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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Lifestyle Genomics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.614
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2504-3161 - ISSN (Online) 2504-3188
Published by Karger Homepage  [122 journals]
  • Smoking-interaction loci affect obesity traits: a gene-smoking stratified
           meta-analysis of 545,131 Europeans

    • Abstract: Introduction: Although many studies have investigated the association between smoking and obesity, very few have analyzed how obesity traits are affected by interactions between genetic factors and smoking. Here, we aimed to identify the loci that affect obesity traits via smoking status-related interactions in European samples. Methods: We performed stratified analysis based on the smoking status using both the UK Biobank (UKB) data (N = 334,808) and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) data (N = 210,323) to identify gene-smoking interaction for obesity traits. We divided the UKB subjects into two groups, current smokers and nonsmokers, based on the smoking status, and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), and waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) in each group. And then we carried out the meta-analysis using both GWAS summary statistics of UKB and GIANT for BMI, WCadjBMI, and WHRadjBMI, and computed the stratified P-values (Pstratified) based on the differences between meta-analyzed estimated beta coefficients with standard errors in each group. Results: We identified four genome-wide significant loci in interactions with the smoking status (Pstratified < 5×10–8); rs336396 (INPP4B) and rs12899135 (near CHRNB4) for BMI, and rs998584 (near VEGFA) and rs6916318 (near RSPO3) for WHRadjBMI. Moreover, we annotated the biological functions of the SNPs using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and GWAS databases, along with publications, which revealed possible mechanisms underlying the association between the smoking status-related genetic variants and obesity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that obesity traits can be modified by the smoking status via interactions with genetic variants through various biological pathways.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jul 2022 10:39:17 +020
       
  • Upregulated miR-146a expression in peripheral blood relates to Th17 and
           Treg imbalance in elder rheumatoid arthritis patients

    • Abstract: Background: The expression level of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) increased in peripheral blood and synovialis tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient, it may play an important role in the pathological process of RA. We investigated its possibility as a diagnostic marker and the correlation with Th17 and Treg cells in elder RA patients. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 38 active RA patients, 38 inactive RA patients, and 40 healthy controls. RNA expression levels of miR-146a were detected from the peripheral blood samples. The proportion of Th17 and Treg cells were analyzed, as well as their cell-specific transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor variant 2 (RORc) and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3). Furthermore, secretion of pre-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors were detected. Correlations between miR-146a and these factors were also analyzed.Results: Compared with healthy control, expression levels of miR-146a in inactive and active groups were significant higher, with the highest level in active group. The expression of miR-146a and the RA severity, T helper 17 (Th17) cell ratio, RORc expression, IL-17 level showed a significant positive correlation, while it showed a significantly negative correlation with Treg cell ration, FOXP3 expression, and TGF-β1 secretion. Conclusions: These results suggested that miR-146a may be used as a disease progression marker in the peripheral blood of elder RA patients.

      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 10:04:14 +020
       
  • Understanding gene-lifestyle interaction in obesity: the role of mediation
           versus moderation

    • Abstract: Background: Obesity results from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility to weight gain and poor eating and lifestyle behaviors. The approach that has been traditionally used in genetics to investigate gene-environment/lifestyle interaction in obesity is based on the concept of moderation, or effect modification. Another approach called mediation analysis can be used to investigate gene-environment interaction in obesity. The objective of this review article is to explain the differences between the concepts of moderation and mediation and summarize the studies that have used mediation analysis to support the role of eating or lifestyle behaviors as putative mediators of genetic susceptibility to obesity.Summary: Moderation is used to determine whether the effect of an exposure (genes associated with obesity) on an outcome (obesity phenotype) differs in magnitude and/or direction across the spectrum of environmental exposure. Mediation analysis is used to assess the extent to which the effect of the exposure on the outcome is explained by a given set of hypothesized mediators with the aim of understanding how the exposure could lead to the outcome. In comparison with moderation, relatively few studies used mediation analyses to investigate gene-environment in obesity. Most studies found evidence that traits related to appetite or eating behaviors partly mediated genetic susceptibility to obesity in either children or adults. Key messages: Moderation and mediation represent two complementary approaches to investigate gene-environment interaction in obesity and address different research questions pertaining to the cause-effect relationship between genetic susceptibility to obesity and various obesity outcomes. More studies relying on mediation are needed to better understand the role eating and lifestyle habits in mediating genetic susceptibility to obesity.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2022 09:53:52 +010
       
  • Dairy product intake modifies microRNAs expression among individuals with
           hyperinsulinemia – A post-intervention cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: Introduction: microRNA (miRNA) profiles have been shown to change after intake of dairy products. Dysregulation of miRNA is associated with the changes in the level of glycemic parameters. The objectives are 1- to investigate miRNAs expression after consumption of dairy products; and 2- to study the association between miRNAs and glycemic profile among individuals with hyperinsulinemia. Methods: In crossover design, 24 participants were randomized into 2 phases: high-dairy (HD) (≥4 servings / day according to the Canadian Food Guide (2007)) and adequate-dairy (AD) (≤2 servings / day) over 6-week. First, miRNAs were extracted from a pooled plasma sample of 10 subjects after HD and AD intervention which analyzed in duplicate by array hybridization (Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA Array v. 4.0). Secondly, 6 miRNAs related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) were validated by qRT-PCR from plasma of 24 participants. Results: Microarray analysis indicated that 237 miRNAs expressed differentially (FC ≥ ±1.2; p value < 0.05)) between AD and HD. Among pooled miRNAs, the level of selected miRNAs, including miR-652-3p, miR-106b-5p, miR-93-5p, and miR-107 were down-regulated; conversely, miR-223-3p and miR-122-5p were up-regulated. After qRT-PCR validation, only the expression level of miR-106-5p increased after HD compared to AD (p = 0.02). After AD intervention, the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin, HOMA-IR were negatively correlated with miR-122-5p. Similarly, negative correlation was found between miR-106-5p and FPG. Conclusion: The miRNAs profile was modified after HD compared to AD and this may have role in modifying the risk of T2D (Registration number: NCT02961179)

      PubDate: Fri, 25 Feb 2022 11:50:53 +010
       
  • Efficacy of Probiotic, Chlorhexidine, and Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinses on
           Mutans Streptococci in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children: A Crossover Randomized
           Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction: The oral cavity is home to a diverse and distinct microbiome. While the role of oral bacteria in cariogenic and other dental diseases is irrefutable, their beneficial effects in the form of probiotics (PB) has been less studied, especially pertaining to oral diseases in children. This study compares the efficacy of a PB mouthrinse with 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) mouthrinse on the colony counts of mutans streptococci (MS) in children. Methods: A triple-blind crossover randomized trial between interventional groups was planned. Fifty-one children between 8 to 12 years of age were divided into three groups (I, II, and III) and were exposed to all three mouthrinses (A, B, and C) by randomized allocation for a period of two weeks with an inter-phase washout period of four weeks. Pre- and post-interventional MS counts (CFU/mL) were assessed, and the mean change was analysed using the t test (intragroup) and ANOVA (intergroup and crossover). Results: The mean changes in the colony counts obtained with the use of PB, CHX, and NaF mouthrinses were −1.0223 (−1.2201 to −0.8246), −0.9564 (−1.1503 to −0.7626), and −0.9511 (−1.1554 to −0.7467), respectively, which were statistically significant (p #x3c; 0.0001). However, the intergroup comparison for the mean change in colony counts revealed no statistically significant differences (p #x3e; 0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that the PB mouthrinse was equally efficacious as compared to CHX and NaF mouthrinses against MS in 8- to 12-year-old children. However, further studies are recommended to strengthen the evidence.
      Lifestyle Genomics
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 07:56:21 +010
       
  • Association of age-related cataract risk high polygenetic risk scores
           involved in galactose-related metabolism and dietary interactions

    • Abstract: Introduction: Cataracts are associated with the accumulation of galactose and galactitol in the lens. We determined the polygenetic risk scores for the best model(PRSBM) associated with age-related cataract(ARC) risk and their interaction with diets and lifestyles in 40,262 Korean adults aged over 50 years belonged to a hospital-based city cohort. Methods: The genetic variants for ARC risk were selected in lactose and galactose metabolism-related genes with multivariate logistic regression using the PLINK 1.9 version. PRSBM from the selected genetic variants was estimated by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) after adjusting covariates. The interactions between the PRSBM and each lifestyle factor were determined to modulate ARC risk. Results: The genetic variants for ARC risk related to lactose- and galactose metabolism were SLC2A1_rs3729548, ST3GAL3_rs3791047, LCT_rs2304371, GALNT5_rs6728956, ST6GAL1_rs2268536, GALNT17_rs17058752, CSGALNACT1_rs1994788, GALNTL4_rs10831608, B4GALT6_rs1667288, and A4GALT_ rs9623659. In GMDR, the best model included all ten genetic variants. The highest odds ratio (OR) for a single SNP in the PRSBM was 1.26. However, subjects with a high-PRSBM had a higher ARC risk by 2.1-fold than a low-PRSBM after adjusting for covariates. Carbohydrate, dairy products, kimchi, and alcohol intake interacted with PRSBM for ARC risk: the participants with high-PRSBM had a much higher ARC risk than those with low-PRSBM when consuming diets with high carbohydrate and low dairy product and kimchi intake. However, only with low alcohol intake, the participants with high-PRSBM had a higher ARC risk than those with low-PRSBM. Conclusion: Adults aged >50 years having high-PRSBM may modulate dietary habits to reduce ARC risk.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Dec 2021 16:53:53 +010
       
  • APOE genotypes, lipid profiles and associated clinical markers in a
           Finnish population with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    • Abstract: Introduction:APOE ɛ4 allele predisposes to high cholesterol and increases the risk for lifestyle-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study was to analyse interrelationships of APOE genotypes with lipid metabolism and lifestyle factors in middle-aged Finns among whom the CVD risk factors are common.Methods:Participants (n=211) were analysed for APOE ε genotypes, physiological parameters and health- and diet-related plasma markers. Lifestyle choices were determined by a questionnaire.Results:APOE genotypes ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4 (ε4 group) represented 34.1% of the participants. Genotype ε3/ε3 (ε3 group) frequency was 54.5%. Carriers of ε2 (ε2 group; ε2/ε2, ε2/ε3 and ε2/ε4) represented 11.4%; 1.9 % were of the genotype ε2/ε4. The LDL and total cholesterol levels were lower (P
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Dec 2021 14:29:35 +010
       
  • Acknowledgement to Reviewers

    • Abstract:
      Lifestyle Genomics 2021;14:153
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Dec 2021 10:44:06 +010
       
  • Quantile-Dependent Heritability of Glucose, Insulin, Proinsulin, Insulin
           Resistance, and Glycated Hemoglobin

    • Abstract: Background: “Quantile-dependent expressivity” is a dependence of genetic effects on whether the phenotype (e.g., insulin resistance) is high or low relative to its distribution. Methods: Quantile-specific offspring-parent regression slopes (βOP) were estimated by quantile regression for fasting glucose concentrations in 6,453 offspring-parent pairs from the Framingham Heart Study. Results: Quantile-specific heritability (h2), estimated by 2βOP/(1 + rspouse), increased 0.0045 ± 0.0007 (p = 8.8 × 10−14) for each 1% increment in the fasting glucose distribution, that is, h2 ± SE were 0.057 ± 0.021, 0.095 ± 0.024, 0.146 ± 0.019, 0.293 ± 0.038, and 0.456 ± 0.061 at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the fasting glucose distribution, respectively. Significant increases in quantile-specific heritability were also suggested for fasting insulin (p = 1.2 × 10−6), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p = 5.3 × 10−5), insulin/glucose ratio (p = 3.9 × 10−5), proinsulin (p = 1.4 × 10−6), proinsulin/insulin ratio (p = 2.7 × 10−5), and glucose concentrations during a glucose tolerance test (p = 0.001), and their logarithmically transformed values. Discussion/Conclusion: These findings suggest alternative interpretations to precision medicine and gene-environment interactions, including alternative interpretation of reported synergisms between ACE, ADRB3, PPAR-γ2, and TNF-α polymorphisms and being born small for gestational age on adult insulin resistance (fetal origin theory), and gene-adiposity (APOE, ENPP1, GCKR, IGF2BP2, IL-6, IRS-1, KIAA0280, LEPR, MFHAS1, RETN, TCF7L2), gene-exercise (INS), gene-diet (ACSL1, ELOVL6, IRS-1, PLIN, S100A9), and gene-socioeconomic interactions.
      Lifestyle Genomics
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Dec 2021 14:31:20 +010
       
  • 14th Congress of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics
           (ISNN)

    • Abstract:
      Lifestyle Genomics
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Sep 2021 06:32:04 +020
       
 
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