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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Obesity Facts
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.008
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1662-4025 - ISSN (Online) 1662-4033
Published by Karger Homepage  [122 journals]
  • First account of psychological changes perceived by a female with
           congenital leptin deficiency upon treatment with metreleptin

    • Abstract: Two psychiatric interviews of a 39-year old female with congenital leptin deficiency were conducted to define psychological changes fourteen and 165 days after initiation of treatment with human recombinant leptin (metreleptin). The most pronounced initial experience related to the reduced preoccupation with food. An improved mood was reported by the patient, which she associated with this reduced preoccupation. Her mood remained elevated upon recontact, whereas she was no longer preoccupied with food. Overall, the interviews provides a vivid account of the subjective experiences upon initiation of treatment. Some of the findings bear resemblance to those reported recently in patients with anorexia nervosa who were treated with metreleptin for one to three weeks. This case report provides further evidence that metreleptin has strong psychophamacological effects in patients with absolute or relative leptin deficiency. We strongly recommend profound psychological examinations of patients with congenital leptin deficiency at baseline and after intitiation of treatment with human recombinant leptin to gain further insight into the functions affected by this hormone.

      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 09:46:26 +020
       
  • Risk factors influencing seroconversion after inactive SARS-CoV-2
           vaccination in people living with obesity

    • Abstract: AbstractIntroductionTo investigate the antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens, and the risk factors affecting antibody levels in people living with obesity (PwO) after inactive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Corona Vac) administration. Methods169 consecutive patients with obesity who visited the Center for Obesity Management at Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Hospitals, between May and August 2021, were invited to the study. The non-obese control group was recruited from 191 subjects who visited the Cerrahpaşa Hospitals Vaccination Unit. The study group and the non-obese control group have already received two doses of inactive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 IgG Nucleocapsid Antibody Antibody Test was administered to patients and control subjects to discover those who had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fourty one patients who had prior infection and received two doses of vaccine were also included in the study as a subgroup. Blood samples were taken on the 3rd to 4th week after the second vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were determined by quantitative serological methods. ResultsAntibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen of individuals with BMI 30.0 kg/m2 were significantly lower than those with BMI
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Aug 2022 13:28:25 +020
       
  • Prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity in 12 European
           Countries in 2017-2018

    • Abstract: Introduction: Using data from the TackSHS survey, we aim to provide updated estimates on the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in Europe.Methods: A face-to-face survey was conducted in 2017-2018 in 12 European countries (Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Spain). Overall, 10,810 participants, representative in each country of the general adult population, provided information on self-reported height and weight. Results: Almost half of participants (48.1%; 95% confidence interval, CI: 47.2-49.1) reported to be overweight or obese (54.1% in men and 42.5% in women), and 12.6% (95% CI: 12.0-13.2) obese (11.3% in men and 13.8% in women). Obesity prevalence was lowest in Italy (7.5%) and France (8.8%), and highest in Greece (19.7%) and Romania (21.1%). Multilevel logistic random-effects analyses showed that prevalence of obesity was related with higher age and lower level of education and socioeconomic status. As compared to northern European countries, Western and Southern European ones showed a significantly lower obesity prevalence. When compared to a companion study conducted in 2010, Eastern and Northern European countries showed an increased trend in obesity prevalence. Conversely, countries with the lowest obesity prevalence (less than 10%), such as Italy and France, showed a decreased trend.Conclusions: Despite a large heterogeneity across countries, overweight and obesity prevalence estimates in Europe are alarming, with most of the countries reporting obesity prevalence approaching 20% or more, particularly in Eastern and Northern Europe. Since 2010, obesity prevalence increased in most of these countries.

      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:37:38 +020
       
  • Barriers and facilitators of participation in weight loss intervention for
           patients with suboptimal weight loss after bariatric surgery; a
           qualitative study among patients, physicians, and therapists

    • Abstract: Introduction: Not all patients with suboptimal weight loss after bariatric surgery are willing to participate in postoperative behavioral intervention to improve their weight loss. The objective of this study was to explore barriers to and facilitators of participation in postoperative behavioral intervention. Methods: Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (18), physicians (6), and therapists (6) (i.e., psychologists, dieticians, or physiotherapists). A thematic analysis approach was used. Results: Emotional responses caused by confrontation with suboptimal weight loss hampered patients’ deliberation about participation; insufficient exploration of their need for help limited patients’ ability to make informed decisions; patients were receptive to their physician’s advice when their physician respected their autonomy; using visual weight loss graphs helped to explain suboptimal weight loss to patients; and financial costs and time constraints obstructed participation. Conclusions: To improve adequate intervention participation, health care providers should focus on emotion regulation, support patients in exploring their own need for help, and respect patients’ autonomy.

      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 09:53:31 +020
       
  • 15 Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy: Gastroscopies, Manometries and 24h
           pH-metries in a Long-term Follow-up – A Multicenter Study

    • Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) is the most common bariatric operation with over 340.000 procedures per year. There are only few studies presenting follow-up results>10 years in the literature today. The aim of this study was the objective evaluation of long-term outcomes of at least 15 years after SG in non-converted patients.METHODS: This study (multicenter cross-sectional; university-hospital based) includes all non-converted patients with primary SG before December 2005 at participating bariatric centers. The following methods were used: gastroscopy, esophageal manometry, 24h pH-metry, and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI).RESULTS: After removing converted patients, patients with bariatric procedures before SG, and deceased patients from the cohort, 20 of 53 participants have met the inclusion criteria. Of this group, 55% are suffering from symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); 45% are without GERD. Esophagitis, hiatal hernias, Barrett´s esophagus, and enlarged sleeves were found in 44%, 50%, 13%, and 69% of patients during gastroscopy. Mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure was normal at 20.2 ±14.1mmHg during manometry. Reflux activity in 24h, number of refluxes, and DeMeester score were increased at 12.9 ±9.7%, 98.0 ±80.8, and 55.3 ±36.3 during 24h pH-metry. Patients with GERD scored significantly lower in the GIQLI than patients without GERD: 107.6 ±18.4 versus 127.6 ±14.4 (p=0.04).DISCUSSION / CONCLUSION: Fifteen years after primary SG, objective testing has shown that GERD, esophagitis, and Barrett´s esophagus are major issues for these patients. Surveillance endoscopies at five-year intervals in all SG patients and three-year intervals in patients with Barrett´s esophagus are recommended.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2022 10:56:18 +020
       
  • Effect of exposure to paternal smoking on overweight and obesity in
           children: findings from the Children Lifeway Cohort in Shenzhen, southern
           China

    • Abstract: Introduction: Paternal smoking associated with childhood overweight and obesity has been a concern, but studies have not investigated smoking exposure and smoking details. We investigated the association of exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking details on offspring overweight/obesity. Methods: A total of 4513 children (aged 7-8 years) in Shenzhen were enrolled. Four different exposures from paternal smoking as well as smoking quantity, duration of smoking and age of starting smoking details were the exposure variables and demographic characteristics, circumstances of birth, dietary intake, lifestyle and nonpaternal smoking exposure were covariates in logistic regression analysis to determine the effect of paternal smoking on childhood overweight/obesity, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Paternal smoking was positively associated with childhood overweight/obesity (p
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 09:32:03 +020
       
  • The visceral fat area to hip circumstance ratio (VHR) as a predictor for
           insulin resistance in a Chinese population with type 2 diabetes

    • Abstract: Introduction: Adipose tissue deposited on the viscera is the main culprit in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic diseases, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue may have a protective role. This study aimed to propose a new predictive index - the visceral fat area (VFA) to hip circumstance (HC) ratio (VHR) and explore the efficacy of it for prediction of IR in a Chinese population with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: A total of 643 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes were enrolled in this study. Body composition, anthropometrical and biochemical measurements were performed. IR was defined as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)>2.69. The association between VHR and IR was analyzed. Results: Regardless of gender, subjects in IR group had higher VHR, body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), body fat percentage (BFP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglyceride (TG), uric acid (UA), homocysteine (HCY) and aminotransferases than those in non-insulin resistance group. The other concomitant metabolic disorders were more common in the IR group. Further analysis showed that with the increase of VHR, the levels of HOMA-IR, BMI, VFA, DBP, TG, UA and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia increased continuously (P trend < 0.01). Linear trend test showed that VHR and IR remained closely correlated after adjusting for possible confounders (P trend < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed the area under the curve was 0.69 and the optimal cutoff of VHR was 0.89 (sensitivity 79.3%, specificity 61.5%). Conclusion: VHR was positively associated with IR regardless of gender and it might be a reliable predictor for IR.

      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jun 2022 10:29:29 +020
       
  • Use of fluoxetine to reduce weight in adults with overweight or obesity:
           Abridged republication of the Cochrane Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Introduction: Using fluoxetine is one of many weight-loss strategies. A serotonin reuptake inhibitor indicated for depression believed to impact weight control by changing an individual’s appetite; however, its benefit-risk ratio is unclear. The aim of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in reducing weight in adults with overweight or obesity.Methods: We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase and other databases without language restrictions. Cochrane Collaboration tool and GRADE instrument assessed the risk of bias of randomised controlled trials and certainty of their evidence. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and calculated the risk ratio/mean difference with 95% confidence intervals for the outcomes.Results: We included 19 trials (2,216 adults) and found that fluoxetine may reduce weight by −2.7 kg (95% CI −4 to −1.4; P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) by −1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI −3.7 to 1.4), compared with placebo; however, it would cause approximately twice as many adverse events, such as dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, insomnia or nausea.Conclusions: Although low-certainty evidence suggests that off-label fluoxetine may reduce weight, high-certainty research is needed to be conducted in the future to determine its effects exclusively as well as whether it is useful when combined with other agents.This article is based on a Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 10,
      DOI : 10.1002/14651858. CD011688.pub2. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges, and in response to feedback, it should be consulted for the most recent version of the review.

      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 09:37:57 +020
       
  • Weight gain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the protective
           effect of lifestyle intervention in children with obesity

    • Abstract: Introduction: School closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic affect children’s daily structure, mealtimes, physical activity and sleeping habits, possibly exacerbating weight gain, particularly in vulnerable children with overweight and obesity. This study aims to evaluate both perceived and objectively measured weight gain in children in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect of prior lifestyle intervention.Methods: 150 children of the Children, Obesity and Lifestyle during COVID-19 (COLC) study (cohort A) reported perceptions of weight change during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anthropometric data of 65 children with overweight and obesity was collected at the expertise Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children’s Healthcare in the same period (COACH; cohort B). Results: In cohort A, 43% of children with overweight and obesity perceived weight gain during the pandemic, compared to 15% of lean children. In cohort B, BMI z-score increased significantly (+0.065 SD) within five months. Participation in a lifestyle intervention for>1 year and having parents with Dutch background was associated with less weight gain, specifically in children with obesity.Discussion/Conclusion: In particular children with overweight and obesity seem to be at risk for accelerated weight gain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior long-term participation in a lifestyle intervention protects against this weight gain, which emphasizes the importance of strong support for vulnerable populations during health crises and pleads for wide implementation of lifestyle interventions for children.

      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 10:21:13 +020
       
  • Predicted fat mass, lean body mass, and risk of hypertension: results from
           a Chinese male cohort study

    • Abstract: Introduction: Few studies have deciphered whether lean body mass (LBM) or fat mass (FM) is predominantly responsible for the body mass index (BMI)–hypertension association. This study aimed to assess the associations of predicted LBM and FM with hypertension risk among Chinese male adults.Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 2,812 male participants free of hypertension in the Fangchenggang Area Males Health and Examination Survey in 2009. We performed multivariable Cox models and restricted cubic spline (RCS) to examine the associations of predicted LBM and FM, and BMI with hypertension, and to further explore the mediating roles of lipid and glycemic traits in the relationship between predicted FM and blood pressure.Results: Of 1,238 participants included in the cohort study, 306 (24.8%) hypertension cases were identified during a median follow-up of 3.8 years, with an incidence rate of 7.0 per 100 person-years. A positive linear-shaped association was consistently observed between BMI and hypertension (P for trend < 0.001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models including predicted LBM and FM observed a positive association between predicted FM and hypertension. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of predicted FM, men in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13 to 2.97) for hypertension. The HR per standard deviation (SD) increase of BMI and predicted FM was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.19) above 23.1 kg/m2 and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15) above 14.6 kg, respectively. However, predicted LBM was not associated with hypertension. In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) mediated the relationship of predicted FM with systolic blood pressure, with a mediation ratio of 37.1% and 8.2%, respectively. Furthermore, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) positively mediated the association of predicted FM with diastolic blood pressure, with a mediation ratio of 9.5% and 9.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Higher predicted FM might play a central role in the positive linear relationship of the BMI–hypertension association in Chinese male adults, and the link from predicted FM to blood pressure was partially mediated by TC, TG, HDL-c, and FBG.

      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 08:46:45 +020
       
 
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