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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Obesity Facts
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1662-4025 - ISSN (Online) 1662-4033
Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Liver-Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 2 is a Hepatokine that Predicts
           Weight Loss and Complete Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After
           Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy in Japanese Individuals

    • Abstract: Introduction: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is considered one of the most effective treatments for sustained weight loss and complete remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (CR-T2DM). Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), a ghrelin receptor antagonist peptide, is a metabolic hormone regulated by VSG. However, it is unknown whether LEAP2 can be used to predict the outcomes of VSG. This study aimed to evaluate LEAP2 as a predictive factor for weight loss and CR-T2DM after VSG.Methods: This retrospective study included 39 Japanese participants with obesity who underwent VSG. Serum LEAP2, des-acyl ghrelin (DAG), and other metabolic and anthropometric parameters were studied before and at 12 months after VSG. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was generated to evaluate predictive score for weight loss with cut-off value of> 50 percent excess weight loss (%EWL). ROC curve was also generated to assess CR-T2DM.Results: Serum LEAP2 levels were significantly higher in participants with body mass index (BMI) 32–50 kg/m2 than in those with normal weight. Participants with BMI> 50 kg/m2 had lower serum LEAP2 concentrations than those with BMI 32–50 kg/m2. VSG caused a significant reduction in serum DAG concentrations, but it did not affect serum LEAP2 concentrations in either male or female participants. Preoperative serum LEAP2 concentration of 2.88 pmol/mL was the optimal cutoff value for predicting weight loss after VSG, with sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 75.9%. Preoperative serum LEAP2 level higher than 4.67 pmol/mL predicted CR-T2DM after VSG with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 58.8%,Discussion/Conclusion: Preoperative serum LEAP2 could predict weight loss and CR-T2DM as outcomes of VSG.

      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2023 09:44:24 +020
       
  • The skeletal muscle transcriptome profile of elderly men with metabolic
           syndrome based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction: This study aims to understand the transcriptome characteristics of the skeletal muscle of old man with metabolic syndrome (MS), to find the hub genes and insight into the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle in the occurrence and development of MS. Methods: In this study, the Limma package of R software was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the skeletal muscle of healthy young adult (YO) men, healthy elderly (EL) men, and elderly men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (SX) for at least 10 years. Bioinformatics methods, such as GO enrichment analysis, KEGG enrichment analysis and gene interaction network analysis, were used to explore the biological functions of differentially expressed genes, and WGCNA was used to cluster differentially expressed genes into modules. Results: Among the YO group, EL group, and SX group, 65 co-differentially expressed genes were found may be regulated by age factor and metabolic syndrome factor. Those co-differentially expressed genes were enriched into 25 biological process terms and 3 KEGG pathways. Based on the WGCNA results, a total of five modules were identified. Fifteen hub genes may play an essential role in regulating the function of skeletal muscle of old men with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: 65 differentially expressed genes and 5 modules may regulate the function of skeletal muscle of old men with MS, among which fifteen hub genes may play an essential role in the occurrence and development of MS.

      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2023 11:24:28 +020
       
  • Higher risk of sarcopenia in older adults with type 2 diabetes: NHANES
           1999-2018

    • Abstract: Introduction: Recent studies suggested that sarcopenia may be a significant comorbidity of diabetes mellitus (DM). Nonetheless, studies with nationally representative data are scarce, and the changing trend of sarcopenia prevalence over time is largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in diabetic and non-diabetic United States (US) older population, and to explore the potential predictors of sarcopenia as well as the trend of sarcopenia prevalent in the past decades. Methods: Data was retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Sarcopenia and DM were defined according to corresponding diagnosis criteria. Weighted prevalence was calculated and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic participants. The differences among age and ethnicity groups were explored. Results: A total of 6381 US adults (>50 years) were involved. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 17.8% for US elders, and the prevalence was higher (27.9% vs. 15.7%) in those with diabetes ones than those without. Stepwise regression revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with DM (Adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95%CI: 1.08-1.22; P
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2023 16:03:35 +020
       
  • The effect of a multifaceted intervention including classroom education
           and bariatric weight suit use on medical students’ attitudes towards
           patients with obesity

    • Abstract: IntroductionWeight bias refers to negative attitudes towards individuals because of their weight. Evidenced-based strategies to successfully reduce weight bias in medical students are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a multifaceted intervention on medical students’ attitudes towards patients with obesity.MethodsThird- and fourth-year medical students (n= 79), who enrolled in an eight-week graduate course focusing on the various epidemiologic, physiological and clinical aspects of obesity, including a gamification task with bariatric weight suits (BWS), were asked to complete the Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management (NEW) Attitudes Scale questionnaire pre- and post-course. The inclusion period was between 09/2018 and 06/2021 and covered 4 consecutive groups of students.ResultsThe overall NEW Attitude Scale scores did not change significantly pre- versus post-intervention (pre-course: 19.59, post-course 24.21, p-value = 0.24). However, the subgroup of 4th year medical students showed a significant improvement of their attitudes (pre-course: 16.4, post-course 26.16, p-value = 0.02). The Thurstone rating of 9 out of 31 individual survey items changed significantly from pre- to post-course with a moderate strength (Cramer’s V> 0.2), including 5 items showing weight bias reduction. The disagreement with the statement “Overweight/obese individuals lack willpower” increased from 37 to 68%.Discussion/Conclusion These findings suggest that in medical students with a low level of weight bias at baseline, a semester course on obesity combined with BWS use affects only a limited number of items of the NEW Attitudes scale questionnaire. The sensitization of medical students to weight stigma has the potential to improve quality of healthcare for patients with obesity.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2023 11:34:32 +020
       
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with acute kidney injury after
           abdominal trauma based on the generalized propensity score approach: A
           retrospective cohort study

    • Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after trauma. However, the associations between different adipose tissue depots and AKI remain unknown. Our study aims to quantify the effect of abdominal adiposity on AKI in trauma patients.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of abdominal trauma patients who were admitted into our hospital from January 2010 to March 2020. Abdominal VAT (visceral adipose tissue) and SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra using computed tomography. Causal modeling based on the generalized propensity score was used to quantify the effects of BMI (body mass index), VAT and SAT on AKI.Results: Among 324 abdominal trauma patients, 67 (20.68%) patients developed AKI. Patients with AKI had higher BMI (22.46 kg/m2 vs. 22.04 kg/m2, P = 0.014), higher SAT areas (89.06 cm2 vs. 83.39 cm2, P = 0.151) and VAT areas (140.02 cm2 vs. 91.48 cm2, P = 0.001) than those without AKI. By using causal modeling, we found that the risk of developing AKI increased by 8.3% (P = 0.001) and 4.8% (P = 0.022) with one unit increase in BMI (per 1 kg/m2), and ten units increase in SAT (per 10 cm2), respectively. However, VAT did not show a significant association with AKI (P = 0.327).Conclusion: SAT, but not VAT, increased the risk of AKI among abdominal trauma patients. Measurement of SAT might help to identify patients at higher risk of AKI.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2023 09:15:14 +010
       
  • Association of body fat distribution and risk of breast cancer in pre- and
           postmenopausal women

    • Abstract: IntroductionObesity is a risk factor for both the development of and mortality from breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. However, which part of the fat mass is associated with risk remains unclear, and whether the difference in the risk for breast cancer is associated with discrepancy in the distribution of fat with menstrual status requires further study.Methods A dataset from the UK Biobank, which included 245,009 female participants, and 5402 females who developed breast cancer during a mean follow-up of 6.6 years was analyzed. Body fat mass was measured according to bioelectrical impedance at baseline by trained technicians. Age- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between body fat distribution and the risk for breast cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Height, age, education level, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, fruit consumption, age at menarche, age at first birth, number of births, hormone replacement therapy, family history of breast cancer, hysterectomy, and ovariotomy were adjusted for potential confounders.ResultsFat distribution differed between pre- and postmenopausal women. After menopause, there was an increase in fat mass in different body segments (arms, legs, and trunk). After age- and multivariable-adjustment, fat mass in different segments, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly associated with the risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal but not premenopausal women.ConclusionPostmenopausal women exhibited more fat in different body segments, which are associated with increased risk for breast cancer, compared to premenopausal women. Fat mass control throughout the body may be beneficial in mitigating the risk for breast cancer and was not limited to abdominal fat alone among postmenopausal women.

      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2023 11:00:31 +010
       
  • Genetic and environmental factors underlying parallel changes in body mass
           index and alcohol consumption: a 36-year longitudinal study of adult twins
           

    • Abstract: Introduction: While the genetic and environmental underpinnings of body weight and alcohol use are fairly well-known, determinants of simultaneous changes in these traits are still poorly known. We sought to quantify the environmental and genetic components underlying parallel changes in weight and alcohol consumption, and to investigate potential covariation between them. Methods: The analysis comprised 4461 adult participants (58% women) from the Finnish Twin Cohort with four measures of alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) over a 36-year follow-up. Trajectories of each trait were described by growth factors, defined as intercepts (i.e., baseline) and slopes (i.e., change over follow-up), using Latent Growth Curve Modeling. Growth values were used for male (190 monozygotic pairs, 293 dizygotic pairs) and female (316 monozygotic pairs, 487 dizygotic pairs) same-sex complete twin pairs in multivariate twin modeling. The variances and covariances of growth factors were then decomposed into genetic and environmental components.Results: The baseline heritabilities were similar in men (BMI: h2=79% [95% Confidence Interval: 74,83]; alcohol consumption: h2=49% [32,67]) and women (h2=77% [73,81]; h2=45% [29,61]). Heritabilities of BMI change were similar in men (h2=52% [42,61]) and women (h2=57% [50,63]), but the heritability of change in alcohol consumption was significantly higher (p=0.03) in men (h2=45% [34,54]) than in women (h2=31% [22,38]). Significant additive genetic correlations between BMI at baseline and change in alcohol consumption were observed in both men (rA =-0.17 [-0.29,-0.04]) and women (rA=-0.18 [-0.31,-0.06]). Non-shared environmental factors affecting changes in alcohol consumption and BMI were correlated in men (rE=0.18 [0.06,0.30]). Among women, non-shared environmental factors affecting baseline alcohol consumption and the change in BMI were inversely correlated (rE=-0.11 [-0.20, -0.01]). Conclusions: Based on genetic correlations, genetic variation underlying BMI may affect change in alcohol consumption. Independent of genetic effects, change in BMI correlates with change in alcohol consumption in men, suggesting direct effects between them.

      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2023 10:48:30 +010
       
  • Changes in lifestyle and body weight in children and adolescents during
           the COVID-19 pandemic: A representative survey of parents in Germany

    • Abstract: Introduction: The public restrictions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic have substantially affected lifestyle and health behavior of children and adolescents. In Germany, little is known how these changes influenced daily life in families with children and adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in April/May 2022 across Germany, similar to a survey performed in 2020. Parents (N=1,004, 20-65 years) with at least one child aged 3-17 years filled in an online questionnaire released by the Forsa Institute for Social Research and Statistical Analysis. Fifteen questions related to eating habits, dietary patterns, physical activity, media consumption, fitness, mental health, and body weight were included, and standard socioeconomic parameters were assessed. Results: Analysis of the parents’ answers indicated that there was a parental self-reported weight gain in every sixth child since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This was most obvious in children from families with lower household income and preexisting overweight. Parents also reported that lifestyle patterns had worsened: 70% reported an increase of media consumption during leisure time, 44% a decrease in daily physical activity as well as 16% the worsening of dietary habits (e.g. 27% stated to eat more cake and sweets). Children aged 10-12 years were most severely affected.Conclusion: Negative health effects related to the COVID-19 pandemic are predominantly observed in children 10-12 years of age and in children from families with low household income suggesting a worsening social disparity. Political action is urgently needed to tackle the adverse consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on childhood lifestyle and health.

      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2023 10:44:13 +010
       
  • Insulin Resistance, but Not Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with
           Hepatic Steatosis in Chinese Patients with Severe Obesity

    • Abstract: Introduction Severe obesity often present with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Emerging researches suggest OSA plays an important role in NAFLD development and progression while the relationship between OSA and NAFLD is still conflicting . The interaction of OSA and NAFLD should be further evaluated as obesity surges. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of OSA and NAFLD in patients with obesity undergoing bariatric surgery, and evaluate the association between OSA and severity of NAFLD.Methods 141 patients with severe obesity undergoing preoperative polysomnography and intraoperative liver biopsy during bariatric surgery was investigated. Clinical, anthropometric variables, liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were measured. The severity of NAFLD was assessed by degree of steatosis, ballooning, intralobular inflammation and NAFLD activity score (NAS). The diagnosis and severity assessment of OSA was based on an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI).Results OSA was diagnosed in 127 (90.07%), NAFLD in 124 (87.94%), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 72 (51.06%) patients. There was a statistically difference in body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance, neck circumstance, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR among the three groups divided by the severity of AHI. In addition, the distribution of hepatic steatosis grades among the three groups was statistically different (P=0.025). AHI was significantly associated with HOMA-IR and hepatic steatosis when assessing the association between OSA parameters and liver histology in NAFLD(P< 0.05). Patients with steatosis of grade 1-3 had significantly elevated aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT),triglycerides (TG), fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and AHI compared with the patients with steatosis of grade 0. In a multivariable logistic analysis, the positive association between AHI and hepatic steatosis attenuated after adjusting for HOMA-IR.Conclusion Prevalence of OSA and NAFLD was high in patients with obesity eligible for bariatric procedures. HOMA-IR, but not AHI, was an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis in this population.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 15:30:41 +010
       
  • Health-related quality of life in those with persistent or transient
           obesity phenotypes during two decades: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    • Abstract: Introduction: The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate the association of three stable obesity phenotypes (persistent metabolically healthy normal weight (P MHNW), persistent metabolically healthy obese (P MHO), persistent metabolically unhealthy obese (P MUO)), and one transient (MHO to MUO) obesity phenotype with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) throughout an 18-year period. Methods: 1932 participants (649 men and 1283 women) who completed the HRQoL questionnaire during 2016-2019 were recruited in the current investigation. Based on the body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status, participants were classified into four obesity phenotypes, including 1) P MHNW, 2) P MHO, 3) P MUO, and 4) Transient from MHO to MUO. The HRQoL was compared between groups using analysis of covariance. Participants' age, marital status, occupation status, education level, physical activity, and smoking were adjusted. Results: After adjustment for confounder variables, a significant difference among obesity phenotypes was indicated in PCS scores of both sexes and MCS scores just in women (P value=
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2023 09:07:56 +010
       
 
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