman, Roba, Kedir Teji, Belachew, Tefera
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Observational studies in Ethiopia have identified a positive association between hot wheat porridge consumption and oesophageal carcinoma. However, a single dietary intake cannot be a sufficient predictor of cancer among populations that have diverse dietary practices. The present study was carried out to explore the community's perspectives on the role of hot foods in the pathogenesis of oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia. Focus group discussions were conducted from May to August 2019 among purposefully selected 112 participants. Data were collected by using open-ended questions; memo writing, audio recordings and photo pictures. All tape-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductively coded using Atlas.ti Version 7.0.71 software. Finally, the analysis was performed according to the standard thematic framework analysis techniques. The finding showed that hot foods (porridge, coffee and soup) consumption patterns were perceived as the principal dietary risk of oesophageal cancer. Cooking in unventilated rooms, monotonous cereal-based foods, poor vegetable, and fruit intake, not taking milk with porridge, eating fast, swallowing large bolus of hot porridge and exposure to carcinogens in foods were regarded as predisposing dietary practices to oesophageal carcinoma. Socio-demographic, economic and cultural backgrounds were reported as the underlying risk factors associated with oesophageal cancer. There was a strong perception within the community that oesophageal cancer is linked to several but sequentially interlinked dietary and related practices. Cumulative thermal injuries from the consumptions of hot food could be the immediate dietary risk factors associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.53
  • Gender difference in the association of dietary intake of antioxidant
           vitamins with kidney function in middle-aged and elderly Japanese

    • Authors: Hara; Akinori, Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa, Suzuki, Keita, Suzuki, Fumihiko, Kasahara, Tomoko, Oanh, Pham Kim, Miyagi, Sakae, Kannon, Takayuki, Tajima, Atsushi, Wada, Takashi, Nakamura, Hiroyuki
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Dietary intake modification is important for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, little is known about the association between dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and kidney function based on gender difference. We examined the relationship of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins with decreased kidney function according to gender in Japanese subjects. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 936 Japanese participants with the age of 40 years or older. A validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to measure dietary intakes of vitamin E and its four isoforms, vitamin A and vitamin C. Decreased kidney function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.54
  • Development and evaluation of image-series for portion size estimation in
           dietary assessment among adults

    • Authors: Salvesen; Lorentz, Engeset, Dagrun, Øverby, Nina C., Medin, Anine C.
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Portion size images are advantageous in dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate new culturally specific image-series for portion size estimation to be used in a new Norwegian version of a British web-based dietary assessment tool (myfood24). Twenty-three image-series of different foods, each containing seven portion size images, were created and validated in a group of adults (n 41, 58 % female) aged 19–44 (median 23), out of which 63 % had higher (tertiary) education. The participants compared 46 portions of pre-weighed foods to the portion size images (1886 comparisons in total). Portion size estimations were either classified as correct, adjacent or misclassified. The weight discrepancy in percentage between the chosen and the correct portion size image was also calculated. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to explore if portion size estimation accuracy differed across sample characteristics, or if it depended on how the foods were presented. For thirty-eight of the forty-six presented food items, the participants selected the correct or adjacent portion size image 98 % on average. The remaining eight food items were on average misclassified by 27 % of the participants. Overall, a mean weight discrepancy of 2⋅5 % was observed between the chosen and the correct portion size images. Females estimated portion size more accurately than males (P = 0⋅019). No other significant differences in estimation accuracy were observed. In conclusion, the new image-series performed satisfactorily, except for the image-series depicting bread, caviar spread and marzipan cake, which will be altered. The present study demonstrates the importance of validating portion size estimation tools.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.58
  • Metabolic syndrome may be associated with a lower prevalence of iron
           deficiency in Ecuadorian women of reproductive age

    • Authors: Muñoz-Ruiz; Melisa A., González-Zapata, Laura I., Abril-Ulloa, Victoria, Gaitán-Charry, Diego A.
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the associations of the stages of Fe deficiency (Fe deficiency without anaemia (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA)) and anaemia with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Ecuadorian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5894 women aged 20–59 years, based on data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey. The sample was stratified by age. A χ2 test was used to assess the possible associations of ID, IDA and anaemia with MetS. The prevalence ratio (PR) for each stage of Fe deficiency and anaemia was estimated considering women without MetS as a reference. The total prevalence of MetS, ID, IDA and anaemia was 32⋅3 % (se 0⋅6), 6⋅2 % (se 0⋅3), 7⋅1 % (se 0⋅3) and 5⋅0 % (se 0⋅3), respectively. In women aged 20–29, 30–39 and 40–49 years, MetS was associated with a lower prevalence of ID (PR (95 % CI; P-value)): 0⋅17 (0⋅06, 0⋅46; P < 0⋅001), 0⋅69 (0⋅48, 0⋅99; P = 0⋅044) and 0⋅44 (0⋅29, 0⋅67; P < 0⋅001), respectively. In women aged 50–59 years, MetS was associated with IDA and anaemia (PR (95 % CI; P-value)): 0⋅12 (0⋅02, 0⋅96; P = 0⋅026) and 0⋅22 (0⋅07, 0⋅64; P = 0⋅002), respectively. In conclusion, Ecuadorian women of reproductive age with MetS have a lower prevalence of ID compared with those without MetS. Furthermore, the MetS and IDA coexist at the population level. These findings require an analysis from a dietary pattern approach, which could provide key elements for developing public policies that simultaneously address all forms of malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.55
  • Comparison of edible brown algae extracts for the inhibition of intestinal
           carbohydrate digestive enzymes involved in glucose release from the diet

    • Authors: Attjioui; Maha, Ryan, Sinead, Ristic, Aleksandra Konic, Higgins, Thomas, Goñi, Oscar, Gibney, Eileen R., Tierney, Joanna, O'Connell, Shane
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Type II diabetes is considered the most common metabolic disorder in the developed world and currently affects about one in ten globally. A therapeutic target for the management of type II diabetes is the inhibition of α- glucosidase, an essential enzyme located at the brush border of the small intestinal epithelium. The inhibition of α-glucosidase results in reduced digestion of carbohydrates and a decrease in postprandial blood glucose. Although pharmaceutical synthetic inhibitors are available, these are usually associated with significant gastrointestinal side effects. In the present study, the impact of inhibitors derived from edible brown algae is being investigated and compared for their effect on glycaemic control. Carbohydrate- and polyphenolic-enriched extracts derived from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Undaria pinnatifida were characterised and screened for their inhibitory effects on maltase and sucrase enzymes. Furthermore, enzyme kinetics and the mechanism of inhibition of maltase and sucrase were determined using linear and nonlinear regression methods. All tested extracts showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase with IC50 values ranging from 0⋅26 to 0⋅47 mg/ml for maltase; however, the only extract that was able to inhibit sucrase activity was A. nodosum, with an IC50 value of 0⋅83 mg/ml. The present study demonstrates the mechanisms in which different brown seaweed extracts with varying composition and molecular weight distribution differentially inhibit α-glucosidase activities. The data highlight that all brown seaweed extracts are not equal in the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes involved in postprandial glycaemia.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.56
  • Nutrition quality of life associated with affective functioning among
           Omani patients with type 2 diabetes from primary health care

    • Authors: Al Toobi; Masooma M., Al Subhi, Lyutha K., Bose, Shekar, Al-Adawi, Samir
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Diabetes requires challenging lifelong dietary management, affects quality of life and heightens the impact of affective functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Nutrition Quality of Life (NQOL) and affective functioning in a sample of Omani patients with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 149 adults with type 2 diabetes was conveniently recruited from seven Primary Health Centers (PHCs) during follow-up visits. Data were gathered via face-to-face interviews. Pearson correlation and χ2 test of independence were applied to examine associations at P < 0⋅05. Most patients had poor glycemic control (71⋅1 %), BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (85⋅2 %) and central obesity (75⋅8 %), and moderate (54⋅4 %) and poor (32⋅9 %) level of NQOL. Based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), 16⋅1 and 23⋅5 % of the sample endorsed the presence of anxiety and depression, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between NQOL and HADS (r −0⋅590, P = 0⋅000), anxiety (r −0⋅597, P = 0⋅000) and depression (r −0⋅435, P = 0⋅000). There was a significant association between NQOL and HADS, χ2 (2) = 38⋅21, P < 0⋅01 that was large, Cramer's V = 0⋅51. Also, there were significant associations (P < 0⋅01) between NQOL and HADS when controlling for HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference and HMNT that were moderately to largely strong, Cramer's V = 0⋅43–0⋅55. There is an evident association between NQOL and affective functioning in adults with type 2 diabetes. Further research is recommended to confirm these relationships and to guide intervention programmes at PHCs to help improve the general quality of life of such patients.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.57
  • Low-calorie sweeteners in the human diet: scientific evidence,
           recommendations, challenges and future needs. A symposium report from the
           FENS 2019 conference

    • Authors: Gallagher; Alison M., Ashwell, Margaret, Halford, Jason C. G., Hardman, Charlotte A., Maloney, Niamh G., Raben, Anne
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Overconsumption of free sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has potential negative health impacts. Implementation of a range of public health strategies is needed to reduce intakes of free sugars, including reducing portion sizes, promoting healthier dietary choices and reformulating foods and beverages. Although low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) are a useful tool for reducing energy intake and control glucose response when consuming sweet foods and drinks, several opinions persist about the adverse health effects of LCS, many of which are based on poor, little or no scientific evidence. This symposium report summarises key messages of the presentations and related discussions delivered at a scientific symposium at the 13th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2019). These presentations considered the scientific evidence and current recommendations about the use and potential benefits of LCS for human health, with a particular focus on current evidence in relation to body weight and glycaemic control. Many of the studies to date on LCS have focused on low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCSB); however, the psychological and behavioural factors influencing consumer beliefs and consumption of LCSB need to be further explored. Current recommendations for LCS use are described, including the conclusions from a recent expert consensus report identifying the challenges that remain with LCS research. Finally, existing knowledge gaps and future actions are described, as well as two large ongoing research projects: SWITCH and SWEET.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.59
  • Association between body mass index and macronutrients differs along the
           body mass index range of German adults: results from the German National
           Nutrition Survey II

    • Authors: Moon; Kilson, Krems, Carolin, Heuer, Thorsten, Hoffmann, Ingrid
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between body mass index (BMI) and the intake of macronutrients varies along the BMI distribution of German adults. Based on a sample of 9214 men and women aged 18–80 years from the representative cross-sectional German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II, quantile regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the intake of macronutrients independent of energy intake and other predictors. In both sexes, BMI was positively associated with the intake of total protein and animal protein over its entire range and negatively associated with vegetable protein. A negative association between BMI and the intake of polysaccharides was found along the entire range of BMI in men. There was a weak negative association between BMI and the intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids observed in normal-weight-range women only. In conclusion, the association between BMI and the intake of macronutrients varies along the BMI range. Animal protein intake is positively associated with BMI independent of energy intake in both sexes whereas only in men an inverse association of polysaccharide intake with BMI was shown.
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.60
  • Interaction between Apo A-II -265T>C polymorphism and dietary total
           antioxidant capacity on some anthropometric indices and serum lipid
           profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Jafari Azad; Banafsheh, Yaseri, Mehdi, Daneshzad, Elnaz, Koohdani, Fariba
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the interaction of Apo A-II polymorphism and dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) with lipid profile and anthropometric markers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) that are at risk for atherosclerosis. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 778 patients with T2DM (35–65 years). Dietary intakes were assessed by a 147-item food frequency questionnaire. DTAC was computed using international databases. Participants were categorised into two groups based on rs5082 genotypes. The gene–diet interaction was analysed by an ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Total cholesterol, TC; triacylglycerol, TG; high- and low-density lipoprotein, HDL and LDL; TC–HDL ratio; waist circumference, WC and body mass index, BMI were obtained according to standard protocols. Overall, the frequency of CC homozygous was 12⋅1 % among study participants. We found that a significant interaction between rs5082 variants and DTAC on mean WC (PTEAC = 0⋅044), TC concentration (PFRAP = 0⋅049 and PTEAC = 0⋅031) and TC/HDL (PFRAP = 0⋅031 and PTRAP = 0⋅040). Among patients whose DTAC was higher than the median intake, the mean of weight, WC and TC/HDL were significantly higher only in individuals with CC genotype. Also, the high DTAC was associated with a lower TC concentration only in T-allele carriers (PFRAP = 0⋅042). We found that adherence to a diet with high total antioxidant capacity can improve the complications of diabetes and atherosclerosis in the T carrier genotype more effectively than the CC genotype. These results could indicate the anti-atherogenic properties of Apo A-II. However, further studies are needed to shed light on this issue.
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.61
  • Breakfast skipping alone and in interaction with inflammatory based
           quality of diet increases the risk of higher scores of psychological
           problems profile in a large sample of Iranian adults

    • Authors: Haghighatdoost; Fahimeh, Feizi, Awat, Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad, Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh, Afshar, Hamid, Adibi, Peyman
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The authors investigate the association of breakfast skipping and its interaction with a dietary inflammatory index (DII) with the severity of psychological disorders. A total of 2876 Iranian general adults were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Psychological problems profile score was calculated using the regression method in the framework of factor analysis based on depression, anxiety and psychological distress. The higher scores indicate more severity of mental problem. The frequency of breakfast eating in a week was assessed. Dietary intakes were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire and twenty-seven items were included in the calculation of DII. In the crude model, individuals who ate breakfast seldom had the highest odds for having worse psychological problems profile (OR 3⋅59; 95 % CI 2⋅52, 5⋅11). Adjustment for various confounders did not change the associations (OR 3⋅35; 95 % CI 2⋅11, 5⋅32). In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, participants with high DII (>median) who skipped breakfast had highest risk of being in the higher tertiles of psychological problems profile compared with those who had low DII (
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2020.62
  • Energy and protein intake in the Colombian population: results of the 2015
           ENSIN population survey

    • Authors: Herrán; Oscar F., Gamboa-Delgado, Edna M., Zea, María Del Pilar
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The present study was aimed at (1) the differences between current weight v. ideal weight, (2) total energy intake and comparing it with required energy (Rkeer), (3) absolute protein intake in g/kg per d and g/1000 calories, (4) how energy and protein intake relate to the nutritional status of the subjects in terms of overall overweight (OEW) [overweight + obesity] and conservative overweight (CEW) [obesity] and (5) the contribution (%) of protein to total energy intake based on the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR). A dietary study was carried out in Colombia with 29 259 subjects between 1 and 64 years of age, based on cross-sectional data collected in 2015 by a 24-h dietary recall (24HR) administered as part of the National Nutrition Survey. Energy and protein intake did not differ by nutritional status. In the general population, energy intake was 2117 kcal/d (95 % CI 1969, 2264). The total protein intake was 64⋅3 g/d (95 % CI 61⋅4, 67⋅3). Adequate energy intake ranged from 90 to 100 %, except for the 1–4-year-old group, which ranged from 144 to 155 %. Protein intake was 1⋅64 g/kg per d (95 % CI 1⋅53, 1⋅75). The mean AMDR for protein to total energy intake was 13⋅3 % (95 % CI 12⋅9, 13⋅7). Excess weight began during the first 4 years of age. In conclusion, it is worth reviewing and updating energy and protein intake recommendations and dietary guidelines for the Colombian population and designing and modifying public policy.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.2
  • Rapid improvement in vitamin D status with dietary
           25-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D insufficient dogs

    • Authors: Kurzbard; Rachel A., Backus, Robert C., Yu, Shiguang
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with various disease processes. We determined whether consumption of a diet supplemented with HyD®, a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) source, would safely increase plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations in Golden Retrievers with low vitamin D status. We hypothesised that dietary supplementation with HyD® would rapidly increase and sustain plasma 25(OH)D3 levels in healthy Golden Retrievers with low vitamin D status compared with supplementation with vitamin D3. Of fifty-seven privately owned dogs recruited with written owner consent, eighteen dogs with low vitamin D status were identified and sorted between two groups to have similar initial plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations, sex distributions, ages and body weights. Dogs of each group were fed a dry dog food supplemented with either 16 μg/kg of 25(OH)D3 as HyD® (n 10) or 81 μg/kg of cholecalciferol (D3) (n 8) for 4 months. Plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were determined monthly. A significant time effect (P < 0⋅001) and time by group interaction (P = 0⋅0045) were found for monthly determined plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dogs fed the HyD®-supplemented diet experienced a 40⋅5 % rise in plasma 25(OH)D3 values after 1 month (P < 0⋅001) and no change thereafter. Plasma 25(OH)D3 values of dogs supplemented with vitamin D3 did not increase (P> 0⋅05) and were less than values of dogs supplemented with HyD® (P = 0⋅044). With few exceptions, average haematologic, biochemical and urinalyses results remained within the reference range for both groups. Dietary supplementation with HyD® is sufficient to safely increase and sustain plasma 25(OH)D3 levels in healthy dogs.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.4
  • Putative imbalanced amino acid metabolism in rainbow trout long term fed a
           plant-based diet as revealed by 1H-NMR metabolomics

    • Authors: Deborde; Catherine, Hounoum, Blandine Madji, Moing, Annick, Maucourt, Mickaël, Jacob, Daniel, Corraze, Geneviève, Médale, Françoise, Fauconneau, Benoit
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The long-term effect of a plant (P)-based diet was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomics in rainbow trout fed a marine fish meal (FM)–fish oil (FO) diet (M), a P-based diet and a control commercial-like diet (C) starting with the first feeding. Growth performances were not heavily altered by long-term feeding on the P-based diet. An 1H-NMR metabolomic analysis of the feed revealed significantly different soluble chemical compound profiles between the diets. A set of soluble chemical compounds was found to be specific either to the P-based diet or to the M diet. Pterin, a biomarker of plant feedstuffs, was identified both in the P-based diet and in the plasma of fish fed the P-based diet. 1H-NMR metabolomic analysis on fish plasma and liver and muscle tissues at 6 and 48 h post feeding revealed significantly different profiles between the P-based diet and the M diet, while the C diet showed intermediate results. A higher amino acid content was found in the plasma of fish fed the P-based diet compared with the M diet after 48 h, suggesting either a delayed delivery of the amino acids or a lower amino acid utilisation in the P-based diet. This was associated with an accumulation of essential amino acids and the depletion of glutamine in the muscle, together with an accumulation of choline in the liver. Combined with an anticipated absorption of methionine and lysine supplemented in free form, the present results suggest an imbalanced essential amino acid supply for protein metabolism in the muscle and for specific functions of the liver.
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.3
  • Determinants of dietary diversity and its relationship with the
           nutritional status of pregnant women

    • Authors: Saaka; Mahama, Mutaru, Sofo, Osman, Shaibu Mohammed
      First page: 14
      Abstract: There is little information regarding factors that determine dietary diversity among pregnant women in Ghana. The present study, therefore, sought to assess the independent predictors of dietary diversity and its relationship with nutritional status of pregnant women in the Northern Region of Ghana. The present study was an analytical cross-sectional survey involving 423 pregnant women in different stages of gestation. The 24-h dietary recall method was used to assess minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W), and nutritional status was assessed using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the association between maternal dietary diversity and maternal thinness and a P value of
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.6
  • Association between dietary flavonoid intakes and C-reactive protein
           levels: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan

    • Authors: Hsieh; Cheng-Tzu, Wang, Jui, Chien, Kuo-Liong
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Although the intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods may reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the association between dietary flavonoid intakes and CRP is inconsistent. We aim to describe dietary flavonoid intakes in a Taiwanese nationally representative sample and to investigate the association between flavonoid intakes and CRP. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 2592 adults from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005–8. Flavonoid intakes were estimated by linking the 24-h dietary recall with the U.S. Department of Agriculture flavonoid database and divided into quartiles. Adjusted estimates of the flavonoid intakes for the continuous and binary (elevated CRP:>0⋅3 mg/dl) variables were performed by using general linear and logistic regression. We found that tea, orange, tofu and sweet potato leaves/water spinach constituted the major food items of the total flavonoid intake. The total flavonoid intake was lower among women and elderly. Compared with the lowest total flavonoid intake quartile, participants in higher quartiles were associated with a lower CRP status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0⋅61, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0⋅44–0⋅86 for the highest quartiles). The trends were similar for flavonol and flavan-3-ol intakes. Compared with non-consumers, tea consumers were likely to have a lower CRP status (adjusted OR: 0⋅74, 95 % CI: 0⋅57–0⋅97). In brief, a higher total flavonoid intake and tea consumption were inversely associated with CRP levels, indicating that a high-flavonoid diet may contribute to anti-inflammatory effects. A Taiwanese flavonoid content table is necessary for conducting further studies related to flavonoids in Taiwan.
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.8
  • Nutritional parameters and lifestyle practices of people who use drugs
           undergoing treatment for recovery in Lebanon: a descriptive study

    • Authors: Mahboub; Nadine, Rizk, Rana, de Vries, Nanne
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Drug use disorder is a major public health problem. Once people who use drugs (PWUD) are referred to treatment, addressing their lifestyle practices and improving their quality of life improves treatment outcomes. The present study assessed the nutritional status and lifestyle practices among PWUD undergoing treatment for recovery in Lebanon. Furthermore, it explored significant differences in these parameters depending on the offered treatment modality, namely opioid substitution treatment (OST) and rehabilitation. In total, 187 PWUD undergoing treatment for recovery participated in this cross-sectional study. Nutritional status and anthropometrics, dietary intake, nutrition knowledge, food addiction, biochemical parameters, sleep and physical activity were measured using validated tools. Of the participants, 88⋅8 % were well nourished based on the Subjective Global Assessment. In total, 67 % gained weight during treatment placing them in the overweight category. This increase in weight was significantly higher in the rehabilitation group. It came in parallel with higher protein and energy intakes, higher rate of food addiction, and poor nutrition knowledge. Biochemical parameters, including fasting blood sugar, total protein, lipid profile and white blood cell count, were in the normal ranges. Moreover, the majority of participants exhibited poor quality sleep that was accentuated among the participants undergoing rehabilitation, in addition to activity levels that were mainly low in the OST group. PWUD undergoing treatment for recovery in Lebanon are subject to various vulnerability factors creating challenges to treatment. Longitudinal assessments to better understand health problems arising during treatment and to identify the components of a comprehensive health promotion intervention during treatment for recovery are needed.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.9
  • Analysis of dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy in lactating women:
           a multicentre European cohort (ATLAS study)

    • Authors: Wang; Dantong, Thielecke, Frank, Fleith, Mathilde, Afeiche, Myriam C., De Castro, Carlos A., Martínez-Costa, Cecilia, Haaland, Kirsti, Marchini, Giovanna, Agosti, Massimo, Domellöf, Magnus, Costeira, Maria Jose, Billeaud, Claude, Vanapee, Mireille, Picaud, Jean-Charles, Samuel, Tinu Mary
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Eating habits of lactating women can influence the nutrient composition of human milk, which in turn influences nutrient intake of breastfed infants. The aim of the present study was to identify food patterns and nutritional adequacy among lactating women in Europe. Data from a multicentre European longitudinal cohort (ATLAS study) were analysed to identify dietary patterns using cluster analysis. Dietary information from 180 lactating women was obtained using 3-d food diaries over the first 4 months of lactation. Four dietary patterns were identified: ‘vege-oils’, ‘fish-poultry’, ‘confectionery-salads’ and ‘mixed dishes’. Nutrition adequacy was not significantly different between clusters, but the ‘vege-oils’ cluster tended to yield the highest nutrition adequacy measured by Mean Adequacy Ratio. Compared with European dietary reference values (DRVs) for lactating women, women in all clusters had inadequate intakes of energy, pantothenic acid, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, iodine, potassium and linoleic acid. Adequate intake for fibre and α-linolenic acid was only achieved in the ‘vege-oils’ cluster. Overall, fat intake was above DRVs. The present study showed that various dietary patterns do not adequately supply all nutrients, indicating a need to promote overall healthy dietary habits for European lactating women.
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.7
  • Dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV-positive adults
           attending the anti-retroviral therapy clinic at Felege Hiwot Comprehensive
           Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Said; Hiwot Ahmed, Tsega, Gebeyehu, Tesfaye, Tadesse Dagget
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess dietary diversity (DD) and associated factors among human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults attending the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Felege Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (FHCSH) in Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at FHCSH in 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 352 study subjects. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Statistical Package for the Social Science version 26 was used for analysis. A simple and multivariable binary logistic regression was used to determine associated factors. Two hundred and nine (59⋅4 %) adults had consumed a diversified diet. The mean individual DD score was 3⋅86 ± 1⋅18. Self-employment status (adjusted odd ratio (AOR): 4⋅60; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1⋅72, 12⋅27), quintiles of wealth index (the second (AOR: 4⋅33; 95 % CI: 1⋅72, 10⋅89), middle (AOR: 4⋅40; 95 % CI: 1⋅71, 11⋅31), fourth (AOR: 6⋅60; 95 % CI: 2⋅36, 18⋅48) and the highest quintiles (AOR: 9⋅45: 95 % CI: 3⋅34, 26⋅77), the last CD4 count 200–349 cells/mm3 (AOR: 8⋅08; 95 % CI: 2⋅93, 22⋅23), those who took first-line ART regimen drugs (AOR: 4⋅49; 95 % CI: 2⋅19, 9⋅21), subjects who did not take co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (AOR: 6⋅36; 95 % CI: 2⋅54, 15⋅88), those who had nutritional counselling at a health institution (AOR: 2⋅36; 95 % CI: 1⋅08, 5⋅16), had no food preference (AOR: 2⋅42; 95 % CI: 1⋅14, 5⋅13) and a food-secure household (AOR: 3⋅51; 95 % CI: 1⋅85, 6⋅67) were associated factors of DD among adults on ART. This study exhibited that the DD status among adults attending the ART clinic was below two-thirds. Health institutions and health professionals working at ART clinics shall strengthen their efforts to sustain the nutritional counselling service and ART adherence at health institutions and encourage the patients to avoid food preference for their meal. It is vital to ensure the household food security of adults on ART.
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.5
  • Mothers had inadequate knowledge towards key essential nutrition action
           messages in mainly rural Northeast Ethiopia

    • Authors: Gebremichael; Bereket, Beletew Abate, Biruk, Tesfaye, Tewodros
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Essential nutrition action (ENA) is one of the most effective preventive actions for combating nutritional problems in young children. There is, however, a paucity of evidence about mother's knowledge and attitude regarding key ENA messages. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards key ENA messages and associated factors. A representative sample of 563 mothers of children from birth up to 24 months in mainly rural North Ethiopia was included in the study. The findings showed that 66⋅4 % of the mothers have a good knowledge and 68⋅9 % have a good attitude. In the multivariable analysis using logistic regression, mothers who attended secondary school or higher education were six times more likely to have a good knowledge (AOR 6⋅1; CI 2⋅945, 12⋅719) compared with those who are illiterate. Besides, women who resided in an urban area (AOR 2⋅2; CI 1⋅14, 4⋅25), attended antenatal care (ANC) visits (AOR 3⋅7; CI 2⋅421, 5⋅742), attended postnatal care (PNC) visits (AOR 2⋅2; CI 1⋅37, 3⋅4) and heard nutritional-related information (AOR 1⋅9; CI 1⋅14, 3⋅49) were found to have a good knowledge. On the other hand, mothers who attended ANC visits were almost four times (AOR 3⋅9; CI 2⋅7, 5⋅8) more likely to have a good attitude towards key ENA. Mothers who delivered at health institutions and who attended PNC visits were also more likely to have a good attitude. In conclusion, the present study determined the level of knowledge and attitudes of mothers about ENA and several factors that influence mother's knowledge and attitude regarding ENA.
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.10
  • Association between Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores and probable
           sarcopenia in community-dwelling Iranian older adults: a cross-sectional

    • Authors: Esmaeily; Zahra, Tajary, Zahra, Daei, Sharzad, Rezaei, Mahshid, Eyvazkhani, Atefeh, Dorosty Motlagh, Ahmad Reza, Palmowski, Andriko
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Sarcopenia is associated with frailty and disability in older adults. Adherence to current dietary guidelines in addition to physical activity could prevent muscle wasting and weakness. The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) is a tool to assess diet quality. We aimed to investigate the association between HEI scores and probable sarcopenia (PS) among older adults in Tehran. 201 randomly selected older adults were included in this cross-sectional study between May and October 2019 in Tehran, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate HEI scores and dietary intake. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured to evaluate the PS. Statistical evaluation included descriptive analysis, logistic and linear regression. Those probably suffering from sarcopenia had significantly lower HEI scores (P=0⋅02). After adjusting for confounders, HEI scores and HGS were still significantly associated (adjusted R2=0⋅56, slope β=0⋅03, P=0⋅09). Older adults with a low PS had a higher ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P= 0⋅06) and ingested less added sugars and saturated fats (P=0⋅01 and P=0⋅02, respectively). Furthermore, consuming more total protein foods correlated positively with muscle strength (P=0⋅01, R=0⋅18). To sum up, HEI scores were associated with PS, measured by HGS, indicating that adhering to the HEI might improve muscle strength in aging individuals.
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.12
  • Caregivers' feeding practices in Ethiopia: association with caregiver and
           child characteristics

    • Authors: Gebru; Nardos W., Gebreyesus, Seifu H., Habtemariam, Esete, Yirgu, Robel, Abebe, Dawit S.
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Feeding is a source of interaction and communication. It affects children's physical and psychological/emotional development. The present study aims to examine the association between caregiver and child characteristics and caregivers' feeding practices among preschools in Addis Ababa. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 542 caregivers of children aged between 3 and 6 years old in selected preschools. We used the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to measure caregivers' feeding practices. Multiple linear regression was used for analysis. Caregivers who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅20, P < 0⋅001), who were more concerned about their child being overweight (β 0⋅11, P < 0⋅001) and who had more depressive symptoms (β 0⋅23, P 0⋅05) were associated with food restriction practice. Caregivers who were less concerned about their child being overweight (β −0⋅10, P < 0⋅001) and who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅25, P < 0⋅001) were associated with pressure to eat practice. Caregivers who had higher education (β 0⋅29, P < 0⋅05), who had higher levels of perceived feeding responsibility (β 0⋅47, P < 0⋅001), who were more concerned about their child being overweight (β 0⋅15, P < 0⋅001) and who were less concerned about their child underweight (β −0⋅06, P < 0⋅05) were associated with monitoring feeding practice. In addition, as the children have gotten older (β 0⋅08, P < 0⋅05), there is increased use of monitoring feeding practice. This study is one of few studies that show the association between caregiver and child characteristics and feeding practices in developing countries such as Ethiopia. It is essential to include responsive feeding components in national nutritional programmes to improve preschool children's nutritional status in Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.14
  • Prevalence of undernutrition and potential risk factors among children
           under 5 years of age in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: evidence from 2016
           Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

    • Authors: Kebede; Damitie, Merkeb, Yidnekachew, Worku, Eyerusalem, Aragaw, Hayat
      First page: 22
      Abstract: More than one-third of deaths during the first 5 years of life are attributed to undernutrition, which are mostly preventable through economic development and public health measures. The present study aimed to explore the potential risk factors of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) were used. A total of 974 children under 5 years of age were involved. A multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used at a 5 % level of significance to determine the individual- and community-level factors associated with childhood undernutrition. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight was 46⋅3, 9⋅8 and 28⋅4 %, respectively. About 23⋅1 % of children were both stunting and underweight, 7⋅3 % were both underweight and wasting and 4⋅5 % of children had all three conditions. Among the factors considered in the present study, the age of a child in months, birth weight, mother educational level, sex of household head, sources of drinking water and the type of toilet facility were significantly associated with undernutrition in the Amhara Region. Undernutrition among under-five children was one of the public health problems in the Amhara Region. The potential risk factors should be considered to develop strategies for reducing undernutrition in the Amhara Region. Finally, improving the living standards of the children is important to get better health care, to enhance the child's nutritional status and to reduce child mortality.
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.17
  • What is the promise of personalised nutrition'

    • Authors: Ferrario; Paola G., Watzl, Bernhard, Møller, Grith, Ritz, Christian
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Personalised nutrition (PN) is an emerging field that bears great promise. Several definitions of PN have been proposed and different modelling approaches have been used to claim PN effects. We tentatively propose to group these approaches into two categories, which we term outcome-based and population reference approaches, respectively. Understanding the fundamental differences between these two types of modelling approaches may allow a more realistic appreciation of what to expect from PN interventions presently and may be helpful for designing and planning future studies investigating PN interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.13
  • Marination increases the bioavailability of lead in game meat shot with
           lead ammunition

    • Authors: Schulz; Kirsten, Brenneis, Franziska, Winterhalter, Richard, Spolders, Markus, Fromme, Hermann, Dietrich, Silvio, Wolf, Petra, Gremse, Carl, Schafft, Helmut, Pieper, Robert, Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika
      First page: 24
      Abstract: As a consequence of the toxicological lead characteristics, a reduction of its exposure should consider all sources. Game meat might contain elevated levels of lead due to the use of lead ammunition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acidic marination on the bioavailability of ammunition-derived lead in game meat (Roe deer), using the growing pig as an animal model. Furthermore, the study should provide evidence that the large-area scattering of lead particles leads to noticeable differences in the individual lead intake per game meat portion. Pigs of group A (n 7) received lead-shot game meat, which was cooked in water. Pigs of group B (n 7) received lead-shot game meat, which was first marinated (wine and vinegar) and then cooked. The lead content of both game meat preparations was equal with 0⋅77–0⋅79 mg Pb/portion. Pigs of group C (n 4) received lead-free game meat, which was also marinated and cooked. Additionally, lead acetate was administered intravenously to group D pigs (n 4). Blood samples were taken on elevated time points before and after game meat intake/i.v.-application. The acidic marination increased the bioavailability of orally ingested lead, resulting in significantly higher blood lead concentrations. The bioavailability of lead was 2⋅7 % when game meat was just cooked and 15 % when the meat was marinated before. The considerable variation of the individual blood lead concentrations suggests that an inhomogeneous distribution of ammunition-derived lead particles (in terms of size and number) causes individually non-comparable lead intakes from the consumption of game meat.
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.15
  • Association of chronotype as assessed by the midpoint of sleep with the
           dietary intake and health-related quality of life for elderly Japanese

    • Authors: Mito; Natsuko, Fujimoto, Eka, Sasaki, Satoshi, ,
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The relationship of chronotype differences with dietary habits and health-related outcomes among elderly people is not fully understood, although sex and generation differences are observed in human chronotype. Accordingly, we analysed the association of chronotype (as assessed by the midpoint of sleep) with dietary intake and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elderly Japanese women. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were 1618 women aged 65 years and older who were grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetics students. The subjects were classified into quintiles with respect to the midpoint of sleep, from the earliest to the latest quintile. HRQoL was assessed by the Japanese version of the short-form 36-item health survey score. Mental health was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Dietary intake was assessed by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. A later midpoint of sleep was associated with a lower intake of vitamin D and a higher intake of bread and caffeinated drinks. No correlations were observed between chronotype and other nutrient and food intake. The subjects with a late midpoint of sleep (eveningness) showed poor general health perception (GH) and high CES-D scores. Other HRQoL scores did not differ among groups with different midpoints of sleep. In conclusion, chronotype as assessed by the midpoint of sleep is associated with poor GH and depressive tendencies in elderly Japanese women. Additionally, a few associations were found between dietary intake and chronotype in elderly Japanese women.
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.16
  • Validation of an interviewer-administered seven-day semi-quantitative food
           frequency questionnaire for the dietary assessment of preschool children
           in rural Bangladesh

    • Authors: Rahman; Sabuktagin, Lee, Patricia, Ireen, Santhia, Khan, Moudud ur-Rahman, Ahmed, Faruk
      First page: 26
      Abstract: A validation study of an interviewer-administered, seven-day semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (7-d SQFFQ) was conducted in Bangladeshi rural preschool age children. Using a cross-sectional study design, 105 children from 103 households were randomly selected. For the SQFFQ, a list of commonly consumed foods was adapted from the Bangladesh national micronutrient survey 2011–12. The data on the actual number of times and the amount of the children's consumption of the foods in the preceding 1 week were collected by interviewing the mothers. The intake was compared with two non-consecutive days 24-h dietary recalls conducted within 2 weeks after the SQFFQ. Validity was assessed by the standard statistical tests. After adjusting for the energy intake and de-attenuation for within-subject variation, the food groups (cereals, animal source foods, milk and the processed foods) had ‘good’ correlations between the methods (rho 0⋅65–0⋅93; P < 0⋅001). Similarly, the macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fats) had ‘good’ correlations (rho 0⋅50–0⋅75; P < 0⋅001) and the key micronutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, etc.) demonstrated ‘good’ correlations (rho 0⋅46–0⋅85; P < 0⋅001). The variation in classifying the two extreme quintiles by the SQFFQ and the 24-h recalls was
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.19
  • Incidence of relapse following a new approach to simplifying and
           optimising acute malnutrition treatment in children aged 6–59 months: a
           prospective cohort in rural Northern Burkina Faso

    • Authors: Daures; Maguy, Phelan, Kevin, Issoufou, Mariama, Sawadogo, Ousmane, Akpakpo, Bruno, Kinda, Moumouni, Shepherd, Susan, Becquet, Renaud
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the 3-month incidence of relapse and associated factors among children who recovered under the Optimising treatment for acute MAlnutrition (OptiMA) strategy, a MUAC-based protocol. A prospective cohort of children successfully treated for acute malnutrition was monitored between April 2017 and February 2018. Children were seen at home by community health workers (CHWs) every 2 weeks for 3 months. Relapse was defined as a child who had met OptiMA recovery criteria (MUAC ≥ 125 mm for two consecutive weeks) but subsequently had a MUAC < 125 mm at any home visit. Cumulative incidence and incidence rates per 100 child-months were estimated. Multivariable survival analysis was conducted using a shared frailty model with a random effect on health facilities to identify associated factors. Of the 640 children included, the overall 3-month cumulative incidence of relapse was 6⋅8 % (95 % CI 5⋅2, 8⋅8). Globally, the incidence rate of relapse was 2⋅5 (95 % CI 1⋅9, 3⋅3) per 100 child-months and 3⋅7 (95 % CI 1⋅9, 6⋅8) per 100 child-months among children admitted with a MUAC < 115 mm. Most (88⋅6 %) relapses were detected early when MUAC was between 120 and 124 mm. Relapse was positively associated with hospitalisation, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2⋅06 (95 % CI 1⋅01, 4⋅26) for children who had an inpatient stay at any point during treatment compared with children who did not. The incidence of relapse following recovery under OptiMA was relatively low in this context, but the lack of a standard relapse definition does not allow for comparison across settings Closer follow-up with caretakers whose children are admitted with MUAC < 115 mm or required hospitalisation during treatment should be considered in managing groups at high risk of relapse. Training caretakers to screen their children for relapse at home using MUAC could be more effective at detecting early relapse, and less costly, than home visits by CHWs.
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.18
  • Trends in body mass index among ever-married Bangladeshi women, 2004–14:
           evidence from nationally representative population-based surveys

    • Authors: Islam; Md. Rafiqul, Hossain, Md. Sabbir, Khan, Md. Mostaured Ali, Rahman, Md. Shafiur
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Both high and low body weight are associated with adverse health risk for both mother and children. Studies evaluating trends in the coverage of undernutrition and overnutrition among ever-married Bangladeshi women are limited. The objective of the present study is to assess the trends and develop future projections of body weight status among Bangladeshi women and to estimate the smoothed mean BMI by women's age for the national level and across urban and rural areas. Data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2004 and 2014 were used. The annual rate of change in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity, and smoothed age-specific mean BMI was estimated. During 2004–14, the prevalence of underweight reduced with an annual rate of 5⋅9 % at the national level, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased with an annual rate of 8⋅6 and 9⋅6 %, respectively. With the recent trends, the prevalence of underweight is expected to reduce from 11⋅9 % in 2020 to 6⋅5 % by 2025. In 2020, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 30⋅0 and 6⋅9 %, respectively, which are projected to increase to 38⋅5 and 9⋅0 %, respectively, by 2025, if present trends continue. By 2030, the prevalence of overweight was predicted to be much higher in urban areas (44⋅7 %) compared with rural areas (36⋅5 %). Multifaceted nutrition programme should be introduced for rapid reduction of undernutrition and to halt the rise of the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.1
  • Ultra-processed food consumption in Barbados: evidence from a nationally
           representative, cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Harris; Rachel M., Rose, Angela M. C., Soares-Wynter, Suzanne, Unwin, Nigel
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Our objective was to describe, for the first time in an English-speaking Caribbean country, the contribution of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) to nutrients linked to non-communicable disease. Using a cross-sectional study design, dietary data were collected from two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Recorded food items were then classified according to their degree of processing by the NOVA system. The present study took place in Barbados (2012–13). A representative population-based sample of 364 adult Barbadians (161 males and 203 females) aged 25–64 years participated in the study. UPFs represented 40⋅5 % (838 kcal/d; 95 % CI 791, 885) of mean energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages made the largest contribution to energy within the UPF category. Younger persons (25–44 years) consumed a significantly higher proportion of calories from UPF (NOVA group 4) compared with older persons (45–64 years). The mean energy shares of UPF ranged from 22⋅0 to 58⋅9 % for those in the lowest tertile to highest tertile. Within each tertile, the energy contribution was significantly higher in the younger age group (25–44 years) compared with the older (45–64 years). One-quarter of persons consume ≥50 % of their daily calories from UPF, this being significantly higher in younger persons. The ultra-processed diet fraction contained about six times the mean of free sugars and about 0⋅8 times the dietary fibre of the non-ultra-processed fraction (NOVA groups 1–3). Targeted interventions to decrease the consumption of UPF especially in younger persons is thus of high priority to improve the diet quality of Barbadians.
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.21
  • A higher-protein nut-based snack product suppresses glycaemia and
           decreases glycaemic response to co-ingested carbohydrate in an overweight
           prediabetic Asian Chinese cohort: the Tū Ora postprandial RCT

    • Authors: Lu; Louise W., Silvestre, Marta P., Sequeira, Ivana R., Plank, Lindsay D., Foster, Meika, Middleditch, Nikki, Acevedo-Fani, Alejandra, Hollingsworth, Kieren G., Poppitt, Sally D.
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Nut-based products may aid low-glycaemic dietary strategies that are important for diabetes prevention in populations at increased risk of dysglycaemia, such as Asian Chinese. This randomised cross-over trial assessed the postprandial glycaemic response (0–120 min) of a higher-protein nut-based (HP-NB) snack formulation, in bar format (1009 kJ, Nutrient Profiling Score, NPS, −2), when compared with an iso-energetic higher-carbohydrate (CHO) cereal-based bar (HC-CB, 985 kJ, NPS +3). It also assessed the ability to suppress glucose response to a typical CHO-rich food (white bread, WB), when co-ingested. Ten overweight prediabetic Chinese adults (mean, sd: age 47⋅9, 15⋅7 years; BMI 25⋅5, 1⋅6 kg/m2), with total body fat plus ectopic pancreas and liver fat quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, received the five meal treatments in random order: HP-NB, HC-CB, HP-NB + WB (50 g available CHO), HC-CB + WB and WB only. Compared with HC-CB, HP-NB induced a significantly lower 30–120 min glucose response (P < 0⋅05), with an approximately 10-fold lower incremental area under the glucose curve (iAUC0–120; P < 0⋅001). HP-NB also attenuated glucose response by approximately 25 % when co-ingested with WB (P < 0⋅05). Half of the cohort had elevated pancreas and/or liver fat, with 13–21 % greater suppression of iAUC0–120 glucose in the low v. high organ fat subgroups across all five treatments. A nut-based snack product may be a healthier alternative to an energy equivalent cereal-based product with evidence of both a lower postprandial glycaemic response and modulation of CHO-induced hyperglycaemia even in high-risk, overweight, pre-diabetic adults.
      PubDate: 2021-04-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.20
  • Association between levels of thiamine intake, diabetes, cardiovascular
           diseases and depression in Korea: a national cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Duc; Hai Nguyen, Oh, Hojin, Yoon, In Mo, Kim, Min-Sun
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine thiamine intake levels and the association between thiamine intake, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. Participants were interviewed to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, current medications, medical and family history. The daily intake of thiamine was assessed by a 24-h recall. The mean age of the 34 700 study subjects was 42⋅9 years (sd 22⋅8, min–max: 1–80) and 19 342 (55⋅7 %) were women. The levels of thiamine intake were 1⋅126 mg (2016), 1⋅115 mg (2017) and 1⋅087 mg (2018) for women, which were equal to or only slightly above the recommended intake of 1⋅10 mg/d for women. The levels of thiamine intake from 2014–15 and 2016–18 significantly decreased. The estimated percentage of insufficient thiamine intake was 37⋅8 % (95 % CI 37⋅3, 38⋅4). Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that thiamine intake was critically associated with lower risks of hypertension, MI or angina, type 2 diabetes, depression and dyslipidemia. The daily thiamine intake from food can reversal the risks of hypertension (OR 0⋅95; 95 % CI 0⋅90, 0⋅99), MI or angina (OR 0⋅84; 95 % CI 0⋅74, 0⋅95), type 2 diabetes (OR 0⋅86; 95 % CI 0⋅81, 0⋅93), depression (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅83, 0⋅97) and dyslipidemia (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅86, 0⋅95), respectively. Further works are needed to identify the effects of thiamine and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health. A preventive thiamine supplementation strategy should be adopted to target NCDs and mental health and risk factors associated with thiamine deficiency. The optimisation of NCD control and mental health protection is also a vital integral part of Korea's public health system.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.23
  • Twitch user perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in relation to food and
           beverage marketing on Twitch compared with YouTube

    • Authors: Pollack; Catherine C., Gilbert-Diamond, Diane, Emond, Jennifer A., Eschholz, Alec, Evans, Rebecca K., Boyland, Emma J., Masterson, Travis D.
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Influencer marketing may be amplified on livestreaming platforms (e.g., Twitch) compared with asynchronous social media (e.g., YouTube). However, food and beverage marketing on Twitch has not been evaluated at a user level. The present study aimed to compare users’ self-reported exposure to food marketing and associated attitudes, consumption and purchasing behaviours on Twitch compared with YouTube. A survey administered via social media was completed by 621 Twitch users (90 % male, 64 % white, 69 % under 25 years old). Of respondents, 72 % recalled observing at least one food or beverage advertisement on Twitch. There were significant differences in the recall of specific brands advertised on Twitch (P < 0⋅01). After observing advertised products, 14 % reported craving the product and 8 % reported purchasing one. In chat rooms, 56 % observed conversations related to food and 25 % participated in such conversations. There were significant differences in the number of users who consumed various products while watching Twitch (P < 0⋅01). Of users who frequented YouTube (n 273), 65 % reported negative emotions when encountering advertising on YouTube compared with 40 % on Twitch (P < 0⋅01). A higher proportion felt Twitch's advertising primarily supported content creators (79 v. 54 %, P < 0⋅01), while a higher proportion felt that YouTube's advertising primarily supported the platform (49 v. 66 %, P < 0⋅01). The findings support that food marketing exposures on Twitch are noticeable, less bothersome to users and influence consumption and purchasing behaviours. Future studies are needed to examine how the livestreaming environment may enhance advertising effectiveness relative to asynchronous platforms.
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.22
  • Treatment outcome and associated factors for severely malnourished
           children (1–5 years) admitted to Lacor Hospital and Gulu Regional
           Referral Hospital in Uganda

    • Authors: Muwanguzi; E., Oboi, J. Eros, Nabbamba, A., Wanyama, R.
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Globally, severe acute malnutrition (SAM) accounts for>1/3–0⋅5 of deaths in children
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.11
  • Dietary patterns and sleep disorders in Mexican adults from a National
           Health and Nutrition Survey

    • Authors: Gaona-Pineda; Elsa B., Martinez-Tapia, Brenda, Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia, Guerrero-Zúñiga, Selene, Perez-Padilla, Rogelio, Shamah-Levy, Teresa
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Given the high prevalence of multiple non-communicable chronic diseases in Mexico, the aim of the present study was to assess the association between dietary patterns and sleep disorders in a national representative sample of 5076 Mexican adults (20–59 years) from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Through a cross-sectional study, we used the Berlin sleep symptoms questionnaire to estimate the proportion of adults with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and other related problems such as daytime symptoms and inadequate sleep duration. Dietary data were collected through a seven-day semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were determined through cluster analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and sleep disorders were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, well-being, rural/urban area type, geographical region, tobacco use, physical activity level and energy intake. Three dietary patterns were identified: traditional (high in legumes and tortilla), industrialised (high in sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, and alcohol, coffee or tea) and mixed (high in meat, poultry, fruits and vegetables). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the industrialised pattern yielded higher odds for daytime symptoms (OR 1⋅49; 95 % CI 1⋅12, 1⋅99) and OSA (OR 1⋅63; 95 % CI 1⋅21, 2⋅19) compared with the traditional pattern. In conclusion, dietary patterns are associated with sleep disorders in Mexican adults. Further research is required to break the vicious cycle of poor-quality diet, sleep symptoms and health.
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.24
  • Validity of a food frequency questionnaire for the estimation of total
           polyphenol intake estimates and its major food sources in the Japanese
           population: the JPHC FFQ Validation Study

    • Authors: Mori; Nagisa, Sawada, Norie, Ishihara, Junko, Kotemori, Ayaka, Takachi, Ribeka, Murai, Utako, Kobori, Masuko, Tsugane, Shoichiro
      First page: 35
      Abstract: We examine the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a subsample of participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study using a database of polyphenol-containing foods commonly consumed in the Japanese population. Participants of the validation study were recruited from two different cohorts. In Cohort I, 215 participants completed a 28-d dietary record (DR) and the FFQ, and in Cohort II, 350 participants completed DRs and the FFQ. The total polyphenol intake estimated from the 28-d DR and FFQ were log-transformed and adjusted for energy intake by the residual method. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQ and 28-d DR as well as two FFQs administered at a 1-year interval were computed. Median intakes of dietary polyphenols calculated from the DRs were 1172 mg/d for men and 1024 mg/d for women in Cohort I, and 1061 mg/d for men and 942 mg/d for women in Cohort II. The de-attenuated CCs for polyphenol intake between the DR and FFQ were 0⋅47 for men and 0⋅37 for women in Cohort I and 0⋅44 for men and 0⋅50 for women in Cohort II. Non-alcoholic beverages were the main contributor to total polyphenol intake in both men and women, accounting for 50 % of total polyphenol intake regardless of cohort and gender, followed by alcoholic beverages and seasoning and spices in men, and seasoning and spices, fruits and other vegetables in women. The present study showed that this FFQ had moderate validity and reproducibility and is suitable for use in future epidemiological studies.
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.25
  • Replacement of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) by extruded feeds with
           different proximate compositions: effects on growth, nutritional condition
           and digestive capacity of juvenile European lobsters (Homarus gammarus,

    • Authors: Goncalves; Renata, Gesto, Manuel, Teodósio, Maria Alexandra, Baptista, Vânia, Navarro-Guillén, Carmen, Lund, Ivar
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Extruded feeds are widely used for major aquatic animal production, particularly for finfish. However, the transition from fresh/frozen to extruded/pelleted feeds remains a major obstacle to progressing sustainable farming of European lobster (Homarus gammarus). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of using extruded feeds with different protein levels and lipid/carbohydrate ratios on growth, feed utilisation, nucleic acid derived indices (sRD) and digestive enzymatic activity of H. gammarus juveniles. Six extruded feeds were formulated to contain two protein levels (400 and 500 g/kg), with three lipid/carbohydrate ratios (LOW – 1:3; MEDium – 1:2; HIGH – 1:1). The extruded feeds were tested against Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) used as control (CTRL). Overall, the CTRL and 500MED feed supported the highest growth and nutritional condition estimated by means of sRD, while the poorest results were observed for the 400HIGH and 400MED groups. The FCR was significantly lower in the CTRL than all extruded feeds, among which the most efficient, i.e., lower FCR, was the 500MED. The highest activity of trypsin and amylase in lobsters fed the 400MED and 400HIGH feeds points to the activation of a mechanism to maximise nutrients assimilation. The highest lipase activity observed for the 500LOW and 500MED groups indicates a higher capacity to metabolise and store lipids. Overall, the results suggest that the 500MED feed (500 g/kg protein, 237 g/kg carbohydrates and 119 g/kg lipids) is a suitable extruded feed candidate to replace Antarctic krill, commonly used to grow lobster juveniles.
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.27
  • Associated factors with dietary patterns among children under 2 years of
           age: a study in childcare centres and homes of South Brazil

    • Authors: Guedes; Juliana R. D., Höfelmann, Doroteia A., Madruga, Fernanda P., de Oliveira, Elaine C. V., de Cerqueira, Mônica M. O., Lobo, Alline C. S., Almeida, Cláudia C. B.
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
      PubDate: 2021-05-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.26
  • Diet quality in middle-aged and older women with and without body weight
           dissatisfaction: results from a population-based national nutrition survey
           in Switzerland

    • Authors: Chatelan; Angéline, Carrard, Isabelle
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours in young adults, but data are scarce regarding how this relationship evolves with age. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction and the association between body weight dissatisfaction, nutrient intake and diet quality in middle-aged and older women. We used data of a population-based sample of 468 middle-aged (50–64 y/o) and older (65–75 y/o) women, extracted from the cross-sectional 2014–15 Swiss National Nutrition Survey. Body weight dissatisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. Dietitians assessed dietary intakes using two non-consecutive computer-assisted multi-pass 24-h dietary recalls and performed anthropometric measurements. Nutrient intakes were calculated and compared with national dietary guidelines, and diet quality scored with the 2010 Alternate Healthy Eating Index (2010-AHEI). 41⋅1 % of women reported body weight dissatisfaction, and 49⋅8 % wanted to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction was associated with weight loss desire and a higher body mass index (BMI; P < 0⋅001). Women with body weight dissatisfaction consumed significantly less carbohydrates and dietary fibres, even when BMI was controlled for (P < 0⋅05). They also fell short of national dietary guidelines for magnesium and iron. Body weight dissatisfied women obtained lower 2010-AHEI scores than satisfied women (β −4⋅36, 95 % CI −6⋅78, −1⋅93). However, this association disappeared when the BMI was introduced in the equation. This highlights the importance of targeting both body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating in obesity prevention and treatment at all ages.
      PubDate: 2021-05-25
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.32
  • Attitudes, perceptions and behaviours regarding meat consumption in
           Germany: results of the NEMONIT study

    • Authors: Koch; Franziska, Krems, Carolin, Heuer, Thorsten, Claupein, Erika
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Meat consumption in Germany is presently higher than recommended for a healthy and sustainable nutrition. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore German consumers’ attitudes, perceptions and behaviours regarding meat consumption based on data from 1807 participants (20–80 years) of the NEMONIT study (2012/13). Data were obtained using computer-assisted telephone interviews including 24-h recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The majority (97 %) of the participants were meat consumers and most of them stated that an ideal meal should contain meat. Their main motives for meat consumption were good taste, usual habit and the perception of meat as a healthy and satiable food. The stated meat consumption frequency was higher than the ‘desired’ consumption frequency, answered in a FFQ. Most participants would agree with two meat meals per week, but only 17 % assumed that the German population would agree. Therefore, framework conditions do not motivate people enough to reduce their meat consumption. Options for action which can be implemented in daily routine are needed. Meat is still a largely appreciated food in Germany, but the results indicate a potential for behavioural changes which must be exploited urgently to reduce meat consumption to a healthy and sustainable level.
      PubDate: 2021-05-26
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.34
  • Changes in the nutritional content of children's lunches after the Food
           Dudes healthy eating programme

    • Authors: Marcano-Olivier; Mariel, Sallaway-Costello, Jake, McWilliams, Lorna, Horne, Pauline J., Viktor, Simon, Erjavec, Mihela
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Previous research into the effectiveness of healthy eating programmes has shown increases in healthful eating behaviour in primary schools; however, data collection methods have not been sufficiently sensitive to detect micronutrient changes. The present study extends the literature by measuring individual children's intake of macro- and micronutrients at lunchtime, before and after a programme targeting children's consumption of fruit and vegetables, to identify evidence-based health benefits of programme participation. Baseline data were collected over 4 d at lunchtime in two primary schools. The Food Dudes programme was then implemented in the intervention school. Follow-up data were collected over 4 d in each school 2 months after baseline. We employed a validated and sensitive photographic method to estimate individual children's (N 112) consumption of fruit, vegetables, and their intake of calories, macro- and selected micronutrients. Significant changes were observed in the intervention school but not in the control school: Children's consumption of fruit, vegetables, vitamin C and E intake increased, while their total energy consumption, fat, saturated fat, and sodium intake decreased. The present results show that the Food Dudes programme produced a positive nutritional change, with implications for its application as a healthy eating and obesity prevention intervention. These optimistic conclusions should be tested by further research to establish the longevity of the positive effects presented here.
      PubDate: 2021-05-31
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.31
  • Only one in four lactating mothers met the minimum dietary diversity score
           in the pastoral community, Afar region, Ethiopia: a community-based
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Mulaw; Getahun Fentaw, Feleke, Fentaw Wassie, Mare, Kusse Urmale
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Maternal dietary feeding practice is one of the proxy indicators of maternal nutrient adequacy and it improves outcomes for both mothers and their offspring. The minimum maternal dietary diversity score of lactating women is defined as when the mother ate at least four and above food groups from the nine food groups 24 h preceding the survey regardless of the portion size. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the minimum dietary diversity score (MDDS) and its predictors among lactating mothers in the Pastoralist community, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed on 360 lactating mothers using a multi-stage sampling technique from 5 January 2020 to 10 February 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires and anthropometry measurements. Data were entered using EPI-data 4.6.02 and exported into SPSS version 25. Statistical significance was declared at P-value
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.28
  • A Mediterranean lifestyle is associated with favourable cardiometabolic
           markers in people with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Bowden; Katelyn, Gray, Nicholas A, Swanepoel, Elizabeth, Wright, Hattie H
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle may be a useful primary and secondary prevention strategy for chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study aimed to explore adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle and its association with cardiometabolic markers and kidney function in 99 people aged 73⋅2 ± 10⋅5 years with non-dialysis dependant CKD (stages 3–5) at a single Australian centre. Adherence was assessed using an a priori index, the Mediterranean Lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index. Cardiometabolic markers (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HbA1c and random blood glucose) and kidney function (estimated GFR) were sourced from medical records and blood pressure measured upon recruitment. Overall, adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle was moderate to low with an average MEDLIFE index score of 11⋅33 ± 3⋅31. Adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle was associated with employment (r 0⋅30, P = 0⋅004). Mediterranean dietary habits were associated with cardiometabolic markers, such as limiting sugar in beverages was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (r 0⋅32, P = 0⋅002), eating in moderation with favourable random blood glucose (r 0⋅21, P = 0⋅043), having more than two snack foods per week with HbA1c (r 0⋅29, P = 0⋅037) and LDL-cholesterol (r 0⋅41, P = 0⋅002). Interestingly, eating in company was associated with a lower frequency of depression (χ2 5⋅975, P = 0⋅015). To conclude, Mediterranean dietary habits were favourably associated with cardiometabolic markers and management of some comorbidities in this group of people with non-dialysis dependent CKD.
      PubDate: 2021-06-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.33
  • The burden of excessive saturated fatty acid intake attributed to
           ultra-processed food consumption: a study conducted with nationally
           representative cross-sectional studies from eight countries

    • Authors: Steele; Eurídice Martínez, Batis, Carolina, Cediel, Gustavo, Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa, Khandpur, Neha, Machado, Priscila, Moubarac, Jean-Claude, Rauber, Fernanda, Jedlicki, Marcela Reyes, Levy, Renata Bertazzi, Monteiro, Carlos A.
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Cross-sectional nutritional survey data collected in eight countries were used to estimate saturated fatty acid intakes. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive saturated fatty acid intakes (>10 % of total energy intake) that could be avoided if ultra-processed food consumption was reduced to levels observed in the first quintile of each country. Secondary analysis was performed of 24 h dietary recall or food diary/record data collected by the most recently available nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Brazil (2008–9), Chile (2010), Colombia (2005), Mexico (2012), Australia (2011–12), the UK (2008–16), Canada (2015) and the US (2015–16). Population attributable fractions estimated the impact of reducing ultra-processed food consumption on excessive saturated fatty acid intakes (above 10 % of total energy intake) in each country. Significant relative reductions in the percentage of excessive saturated fatty acid intakes would be observed in all countries if ultra-processed food consumption was reduced to levels observed in the first quintile's consumption. The reductions in excessive intakes ranged from 10⋅0 % (95 % CI 6⋅2–13⋅6 %) in Canada to 35⋅0 % (95 % CI 28⋅7–48⋅0 %) in Mexico. In all eight studied countries, all presenting more than 30 % of intakes with excessive saturated fatty acids, lowering the dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods to attainable, context-specific levels was shown to be a potentially effective way to reduce the percentage of intakes with excessive saturated fatty acids, which may play an important role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-06-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.30
  • Effect of nutrition behaviour change communication delivered through radio
           on mothers’ nutritional knowledge, child feeding practices and growth

    • Authors: Saaka; Mahama, Wemah, Khadija, Kizito, Fred, Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Childhood undernutrition coupled with poor feeding practices continues to be public health problems in many parts of the world and efforts to address them remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that women who are exposed to radio health/nutrition education will demonstrate greater nutrition and health knowledge, positive attitudes towards preventive health and better dietary diversity practices for improved child growth. We used a two-arm, quasi-experimental, non-equivalent comparison group design with pre- and post-test observations to evaluate the intervention. The study population comprised 712 mothers with children aged 6–36 months who were randomly selected from five intervention districts and one comparison district in Northern Ghana. Difference-in-difference (DID) analysis was performed to assess study outcomes. After 12-month implementation of intervention activities, the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum acceptable diet improved significantly (DID 9⋅7 percentage points, P 0⋅014 and DID 12⋅1 percentage points, P 0⋅001, respectively) in the intervention study group, compared with the comparison group. Mothers in the intervention communities had a nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and practices score that was significantly higher than their colleagues in the comparison communities (DID 0⋅646, P < 0⋅001). The intervention did not have significant effects on the nutritional status as measured by height-for-age Z-score or weight-for-height Z-score. The data provide evidence that health and nutrition education using radio drama significantly increased health-/nutrition-related knowledge but had little effect on nutritional status.
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.35
  • Factors influencing complementary feeding practices in rural and
           semi-urban Rwanda: a qualitative study

    • Authors: Umugwaneza; Maryse, Havemann-Nel, Lize, Vorster, Hester H., Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify and describe the factors influencing feeding practices of children aged 6–23 months in Rwanda. This is a cross-sectional descriptive qualitative study. A total of ten focus group discussions were conducted separately with mothers, fathers, grandmothers and community health workers (CHWs) from five different districts in Rwanda. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed using qualitative data analysis software, Atlas.ti. The study participants were mothers, fathers and grandmothers of children aged 6–23 months and CHWs in charge of child health. Caregivers’ knowledge and beliefs about the benefits of breast-feeding and timely introduction of complementary food were found to be the primary individual factors facilitating good infant and young child feeding practices. The common belief of caregivers that infants should be given liquids (thin gruel, fruit juices and meat broth) as first foods instead of semi-solid foods was a barrier to good feeding practices. The community-based nutrition education and counselling programmes were facilitators of good complementary practices at the group level. At the society level, poverty in rural agrarian households was a barrier to optimal feeding practices. The study shows that there is a need to empower caregivers with more specific guidelines, especially on complementary feeding.
      PubDate: 2021-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.37
  • Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on nutrition data

    • Authors: Katsimpris; Andreas, Brahim, Aboulmaouahib, Rathmann, Wolfgang, Peters, Anette, Strauch, Konstantin, Flaquer, Antònia
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Numerous predictive models for the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exist, but a minority of them has implemented nutrition data so far, even though the significant effect of nutrition on the pathogenesis, prevention and management of T2DM has been established. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to build a predictive model for the risk of T2DM that incorporates nutrition data and calculates its predictive performance. We analysed cross-sectional data from 1591 individuals from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 study (2013–14) and used a bootstrap enhanced elastic net penalised multivariate regression method in order to build our predictive model and select among 193 food intake variables. After selecting the significant predictor variables, we built a logistic regression model with these variables as predictors and T2DM status as the outcome. The values of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of our predictive model were calculated. Eleven out of the 193 food intake variables were selected for inclusion in our model, which yielded a value of area under the ROC curve of 0⋅79 and a maximum PPV, NPV and accuracy of 0⋅37, 0⋅98 and 0⋅91, respectively. The present results suggest that nutrition data should be implemented in predictive models to predict the risk of T2DM, since they improve their performance and they are easy to assess.
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.36
  • Older age, smoking, tooth loss and denture-wearing but neither xerostomia
           nor salivary gland hypofunction are associated with low intakes of fruit
           and vegetables in older Danish adults

    • Authors: Pedersen; Anne Marie Lynge, Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe, Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are prevalent conditions in older people and may adversely influence the intake of certain foods, notably fruit and vegetables. Here, we aimed to investigate whether xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction were associated with a lower intake of fruit and vegetables. The study included 621 community-dwelling adults, mean age 75⋅2 ± 6⋅4 years, 58⋅9 % female, who had participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study follow-up, and undergone interviews regarding food intake (preceding month), oral and general health (xerostomia, taste alterations, diseases, medication, alcohol consumption and smoking), clinical oral examination and measurements of unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rates. The average total energy intake (8⋅4 ± 2⋅7 MJ) and protein energy percentage (14⋅8 ± 3⋅1 %) were slightly below recommendations. The average fruit (234⋅7 ± 201⋅2 g/d) and vegetables (317⋅3 ± 157⋅4 g/d) intakes were within recommendations. Xerostomia and hyposalivation were more prevalent in women than in men (16⋅4 v. 7⋅1 %, P < 0⋅001 and 40⋅7 v. 27⋅5 %, P < 0⋅001). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that older age (β −0⋅009, se 0⋅003, P = 0⋅005), smoking (β −0⋅212, se 0⋅060, P = 0⋅0005) and wearing complete dentures/being partially or fully edentulous (β −0⋅141, se 0⋅048, P = 0⋅003), but neither xerostomia nor salivary flow rates were associated with an inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, after adjustment for covariates. Older age, smoking, tooth loss and denture-wearing were stronger determinants of low fruit and vegetable intakes than xerostomia and salivary hypofunction supporting the importance of dietary counselling and maintenance of oral health and an adequate masticatory performance.
      PubDate: 2021-06-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.38
  • Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on oxidative stress and clinical
           outcomes in patients with low levels of coenzyme Q10 admitted to the
           intensive care unit

    • Authors: Hasanloei; Mohammad Amin Valizade, Zeinaly, Aidin, Rahimlou, Mehran, Houshyar, Hadi, Moonesirad, Solma, Hashemi, Reza
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Today, trauma is known to be the third leading cause of death in most countries. Studies have demonstrated below-normal plasma levels of antioxidants in trauma patients. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on oxidative stress, clinical outcomes and anthropometrical parameters in traumatic mechanical ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients were randomised to receive sublingual CoQ10 (400 mg/d) or placebo for 7 d. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at the baseline and end of the study. We enrolled forty patients for this trial: twenty in the CoQ10 group and twenty in the placebo group. There was not any significant difference in the baseline variables (P> 0⋅05). At the end of the study, CoQ10 administration caused a considerable reduction in the Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations (P < 0⋅001), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS; P = 0⋅02), ICU and hospital length of stay and mechanical ventilation (MV) duration (P < 0⋅001). We found that CoQ10 administration could increase Fat-Free Mass (P < 0⋅001) (FFM; P = 0⋅04), Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM; P = 0⋅04) and Body Cell Mass (BCM) percent (P = 0⋅03). There was not any significant difference in other factors between the two groups (P> 0⋅05). CoQ10 administration has beneficial effects on patients with traumatic injury and has no side effects. However, since the possibility of the type II error was high, the outcomes on the duration of MV, ICU stay and hospital stay, and GCS may very well be false positives.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.39
  • Postprandial effects of a whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional
           drink compared with a normal breakfast on glucose, insulin, and active
           GLP-1 response among type 2 diabetic subjects: a crossover randomised
           controlled trial

    • Authors: Sridonpai; Pimnapanut, Prachansuwan, Aree, Praengam, Kemika, Tuntipopipat, Siriporn, Kriengsinyos, Wantanee
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Postprandial hyperglycaemia is recognised as an important target in type 2 diabetes management. Dietary pattern, meal composition, and amount of food intake are major factors for maintaining postprandial blood glucose levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming a whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional drink (WD) on postprandial glycaemic, insulinaemic, and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in comparison to a typical breakfast, which is boiled white rice with chicken (BC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fifteen subjects with T2DM participated in a randomised, controlled, cross-over study. Two isocaloric diets with similar nutrient composition were randomly tested with at least 7 d in between. Glucose, insulin, and active GLP-1 were measured by standard methods with blood samples collected with a venous catheter for 240 min during a kinetic test. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC0–240 min) for plasma glucose was significantly lower after the consumption of WD (WD: 3551 ± 546; BC: 9610 ± 848 mg min/dl; P < 0⋅01), while insulinaemic response tended to be lesser (iAUC0–240 min) than those of BC. In addition, higher iAUC0–240 min for active GLP-1 was obtained with WD diet (WD: 2230 ± 441; BC: 925 ± 183 pM min/ml; P < 0⋅01). This study showed that WD can be used to replace a regular breakfast for improving postprandial glucose response and active GLP-1 levels in people with T2DM. Further studies are required to elucidate the clinical efficacy of WD on long-term glycaemic control in people with T2DM.
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.41
  • A high-protein diet containing inulin/oligofructose supports body weight
           gain associated with lower energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation,
           and alters faecal microbiota in C57BL/6 mice

    • Authors: Koch; Franziska, Derno, Michael, Langhammer, Martina, Tuchscherer, Armin, Hammon, Harald M., Mielenz, Manfred, Metges, Cornelia C., Kuhla, Björn
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or HP (40 % protein) diet including no or 10 % inulin/FOS (C + I and HP + I) for 4 weeks. Inulin/FOS was added in place of starch and cellulose. Body weight, food intake, faecal energy and nitrogen were determined. Indirect calorimetry and faecal microbiota analysis were performed after 3 weeks on diets. Body weight gain of HP-fed mice was 36 % lower than HP + I- and C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Diet digestibility and food conversion efficiency were higher in HP + I- than HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅01), while food intake was comparable between groups. Total energy expenditure (heat production) was 25 % lower in HP + I- than in C-, HP- and C + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅001). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be 24 % higher in HP- than in HP + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal nitrogen excretion was 31–45 % lower in C-, C + I- and HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal Bacteroides–Prevotella DNA was 2⋅3-fold higher in C + I- and HP + I- relative to C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05), but Clostridium leptum DNA abundances was 79 % lower in HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). We suggest that the higher conversion efficiency of dietary energy of HP + I but not C + I-fed mice is caused by higher digestibility and lower heat production, resulting in increased body mass.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.42
  • Food intake in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study from
           2009/2010 to 2015/2016

    • Authors: Tell; Maria N., Hedin, Katarina, Nilsson, Mats, Golsäter, Marie, Lingfors, Hans
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The aim was to describe food intake over time in children and adolescents, with respect to age and gender. The present study was a repeated cross-sectional study using self-reported data from a health questionnaire. Data were collected from the School Health Services in south-east Sweden from 44 297 students, 10, 13–14 and 16 years of age, 48 % girls and 52 % boys from 2009/2010 to 2015/2016. Reported intakes for eight foods were analysed in relation to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Seventeen per cent of the students reported an intake in line with the recommendations for at least six of the eight foods fish, vegetables, fruit, mealtime beverages, juice/chocolate drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets/snacks and pastries. Intake of at least two fruits a day was the recommendation that was followed by the lowest proportion of students (30 %), and this result was stable over the study period. There was a gradual increase over time in the proportion of students who reported an intake in line with the recommendations. Younger students compared to older students, as well as girls compared to boys, reported intakes in line with the recommendations to a statistically significant larger extent. Few students reported intakes in line with the recommendations, although the quality of food intake seems to improve over time. The present results indicate a deterioration in reported food intake in the early years of adolescence. Finding methods to support all children and especially older adolescents to eat healthier, including eating more fruit, is of great importance to public health.
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.40
  • Cultural adaptation and validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour
           Questionnaire in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Gebru; Nardos Wondafrash, Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos, Hassen, Hamid Yimam, Habtemariam, Esete, Abebe, Dawit Shawel
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Eating behaviours have been associated both with being underweight or overweight and poor growth. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviours. The instrument is, however, mostly validated in high-income countries, with a scarcity of evidence among developing countries such as Ethiopia. The present study aims to assess the cultural adaptability and validity of the CEBQ to be used in Ethiopia. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study among 542 caregivers of children aged 3–6 years in selected preschools. Tests of factorial validity, convergent validity and reliability were performed. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model indicated that eight subscales provided the best fit (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0⋅05 (90 % CI 0⋅045, 0⋅055); Comparative Fit Index = 0⋅92 and Tucker–Lewis Index = 0⋅90) after seven items from the original CEBQ were removed. Convergent validity with child's weight status was found for emotional overeating, food fussiness, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating subscales. Reliability, measured using Cronbach's α, provided values between 0⋅50 and 0⋅79. The eight-factor structure of the CEBQ showed adequate content validity and provided factorial, discriminant and convergent validity among preschool children. Further replication of the study among low-income countries is essential to improve the literature on children's eating behaviours.
      PubDate: 2021-07-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.45
  • Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on the
           eicosanoid profile in individuals with obesity and overweight: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

    • Authors: Schweitzer; Guilherme R. B., Rios, Isabela N. M. S., Gonçalves, Vivian S. S., Magalhães, Kelly G., Pizato, Nathalia
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) present beneficial effects on counteracting inflammation status, displaying a critical anti-inflammatory role and maintaining physiological homeostasis in obesity. The primary objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake on the eicosanoid profile of people with obesity and overweight. The search strategy on Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and ProQuest was undertaken until November 2019 and updated January 2021. The effect size of n-3 PUFAs on prostaglandins was estimated by Glass's, type 1 in a random-effect model for the meta-analysis. Seven clinical trials met the eligible criteria and a total of 610 subjects were included in this systematic review, and four of seven studies were included in meta-analysis. The intake of n-3 PUFAs promoted an overall reduction in serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Additionally, n-3 PUFAs intake significantly decreased the arachidonic acid COX-derived PG eicosanoid group levels (Glass's Δ −0⋅35; CI −0⋅62, −0⋅07, I2 31⋅48). Subgroup analyses showed a higher effect on periods up to 8 weeks (Glass's Δ −0⋅51; CI −0⋅76, −0⋅27) and doses higher than 0⋅5 g of n-3 PUFAs (Glass's Δ −0⋅46; CI −0⋅72, −0⋅27). Dietary n-3 PUFAs intake contributes to reduce pro-inflammatory eicosanoids of people with obesity and overweight. Subgroup's analysis showed that n-3 PUFAs can reduce the overall arachidonic acid COX-derived PG when adequate dose and period are matched.
      PubDate: 2021-07-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.46
  • Nutritional status and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet in
           Colombian school children and teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic
           according to sex

    • Authors: Morales Camacho; William Javier, Osma Zambrano, Sonia Esperanza, Morales Camacho, María Alejandra, Herrera Contreras, Angie Carolina, Rangel Acevedo, Angela, Duarte Valencia, Edgar Julián, Camargo Cárdenas, Anamaria, Nocua Alarcón, Laura Ximena, Ardila Munar, Lizeth Carolina, Noguera Sánchez, Ana Milena, Molina Díaz, Jorge Mario
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The current COVID-19 pandemic has generated a series of changes in the daily routines of people, including children and teenagers, in an unprecedented way, which constitutes a global challenge in public health. Social isolation has been a prophylactic measure to prevent the spread of the virus; however, it has generated negative impacts on the physical and emotional health of parents, caregivers, children and teenagers around the world. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic at the level of nutritional status, dietary and behavioural patterns of elementary school children and teenagers in a small town of Colombia. Anthropometric parameters such as BMI Z-score, waist circumference and waist/height ratio were evaluated in 266 school children and teenagers. A questionnaire with socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics and the KIDMED were applied to learn about nutritional aspects. A total of 102 students (38⋅3 %) were classified as having altered nutritional status, being 39 (14⋅7 %) classified as overweight and 36 (13⋅5 %) with obesity. The prevalence of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was 12 %, 95 % CI (0⋅08, 0⋅16). Overweight was more prevalent in women (26/39, 66⋅7 %; P = 0⋅0439), and obesity was discreetly more frequent in men (19/36, 52⋅7 %; P = 0⋅7193). We observed a worrying nutritional, dietary and behavioural situation in the children and teenagers studied during the confinement associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This unveils the need to establish strategies and/or public policies in our town that help to promote an adequate biopsychosocial development of the paediatric patient and their family group.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.48
  • Mediterranean dietary pattern and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases: a
           case-control study

    • Authors: Entezari; Mohammad-Reza, Talenezhad, Nasir, Mirzavandi, Farhang, Rahimpour, Shahab, Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan, Fallahzadeh, Hossein, Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The Mediterranean (MED) diet was associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease, but the epidemiological studies reported inconsistent findings related to the MED diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk. This age and the gender-matched case-control study were conducted among 247 adult patients. The MED diet score was obtained based on the Trichopoulou model. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between the MED diet and NAFLD risk. NAFLD prevalence in people with low, moderate and high adherence to the MED diet was 33, 13⋅1 and 4⋅6 %, respectively. The increasing intake of the MED diet was significantly related to the increment intake of nuts and fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, legumes, cereals and fish. However, total energy consumption, low-fat dairy and meats intake were reduced (P for all < 0⋅05). Following control for age, the person in the highest of the MED diet tertile compared with the lowest, the odds of NAFLD decreased (OR: 0⋅40, 95 % CI: 0⋅17–0⋅95). This relation became a little stronger after further adjusting for sex, diabetes, physical activity and supplement intake (OR: 0⋅36, 95 % CI: 0⋅15–0⋅89). However, this association disappeared after adjusting for body mass index, waist and hip circumference (OR: 0⋅70, 95 % CI: 0⋅25–1⋅97). High adherence to the MED diet was associated with a 64 % reduction in NAFLD odds before some anthropometric variable adjustments. However, further prospective studies are required, particularly in BMI-stratified models.
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.43
  • Gender differences in nutrition literacy levels among university students
           and employees: a descriptive study

    • Authors: Svendsen; Karianne, Torheim, Liv E., Fjelberg, Vibeke, Sorprud, Anita, Narverud, Ingunn, Retterstøl, Kjetil, Bogsrud, Martin P., Holven, Kirsten B., Myhrstad, Mari C. W., Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H.
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The impact of nutrition information on public health is partly determined by the population's level of nutrition literacy (NL), which involves functional NL (such as knowledge of dietary guidelines) and critical NL (such as the ability to distinguish between evidence-based nutrition information and alternative facts). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe aspects of functional and critical NL and predictors of NL scores among university students and employees. We recruited at different university campuses, 414 students and 112 employees, of which 80 % were females and 69 % were in the ages of 18–30 years. In total, 82 % reported knowledge about where to find information on nutrition issues, and 70 % were familiar with Norwegian dietary guidelines. Being female, having higher age, being highly physically active and studying or working within health sciences were significant predictors of higher levels of functional nutrition knowledge. Significantly more women than men found it difficult to judge if media information on nutritional issues could be trusted (69 v. 54 %) and found it hard to distinguish between scientific and non-scientific information about diet (60 v. 42 %). Our findings indicate that for a sample of university students and employees, affiliation with health sciences, being female, having a higher age and being physically active were associated with higher functional NL. Women did, however, seem to have lower levels of some aspects of critical NL, e.g. how to critically judge nutrition information. A more thorough assessment of NL in university students and employees should therefore be conducted.
      PubDate: 2021-07-30
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.47
  • Cobalamin and folate status in women during early pregnancy in Bhaktapur,

    • Authors: Schwinger; Catherine, Sharma, Shakun, Chandyo, Ram K., Hysing, Mari, Kvestad, Ingrid, Ulak, Manjeswori, Ranjitkar, Suman, Shrestha, Merina, Shrestha, Laxman P., McCann, Adrian, Ueland, Per M., Strand, Tor A.
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The demand for cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate is increased during pregnancy, and deficiency during pregnancy may lead to complications and adverse outcomes. Yet, the status of these micronutrients is unknown in many populations. We assessed the concentration of cobalamin, folate and their functional biomarkers, total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), in 561 pregnant women enrolled in a community-based randomised controlled trial in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Plasma concentrations of cobalamin, folate, tHcy and MMA were measured and a combined indicator of vitamin B12 status (3cB12) was calculated. We report mean or median concentrations and the prevalence of deficiency according to commonly used cut-offs, and assessed their association with indicators of socio-economic status, and maternal and dietary characteristics by linear regression. Among the women at gestational week less than 15, deficiencies of cobalamin and folate were seen in 24 and 1 %, respectively. Being a vegetarian was associated with lower plasma cobalamin, and a higher socio-economic status was associated with a better micronutrient status. We conclude that cobalamin deficiency defined by commonly used cut-offs was common in Nepalese women in early pregnancy. In contrast, folate deficiency was rare. As there is no consensus on cut-off points for vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy, future studies are needed to assess the potential functional consequences of these low values.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.53
  • Determinants and constraints to household-level animal source food
           consumption in rural communities of Ethiopia

    • Authors: Daba; Alemneh Kabeta, Murimi, Mary, Abegaz, Kebede, Hailu, Dejene
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Animal source foods (ASF) contain quality nutrients important for growth, development, immunity and behavioural outcomes. Plant-based foods also provide the nutrients, but with lower bioavailability than ASF. Evidence on household-level ASF consumption frequency, constraints and determinants are limited for Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the consumption frequency of ASF and to identify determinants and constraints among rural households in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 422 households. The consumption frequency of ASF was assessed using a food frequency screener over 30 days. Twelve statements with Likert scale responses were used to identify constraints to ASF consumption. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify determinants of ASF consumption. About a quarter (26 %) of the households consumed milk one to two times per week. One out of five households consumed eggs one to two times per week (20 %) or one to two times per month (19 %). Poultry and meat were never consumed by 92 and 60 % of the households, respectively. Unavailability, unaffordability, consumption tradition and income generation priority were constraints identified. Food insecurity, livestock ownership, income, family size and women's education were associated (P < 0⋅05) with selected ASF consumption. Rural households in Ethiopia did not consume ASF on regular basis. Poor socio-demographic and economic conditions as determined by food insecurity, property ownership, income, educational achievement, family size and ASF unavailability and unaffordability contributed to the lower consumption frequency of ASF by households in rural Ethiopia. Nutrition policies and programmes should focus on nutrition-sensitive agricultural extension, livelihood improvement and women empowerment interventions integrated with nutrition education to improve ASF consumption in rural settings.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.52
  • Benefits of adding food education sessions to an exercise programme on
           cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    • Authors: Vasconcelos; Carlos Eduardo Gonçalves da Costa, Cabral, Maria Manuela Lobato Guimarães Ferreira, Ramos, Elisabete Conceição Pereira, Mendes, Romeu Duarte Carneiro
      First page: 59
      Abstract: To evaluate the impact of adding food education sessions to an exercise programme on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a randomised parallel-group study was performed. Glycated haemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM) and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after 9 months. The recruitment was made in three primary healthcare centres from Vila Real, Portugal. Thirty-three patients (65⋅4 ± 5⋅9 years old) were engaged in a 9-month community-based lifestyle intervention programme: a supervised exercise programme (EX; n = 15; combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance and flexibility exercise; three sessions per week; 75 min per session); or the same exercise programme plus concomitant food education sessions (EXFE; n = 18; 15-min lectures and dual-task strategies during exercise (answer nutrition questions while walking); 16 weeks). Significant differences between groups were identified in the evolution of BMI (P < 0.001, ) and FM (P < 0.001, ), with best improvements observed in the EXFE group. The addition of a simple food education dietary intervention to an exercise programme improved body weight and composition, but not glycaemic control and blood pressure in middle-aged and older patients with T2D.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.50
  • A pilot feasibility study investigating the impact of increasing sucrose
           intakes on body composition and blood pressure

    • Authors: Scott; Sophie, Young, Julie, Lodge, John K.
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Epidemiological and intervention studies have reported negative health effects of sucrose intake, but many of these studies were not representative of typical dietary habits. In this pilot study, we aimed to test the effect of increasing sucrose intakes for 1 week on body composition and blood pressure and explore the feasibility of consuming high intakes of sucrose in addition to a habitual diet. In a randomised crossover design study, twelve healthy participants (50 % female, age 28⋅4 ± 10 years, BMI 25 ± 3 kg/m2), consumed either 40, 80 or 120 g sucrose in 500 ml water in addition to their habitual diet every day for 1 week, with a 1-week washout between treatment periods. Body composition (assessed using bioelectrical impedance) and blood pressure measurements were taken before and after each intervention phase. All participants reported no issues with consuming the sucrose dose for the intervention period. There was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure following 120 g sucrose intake (P = 0⋅006), however there was no significant changes to blood pressure, body weight, BMI, percentage protein, fat or water (P> 0⋅05) when comparing change from baseline values. There was also no effect of sucrose intakes on energy or macronutrient intakes during the intervention (P> 0⋅05). We show here that varying doses of sucrose over a 1-week period have no effect on body composition or blood pressure. The amounts of sucrose used were an acceptable addition to the habitual diet and demonstrate the feasibility of larger-scale studies of chronic sucrose supplementation.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.55
  • A genome-wide association study on meat consumption in a Japanese
           population: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study

    • Authors: Nakamura; Yasuyuki, Narita, Akira, Sutoh, Yoichi, Imaeda, Nahomi, Goto, Chiho, Matsui, Kenji, Takashima, Naoyuki, Kadota, Aya, Miura, Katsuyuki, Nakatochi, Masahiro, Tamura, Takashi, Hishida, Asahi, Nakashima, Ryoko, Ikezaki, Hiroaki, Hara, Megumi, Nishida, Yuichiro, Takezaki, Toshiro, Ibusuki, Rie, Oze, Isao, Ito, Hidemi, Kuriyama, Nagato, Ozaki, Etsuko, Mikami, Haruo, Kusakabe, Miho, Nakagawa-Senda, Hiroko, Suzuki, Sadao, Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako, Arisawa, Kokichi, Kuriki, Kiyonori, Momozawa, Yukihide, Kubo, Michiaki, Takeuchi, Kenji, Kita, Yoshikuni, Wakai, Kenji, ,
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the dietary habits of the Japanese population have shown that an effect rs671 allele was inversely associated with fish consumption, whereas it was directly associated with coffee consumption. Although meat is a major source of protein and fat in the diet, whether genetic factors that influence meat-eating habits in healthy populations are unknown. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS to find genetic variations that affect meat consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data using 14 076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with total meat consumption per 1000 kcal energy was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, and principal component analysis components 1–10. We found that no genetic variant, including rs671, was associated with meat consumption. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated with meat consumption in samples of European ancestry could not be replicated in our J-MICC data. In conclusion, significant genetic factors that affect meat consumption were not observed in a Japanese population.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.49
  • Effect of fish paste products, fish balls ‘tsumire’, intake in
           Sprague–Dawley rats

    • Authors: Kadokura; Kazunari, Tomita, Tsuyoshi, Suruga, Kohei
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The fish paste product, fish balls ‘tsumire’, is a traditional type of Japanese food made from minced fish as well as imitation crab, kamaboko and hanpen. Although tsumire is known as a high-protein and low-fat food, there is a lack of scientific evidence on its health benefits. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of tsumire intake on organ weight and biomarker levels in Sprague–Dawley rats for 84 d as a preliminary study. Six-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups: group I, fed normal diets, and group II, fed normal diets with 5 % dried tsumire. Throughout the administration period, we monitored their body weight and food intake; at the end of this period, we measured their organ weight and analysed their blood biochemistry. No significant differences were observed with respect to body weight, food intake, organ weight and many biochemical parameters between the two groups. It was found that inorganic phosphorus and glucose levels were higher in group II rats than in group I rats. On the other hand, sodium, calcium, amylase and cholinesterase levels were significantly lower in group II than in group I. Interestingly, we found that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and leucine aminopeptidase in group II were significantly lower than in group I, and that other liver function parameters of group II tended to be lower than in group I. In conclusion, we consider that the Japanese traditional food, ‘tsumire,’ may be effective as a functional food for human health management worldwide.
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.57
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and body composition of breast-feeding
           mothers: the potential role of unsaturated fatty acids

    • Authors: Tabasso; Chiara, Mallardi, Domenica, Corti, Ylenia, Perrone, Michela, Piemontese, Pasqua, Liotto, Nadia, Menis, Camilla, Roggero, Paola, Mosca, Fabio
      First page: 63
      Abstract: A paucity of evidence is available regarding the impact of diet's quality during pregnancy and lactation on the body composition of breast-feeding mothers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between maternal degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and body composition measures specifically those relating to body fat, in the lactation period. A cross-sectional study on healthy mothers of full-term babies has been conducted. At 30 ± 10 d after delivery, anthropometric measurements and body composition were assessed. A food frequency questionnaire was performed to compute the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) score as an index of adherence to the MD. Data related to pregnancy such as pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and morbidities were also collected. The 147 mothers included were categorised in IMI-1 (IMI score < 5; n 92) and IMI-2 (IMI score ≥ 5; n 55) groups. IMI-2 mothers showed higher daily energy, total carbohydrates, starch and fibre intakes than IMI-1. The dietary habits of IMI-2 mothers reflect the typical characteristics of MD: they consumed higher quantities of proteins and lipids of vegetal origin, higher amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower saturated to PUFAs ratio. The IMI-2 group showed lower absolute fat mass and fat mass index compared to IMI-1 [(20⋅2 ± 5⋅9) v. (22⋅9 ± 8⋅4) kg; P 0⋅036 and (7⋅5 ± 2⋅2) v. (8⋅5 ± 3⋅1) kg/m2; P 0⋅036, respectively], whereas body weight [(61⋅1 ± 8⋅0) v. (63⋅3 ± 9⋅2) kg] and body mass index [(22⋅4 ± 2⋅6) v. (23⋅3 ± 3⋅5) kg/m2] were similar. The degree of adherence to the MD during pregnancy and lactation is positively associated with lower maternal fat deposition in the breast-feeding period. The higher quality of dietary lipids, probably in synergy with the assumption of starchy carbohydrates and fibre, could influence maternal body fat.
      PubDate: 2021-08-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.60
  • Higher circulating α-carotene was associated with better cognitive
           function: an evaluation among the MIND trial participants

    • Authors: Liu; Xiaoran, Dhana, Klodian, Furtado, Jeremy D., Agarwal, Puja, Aggarwal, Neelum T., Tangney, Christy, Laranjo, Nancy, Carey, Vincent, Barnes, Lisa L., Sacks, Frank M.
      First page: 64
      Abstract: There is emerging evidence linking fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive function. However, studies focusing on the nutrients underlying this relationship are lacking. We aim to examine the association between plasma nutrients and cognition in a population at risk for cognitive decline with a suboptimal diet. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) trial is a randomized controlled intervention that examines the effects of the MIND diet to prevent cognitive decline. The primary outcome is global cognition. A multivariate linear model was used to investigate the association between blood nutrients and global and/or domain-specific cognition. The model was adjusted for age, sex, education, study site, smoking status, cognitive activities and physical activities. High plasma α-carotene was associated with better global cognition. Participants in the highest tertile of plasma α-carotene had a higher global cognition z score of 0⋅17 when compared with individuals in the lowest tertile (P 0⋅002). Circulating α-carotene levels were also associated with higher semantic memory scores (P for trend 0⋅007). Lutein and zeaxanthin (combined) was positively associated with higher semantic memory scores (P for trend 0⋅009). Our study demonstrated that higher α-carotene levels in blood were associated with higher global cognition scores in a US population at risk for cognitive decline. The higher α-carotene levels in blood reflected greater intakes of fruits, other types of vegetables and lesser intakes of butter and margarine and meat. The higher circulating levels of lutein plus zeaxanthin reflected a dietary pattern with high intakes of fruits, green leafy, other vegetables and cheese, and low consumption of fried foods. Objective nutrient markers in the blood can better characterize dietary intake, which may facilitate the implementation of a tailored dietary intervention for the prevention of cognitive decline.
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.56
  • Age- and sex-matched comparison of diet quality in patients with heart
           failure to similarly aged healthy older adults

    • Authors: Kang; JungHee, Moser, Debra K., Biddle, Martha J., Oh, GYeon, Lennie, Terry A.
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to (1) compare diet quality between patients with heart failure (HF) and age- and sex-matched community-dwelling healthy older adults and (2) determine whether having HF was associated with a lower Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) score and risk of micronutrient deficiency. The HEI-2015 and macro- and micronutrient intakes of patients with HF were compared with healthy older adults (N 102; 55–92 years old; 53 % female). A paired t-test or Wilcoxon singed-rank test, McNemar's test, and conditional logistic regression were used to assess the association between diet quality and HF status. Median values for HEI-2015 and the number of micronutrient deficiency were used to dichotomise into groups in the conditional logistic regression. There was no significant between-group difference in the HEI-2015 total score (P 0⋅059), whereas the whole grain component was lower in patients with HF than in healthy older adults (3⋅1 ± 3⋅5 v. 4⋅5 ± 3⋅1, P 0⋅037; respectively). Total caloric intake was lower in patients with HF than in healthy older adults (1683 ± 595 v. 2104 ± 670 kcal; P < 0⋅001). Patients with HF had a higher average number of micronutrient deficiencies than healthy older adults (4[2, 6] v. 1[0, 4], respectively, P < 0⋅001). Patients with HF had four times higher odds of being in a high micronutrient deficiency group than healthy older adults, controlling for socio-demographics and body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [95 % confidence interval]: 4⋅04[1⋅06, 15⋅41]). Our findings demonstrate that diet quality measured by nutritional intake identifies patients with HF with lower caloric intake and higher micronutrient deficiencies compared with age- and sex-matched healthy older adults.
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.51
  • Estimates of fluid intake, urine output and hydration-levels in women from
           Somaliland: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Heen; Espen, Yassin, Amal A., Madar, Ahmed A., Romøren, Maria
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The study objective was to measure fluid intake and associations with background characteristics and hydration biomarkers in healthy, free-living, non-pregnant women aged 15–69 years from Hargeisa city. We also wanted to estimate the proportion of euhydrated participants and corresponding biomarker cut-off values. Data from 136 women, collected through diaries and questionnaires, 24h urine samples and anthropometric measurements, were obtained with a cross-sectional, purposeful sampling from fifty-two school and health clusters, representing approximately 2250 women. The mean (95 % CI) 24 h total fluid intake (TFI) for all women was 2⋅04 (1⋅88, 2⋅20) litres. In multivariate regression with weight, age, parity and a chronic health problem, only weight remained a predictor (P 0.034, B 0.0156 (l/kg)). Pure water, Somali tea and juice from powder and syrup represented 49⋅3, 24⋅6 and 11⋅7 % of TFI throughout the year, respectively. Mean (95 % CI) 24 h urine volume (Uvol) was 1⋅28 (1⋅17, 1⋅39) litres. TFI correlated strongly with 24 h urine units (r 0.67) and Uvol (r 0.59). Approximately 40 % of the women showed inadequate hydration, using a threshold of urine specific gravity (Usg) of 1⋅013 and urine colour (Ucol) of 4. Five percent had Usg> 1⋅020 and concomitant Ucol> 6, indicating dehydration. TFI lower cut-offs for euhydrated, non-breast-feeding women were 1⋅77 litres and for breast-feeding, 2⋅13 litres. Euhydration cut-off for Uvol was 0⋅95 litre, equalling 9⋅2 urine units. With the knowledge of adverse health effects of habitual hypohydration, Somaliland women should be encouraged to a higher fluid intake.
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.54
  • Predictors of adverse birth outcomes among pregnant adolescents in Ashanti
           Region, Ghana

    • Authors: Annan; Reginald Adjetey, Gyimah, Linda Afriyie, Apprey, Charles, Asamoah-Boakye, Odeafo, Aduku, Linda Nana Esi, Azanu, Wisdom, Luterodt, Herman E., Edusei, Anthony K.
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, the determinants of these outcomes are understudied. The present study sought to identify the predictors of adverse birth outcomes among pregnant adolescents in Ghana. In this prospective health centre-based study, 416 pregnant adolescents, aged 13–19 years old, were followed, and 270 birth outcomes were evaluated. We collected data on socio-demographic variables, eating behaviour, household hunger scale (HHS), lived poverty index (LPI) and compliance to antenatal interventions. The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm births (PTB) were 15⋅2 and 12⋅5 %, respectively. Pregnant adolescents with no formal education (AOR 9⋅0; P = 0⋅004; 95 % CI 2⋅1, 39⋅8), those who experienced illness (AOR 3⋅0; P = 0⋅011; 95 % CI 1⋅3, 7⋅0), those who experienced hunger (OR 2⋅9; P = 0⋅010; 95 % CI 1⋅3, 6⋅5) and those with high LPI (OR 2⋅5; P = 0⋅014; 95 % CI 1⋅2, 5⋅3) presented increased odds of delivering preterm babies compared with those who have had secondary education, did not experience any illness, were not hungry or having low LPI, respectively. Pregnant adolescents who used insecticide-treated net (ITN) (AOR 0⋅4; P = 0⋅013; 95 % CI 0⋅2, 0⋅9) presented reduced odds LBW children; while those who experienced illness (AOR 2⋅7; P = 0⋅020; 95 % CI 1⋅2, 6⋅0), poorer pregnant adolescents (OR 2⋅5; P = 0⋅014; 95 % CI 1⋅1, 4⋅8) and those who experienced hunger (AOR 3⋅0; P = 0⋅028; 95 % CI 1⋅1, 8⋅1) presented increased odds of LBW children compared with those who used ITN, were not ill, were not poor or did not experience hunger. Adverse birth outcomes were associated with ANC compliance and socioeconomic factors of the pregnant adolescents. Hence, strengthening antenatal uptake and compliance by pregnant adolescents, promoting their livelihood and socioeconomic status, and interventions to prevent teenage pregnancies are strongly recommended.
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.58
  • Methodologies to measure the coverage of vitamin A supplementation: a
           systematic review

    • Authors: Miglietta; Alessandro, Imohe, Annette, Hasman, Andreas
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Countries are increasingly transitioning from event-based vitamin A supplementation (VAS) distribution to delivery through routine health system contacts, shifting also to administrative, electronic-based monitoring tools, a process that brings certain limitations affecting the quality of administrative VAS coverage. At present, there is no standardised methodology for measuring the coverage of VAS delivered through routine health services. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify and recommend methods to measure VAS coverage, with the aim of providing guidance to countries on the collection of consistent data for planning, monitoring and evaluating VAS programmes integrated into routine health systems. We searched the PubMed®, Embase®, Scopus, Google Scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) Global Index Medicus databases for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2021, reporting original data on VAS coverage and methodologies used for measurement. We screened 2371 original titles and abstracts, assessed twenty-seven full-text articles and ultimately included eighteen studies. All but two studies used a coverage cluster survey (CCS) design to measure VAS coverage, adapting the WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys methodology, by modifying sample size and sampling parameters. Annual two-dose VAS coverage was reported from only four studies. Until electronic-based systems to collect and analyse VAS data are equipped to measure routine two-dose VAS coverage using administrative data, CCSs that comply with the 2018 WHO Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys Reference Manual represent the gold-standard method for effective VAS programme monitoring.
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.65
  • Certain dietary patterns are associated with GLIM criteria among Chinese
           community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional analysis

    • Authors: Yeung; Suey S. Y., Chan, Ruth S. M., Lee, Jenny S. W., Woo, Jean
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Disease-related malnutrition is prevalent among older adults; therefore, identifying the modifiable risk factors in the diet is essential for the prevention and management of disease-related malnutrition. The present study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and malnutrition in Chinese community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years in Hong Kong. Dietary patterns, including Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Mediterranean Diet Score, ‘vegetable–fruit’ pattern, ‘snack–drink–milk product’ pattern and ‘meat–fish’ pattern, were estimated and generated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Malnutrition was classified according to the modified Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria based on two phenotypic components (low body mass index and reduced muscle mass) and one aetiologic component (inflammation/disease burden). The association between the tertile or level of adherence of each dietary pattern and modified GLIM criteria was analysed using adjusted binary logistic regression models. Data of 3694 participants were available (49 % men). Malnutrition was present in 397 participants (10⋅7 %). In men, a higher DQI-I score, a higher ‘vegetable–fruit’ pattern score and a lower ‘meat–fish’ pattern score were associated with a lower risk of malnutrition. In women, higher adherence to the DASH diet was associated with a lower risk of malnutrition. After the Bonferroni correction, the association remained statistically significant only in men for the DQI-I score. To conclude, a higher DQI-I score was associated with a lower risk of malnutrition in Chinese older men. Nutritional strategies for the prevention and management of malnutrition could potentially be targeted on dietary quality.
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.64
  • Effect of dehydration during pregnancy on birth weight and length in West

    • Authors: Mulyani; Erry Y., Hardinsyah, , Briawan, Dodik, Santoso, Budi I., Jus'at, Idrus
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Nutrition and maternal behavior are critical factors in fetal development. Maternal water intake is necessary to regulate metabolism and may influence fetal growth. This study aims to determine the effect of dehydration during pregnancy on birth weight and length. This cohort-prospective study took place in the area of Kebon Jeruk District Health Centre. A total of 38 subjects of pregnant women in their second trimester were examined. Subject characteristics were collected through direct measurements and interviews. Urine and blood samples were collected at the sixth trimester (32–34 and 35–37 weeks) to determine hydration status. Nutritional status was collected through food recall, while birth weight and length were obtained from the anthropometric measurements 30 min after birth. From a total of 38 subjects, 20 were dehydrated, and 18 were well hydrated. There was a significant relationship between hydration status and water intake, birth weight and length, head circumference, and chest circumference. After being corrected to the level of water intake, the difference in birth weight and length between the two groups were 500⋅6 g and 0⋅4 cm, and 0⋅8 cm and 1⋅4 cm for the head circumference and chest circumference (P < 0⋅05). It is recommended for mothers to monitor their weight and ensure fluid intake of 3⋅0 l per day. Further research requires more subjects to observe the effects of chronic maternal dehydration on pregnancy output and a cohort study that monitors infant development in the first six months of life.
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.59
  • Associations between maternal thyroid function in pregnancy and child
           neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months in the Seychelles Child
           Development Study, Nutrition Cohort 2 (SCDS NC2)

    • Authors: Monaghan; Anna M., Mulhern, Maria S., Mc Sorley, Emeir M., Strain, J.J., Winter, Theresa, van Wijngaarden, Edwin, Myers, Gary J., Davidson, Philip W., Shamlaye, Conrad, Gedeon, Jude, Yeates, Alison J.
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Maternal thyroid hormones facilitate optimal foetal neurodevelopment; however, the exact role of the thyroid hormones on specific cognitive outcomes is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate associations between maternal thyroid function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) Nutrition 2 cohort (n 1328). Maternal free thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and fTSH) were assessed at 28 weeks’ gestation with a range of child cognitive outcomes analysed at 20 months. Dietary iodine intake was analysed for a subset of women through a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Linear regression analysis was used to test associations between serum concentrations of maternal thyroid hormones and child neurodevelopment outcomes. Thyroid hormones were analysed as continuous data and categorised as quintiles. 95% of mothers had optimal thyroid function based on fTSH concentrations. Overall, the present study shows that maternal thyroid function is not associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this high fish-eating population. However, a positive association, using quintiles for fT3, was reported for the Mental Developmental Index, between Q3 v. Q4 (β 0⋅073; P 0⋅043) and for Q3 v. Q5 (β value 0⋅086; P 0⋅018). To conclude, mothers in our cohort, who largely have optimal thyroid function and iodine intakes, appear able to regulate thyroid function throughout pregnancy to meet neurodevelopmental needs. However, it is possible that minor imbalances of fT3, as indicated from our secondary analysis, may impact offspring neurodevelopment. Further investigation of the relationship between maternal thyroid function and infant neurodevelopment is warranted, particularly in populations with different dietary patterns and thereby iodine intakes.
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.66
  • Effect of inulin-type fructans on appetite in patients with type 2
           diabetes: a randomised controlled crossover trial

    • Authors: Birkeland; Eline, Gharagozlian, Sedegheh, Birkeland, Kåre I., Holm, Oda K. S., Thorsby, Per M., Aas, Anne-Marie
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of prebiotic fibres on appetite-regulating hormones, subjective feeling of appetite and energy intake in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Data presented are secondary outcomes of a study investigating the effect of prebiotics on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glycaemic regulation. We conducted a randomised and placebo-controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of 16 g/d of inulin-type fructans or a control supplement (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks in randomised order, with a 4-week washout period in-between, on appetite in thirty-five men and women with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected at visits before and after each treatment: plasma concentration of the satiety-related peptides ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) were assessed during a standardised mixed meal. The subjective sensation of appetite was evaluated in response to an ad libitum lunch by rating the visual analogue scale. Twenty-nine individuals (twelve women) were included in the analyses. Compared to control treatment, the prebiotics did not affect ghrelin (P =0⋅71) or the ratings of hunger (P = 0⋅62), satiety (P = 0⋅56), fullness (P = 0⋅73) or prospective food consumption (P = 0⋅98). Energy intake also did not differ between the treatments. However, the response of PYY increased significantly after the control treatment with mean (sem) 11⋅1 (4⋅3) pg/ml when compared to the prebiotics −0⋅3 (4⋅3) pg/ml (P = 0⋅013). We observed no effect of inulin-type fructans on appetite hormones, subjective feeling of appetite or energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.70
  • The influence of tart cherries (Prunus Cerasus) on vascular function and
           the urinary metabolome: a randomised placebo-controlled pilot study

    • Authors: Kimble; Rachel, Murray, Lucy, Keane, Karen M., Haggerty, Karen, Howatson, Glyn, Lodge, John K.
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Montmorency tart cherries (MC) have been found to modulate indices of vascular function with interventions of varying duration. The objective of this preliminary study was to identify the chronic effects of MC supplementation on vascular function and the potential for urinary metabolomics to provide mechanistic evidence. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study on 23 healthy individuals (18M, 7F) that consumed 30 ml MC or a placebo twice daily for 28 days. Whole body measures of vascular function and spot urine collections were taken at baseline and after supplementation. There were no significant changes to vascular function including blood pressure and arterial stiffness. Urinary metabolite profiling highlighted significant changes (P < 0⋅001) with putative discriminatory metabolites related to tryptophan and histidine metabolism. Overall, MC supplementation for 28 days does not improve indices of vascular function but changes to the urinary metabolome could be suggestive of potential mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.68
  • Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and associated factors in individuals
           with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Borges; Luiza Delazari, Comini, Luma de Oliveira, Oliveira, Laura Camargo de, Dias, Heloísa Helena, Ferreira, Emily de Souza, Batistelli, Clara Regina Santos, da Costa, Glauce Dias, Moreira, Tiago Ricardo, da Silva, Rodrigo Gomes, Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of death in Brazil and worldwide. The literature indicates the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) as an accessible alternative for the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with HTWP in individuals diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM2. The study data were collected through semi-structured interviews containing socio-demographic information, lifestyle, health care, in addition to anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical blood tests. The prevalence of HTWP was estimated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with HTWP. Of the 788 individuals analysed, 21⋅5 % had the HTWP. In the adjusted model, the following variables remained associated with a greater chance of presenting HTWP: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Being female increased the chance of HTWP by 7⋅7 times (OR 7⋅7; 95 % CI 3⋅9, 15⋅2). The one-year increase in age increased the chance of HTWP by 4 % (OR 1⋅04; 95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅06). The addition of 1 mg/dl of VLDL-c increased the chance of HTWP by 15 % (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅12, 1⋅18), as well as the increase of 1 kg/m2 in the BMI increased the chance of this condition by 20 % (OR 1⋅20; 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27). The prevalence of HTWP was associated with females, older age, higher BMI, higher VLDL-c and risk waist/height ratio.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.71
  • Fasting, non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides for screening
           cardiometabolic risk

    • Authors: Keirns; Bryant H., Sciarrillo, Christina M., Koemel, Nicholas A., Emerson, Sam R.
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Fasting triacylglycerols have long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other cardiometabolic conditions. Evidence suggests that non-fasting triglycerides (i.e. measured within 8 h of eating) better predict CVD than fasting triglycerides, which has led several organisations to recommend non-fasting lipid panels as the new clinical standard. However, unstandardised assessment protocols associated with non-fasting triglyceride measurement may lead to misclassification, with at-risk individuals being overlooked. A third type of triglyceride assessment, postprandial testing, is more controlled, yet historically has been difficult to implement due to the time and effort required to execute it. Here, we review differences in assessment, the underlying physiology and the pathophysiological relevance of elevated fasting, non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides. We also present data suggesting that there may be a distinct advantage of postprandial triglycerides, even over non-fasting triglycerides, for early detection of CVD risk and offer suggestions to make postprandial protocols more clinically feasible.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.73
  • Restricting carbohydrates and calories in the treatment of type 2
           diabetes: a systematic review of the effectiveness of
           ‘low-carbohydrate’ interventions with differing energy levels

    • Authors: Nicholas; Anna P., Soto-Mota, Adrian, Lambert, Helen, Collins, Adam L.
      First page: 76
      Abstract: There are two proven dietary approaches to shift type 2 diabetes (T2D) into remission: low-energy diets (LEDs) and low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs). These approaches differ in their rationale and application yet both involve carbohydrate restriction, either as an explicit goal or as a consequence of reducing overall energy intake. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, characterise and compare existing clinical trials that utilised ‘low-carbohydrate’ interventions with differing energy intakes. Electronic databases CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE and Scopus were searched to identify controlled clinical trials in adults with T2D involving low-carbohydrate intake (defined as
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.67
  • Categorising ultra-processed foods in large-scale cohort studies: evidence
           from the Nurses’ Health Studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up
           Study, and the Growing Up Today Study

    • Authors: Khandpur; Neha, Rossato, Sinara, Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe, Du, Mengxi, Steele, Euridice M., Sampson, Laura, Monteiro, Carlos, Zhang, Fang F., Willett, Walter, Fung, Teresa T., Sun, Qi
      First page: 77
      Abstract: This manuscript details the strategy employed for categorising food items based on their processing levels into the four NOVA groups. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) from the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) I and II, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Growing Up Today Studies (GUTS) I and II cohorts were used. The four-stage approach included: (i) the creation of a complete food list from the FFQs; (ii) assignment of food items to a NOVA group by three researchers; (iii) checking for consensus in categorisation and shortlisting discordant food items; (iv) discussions with experts and use of additional resources (research dieticians, cohort-specific documents, online grocery store scans) to guide the final categorisation of the short-listed items. At stage 1, 205 and 315 food items were compiled from the NHS and HPFS, and the GUTS FFQs, respectively. Over 70 % of food items from all cohorts were assigned to a NOVA group after stage 2. The remainder were shortlisted for further discussion (stage 3). After two rounds of reviews at stage 4, 95⋅6 % of food items (NHS + HPFS) and 90⋅7 % items (GUTS) were categorised. The remaining products were assigned to a non-ultra-processed food group (primary categorisation) and flagged for sensitivity analyses at which point they would be categorised as ultra-processed. Of all items in the food lists, 36⋅1 % in the NHS and HPFS cohorts and 43⋅5 % in the GUTS cohorts were identified as ultra-processed. Future work is needed to validate this approach. Documentation and discussions of alternative approaches for categorisation are encouraged.
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.72
  • Camel milk consumption is associated with less childhood stunting and
           underweight than bovine milk in rural pastoral districts of Somali,
           Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Muleta; Anbissa, Hailu, Dejene, Stoecker, Barbara J., Belachew, Tefera
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Undernutrition is a major global health problem. Various types of animal milk are used for feeding children at early ages; however, associations of camel milk (CaM) and bovine milk (BM) with the nutritional status of children have not been explored. A comparative community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pre-schoolers in rural pastoral districts of Somali, Ethiopia. Children were selected from households with lactating camels or cows. Anthropometric measurements followed standard procedures for height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height scores. Independent sample t-tests identified significant differences in anthropometric indices based on the type of milk consumed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between milk consumption and other predictors of growth failures. The prevalence of stunting was 24⋅1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 20⋅5, 28⋅3] of pre-schoolers, 34⋅8 % (95 % CI 29⋅9, 39⋅6) were wasted and 34⋅7 % (95 % CI 30⋅1, 39⋅9) were underweight. Higher proportions of BM-fed children were severely stunted, wasted and underweight compared with CaM consumers. Using logistic regression models, children who consumed BM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2⋅10; 95 % CI 1⋅22, 3⋅61] and who were anaemic (AOR: 4⋅22; 95 % CI 2⋅23, 7⋅98) were more likely to be stunted than their counterparts, while girls were less likely to be stunted than boys (AOR: 0⋅57; 95 % CI 0⋅34, 0⋅94). Similarly, children who consumed BM (AOR: 1⋅97; 95 % CI 1⋅20, 3⋅24), who were anaemic (AOR: 2⋅27; 95 % CI 1⋅38, 3⋅72) and who drank unsafe water (AOR: 1⋅91; 95 % CI 1⋅19, 3⋅07) were more likely to be underweight than their counterparts. In conclusion, CaM consumption was associated with lower prevalence of stunting and underweight than BM. Promoting CaM in pastoralist areas may help to curb the high level of undernutrition.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.75
  • Egg intake moderates the rate of memory decline in healthy older adults

    • Authors: Lee; Grace J., Oda, Keiji, Morton, Kelly R., Orlich, Michael, Sabate, Joan
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Eggs contain important compounds related to enhanced cognition, but it is not clear if egg consumption, as a whole, has a direct impact on memory decline in older adults. This study aimed to determine whether egg intake levels predict the rate of memory decline in healthy older adults after sociodemographic and dietary controls. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 470 participants, age 50 and over, from the Biospsychosocial Religion and Health Study. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to calculate egg intake and divide participants into Low (
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.76
  • Intergenerational differences in dietary acculturation among Ghanaian
           immigrants living in New York City: a qualitative study

    • Authors: Horlyck-Romanovsky; Margrethe F., Huang, Terry T.-K., Ahmed, Ramatu, Echeverria, Sandra E., Wyka, Katarzyna, Leung, May May, Sumner, Anne E., Fuster, Melissa
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Dietary acculturation may explain the increasing risk of diet-related diseases among African immigrants in the United States (US). We interviewed twenty-five Ghanaian immigrants (Youth n 13, Age (Mean ± sd) 20 y ± 5⋅4, Parents (n 6) and Grandparents (n 6) age 58⋅7 ± 9⋅7) living in New York City (NYC) to (a) understand how cultural practices and the acculturation experience influence dietary patterns of Ghanaian immigrants and (b) identify intergenerational differences in dietary acculturation among Ghanaian youth, parents and grandparents. Dietary acculturation began in Ghana, continued in NYC and was perceived as a positive process. At the interpersonal level, parents encouraged youth to embrace school lunch and foods outside the home. In contrast, parents preferred home-cooked Ghanaian meals, yet busy schedules limited time for cooking and shared meals. At the community level, greater purchasing power in NYC led to increased calories, and youth welcomed individual choice as schools and fast food exposed them to new foods. Global forces facilitated nutrition transition in Ghana as fast and packaged foods became omnipresent in urban settings. Adults sought to maintain cultural foodways while facilitating dietary acculturation for youth. Both traditional and global diets evolved as youth and adults adopted new food and healthy social norms in the US.
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.69
  • Characterisation of body size phenotypes in a middle-aged Maltese

    • Authors: Agius; Rachel, Pace, Nikolai Paul, Fava, Stephen
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Obesity is increasingly recognised as being a heterogeneous disease. Some obese individuals may present a metabolically healthy profile (metabolically healthy obese (MHO)), while some normal weight individuals exhibit an adverse cardiometabolic phenotype (metabolically unhealthy normal weight individuals (MUHNW)). The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and associated characteristics of the different body composition phenotypes within a Maltese cohort. This was a cross-sectional analysis involving 521 individuals aged 41 ± 5 years. The metabolically unhealthy state was defined as the presence of ≥2 metabolic syndrome components (NCEP-ATPIII parameters), while individuals with ≤1 cardiometabolic abnormalities were classified as metabolically healthy. Overall, 70 % of the studied population was overweight or obese and 30⋅7 % had ≥2 cardiometabolic abnormalities. The prevalence of MHO and MUHNW was 10⋅7 and 2⋅1 %, respectively. Individuals with the healthy phenotype were more likely to consume alcohol, participate in regular physical activity and less likely to be smokers. While the MHO phenotype had similar values for waist, hip and neck circumferences, waist–hip ratio and insulin resistance when compared with MUHNW individuals, there was a lower proportion of MHO subjects having a high fasting plasma glucose, hypertriglyceridaemia or low HDL-C when compared with the unhealthy lean individuals. A high prevalence of the metabolically unhealthy phenotype was observed in this relatively young population which may result in significant future cardiovascular disease burden if timely assessment and management of modifiable risk factors are not implemented. Furthermore, the present study suggests that the MHO phenotype is not totally benign as previously thought.
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.74
  • In vitro effects of nutraceutical treatment on human osteoarthritic
           chondrocytes of females of different age and weight groups

    • Authors: Amr; Mahmoud, Mallah, Alia, Abusharkh, Haneen, Van Wie, Bernard, Gozen, Arda, Mendenhall, Juana, Idone, Vincent, Tingstad, Edwin, Abu-Lail, Nehal I.
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The in vitro effects of four nutraceuticals, catechin hydrate, gallic acid, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, on the ability of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of two female obese groups to form articular cartilage (AC) tissues and to reduce inflammation were investigated. Group 1 represented thirteen females in the 50–69 years old range, an average weight of 100 kg and an average body mass index (BMI) of 34⋅06 kg/m2. Group 2 was constituted of three females in the 70–80 years old range, an average weight of 75 kg and an average BMI of 31⋅43 kg/m2. The efficacy of nutraceuticals was assessed in monolayer cultures using histological, colorimetric and mRNA gene expression analyses. AC engineered tissues of group 1 produced less total collagen and COL2A1 (38-fold), and higher COL10A1 (2⋅7-fold), MMP13 (50-fold) and NOS2 (15-fold) mRNA levels than those of group 2. In comparison, engineered tissues of group 1 had a significant decrease in NO levels from day 1 to day 21 (2⋅6-fold), as well as higher mRNA levels of FOXO1 (2-fold) and TNFAIP6 (16-fold) compared to group 2. Catechin hydrate decreased NO levels significantly in group 1 (1⋅5-fold) while increasing NO levels significantly in group 2 (3⋅8-fold). No differences from the negative control were observed in the presence of other nutraceuticals for either group. In conclusion, engineered tissues of the younger but heavier patients responded better to nutraceuticals than those from the older but leaner study participants. Finally, cells of group 2 formed better AC tissues with less inflammation and better extracellular matrix than cells of group 1.
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.79
  • Diet-dependent entropic assessment of athletes’ lifespan

    • Authors: Yildiz; Cennet, Öngel, Melek Ece, Yilmaz, Bayram, Özilgen, Mustafa
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Life expectancies of the athletes depend on the sports they are doing. The entropic age concept, which was found successful in the previous nutrition studies, will be employed to assess the relation between the athletes’ longevity and nutrition. Depending on their caloric needs, diets are designed for each group of athletes based on the most recent guidelines while they are pursuing their careers and for the post-retirement period, and then the metabolic entropy generation was worked out for each group. Their expected lifespans, based on attaining the lifespan entropy limit, were calculated. Thermodynamic assessment appeared to be in agreement with the observations. There may be a significant improvement in the athletes’ longevity if they shift to a retirement diet after the age of 50. The expected average longevity for male athletes was 56 years for cyclists, 66 years for weightlifters, 75 years for rugby players and 92 years for golfers. If they should start consuming the retirement diet after 50 years of age, the longevity of the cyclists may increase for 7 years, and those of weightlifters, rugby players and golfers may increase for 22, 30 and 8 years, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.78
  • Awareness of dehydration state and fluid intake practice among adults
           population in the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia, 2019

    • Authors: Albasheer; Osama B., Hakami, Abdullah, Al Faqih, Abdullah A., Akkam, Ibrahim, Soraihy, Safwan K., Mathary, Ahmad, Alharbi, Ali A., Yaqoub, Mohammed, Alotayfi, Majed A.
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Despite the hot climate and high humidity in the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia, which increases risk for dehydration, no previous studies have assessed awareness of dehydration and fluid intake practice among adults in this region. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine awareness of the dehydration state and fluid intake practices among 440 adults in the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia. Out of the total, 51⋅8 % were male and 48⋅2 % were females. Good knowledge of dehydration definition and prevention and recommended minimum water intake was observed in 98, 95 and 75 % of the participants, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the participants met the minimum daily requirement of 3 l or more per day. The age (95 % CI 1⋅003, 1⋅017, P value = 0⋅006), diabetes (95 % CI 1⋅028, 1⋅459, P value = 0⋅023) and prior hospitalisation due to dehydration (95 % CI 1⋅010, 1⋅378, P value = 0⋅037) were associated with higher water intake. Additional glasses of coffee (95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅115, P value = 0⋅004) and juice (95 % CI 1⋅039, 1⋅098, P value < 0⋅001) were associated with more water intake. The participants exhibited good knowledge of dehydration definition, symptoms and consequences. Intake of fluids such as ‘juice and coffee’ enhances more water intake. Although two-thirds of the participants met the recommended daily water intake, still one-third of them did not meet this level. Innovative approaches to enhance healthy drinking are warranted and may include partnering with patients to take an active role in hydration monitoring and increasing communication with the different healthcare providers.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.81
  • Associations between frequency of yogurt consumption and nutrient intake
           and diet quality in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Zhu; Yong, Jain, Neha, Holschuh, Norton, Smith, Jessica
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Little is known on the association between frequency of yogurt consumption and dietary intake in the United Kingdom (UK). The aim of the present study was to examine associations between frequency of yogurt consumption and dietary outcomes in children (n 1912, age 9⋅6 ± 0⋅1 years, 51 % boys) and adults (n 2064, age 48⋅7 ± 0⋅5 years, 49 % men) using cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme year 7 to year 9 (2014/15–2016/17). The frequency of yogurt consumption was determined by the number of days with yogurt reported in 4-d food diaries and participants were classified as non-eaters, occasional eaters (1–2 d of consumption) or regular eaters (3–4 d of consumption). Dietary outcomes were estimated from food diaries. The frequency of yogurt consumption was positively associated with intake of key vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iodine in both children and adults (all P < 0⋅0018), as well as higher intake of total dairy (P < 0⋅0001 for both children and adults). Regular yogurt eaters were more likely to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine (all P < 0⋅001). Diet quality was positively associated with frequency of yogurt consumption in children (P = 0⋅045) and adults (P < 0⋅001). No association between yogurt consumption and free sugar intake was found (P = 0⋅49 for children and P = 0⋅29 for adults). The study suggests that frequency of yogurt consumption is associated with better dietary intake and diet quality in children and adults in the UK.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.63
  • Association of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines with
           cognitive performance and cognitive decline in the Sydney Memory and
           Ageing Study: a longitudinal analysis

    • Authors: Chen; Xi, Liu, Zhixin, Sachdev, Perminder S., Kochan, Nicole A., Brodaty, Henry, O'Leary, Fiona
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This study investigated associations of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) with cognitive performance and cognitive decline over 6 years. We used longitudinal data from the Sydney Memory and Aging Study comprising 1037 community-dwelling non-demented participants aged 70–90 years. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2. Adherence to the ADG was scored using the Dietary Guideline Index 2013 (DGI-2013). Cognition was assessed using neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains and global cognition at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 years later. Linear mixed models analysed the association between adherence to the ADG and cognitive function and cognitive decline over 6 years. Results indicated that overall adherence to the ADG was suboptimal (DGI-2013 mean score 43⋅8 with a standard deviation of 10⋅1; median score 44, range 12–73 with an interquartile range of 7). The percent of participants attaining recommended serves for the five food groups were 30⋅2 % for fruits, 11⋅2 % for vegetables, 54⋅6 % for cereals, 28⋅9 % for meat and alternatives and 2⋅1 % for dairy consumption. Adherence to the ADG was not associated with overall global cognition over 6 years (β = 0⋅000; 95 % CI: −0⋅007, 0⋅007; P = 0⋅95). Neither were DGI-2013 scores associated with change in global cognitive performance over 6 years (β = 0⋅002; 95 % CI: −0⋅002, 0⋅005; P = 0⋅41) nor in any individual cognitive domains. In conclusion, adherence to the ADG was not associated with cognitive health over time in this longitudinal analysis of older Australians. Future research is needed to provide evidence to support specific dietary guidelines for neurocognitive health among Australian older adults.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.44
  • Plant-based snacking: research and practical applications of pistachios
           for health benefits

    • Authors: Higgs; Jennette, Styles, Kathryn, Carughi, Arianna, Roussell, Michael A., Bellisle, France, Elsner, Wiebke, Li, Zhaoping
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Pistachio nuts are a nutrient-dense source of good quality plant protein, commonly consumed as a minimally processed snack food or ingredient. The present paper is based on a symposium held during the 13th FENS (Federation of European Nutrition Societies) 2019 conference in Dublin that explored recent research and practical applications of pistachios as a plant-based snack, in particular, for appetite control and healthy weight management; and for glycaemic control during pregnancy. Individual nut types, whilst similar in nutritional composition, have unique characteristics which may have a significant impact on potential health effects. Recognising this, the further purpose here is to explore future research needs for pistachios, based on work completed to date and the discussion that ensued among researchers at this event, in order to advance the full scope of health benefits from pistachios, in particular, taking into account of both sustainability and nutritional health.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.77
  • Interrelationship between micronutrients and cardiovascular structure and
           function in type 2 diabetes

    • Authors: Walters; Grace W. M., Redman, Emma, Gulsin, Gaurav S., Henson, Joseph, Argyridou, Stavroula, Yates, Thomas, Davies, Melanie J., Parke, Kelly, McCann, Gerry P., Brady, Emer M.
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Micronutrients are important for normal cardiovascular function. They may play a role in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease observed in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D-related heart failure. The aims of this study were to (1) examine micronutrient status in people with T2D v. healthy controls; (2) assess any changes following a nutritionally complete meal replacement plan (MRP) compared with routine care; (3) determine if any changes were associated with changes in cardiovascular structure/function. This was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point trial of people with T2D, with a nested case–control [NCT02590822]. Anthropometrics, cardiac resonance imaging and fasting blood samples (to quantify vitamins B1, B6, B12, D and C; and iron and ferritin) were collected at baseline and 12 weeks following the MRP or routine care. Comparative data in healthy controls were collected at baseline. A total of eighty-three people with T2D and thirty-six healthy controls were compared at baseline; all had micronutrient status within reference ranges. Vitamin B1 was higher (148⋅9 v. 131⋅7; P 0⋅01) and B6 lower (37⋅3 v. 52⋅9; P 0⋅01) in T2D v. controls. All thirty participants randomised to routine care and twenty-four to the MRP completed the study. There was an increase in vitamins B1, B6, D and C following the MRP, which were not associated with changes in cardiovascular structure/function. In conclusion, changes in micronutrient status following the MRP were not independently associated with improvements in cardiovascular structure/function in people with T2D.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.82
  • Associated factors to the consumption of ultra-processed foods and its
           relation with dietary sources in Portugal

    • Authors: Magalhães; Vânia, Severo, Milton, Correia, Daniela, Torres, Duarte, Costa de Miranda, Renata, Rauber, Fernanda, Levy, Renata, Rodrigues, Sara, Lopes, Carla
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are common worldwide and associated with poorer health outcomes. This work aimed to explore the UPF consumption associated factors and its main dietary sources, by sex, in Portugal. Participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF) 2015–2016, aged 3–84 years, were included (n 5005). Dietary intake was assessed through two 1-day food diaries/24 h recalls. UPFs were identified using the NOVA classification. Associations were evaluated through linear regression models. Median UPF consumption was 257 g/d (10⋅6 % of total quantity; 23⋅8 % of total energy). Adolescents were those with higher consumption (490 g/d). Compared to adults, younger ages were positively associated with UPF consumption (e.g. adolescents (-females: 192, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 135, 249; -males: 327, 95 % CI: 277, 377)). A lower educational level was associated with lower UPF consumption (-females: −63; 95 % CI: −91, −34; -males: −68; 95 % CI: −124, −12). Also, a lower UPF consumption was observed in married males/couples compared to singles (: −48, 95 % CI: −96, −1). Furthermore, female current/former smokers were associated with a higher UPF consumption v. never smokers (: 79, 95 % CI: 41, 118; : 42, 95 % CI: 8, 75, respectively). Main UPF sources were yoghurts, soft drinks and cold meats/sausages differing strongly by sex, age and education level. Yoghurts containing additives were the main contributors to the UPF consumption in children and adult females from all education (~20 %). Soft drinks were leaders in adolescents (females: 26⋅0 %; males: 31⋅6 %) and young male adults (24⋅4 %). Cold meats/sausages stood out among low-educated males (20⋅5 %). Males, younger age groups, higher education, children with less-educated parents, married/couple males and smoking females were positively associated with UPF consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.61
  • Inadequacy of nutrient intake among adolescent girls in south central

    • Authors: Yilma; Beza, Endris, Bilal S., Mengistu, Yalemwork G., Sisay, Binyam G., Gebreyesus, Seifu H.
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Adolescent undernutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Inadequate dietary intake of nutrients is the major determinants of undernutrition. However, the adequacy of dietary intake among adolescents was not sufficiently explored. The present study aims to estimate the inadequacy of nutrient intake among adolescent girls in south central Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. We assess food and nutrient intake using repeated multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall. The study was conducted in Damot Gale district, Woliyta zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 288 female adolescents. The majority of adolescent girls consumed cereals (96⋅9 %) and roots/tubers (75⋅3 %). However, only less than 1 % of them consumed flesh food. The mean energy, carbohydrate, protein and dietary fibre intake of the adolescent girls per day was 1452⋅7 ± 356⋅3 kcal, 305⋅6 ± 72⋅4 g, 35⋅7 ± 13⋅3 g and 18⋅6 ± 8⋅4 g, respectively. The median fat intake was 13⋅3 g (IQR 8⋅8, 19⋅8). The contribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat for the total energy was 80, 10 and 8 %, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate intake of protein was 60⋅9 %. The prevalence of inadequate intake of iron for early adolescents and late adolescents was 82 and 53 %, respectively. The prevalence of inadequate intake of folate was 83⋅9 % and zinc was 58 %. The prevalence of inadequate intake was greater than 90 % for vitamin B12, vitamin C and calcium. The present study found an alarmingly high prevalence of inadequate intake of some nutrients among adolescent girls of Damot Gale district.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.62
  • Maternal malnutrition and anaemia in India: dysregulations leading to the
           ‘thin-fat’ phenotype in newborns

    • Authors: Pandit; Prachi, Galande, Sanjeev, Iris, François
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Maternal and child malnutrition and anaemia remain the leading factors for health loss in India. Low birth weight (LBW) offspring of women suffering from chronic malnutrition and anaemia often exhibit insulin resistance and infantile stunting and wasting, together with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. The resulting self-perpetuating and highly multifactorial disease burden cannot be remedied through uniform dietary recommendations alone. To inform approaches likely to alleviate this disease burden, we implemented a systems-analytical approach that had already proven its efficacy in multiple published studies. We utilised previously published qualitative and quantitative analytical results of rural and urban field studies addressing maternal and infantile metabolic and nutritional parameters to precisely define the range of pathological phenotypes encountered and their individual biological characteristics. These characteristics were then integrated, via extensive literature searches, into metabolic and physiological mechanisms to identify the maternal and foetal metabolic dysregulations most likely to underpin the ‘thin-fat’ phenotype in LBW infants and its associated pathological consequences. Our analyses reveal hitherto poorly understood maternal nutrition-dependent mechanisms most likely to promote and sustain the self-perpetuating high disease burden, especially in the Indian population. This work suggests that it most probably is the metabolic consequence of ‘ill-nutrition’ – the recent and rapid dietary shifts to high salt, high saturated fats and high sugar but low micronutrient diets – over an adaptation to ‘thrifty metabolism’ which must be addressed in interventions aiming to significantly alleviate the leading risk factors for health deterioration in India.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.83
  • A lifestyle pattern during adolescence is associated with cardiovascular
           risk markers in young adults: results from the DONALD cohort study

    • Authors: Schnermann; Maike Elena, Schulz, Christina-Alexandra, Herder, Christian, Alexy, Ute, Nöthlings, Ute
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Lifestyle score approaches combining individual lifestyle factors, e.g. favourable diet, physical activity or normal body weight, showed inverse associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, research mainly focussed on adult behaviour and is scarce for vulnerable time windows for adult health like adolescence. We investigated associations between an adolescent lifestyle score and CVD risk markers in young adulthood. Overall, we analysed 270 participants of the open DONALD cohort study with 1–6 complete measurements of five lifestyle factors (healthy diet, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep duration and BMI standard deviation score) during adolescence (females: 8⋅5–15⋅5 years and males: 9⋅5–16⋅5 years). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the prospective association between the adolescent lifestyle score (0–5 points) and CVD risk markers in young adulthood (18–30 years). On average, participants obtained a mean adolescent lifestyle score of 2⋅9 (0–5) points. Inverse associations between the adolescent lifestyle score and waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and percentage of body fat were observed (4⋅1, 4⋅1 and 9⋅2 % decrease per 1 point increase in adolescent lifestyle score, respectively, P < 0⋅05). For the remaining CVD risk markers (glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure and a proinflammatory score), no associations were observed. A healthy adolescent lifestyle is particularly associated with CVD risk-related favourable anthropometric markers in adulthood. A more comprehensive understanding of lifestyle patterns in the life course might enable earlier, targeted preventive measures to assist vulnerable groups in prevention of chronic diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.84
  • Variation in activity levels amongst dogs of different breeds: results of
           a large online survey of dog owners from the UK – CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: Pickup; Emily, German, Alexander J., Blackwell, Emily, Evans, Mark, Westgarth, Carri
      First page: 93
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.29
  • Effectiveness of price-reduced meals on purchases among university young

    • Authors: Roy; Rajshri, Harrington, Kate
      First page: 94
      Abstract: University food environments influence dietary behaviours of attending young adults (aged 18–35 years). The present study aimed to determine if price-reduced meals are associated with high purchase volumes at food outlets (n 5) in a large urban university. The university food outlet customers: university staff and students (n 244) were surveyed about their food choice determinants and their awareness of a price-reduced meal initiative called ‘Budgie Meals’. Itemised sales of ‘Budgie Meals’ and other meals across 3 years were collected. The ‘Budgie Meals’ were nutritionally analyzed. The χ2 and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to analyze quantitative survey responses. An open-ended item was thematically analyzed. Itemised sales of ‘Budgie Meals’ were measured across 3 years and were analyzed using the analysis of variance. The ‘Budgie Meals’ were nutritionally analyzed and categorised as ‘green,’ ‘amber’ or ‘red’ using the National Healthy Food and Drink Policy. Price was considered the most significant barrier to healthy food purchases. The awareness of the ‘Budgie Meal’ initiative was poor. The ‘Budgie Meal’ had higher sales volumes at each outlet than other items, but the sales showed a downward trend across the years. Nutritional analyses revealed that ‘Budgie Meals’ could be improved. The researchers suggested nutritional improvements to food retailers. Further research is required to assess the viability of implementing such nutritional improvements across food outlets. Specifically, collaboration with retailers and customers is needed to establish the economic feasibility, any potential revenue losses and testing taste acceptability of recipe alterations to these price-reduced meals.
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.87
  • Adverse childhood experiences and adult diet quality

    • Authors: Aquilina; Sydney R., Shrubsole, Martha J., Butt, Julia, Sanderson, Maureen, Schlundt, David G., Cook, Mekeila C., Epplein, Meira
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Childhood trauma is strongly associated with poor health outcomes. Although many studies have found associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), a well-established indicator of childhood trauma and diet-related health outcomes, few have explored the relationship between ACEs and diet quality, despite growing literature in epidemiology and neurobiology suggesting that childhood trauma has an important but poorly understood relationship with diet. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional study of the association of ACEs and adult diet quality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a largely low-income and racially diverse population in the southeastern United States. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the association of ACEs with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-10) score among 30 854 adults aged 40–79 enrolled from 2002 to 2009. Having experienced any ACE was associated with higher odds of worse HEI-10 among all (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅22; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅17, 1⋅27), and for all race–sex groups, and remained significant after adjustment for adult income. The increasing number of ACEs was also associated with increasing odds of a worse HEI-10 (OR for 4+ ACEs: 1⋅34; 95 % CI 1⋅27, 1⋅42). The association with worse HEI-10 score was especially strong for ACEs in the household dysfunction category, including having a family member in prison (OR 1⋅34; 95 % CI 1⋅25, 1⋅42) and parents divorced (OR 1⋅25; 95 % CI 1⋅20, 1⋅31). In summary, ACEs are associated with poor adult diet quality, independent of race, sex and adult income. Research is needed to explore whether trauma intervention strategies can impact adult diet quality.
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.85
  • Lycopene supplementation of maternal and weanling high-fat diets
           influences adipose tissue development and metabolic outcomes of
           Sprague-Dawley offspring

    • Authors: Senkus; Katelyn E., Zhang, Yanqi, Wang, Hui, Tan, Libo, Crowe-White, Kristi M.
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Dietary patterns high in fat contribute to the onset of cardiometabolic disease through the accrual of adipose tissue (AT). Lycopene, a carotenoid shown to exert multiple health benefits, may disrupt these metabolic perturbations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate AT development and obesity-associated metabolic outcomes in the neonate and weanling offspring of Sprague-Dawley mothers fed a high-fat diet (HFD = 50 % fat) with and without lycopene supplementation. Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a normal fat diet (NFD; 25 % fat) or HFD throughout gestation. Upon delivery, half of HFD mothers were transitioned to an HFD supplemented with 1 % lycopene (HFDL). At postnatal day 14 (P14), P25, and P35, pups were euthanised, body weight was recorded, and visceral white AT (WAT) and brown AT (BAT) mass were determined. Serum redox status, adipokines, glucose and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated, as well as BAT mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The HFD was effective in inducing weight gain as evident by significantly greater BW and WAT in the HFD group compared to the NFD group across all time points. Compared to HFD, the HFDL group exhibited significantly greater BAT with concomitant reductions in WAT mass, serum lipid peroxides and serum glucose. No significant differences were observed in serum adipokines, inflammatory markers or UCP1 expression despite the aforementioned alterations in AT development. Results suggest that dietary lycopene supplementation may influence metabolic outcomes during the weaning and post-weaning periods. Additional research is warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which lycopene influences AT biology.
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.91
  • Log-ratio transformations for dietary compositions: numerical and
           conceptual questions

    • Authors: Corrêa Leite; Maria Léa
      First page: 97
      Abstract: When evaluating the impact of macronutrient intakes on health outcomes, researchers in nutritional epidemiology are mostly interested in two types of information: the relative importance of the individual macronutrients and the absolute effect of total energy intake. However, the usual substitution models do not allow these separate effects to be disentangled. Dietary data are typical examples of compositional data, which convey relative information and are, therefore, meaningfully expressed in the form of ratios. Various formulations of log-ratios have been proposed as a means of analysing compositional data, and their interrelationships when they are used as predictors in regression models have been previously reported. This note describes the application of distinct log-ratio transformations to the composition of dietary macronutrients and discusses the interpretative implications of using them as explanatory variables in regression models together with a term for the total composition (total energy intake). It also provides examples that consider serum glucose levels as the health outcome and are based on data coming from an Italian population-based study. The log-ratio transformation of dietary data has both numerical and conceptual advantages, and overcomes the drawbacks of traditional substitution models.
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.93
  • Development and validation of food frequency questionnaire for food and
           nutrient intakes of adults in Butajira, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Regassa; Ilili F., Endris, Bilal S., Habtemariam, Esete, Hassen, Hamid Y., Ghebreyesus, Seifu H.
      First page: 98
      Abstract: We developed a culturally-specific Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to the Ethiopian context and evaluate its validity in comparison to two 24-h dietary recalls (24-HRs) of food and nutrient intake. To evaluate the validity of a culturally-specific FFQ against two 24-HRs, we used a paired t-test, Wilcoxon-signed-rank test, Correlation coefficients, cross-classification, κ and Bland-Altman analysis. The FFQ was obtained 15 d after the second 24-HR was completed. A total of 105 adults, of which 43 (41 %) were men and 62 (59 %) women, aged 20–65 years participated in this present study. Mean energy and macronutrient intake obtained from the FFQ were significantly higher than those obtained from the mean of two 24-HRs. For energy and nutrient intakes, the crude correlation ranged from 0⋅05 (total fat) to 0⋅49 (vitamin B1). The de-attenuated correlation ranged from to 0⋅10 (total fat) to 0⋅80 (vitamin A). For the majority of food groups, no significant difference was observed in the median intake of food and nutrients. Crude correlation for food groups ranged from 0⋅12 (egg) to 0⋅78 (legumes). The de-attenuated correlation ranged from 0⋅24 (egg) to 1⋅00 (meat/poultry/fish and dairy). The FFQ is valid to assess and rank individuals in terms of intake of most food groups according to high and low intake categories.
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.94
  • Nutrient intake and gender differences among Saudi children

    • Authors: Kutbi; Hebah A.
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Dietary surveillance is necessary to determine community needs for nutrition interventions. Yet, the nutrient intake of Saudi children has not been previously investigated. The objective of the present study is to evaluate dietary data of Saudi children and investigate gender differences in nutrient intake. In this cross-sectional study, dietary data of 424 Saudi children (6–12 years of age) were collected using telephone-administered single 24-h dietary recall. Three 24-h dietary recalls were collected from a subsample of 168 children (39⋅6 %) and compared with the Dietary Recommended Intakes (DRIs). Nutrient intakes and proportions of children meeting the DRI requirements were similar and did not vary by children's gender. Over two-thirds of the children had an adequate usual intake of vitamin B12, and over half had adequate intakes (AIs) of vitamin C and phosphorus. On the other hand, our data indicated that low proportions of children consumed adequate usual intakes of magnesium and vitamin E. Over half of the children in our sample met the AI for sodium and vitamin D. Only small proportions of children met the AI for calcium, potassium and fibre. Cholesterol and saturated fat intake exceeded the limits of 300 mg and 10 % of total energy intake by 13⋅7 % (n 23) and 80⋅4 % (n 135) of the sample, respectively. Suboptimal intake of several micronutrients was observed among children, suggesting an urgent need to identify barriers to high-quality diet and to develop evidence-based interventions to promote optimal dietary efficacy for children in Saudi Arabia.
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.95
  • Nearly one-in-five mothers avoid colostrum in North Wollo Zone, Ethiopia:
           an institution-based cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Liben; Misgan Legesse, Yimer, Nigus Bililign, Feleke, Fentaw Wassie
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Colostrum contains antibodies that protect the newborn against disease. Despite this fact, many Ethiopian mothers see colostrum feeding as a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. These mothers believe that colostrum must discard to alleviate this effect. However, the cause of this misconception about colostrum was not well researched, particularly in this study area. The main aim of the present study was to assess colostrum avoidance and associated factors among mothers having children aged 6–59 months in North Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was used. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of colostrum avoidance was 19 % (95 % CI 15⋅03, 22⋅89 %) among mother–child pair aged 6–59 months. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the most important predictors were breast-feeding initiation Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 6⋅369; 95 %, Confidence Interval (CI) (3⋅067, 13⋅224), pre-lacteal feeding AOR 3⋅464; 95 % CI (1⋅721, 6⋅973), shared household decision about child feeding AOR 3⋅585; 95 % CI (1⋅563, 7⋅226), Index child sex AOR 2⋅103; 95 % CI (1⋅015, 4⋅358) and health facility delivery AOR 3⋅033; 95 % CI (1⋅293, 7⋅117). The colostrum avoidance in the present study was 19 %. The study recommends the promotion of institutional delivery, timely initiation of breast-feeding, the shared household decisions about child feeding, avoiding sex preferences and stopping pre-lacteal feeding were critically important.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.1017/jns.2021.97
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