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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted by number of followers
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.196
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 55  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2161-8313 - ISSN (Online) 2156-5376
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [423 journals]
  • Nutrition, Immunosenescence, and Infectious Disease: An Overview of the
           Scientific Evidence on Micronutrients and on Modulation of the Gut
           Microbiota

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe immune system is key to host defense against pathogenic organisms. Aging is associated with changes in the immune system, with a decline in protective components (immunosenescence), increasing susceptibility to infectious disease, and a chronic elevation in low-grade inflammation (inflammaging), increasing the risk of multiple noncommunicable diseases. Nutrition is a determinant of immune cell function and of the gut microbiota. In turn, the gut microbiota shapes and controls the immune and inflammatory responses. Many older people show changes in the gut microbiota. Age-related changes in immune competence, low-grade inflammation, and gut dysbiosis may be interlinked and may relate, at least in part, to age-related changes in nutrition. A number of micronutrients (vitamins C, D, and E and zinc and selenium) play roles in supporting the function of many immune cell types. Some trials report that providing these micronutrients as individual supplements can reverse immune deficits in older people and/or in those with insufficient intakes. There is inconsistent evidence that this will reduce the risk or severity of infections including respiratory infections. Probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic strategies that modulate the gut microbiota, especially by promoting the colonization of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, have been demonstrated to modulate some immune and inflammatory biomarkers in older people and, in some cases, to reduce the risk and severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, although, again, the evidence is inconsistent. Further research with well-designed and well-powered trials in at-risk older populations is required to be more certain about the role of micronutrients and of strategies that modify the gut microbiota–host relationship in protecting against infection, especially respiratory infection.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac052
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Early-Life Nutrition Research Supported by the US National
           Institutes of Health from 2018 to 2020

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1395 - 1401
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025, included guidelines for pregnancy, lactation, and children from birth to age 24 mo (B-24) to reflect the growing body of evidence about appropriate nutrition during the earliest stages of life. Guidelines were based on a thorough review of the existing scientific evidence by the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). This study's objective was to enumerate early-life (pregnancy, lactation, and B-24) nutrition research needs that are already being addressed by the scientific community and to identify remaining research gaps. The Scientific Report of the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was reviewed, and 138 research gaps relevant to early life were identified. Research gaps were consolidated into 13 topic areas. A total of 1632 nutrition- and early-life–focused research projects funded by the NIH between 2018 and 2020 were manually coded using title, abstract, and public health relevance statement available on NIH RePORTER. Projects were coded as affirmative if they addressed a research gap within 1 of the 13 research gap topic areas. Of coded projects, 235 (14.4%) addressed any early-life nutrition research gap. Between fiscal years 2018 to 2020, total costs of projects addressing any gap represented only 15% of total costs for all projects reviewed. Complementary foods, breastfeeding (never vs. ever), and frequency of eating were research gap areas most frequently coded as being addressed by a funded project. Iron supplementation, seafood consumption, and maternal diet food allergens were research gap areas least frequently coded as being potentially addressed by a funded project. This analysis highlights opportunities for changes in the federal government investment in maternal and child nutrition research to support development of effective, evidence-based dietary guidelines for improvement in early-life nutrition practices and overall public health.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac044
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspectives: on Precision Nutrition Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood
           Diseases and Sleep Disorders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1402 - 1414
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe release of the 2020–2030 Strategic Plan for NIH Nutrition Research (SPNR) and its emphasis on precision nutrition has provided an opportunity to identify future nutrition research that addresses individual variability in response to diet and nutrition across the life span—including those relevant to the Strategic Vision of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The SPNR and the NHLBI's Strategic Vision were developed with extensive input from the extramural research community, and both have 4 overarching strategic goals within which are embedded several objectives for research. For the SPNR, these include 1) spur discovery science and normal biological functions (e.g., role of the microbiome in health and disease), 2) population science to understand individual differences (e.g., biomarkers including ’omics that predict disease status), 3) emerging scientific areas of investigation and their application (e.g., data science, artificial intelligence), and 4) cross-cutting themes (e.g., training the scientific workforce and minority health and health disparities). These strategic goals and objectives serve as blueprints for research and training. Nutrition remains important in the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) disorders and diseases, and the NHLBI has played a pivotal role in supporting nutrition research. In this paper, we report important gaps in the scientific literature related to precision nutrition in HLBS diseases. Research opportunities that could stimulate precision nutrition and their alignment with the SPNR and the NHLBI Strategic Vision Objectives are provided. These opportunities include 1) exploring individual differences in response to varying dietary patterns and nutrients; 2) investigating genetic/epigenetic, biological (e.g., microbiome, biomarkers), social, psychosocial, and environmental underpinnings of individual variability in diet; 3) elucidating the role of circadian rhythm and chrononutrition; and 4) applying implementation science research methods in precision nutrition interventions relevant to HLBS diseases.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac053
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Role of Micronutrients and Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated
           Fatty Acids for Immune Outcomes of Relevance to Infections in Older
           Adults—A Narrative Review and Call for Action

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      Pages: 1415 - 1430
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe immune system is weakened by advancing age, often referred to as immunosenescence, increasing the vulnerability to, and frequently the severity of, infectious diseases in older people. This has become very apparent in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for which older people are at higher risk of severe outcomes, even those who are fully vaccinated. Aging affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems and is characterized by an imbalanced inflammatory response. Increasing evidence shows that optimal status of nutrients such as vitamins C, D, and E and selenium and zinc as well as the omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids DHA and EPA can help compensate for these age-related changes. While inadequate intakes of these nutrients are widespread in the general population, this is often more pronounced in older people. Maintaining adequate intakes is a challenge for them due to a range of factors such as physical, physiological, and cognitive changes; altered absorption; and the presence of noncommunicable diseases. While nutritional requirements are ideally covered by a balanced diet, this can be difficult to achieve, particularly for older people. Fortified foods and nutritional complements are effective in achieving adequate micronutrient intakes and should be considered as a safe and cost-effective means for older people to improve their nutritional status and hence support their defense against infections. Complementing the diet with a combination of micronutrients, particularly those playing a key role in the immune system such as vitamins C, D, and E and selenium and zinc as well as DHA and EPA, is recommended for older people. Optimal nutrition to support the immune system in older people will remain essential, particularly in the face of the current COVID-19 pandemic and, thus, developing strategies to ensure adequate nutrition for the growing number of older adults will be an important and cost-effective investment in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac058
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Darwinian Applications to Nutrition—The Value of
           Evolutionary Insights to Teachers and Students

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      Pages: 1431 - 1439
      Abstract: ABSTRACTEvolutionary biology informs us that the living world is a product of evolution, guided by the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection. This recognition has been fruitfully employed in a number of issues in health and nutrition sciences; however, it has not been incorporated into education. Nutrition and dietetics students generally learn very little or nothing on the subject of evolution, despite the fact that evolution is the process by which our genetically determined physiological traits and needs were shaped. In the present Perspective article, 3 examples of topics (inflammatory diseases, nutrition transition, and food intolerance) that can benefit from evolutionary information and reasoning are given, with relevant lines of research and inquiry provided throughout. It is argued that the application of evolutionary science to these and other areas of nutrition education can facilitate a deeper and more coherent teaching and learning experience. By recognizing and reframing nutrition as an aspect and discipline of biology, grounded in the fundamental principle of adaptation, revelatory light is shed on physiological states and responses, contentious and unresolved issues, genomic, epigenomic, and microbiomic features, and optimal nutrient status and intakes.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac063
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: School Meal Programs Require Higher Vitamin D Fortification
           Levels in Milk Products and Plant-Based Alternatives—Evidence from the
           National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2001–2018)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1440 - 1449
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPoor vitamin D status impairs bone growth and immune defense in school-aged children and adolescents, particularly in minorities. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency increases the risk of acute viral respiratory infection, underscoring the need for adequate vitamin D intakes during school sessions when viral exposure may be greatest. We studied available vitamin D–related survey data and published findings based on NHANES (2001–2018) to assess the dependency of vitamin D status {25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; in nmol/L} on vitamin D intake (μg/d) in elementary school–aged children (4–8 y), middle school children (9–13 y), and high school adolescents (14–18 y). We sought evidence supporting the need for school programs to facilitate vitamin D adequacy. Usual vitamin D intakes from food and beverages by children/adolescents (NHANES 2015–2018) examined at the 50th percentile intake by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic) showed all age groups consumed less than half of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin D (10 μg/d), independent of race/ethnicity. NHANES (2001–2010) analyses show evidence of lower vitamin D status in school-aged children that is linked to lower intakes of fortified milk varying over race/ethnicity and age. Adolescents had lower vitamin D status and milk intake than younger children. A total of 22–44% of vitamin D intakes occurred away from home, with larger percentages of total intakes at breakfast and lunch, at times consistent with school meals. Ever-present inadequate vitamin D intakes with a large percentage consumed away from home together with well-established benefits to growth, bone, and immune defense from enriched vitamin D–fortified milk in school intervention trials provide strong justification to require enriched vitamin D–fortified foods in school meals. An easy to implement plan for improving vitamin D intakes is possible through the FDA's amendment allowing higher vitamin D fortification levels of dairy and plant-based milk alternatives that could increase vitamin D intakes beyond the EAR with just 2 daily servings.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac068
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Leveraging the Gut Microbiota to Predict Personalized
           Responses to Dietary, Prebiotic, and Probiotic Interventions

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      Pages: 1450 - 1461
      Abstract: ABSTRACTHumans often show variable responses to dietary, prebiotic, and probiotic interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is a key determinant for this population heterogeneity. Here, we provide an overview of some of the major computational and experimental tools being applied to critical questions of microbiota-mediated personalized nutrition and health. First, we discuss the latest advances in in silico modeling of the microbiota-nutrition-health axis, including the application of statistical, mechanistic, and hybrid artificial intelligence models. Second, we address high-throughput in vitro techniques for assessing interindividual heterogeneity, from ex vivo batch culturing of stool and continuous culturing in anaerobic bioreactors, to more sophisticated organ-on-a-chip models that integrate both host and microbial compartments. Third, we explore in vivo approaches for better understanding of personalized, microbiota-mediated responses to diet, prebiotics, and probiotics, from nonhuman animal models and human observational studies, to human feeding trials and crossover interventions. We highlight examples of existing, consumer-facing precision nutrition platforms that are currently leveraging the gut microbiota. Furthermore, we discuss how the integration of a broader set of the tools and techniques described in this piece can generate the data necessary to support a greater diversity of precision nutrition strategies. Finally, we present a vision of a precision nutrition and healthcare future, which leverages the gut microbiota to design effective, individual-specific interventions.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac075
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Prunes in Modulating Inflammatory Pathways to Improve Bone
           Health in Postmenopausal Women

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      Pages: 1476 - 1492
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe prevalence of osteoporosis among women aged 50 y and older is expected to reach 13.6 million by 2030. Alternative nonpharmaceutical agents for osteoporosis, including nutritional interventions, are becoming increasingly popular. Prunes (dried plums; Prunus domestica L.) have been studied as a potential whole-food dietary intervention to mitigate bone loss in preclinical models of osteoporosis and in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Sixteen preclinical studies using in vivo rodent models of osteopenia or osteoporosis have established that dietary supplementation with prunes confers osteoprotective effects both by preventing and reversing bone loss. Increasing evidence from 10 studies suggests that, in addition to antiresorptive effects, prunes exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ten preclinical studies have found that prunes and/or their polyphenol extracts decrease malondialdehyde and NO secretion, increase antioxidant enzyme expression, or suppress NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Two clinical trials have investigated the impact of dried plum consumption (50–100 g/d for 6–12 mo) on bone health in postmenopausal women and demonstrated promising effects on bone mineral density and bone biomarkers. However, less is known about the impact of prune consumption on oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in humans and their possible role in modulating bone outcomes. In this review, the current state of knowledge on the relation between inflammation and bone health is outlined. Findings from preclinical and clinical studies that have assessed the effect of prunes on oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and bone outcomes are summarized, and evidence supporting a potential role of prunes in modulating inflammatory and immune pathways is highlighted. Key future directions to bridge the knowledge gap in the field are proposed.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmab162
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review
           and Dose–Response Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

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      Pages: 1493 - 1504
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe aim of the current review was to explore the association between various dietary antioxidants and the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to March 2021. Prospective, observational cohort studies, nested case-control, and case-control designs that investigated the association between antioxidants and PD risk were included. A random-effects model was used to pool the RRs. The certainty of the evidence was rated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) scoring system. In addition, a dose–response relation was examined between antioxidant intake and PD risk. Six prospective cohort studies and 2 nested case-control (total n = 448,737 with 4654 cases), as well as 6 case-control (1948 controls, 1273 cases) studies were eligible. The pooled RR was significantly lower for the highest compared with the lowest intake categories of vitamin E (n = 7; 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99) and anthocyanins (n = 2; 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96) in cohort studies. Conversely, a significantly higher risk of PD was observed for higher lutein intake (n = 3; 1.86; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.88) among case-control studies. Dose–response meta-analyses indicated a significant association between a 50-mg/d increase in vitamin C (n = 6; RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99), a 5-mg/d increment in vitamin E (n = 7; RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99), a 2-mg/d increment in β-carotene (n = 6; RR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99), and a 1-mg/d increment in zinc (n = 1; OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.86) and a reduced risk of PD. Overall, higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods may be associated with a lower risk of PD. Future well-designed prospective studies are needed to validate the present findings. The protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, CRD42021242511).
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac001
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Systematic Review of Literature on the Representation of Racial and
           Ethnic Minority Groups in Clinical Nutrition Interventions

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      Pages: 1505 - 1528
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe racial and ethnic disparities in diet-related chronic diseases are major concerns. This systematic review examines the extent to which diet-induced changes in health outcomes, such as cardiometabolic, inflammation, cancer, bone health, and kidney function outcomes, etc., have been reported and discussed by race or ethnicity in randomized trials with 2 or more diet arms that recruited both minority and non-Hispanic White groups. Databases (i.e., PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were searched up to August 2021. Thirty-four studies that discussed effects of defined dietary interventions on health outcomes by racial or ethnic minority group compared with non-Hispanic Whites were included in the systematic review (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021229256). Acute trials and those with 1 diet arm that accounted for race or ethnicity in their analyses and studies that focused on a single racial or ethnic group were discussed separately. Most studies were conducted in Black compared with White adults testing effects of energy restriction, macronutrient modification, sodium reduction, or variations of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiometabolic outcomes. There was limited focus on other minority groups. Evidence suggests greater blood pressure reduction for Black adults compared with Whites particularly with DASH (or similar) diets. Overall, there was limited consideration for group-specific eating patterns and diet acceptability. Overall risk of bias was low. With emerging precision nutrition initiatives that aim to optimize metabolic responses in population subgroups through tailored approaches, it is imperative to ensure adequate representation of racial and ethnic subgroups for addressing health disparities. Factors that help explain variability in responses such as socioecological context should be included and adequately powered. Given the racial and ethnic disparities in chronic diseases, studying the adoption, maintenance, and effectiveness of dietary interventions on health outcomes among different groups is critical for developing approaches that can mitigate diet-related health disparities.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac002
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Calcium Intake and Metabolism in Infants and Young Children: A Systematic
           Review of Balance Studies for Supporting the Development of Calcium
           Requirements

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      Pages: 1529 - 1553
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDetermining calcium requirements for infants and children is vital due to high calcium needs for growth. Balance studies enable comprehensive measurement of calcium metabolism and can support nutrient requirement development. This systematic review summarizes evidence from mass balance and isotopic studies in children aged 0–4 y to address key questions on calcium loss and absorption/retention identified by an expert group developing calcium requirements. Literature searches were implemented in multiple electronic databases to June 2020. Balance studies assessing calcium intake, loss, absorption, or retention in healthy children were eligible. A newly developed risk-of-bias assessment tool was used for balance studies, and a modified Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach determined strength of evidence. Altogether, 23 studies (15 mass balance; 8 isotope) with 485 total participants were included. Only 3 studies were of children >6 mo. Mass balance studies suggested infant feed components may influence calcium balance. The random-effects model meta-regression on 42 mass balance study arms showed an average net calcium retention of 40.4% among infants aged 0–6 mo (β = 0.404 [95% CI: 0.302, 0.506]). Isotope studies suggested calcium intake of 240 to 400 mg/d may promote optimal calcium absorption with minimal loss, and intake from human milk may lead to greater absorption and retention efficacy than formula or solid foods. Most studies had low risk of bias. Strength of evidence was low due to variability in infant feedings, limited endogenous and dermal calcium loss measures, and few studies isolating calcium effects. To improve certainty of the body of evidence, more balance studies isolating effects of calcium intake in this age group are needed. Future work on calcium needs should incorporate both balance measures and biological endpoints of importance (e.g. bone mineral density or content) to determine adequate calcium intake for growth in infants and children.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac003
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Relations between the Consumption of Fatty or Lean Fish and Risk of
           Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 1554 - 1565
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFish consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) partly ascribed to the high content of long-chain (LC) n–3 PUFAs; however, not all fish types are equally rich in these components. To date, it is not clear whether the beneficial effects of fish consumption are shared by fatty and lean fish. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize knowledge regarding the relation between the intake of fatty fish or lean fish and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase until May 2021 for full text with a prospective design involving humans providing data for the highest compared with the lowest fish consumption categories. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effects model. Out of 1902 articles retrieved from the literature search, 19 reports met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Altogether, studies on fatty fish comprised 1,320,596 person-years of follow-up, 20,531 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases, 9256 incident CVD cases, and 104,763 total deaths. Studies on lean fish comprised 937,362 person-years of follow-up, 21,636 incident CHD cases, 7315 incident CVD cases, and 16,831 total deaths. An inverse association was present for fatty fish with CHD incidence (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97), CHD mortality (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.98), and total mortality (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99). This was not the case for lean fish. The summary estimates for CVD incidence and mortality did not show significant association with both fatty fish and lean fish consumption. The study findings are innovative in highlighting that the health benefits so far linked to fish consumption are, in fact, driven by fatty fish.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac006
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Food Insecurity among American Indian and Alaska Native People: A Scoping
           Review to Inform Future Research and Policy Needs

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      Pages: 1566 - 1583
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFood insecurity, defined as insufficient access to nutritious foods, is a social determinant of health that may underpin health disparities in the US. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals experience many health inequities that may be related to food insecurity, but no systematic analyses of the existing evidence have been published. Thus, the objective of this scoping review was to assess the literature on food insecurity among AI/AN individuals and communities, with a focus on the prevalence of food insecurity and its relations to sociodemographic, nutrition, and health characteristics. Systematic search and data extraction processes were used. Searches were conducted on PubMed as well as peer-reviewed journal and government websites. Of 3174 identified references, 34 publications describing 30 studies with predominantly AI/AN sample populations were included in the final narrative synthesis. Twenty-two studies (73%) were cross-sectional and the remaining 8 (27%) described interventions. The weighted average prevalence of food insecurity across the studies was 45.7%, although estimates varied from 16% to 80%. Most studies used some version of the USDA Food Security Survey Modules, although evidence supporting its validity in AI/AN respondents is limited. Based on the review, recommendations for future research were derived, which include fundamental validity testing, better representation of AI/AN individuals in federal or local food security reports, and consideration of cultural contexts when selecting methodological approaches. Advances in AI/AN food insecurity research could yield tangible benefits to ongoing initiatives aimed at increasing access to traditional foods, improving food environments on reservations and homelands, and supporting food sovereignty.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac008
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Impact of α-Linolenic Acid, the Vegetable ω-3 Fatty Acid, on
           Cardiovascular Disease and Cognition

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      Pages: 1584 - 1602
      Abstract: ABSTRACTGiven the evidence of the health benefits of plant-based diets and long-chain n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids, there is keen interest in better understanding the role of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived n–3 fatty acid, on cardiometabolic diseases and cognition. There is increasing evidence for ALA largely based on its major food sources (i.e., walnuts and flaxseed); however, this lags behind our understanding of long-chain n–3 fatty acids. Meta-analyses of observational studies have shown that increasing dietary ALA is associated with a 10% lower risk of total cardiovascular disease and a 20% reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) [AlphaOmega trial, Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial, and Lyon Diet Heart Study] all showed benefits of diets high in ALA on cardiovascular-related outcomes, but the AlphaOmega trial, designed to specifically evaluate ALA effects, only showed a trend for benefit. RCTs have shown that dietary ALA reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure, and epidemiologic studies and some trials also have shown an anti-inflammatory effect of ALA, which collectively account for, in part, the cardiovascular benefits of ALA. A meta-analysis reported a trend toward diabetes risk reduction with both dietary and biomarker ALA. For metabolic syndrome and obesity, the evidence for ALA benefits is inconclusive. The role of ALA in cognition is in the early stages but shows promising evidence of counteracting cognitive impairment. Much has been learned about the health benefits of ALA and with additional research we will be better positioned to make strong evidence-based dietary recommendations for the reduction of many chronic diseases.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac016
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Food Security of Temporary Foreign Farm Workers under the Seasonal
           Agricultural Worker Program in Canada and the United States: A Scoping
           Review

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      Pages: 1603 - 1627
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTemporary foreign farm workers (TFWs) are among the most vulnerable and exploitable groups. Recent research shows alarming rates of food insecurity among them. This review explores research focussing on food security of TFWs in Canada and the United States, summarizes findings, and identifies research gaps. Online databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and government and nongovernment websites, and websites of migrant worker–supporting organizations were searched for peer-reviewed and non–peer-reviewed papers and reports published between 1966 and 2020 regarding food security of TFWs. Articles reviewed were analyzed to determine publication type, country, year, target population, and main findings. Content analysis was performed to identify major themes. Of 291 sources identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Most articles (n = 10) were based on studies conducted in the United States. The prevalence of food insecurity among TFWs ranged between 28% and 87%. From the content analysis, we formulated 9 themes, representing a diversity of perspectives, including access to resources, income, housing and related facilities, food access, dietary pattern and healthy food choices, and migrant's legal status. Instruments reported for the measurement of food security include USDA Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM; n = 8, 72.7%), the modified version of the USDA HFSSM (n = 1, 9%), hunger measure (n = 1, 9%), the modified CDC's NHANES (n = 1, 9%), and 24-h recall, diet history, and/or food-frequency questionnaire (n = 3, 27.3%). Factors impacting food security of TFWs working under the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Programs (SAWPs) in North America are understudied. There is a need to advance research looking particularly at policies and regulatory and administrative aspects of the SAWPs to improve the food security of this cohort. There is also a need for qualitative studies that explore lived experiences and perspectives of TFWs and key informants. Longitudinal studies may be useful to examine various factors, including policy-related, contributing to food insecurity of TFWs over time.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac027
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Patterns and Gut Microbiota: The Crucial Actors in Inflammatory
           Bowel Disease

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      Pages: 1628 - 1651
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIt is widely believed that diet and the gut microbiota are strongly related to the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the effects of the interaction between dietary patterns and the gut microbiota on IBD have not been well elucidated. In this article, we aim to explore the complex relation between dietary patterns, gut microbiota, and IBD. We first comprehensively summarized the dietary patterns associated with IBD and found that dietary patterns can modulate the occurrence and progression of IBD through various signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and NF-κB. Besides, the gut microbiota performs a vital role in the progression of IBD, which can affect the expression of IBD susceptibility genes, such as dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and APOA-1 , the intestinal barrier (in particular, the expression of tight junction proteins), immune function (especially the homeostasis between effector and regulatory T cells) and the physiological metabolism, in particular, SCFAs, bile acids (BAs), and tryptophan metabolism. Finally, we reviewed the current knowledge on the interaction between dietary patterns and the gut microbiota in IBD and found that dietary patterns modulate the onset and progression of IBD, which is partly attributed to the regulation of the gut microbiota (especially SCFAs-producing bacteria and Escherichia coli). Faecalibacteria as “microbiomarkers” of IBD could be used as a target for dietary interventions to alleviate IBD. A comprehensive understanding of the interplay between dietary intake, gut microbiota, and IBD will facilitate the development of personalized dietary strategies based on the regulation of the gut microbiota in IBD and expedite the era of precision nutritional interventions for IBD.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac029
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Leveraging Observational Cohorts to Study Diet and Nutrition in Older
           Adults: Opportunities and Obstacles

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      Pages: 1652 - 1668
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBy 2060, the number of adults aged ≥65 y is expected to double, and the ≥85 y segment of the population is expected to triple in the United States. US federal nutrition guidance is based on the premise that healthy diets contribute to delaying the onset and progression of many age-related diseases and disability. Yet, little is known about the dietary intakes or nutritional needs across the older adulthood age span. This review aims to identify community-based cohorts that collected information on dietary intake of adults ≥65 y in the United States. Thirty-two cohorts met all inclusion criteria. We summarized information on the cohorts’ design, demographics, and diet assessment. We also identified key gaps in the existing databases that, if filled, could enhance their utility to address certain research questions. This review serves as a valuable inventory of cohorts that can be leveraged to answer key questions about the diet and nutritional needs of the oldest old, who represent the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac031
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Unhealthy Food and Beverage Consumption in Children and Risk of Overweight
           and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 1669 - 1696
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis WHO-commissioned review contributed to the update of complementary feeding recommendations, synthesizing evidence on effects of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in children on overweight and obesity. We searched PubMed (Medline), Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase for articles, irrespective of language or geography. Inclusion criteria were: 1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, cohort studies, and pre/post studies with control; 2) participants aged ≤10.9 y at exposure; 3) studies reporting greater consumption of unhealthy foods/beverages compared with no or low consumption; 4) studies assessing anthropometric and/or body composition; and 5) publication date ≥1971. Unhealthy foods and beverages were defined using nutrient- and food-based approaches. Risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I (risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions version I) and RoB2 [Cochrane RoB (version 2)] tools for nonrandomized and randomized studies, respectively. Narrative synthesis was complemented by meta-analyses where appropriate. Certainty of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Of 26,542 identified citations, 60 studies from 71 articles were included. Most studies were observational (59/60), and no included studies were from low-income countries. The evidence base was low quality, as assessed by ROBINS-I and RoB2 tools. Evidence synthesis was limited by the different interventions and comparators across studies. Evidence indicated that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and unhealthy foods in childhood may increase BMI/BMI z-score, percentage body fat, or odds of overweight/obesity (low certainty of evidence). Artificially sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice consumption make little/no difference to BMI, percentage body fat, or overweight/obesity outcomes (low certainty of evidence). Meta-analyses of a subset of studies indicated a positive association between SSB intake and percentage body fat, but no association with change in BMI and BMI z-score. High-quality epidemiological studies that are designed to assess the effects of unhealthy food consumption during childhood on risk of overweight/obesity are needed to contribute to a more robust evidence base upon which to design policy recommendations.This protocol was registered at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42020218109.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac032
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation on Blood Glucose: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis

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      Pages: 1697 - 1714
      Abstract: ABSTRACTRecently developed ketone (monoester or salt) supplements acutely elevate blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exogenously without prolonged periods of fasting or carbohydrate restriction. Previous (small-scale) studies have found a blood glucose-lowering effect of exogenous ketones. This study aimed to systematically review available evidence and conduct meta-analyses of studies reporting on exogenous ketones and blood glucose. We searched 6 electronic databases on 13 December 2021 for randomized and nonrandomized trials of any length that reported on the use of exogenous ketones. We calculated raw mean differences (MDs) in blood BHB and glucose in 2 main analyses: 1) after compared with before acute ingestion of exogenous ketones and 2) following acute ingestion of exogenous ketones compared with a comparator supplement. We pooled effect sizes using random-effects models and performed prespecified subgroup analyses to examine the effect of potential explanatory factors, including study population, exercise, blood BHB, and supplement type, dosing, and timing. Risk of bias was examined using Cochrane's risk-of-bias tools. Studies that could not be meta-analyzed were summarized narratively. Forty-three trials including 586 participants are summarized in this review. Following ingestion, exogenous ketones increased blood BHB (MD = 1.73 mM; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.21 mM; P < 0.001) and decreased mean blood glucose (MD = –0.54 mM; 95% CI: –0.68, –0.40 mM; P < 0.001). Similarly, when compared with placebo, blood BHB increased (MD = 1.98 mM; 95% CI: 1.52, 2.45 mM; P < 0.001) and blood glucose decreased (MD = –0.47 mM; 95% CI: –0.57, –0.36 mM; P < 0.001). Across both analyses, significantly greater effects were seen with ketone monoesters compared with salts (P < 0.001). The available evidence indicates that acute ingestion of exogenous ketones leads to increased blood BHB and decreased blood glucose. Limited evidence on prolonged ketone supplementation was found.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac036
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Interventions for Gastroparesis: A Systematic Review

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      Pages: 1715 - 1724
      Abstract: ABSTRACTGastroparesis (Gp) is a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of a mechanical obstruction and has the capacity to cause symptoms that significantly impact a patient's quality of life. Dietary interventions are the first-line treatment in Gp, but the efficacy of different diets is unclear. This systematic review seeks to determine the effectiveness of dietary interventions on clinical outcomes in Gp. A literature search of MEDLINE Ovid from 1 March 2008 to 1 October 2021 was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies that reported dietary interventions in Gp. From the initial search, 2789 studies resulted. These were assessed by 2 independent reviewers and selected based on the primary outcomes of interest: changes in symptom-specific patient-reported outcomes and changes in gastric emptying time. A third reviewer resolved any discrepancies. Six adult studies (185 subjects) met the inclusion criteria, whereas no pediatric study did. Five of the included studies were randomized controlled trials and one was an observational study. The systematic review suggested low-fat diets, small-particle diets, diets with isoflavones, and foods considered bland, starchy, sweet, and salty did not exacerbate Gp symptoms. Small-particle diets and diets with isoflavones were found to improve gastric emptying time in patients. Additionally, small-particle diets were shown to reduce anxiety in comparison to large-particle diets. Of the randomized controlled trials, 80% were low risk of bias and 20% were fair risk of bias. The observational study was considered fair quality. The data presented in this review suggest specific dietary interventions could potentially improve Gp symptoms and gastric emptying in adult patients, particularly low-fat and small-particle diets. For pediatric Gp, data are lacking. The limited data available highlights a critical gap in the literature.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac037
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Epigenetic Effects of Healthy Foods and Lifestyle Habits from the Southern
           European Atlantic Diet Pattern: A Narrative Review

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      Pages: 1725 - 1747
      Abstract: ABSTRACTRecent scientific evidence has shown the importance of diet and lifestyle habits for the proper functioning of the human body. A balanced and healthy diet, physical activity, and psychological well-being have a direct beneficial effect on health and can have a crucial role in the development and prognosis of certain diseases. The Southern European Atlantic diet, also named the Atlantic diet, is a unique dietary pattern that occurs in regions that present higher life expectancy, suggesting that this specific dietary pattern is associated with positive health effects. In fact, it is enriched with nutrients of high biological value, which, together with its cooking methods, physical activity promotion, reduction in carbon footprint, and promoting of family meals, promote these positive effects on health. The latest scientific advances in the field of nutri-epigenetics have revealed that epigenetic markers associated with food or nutrients and environmental factors modulate gene expression and, therefore, are involved with both health and disease. Thus, in this review, we evaluated the main aspects that define the Southern European Atlantic diet and the potential epigenetic changes associated with them based on recent studies regarding the main components of these dietary patterns. In conclusion, based on the information existing in the literature, we postulate that the Southern European Atlantic diet could promote healthy aging by means of epigenetic mechanisms. This review highlights the necessity of performing longitudinal studies to demonstrate this proposal.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac038
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Nutritional Epigenetics in Cancer

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      Pages: 1748 - 1761
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAlterations in the epigenome are well known to affect cancer development and progression. Epigenetics is highly influenced by the environment, including diet, which is a source of metabolic substrates that influence the synthesis of cofactors or substrates for chromatin and RNA modifying enzymes. In addition, plants are a common source of bioactives that can directly modify the activity of these enzymes. Here, we review and discuss the impact of diet on epigenetic mechanisms, including chromatin and RNA regulation, and its potential implications for cancer prevention and treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac039
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Egg Consumption and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A
           Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

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      Pages: 1762 - 1773
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe association between egg consumption and mortality is extremely debatable. This study aimed to investigate the potential dose-response association of egg consumption with risk of mortality from all causes and cause-specific in the general population. The primary comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Embase up to March 2021, as well as reference lists of relevant original papers and key journals. We calculated summary RRs and their 95% CIs for the highest and lowest categories, as well as the linear trend estimation of egg intake, using the random-effects model. Thirty-three (32 publications) cohort studies were included. These studies enrolled 2,216,720 participants and recorded 232,408 deaths from all causes. Comparing highest versus lowest egg intake categories was not associated with the risk of mortality from all causes (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.11; n = 25), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.23, n = 11), coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.16; n = 10), stroke (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02; n = 9), and respiratory disease (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.71; n = 3); however, it was associated with a higher risk of cancer mortality (RR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.39; n = 13). In the linear dose-response analysis, an additional intake of 1 egg per week was associated with a 2% and 4% increased risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, respectively, and a 4% decreased risk of stroke mortality. The certainty of the evidence was rated as low to moderate. Higher egg consumption was not associated with an increased risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, CHD, stroke, or respiratory disease, whereas an elevated risk was observed for cancer mortality. These findings suggest that eggs be consumed in low to moderate amounts (≤1 egg/d) as part of a healthy diet.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac040
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • An Empirical Evaluation of the Impact Scenario of Pooling Bodies of
           Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials and Cohort Studies in Nutrition
           Research

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      Pages: 1774 - 1786
      Abstract: ABSTRACTOnly very few Cochrane nutrition reviews include cohort studies (CSs), but most evidence in nutrition research comes from CSs. We aimed to pool bodies of evidence (BoE) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) derived from Cochrane reviews with matched BoE from CSs. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and MEDLINE were searched for systematic reviews (SRs) of RCTs and SRs of CSs. BoE from RCTs were pooled together with BoE from CSs using random-effects and common-effect models. Heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, contributed weight of BoE from RCTs to the pooled estimate, and whether integration of BoE from CSs modified the conclusion from BoE of RCTs were evaluated. Overall, 80 diet–disease outcome pairs based on 773 RCTs and 720 CSs were pooled. By pooling BoE from RCTs and CSs with a random-effects model, for 45 (56%) out of 80 diet–disease associations the 95% CI excluded no effect and showed mainly a reduced risk/inverse association. By pooling BoE from RCTs and CSs, median I2 = 46% and the median contributed weight of RCTs to the pooled estimates was 34%. The direction of effect between BoE from RCTs and pooled effect estimates was rarely opposite (n = 17; 21%). The integration of BoE from CSs modified the result (by examining the 95% CI) from BoE of RCTs in 35 (44%) of the 80 diet–disease associations.Our pooling scenario showed that the integration of BoE from CSs modified the conclusion from BoE of RCTs in nearly 50% of the associations, although the direction of effect was mainly concordant between BoE of RCTs and pooled estimates. Our findings provide insights for the potential impact of pooling both BoE in Cochrane nutrition reviews. CSs should be considered for inclusion in future Cochrane nutrition reviews, and we recommend analyzing RCTs and CSs in separate meta-analyses, or, if combined together, with a subgroup analysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac042
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Association between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Type 2
           Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
           of Prospective Cohort Studies

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      Pages: 1787 - 1798
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDespite earlier meta-analyses on the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) and risk of diabetes, there is no comprehensive and updated study assessing this issue. Furthermore, no earlier study has examined the nonlinear dose–response relation between consumption of an MD and risk of diabetes. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the linear and nonlinear dose–response relation between MD and incidence of diabetes. Using relevant keywords, electronic searches for prospective studies were conducted in ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus until January 2022. The reported HRs or ORs in the primary studies were regarded as RRs. The overall effect was calculated using a random-effects model that accounts for between-study variability. The potential nonlinear dose–response associations were tested using a 2-stage hierarchical regression model. Based on 16 prospective studies (with 17 effect sizes), we found that the greatest adherence to the MD was significantly associated with a reduced risk of diabetes (pooled RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.90; I2 = 79%, P ≤ 0.001). Based on linear dose–response analysis, each 1-score increase in the Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 3% decreased risk of diabetes (HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98; P < 0.001). A nonlinear relation (P-nonlinearity = 0.001) was also observed between MD score and risk of type 2 diabetes. Even modest adherence to the MD was linked to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes. The protocol is also registered in the International Prospective Register Of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration ID: CRD 42021265332).
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac046
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Lactoferrin Supplementation on Inflammation, Immune Function,
           and Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis

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      Pages: 1799 - 1819
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein present in human and bovine milk with antimicrobial and immune-modulating properties. This review aimed to examine the evidence for the effect of Lf supplementation on inflammation, immune function, and respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in humans. Online databases were searched up to December 2020 to identify relevant, English-language articles that examined the effect of Lf supplementation in human subjects of all ages, on either inflammation, immune cell populations or activity, or the incidence, duration, or severity of respiratory illness or RTIs. Twenty-five studies (n = 20 studies in adults) were included, of which 8 of 13 studies (61%) in adults reported a decrease in at least 1 systemic inflammatory biomarker. Immune function improved in 6 of 8 studies (75%) in adults, with changes in immune cell populations in 2 of 6 studies (33%), and changes in immune cell activity in 2 of 5 studies (40%). RTI outcomes were reduced in 6 of 10 studies (60%) (n = 5 in adults, n = 5 in children), with decreased incidence in 3 of 9 studies (33%), and either decreased frequency (2/4, 50%) or duration (3/6, 50%) in 50% of studies. In adults, Lf reduced IL-6 [mean difference (MD): –24.9 pg/mL; 95% CI: –41.64, –8.08 pg/mL], but not C-reactive protein (CRP) [standardized mean difference: –0.09; 95% CI: –0.82, 0.65], or NK cell cytotoxicity [MD: 4.84%; 95% CI: –3.93, 13.60%]. RTI incidence was reduced in infants and children (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98) but not in adults (OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.32). Clinical studies on Lf supplementation are limited, although findings show 200 mg Lf/d reduces systemic inflammation, while formulas containing 35–833 mg Lf/d may reduce RTI incidence in infants and children, suggesting improved immune function. Future research is required to determine optimal supplementation strategies and populations most likely to benefit from Lf supplementation. This trial was registered at PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php'ID=CRD42021232186) as CRD42021232186.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac047
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Global Review of National Strategies to Reduce Sodium Concentrations in
           Packaged Foods

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      Pages: 1820 - 1833
      Abstract: ABSTRACTStrategies to reduce sodium concentrations in packaged foods are effective and cost-effective approaches to reducing the burden of disease attributable to high sodium intakes. This review aimed to comprehensively describe, and explore characteristics of, national strategies to reduce sodium concentrations in packaged foods, and assess progress toward achieving national goals. A secondary aim was to understand the number, type, and variation of food category sodium targets set by countries compared with WHO global sodium benchmarks. National sodium reduction reformulation strategies were identified from a search of peer-reviewed and gray literature up to December 2019 supplemented by verified information from key contacts and experts up to December 2020. Key characteristics of countries’ strategies were extracted, synthesized, and descriptively analyzed, including details of reformulation strategies and evaluation data. Country targets were mapped to the WHO global sodium benchmarks, and the number and variation of country sodium targets by WHO food categories were determined. Sixty-two countries had reformulation strategies to reduce sodium in packaged foods, and 19 countries had evaluated their reformulation strategies. Forty-three countries had sodium targets, which varied in type of targets (maximum sodium concentration: n = 26; maximum concentration plus relative reduction/average/sales-weighted average: n = 8; relative reduction: n = 7; average: n = 2), number of food category targets (range: n = 1 to 150), and regulatory approach (voluntary: n = 28; mandatory: n = 9; both: n = 6). Eight of 34 countries mapped to the WHO benchmarks had targets for just 1 specified food category (bread products). One-third of all countries were implementing national strategies to reduce sodium concentrations in packaged foods including establishing targets and/or processes for industry engagement. This review determined that there is scope to improve most countries’ strategies. There has been limited progress in implementing and evaluating strategies between 2014 and 2019, and regional and income-level disparities persist. The WHO global sodium benchmarks present an important opportunity to accelerate reformulation action globally.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac048
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dose–Response Association of Dietary Inflammatory Potential with
           All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

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      Pages: 1834 - 1845
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAlthough the association of dietary inflammatory potential, evaluated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), with all-cause and cause-specific mortality has been reported, evidence remains equivocal, with no relevant dose–response meta-analysis having been conducted. To examine the dose–response association of dietary inflammatory potential with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched up to August 9, 2021. Cohort studies were included if DII was reported as ≥3 levels or per incremental increase, and if the associations of DII with all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality were assessed. Generalized least squares regression was used to estimate study-specific dose–response associations, and the random effect model was used to pool the RRs and 95% CIs of all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality per 1-unit increase in DII. Restricted cubic splines were used to intuitively display the dose–response association between dietary inflammatory potential and mortality. Of the 1415 studies retrieved, 15 articles (17 cohort studies involving 397,641 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. With per 1-unit increase in DII, the risks were significantly increased for all-cause mortality (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.05, I2 = 51.8%; P-heterogeneity = 0.009), cancer mortality (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04, I2 = 58.6%; P-heterogeneity = 0.013), and CVD mortality (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06, I2 = 85.7%; P-heterogeneity <0.001), respectively. Restricted cubic splines showed significant positive linear associations between DII and the above 3 outcomes. Our study indicated that proinflammatory diets can increase the risk of all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality in a linear manner.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac049
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status among Refugees in Host Countries: A
           Systematic Review

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      Pages: 1846 - 1865
      Abstract: ABSTRACTRefugees remain vulnerable to acute food insecurity, malnutrition, and critically inadequate food and nutrient intake after migration, regardless of the economic level of the host country. We conducted this systematic review to summarize and evaluate the dietary intake and nutritional status among refugees resettled in non-camp settings worldwide. We searched PubMed and Web of Science databases to review relevant studies published between 2009 and 2020 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We also conducted an additional manual search through PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies that evaluated both dietary intake and nutritional status of refugees in host countries were included. A total of 15 articles from 10 countries were included and assessed for study quality and outcomes. Poor dietary diversity and insufficient intake of specific food groups were reported. In addition to these dietary patterns, a high prevalence of stunting, underweight, and anemia was reported, particularly among children. A double burden of malnutrition was also observed across and within studies. Post-resettlement dietary intake and nutritional status of refugees are both influenced by factors at the pre- and post-resettlement stages as refugees transition to their host countries. Those factors, including pre-resettlement experiences, host country resources, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and food security, were summarized and presented in a conceptual model. There is a need for comprehensive dietary and health screening as well as culturally appropriate and sustainable nutrition education resources and interventions for refugees to improve their diet and nutrition. Longitudinal studies and novel methodological approaches are also suggested to measure changes in refugees’ food intake and nutritional status as well as to further investigate factors associated with these 2 components.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac051
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Factors that Moderate the Effect of Nitrate Ingestion on Exercise
           Performance in Adults: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses and
           Meta-Regressions

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      Pages: 1866 - 1881
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTo identify how variables such as exercise condition, supplementation strategy, participant characteristics and demographics, and practices that control oral microbiota diversity could modify the effect of inorganic nitrate ingestion (as nitrate salt supplements, beetroot juice, and nitrate-rich vegetables) on exercise performance, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis. Studies were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of inorganic nitrate on exercise performance in healthy adults. To assess the variation in effect size, we used meta-regression models for continuous variables and subgroup analysis for categorical variables. A total of 123 studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 1705 participants. Nitrate was effective for improving exercise performance (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.101; 95% CI: 0.051, 0.151, P <0.001, I2 = 0%), although nitrate salts supplementation was not as effective (P = 0.629) as ingestion via beetroot juice (P <0.001) or a high-nitrate diet (P = 0.005). Practices that control oral microbiota diversity influenced the nitrate effect, with practices harmful to oral bacteria decreasing the ergogenic effect of nitrate. The ingestion of nitrate was most effective for exercise lasting between 2 and 10 min (P <0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between the fraction of inspired oxygen and the effect size (coefficient: –0.045, 95% CI: –0.085, –0.005, P = 0.028) suggests that nitrate was more effective in increasingly hypoxic conditions. There was a dose-response relation for acute administration (P = 0.049). The most effective acute dose was between 5 and 14.9 mmol provided ≥150 min prior to exercise (P <0.001). An inverse dose-response for protocols ≥2 d was observed (P = 0.025), with the optimal dose between 5 and 9.9 mmol·d−1 (P <0.001). Nitrate, via beetroot juice or a high-nitrate diet, improved exercise performance, in particular, in sessions lasting between 2 and 10 min. Ingestion of 5–14.9 mmol⋅d−1 taken ≥150 min prior to exercise appears optimal for performance gains and athletes should be aware that practices controlling oral microbiota diversity may decrease the effect of nitrate.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac054
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1: From a Nutrient Sensor to a Key
           Regulator of Metabolism and Health

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      Pages: 1882 - 1900
      Abstract: ABSTRACTMechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a multi-protein complex widely found in eukaryotes. It serves as a central signaling node to coordinate cell growth and metabolism by sensing diverse extracellular and intracellular inputs, including amino acid–, growth factor–, glucose-, and nucleotide-related signals. It is well documented that mTORC1 is recruited to the lysosomal surface, where it is activated and, accordingly, modulates downstream effectors involved in regulating protein, lipid, and glucose metabolism. mTORC1 is thus the central node for coordinating the storage and mobilization of nutrients and energy across various tissues. However, emerging evidence indicated that the overactivation of mTORC1 induced by nutritional disorders leads to the occurrence of a variety of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes, as well as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. That the mTORC1 pathway plays a crucial role in regulating the occurrence of metabolic diseases renders it a prime target for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying how mTORC1 integrates metabolic inputs as well as the role of mTORC1 in the regulation of nutritional and metabolic diseases.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac055
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Isomaltulose on Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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      Pages: 1901 - 1913
      Abstract: ABSTRACTEvidence regarding the effect of isomaltulose on glycemic and insulinemic responses is still conflicting, which limits isomaltulose's application in glycemic management. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate its effectiveness and evidence quality. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) prior to October 2021. RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they enrolled adults to oral intake of isomaltulose or other carbohydrates dissolved in water after an overnight fast and compared their 2-h postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. The DerSimonian-Laird method was used to pool the means of the circulating glucose and insulin concentrations. Both random-effects and fixed-effects models were used to calculate the weighted mean difference in postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in different groups. Subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses were also conducted. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. Finally, 11 RCTs (n = 175 participants) were included. The trials were conducted in 4 countries (Japan, Brazil, Germany, and the Netherlands), and all of the enrolled participants were >18 y of age with various health statuses (healthy, type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension). Moderate evidence suggested that oral isomaltulose caused an attenuated glycemic response compared with sucrose at 30 min. Low evidence suggested that oral isomaltulose caused an attenuated but more prolonged glycemic response than sucrose and an attenuated insulinemic response. Low-to-moderate levels of evidence suggest there may be more benefit of isomaltulose for people with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or hypertension; older people; overweight or obese people; and Asian people. The study was registered on PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) as CRD42021290396 (available at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac057
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Physiological Roles of Carnosine in Myocardial Function and Health

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      Pages: 1914 - 1929
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCarnosine is a pleiotropic histidine-containing dipeptide synthesized from β-alanine and l-histidine, with the intact dipeptide and constituent amino acids being available from the diet. The therapeutic application of carnosine in myocardial tissue is promising, with carnosine playing a potentially beneficial role in both healthy and diseased myocardial models. This narrative review discusses the role of carnosine in myocardial function and health, including an overview of the metabolic pathway of carnosine in the myocardial tissue, the roles carnosine may play in the myocardium, and a critical analysis of the literature, focusing on the effect of exogenous carnosine and its precursors on myocardial function. By so doing, we aim to identify current gaps in the literature, thereby identifying considerations for future research.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac059
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Contribution of Biological Age–Predictive Biomarkers to Nutrition
           Research: A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence and Implications for
           Future Research and Clinical Practice

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      Pages: 1930 - 1946
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe global population is living longer; however, not everyone ages at the same rate with regard to their physical and cognitive abilities and their vulnerability to certain diseases and death. This review aimed to synthesize the contribution of biological age–predictive biomarkers to nutrition research and highlight the implications for future research and clinical practice. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL were systematically searched on 30 September 2021 for randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional studies examining the association between nutrition and biological age in older adults reporting on genetic, clinical, or molecular biomarkers of biological aging. Cochrane's ROB 2 and ROBINS-I were used to assess the quality of included studies. Synthesis was undertaken narratively. Of 1245 records identified from the search, 13 studies from 8 countries and territories, involving 5043 participants, were included. Seven studies assessed associations between nutrient food intake and telomere attrition, reporting protective effects for branched-chain amino acids, calcium and vitamin D, and a diet of a lower inflammatory index; whereas they found shorter telomeres in people consuming more processed foods and arachidonic acid and other proinflammatory compounds. Five studies examined the associations between plasma nutrition biomarkers and cognitive function, and found a protective effect for HDL cholesterol, lycopene, carotenoids, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and vitamins B, C, D, and E; whereas trans fatty acids and fibrinogen correlated with a decline in cognitive function. One study used Horvath's clock and reported the epigenetic rejuvenation effect of a Mediterranean diet. In conclusion, biological aging was negatively associated with an anti-inflammatory diet. However, a few studies did not control for the confounding effect of other lifestyle factors. Future research should address this and also assess the synergistic effect of different nutrients, their combinations, and evaluate their dose–response relations. Nutrition practice can incorporate updated screening procedures for older people that include relevant biological aging nutrition markers, leading to anti-aging precision nutrition therapy. The methodology of this systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021288122).
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac060
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Scoping Review of Epidemiological Studies on Intake of Sugars in
           Geographically Dispersed Asian Countries: Comparison of Dietary Assessment
           Methodology

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      Pages: 1947 - 1973
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPrevious systematic reviews, which focused on sugar intake and its relation with health issues, were mainly conducted in Western countries, not Asian countries characterized by differences in dietary habits and disease prevalence. The scarcity of Asian studies may be attributed to the lack of assessment tools for estimating sugar intake. To provide an overview of the epidemiological studies on sugar intake in Asian countries, with a primary focus on dietary assessment methodology for estimating sugar intake, we conducted a scoping review of the epidemiological studies estimating sugar intake in Asian countries (the United Nations’ definition) and Taiwan using PubMed and Web of Science. Study quality was evaluated based on its assessment of sugar intake in the whole diet, dietary assessment methods, and data sources used for estimating sugar content. We identified 143 studies from 136 publications from Eastern (n = 63), Southern (n = 30), South-Eastern (n = 26), and Western (n = 24) Asia. Total sugars were investigated in 95 studies, while 23–30 studies investigated sucrose, fructose, added sugars, and free sugars. The main aim of the selected studies was assessment of diet–disease relations (n = 85) and estimation of dietary intake (n = 40), and 62 studies assessed sugars as the primary exposure/outcome. A total of 120 studies assessed sugar intake in the whole diet, and 62 studies used validated FFQs or multiple-day dietary assessment methods. Only 41 studies used country-specific comprehensive food-composition databases or directly measured sugar content. Only 17 studies reported high-quality data. This review elucidated a sufficient number of epidemiological studies estimating sugar intake across Asian countries; however, most studies reported low-quality data. The results from our review showed that both feasible and validated dietary assessment methods, as well as comprehensive country-specific sugar-composition databases, are essential for producing high-quality studies with accurate sugar intake to examine its association with health outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac061
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Dietary-Based Lifestyle Modification Approaches on
           Anthropometric Indices and Dietary Intake Parameters in Women with Breast
           Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled
           Trials

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      Pages: 1974 - 1988
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of dietary-based lifestyle modification interventions (“diet,” or “diet + exercise,” or “diet + exercise + behavioral” intervention) on the measures of anthropometric and dietary intake parameters in women with breas cancer (BC). Databases were searched until June 2021. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials that enrolled only women with BC. Studies that used exercise or behavioral interventions alone were not included. Mean ± SD changes were extracted for each outcome, and pooled using a random-effects model; 7315 studies were identified. Fifty-one studies (n = 7743) were included. The median ± SD duration of treatment was 24 ± 16.65 wk. Dietary-based interventions significantly reduced body weight [45 studies (n = 7239), weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI): −2.6 (−3.2, −2.1) kg], BMI [31 studies (n = 5384); WMD (95% CI): −1.0 (−1.3, −0.7) kg/m2], lean body mass [15 studies (n = 1194); WMD (95% CI): −0.6(−0.7, −0.4) kg], fat mass [11 studies (n = 913); WMD (95% CI): –2.6 (−3.3, −1.8) kg], fat percentage [17 studies (n = 897); WMD (95% CI): −1.5 (−1.9, −1.3)%], hip circumference [9 studies (n = 489); WMD (95% CI): −2.43 (−3.34, −1.54) cm], and waist circumference [7 studies (n = 309); WMD (95% CI): 0.02 (−0.03, −0.005) cm]. Significant reductions in energy intakes [20 studies (n = 4608), WMD (95% CI): −162 (−220, 104) kcal/d] and fat intakes [7 studies (n = 4316), WMD (95% CI): −7.5 (−7.8, −7.2)% of energy/d], and an increase in fiber intakes [11 studies (n = 4241), WMD (95% CI): 2.4 (0.7, 4.1) g/d] were observed. No significant changes were seen in protein, carbohydrate, and fruit and vegetable intakes. Subgroup analyses showed that changes in anthropometric and dietary intake indices were significant in studies that enrolled patients with both obesity and normal weight, studies that used diet therapy in combination with exercise and behavioral therapy, and studies that started the intervention during the treatment period. Overall, a multimodal dietary-based lifestyle intervention had significant effects on anthropometric and dietary intake parameters in women with BC, specifically when started as early as the diagnosis. This meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42021291488.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac062
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dietary PUFAs and Exercise Dynamic Actions on Endocannabinoids in Brain:
           Consequences for Neural Plasticity and Neuroinflammation

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      Pages: 1989 - 2001
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe brain and peripheral nervous system provide oversight to muscle physiology and metabolism. Muscle is the largest organ in the body and critical for glucose sensitivity, prevention of diabetes, and control of obesity. The central nervous system produces endocannabinoids (eCBs) that play a role in brain neurobiology, such as inflammation and pain. Interestingly, studies in humans and rodents show that a moderate duration of exercise increases eCBs in the brain and blood and influences cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoid actions in the nervous system have advanced our understanding of pain, well-being, and disease. Nutrition is an important aspect of brain and eCB physiology because eCBs are biosynthesized from PUFAs. The primary eCB metabolites are derived from arachidonic acid, a 20:4n–6 (ω-6) PUFA, and the n–3 (ω-3) PUFAs, EPA and DHA. The eCBs bind to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 to exert a wide range of activities, such as stimulating appetite, influencing energy metabolism, supporting the immune system, and facilitating neuroplasticity. A diet containing different essential n–6 and n–3 PUFAs will dominate the formation of specific eCBs, and subsequently their actions as ligands for CB1 and CB2. The eCBs also function as substrates for cyclooxygenase enzymes, including potential substrates for the oxylipins (OxLs), which can be proinflammatory. Together, the eCBs and OxLs act as modulators of neuroinflammation. Thus, dietary PUFAs have implications for exercise responses via synthesis of eCBs and their effects on neuroinflammation. Neurotrophins also participate in interactions between diet and the eCBs, specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF supports neuroplasticity in cooperation with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This review will describe the role of PUFAs in eCB biosynthesis, discuss the ECS and OxLs in neuroinflammation, highlight the evidence for exercise effects on eCBs, and describe eCB and BDNF actions on neuroplasticity.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac064
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Role of Ketogenic Diets in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Animal Models:
           An Updated Review

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      Pages: 2002 - 2014
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPrescribing a ketogenic diet (KD) is a century-old dietary intervention mainly used in the context of intractable epilepsy. The classic KD and its variants regained popularity in recent decades, and they are considered potentially beneficial in a variety of neurological conditions other than epilepsy. Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have attempted diet modification for better control of their disease, although evidence thus far remains insufficient to recommend a specific diet for these patients. The results of 3 pilot clinical trials of KD therapy for MS, as well as several related studies, have been reported in recent years. The preliminary findings suggest that KD is safe, feasible, and potentially neuroprotective and disease-modifying for patients with MS. Research on corresponding rodent models has also lent support to the efficacy of KD in the prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and toxin-induced inflammatory demyelinating conditions in the brain. Furthermore, the animal studies have yielded mechanistic insights into the molecular mechanisms of KD action in relevant situations, paving the way for precision nutrition. Herein we review and synthesize recent advances and also identify unresolved issues, such as the roles of adipokines and gut microbiota, in this field. Hopefully this panoramic view of current understanding can inform future research directions and clinical practice with regard to KD in MS and related conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac065
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Sustainability Dimensions of the Mediterranean Diet: A Systematic Review
           of the Indicators Used and Its Results

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      Pages: 2015 - 2038
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe concern about sustainability is growing and the Mediterranean diet has been extensively identified as a promising model, with benefits for human and environmental health. This systematic review aims to identify and describe the indicators that have been used to evaluate the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet and the results from their application. A methodology using PRISMA guidelines was followed, and searches were performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and GreenFile. A total of 32 studies assessing the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet were identified. Twenty-five of these studies quantified the environmental impact, 7 studies evaluated the nutritional quality, and 12 studies assessed the daily cost of this dietary pattern. A total of 33 distinct indicators were identified, of which 10 were used to assess the environmental dimension (mainly, carbon, water, and ecological footprint), 8 were used to assess the nutritional dimension (mainly Health score and Nutrient Rich Food Index), 1 was used to assess the economic dimension (dietary cost), and 8 used combined indicators. The remaining 6 indicators for the assessment of sociocultural dimension were only identified in 1 study but were not measured. The Mediterranean diet had a lower environmental impact than Western diets and showed a carbon footprint between 0.9 and 6.88 kg CO2/d per capita, a water footprint between 600 and 5280 m3/d per capita, and an ecological footprint between 2.8 and 53.42 m2/d per capita. With regard to the nutritional dimension, the Mediterranean diet had a high nutritional quality and obtained 122 points on the Health score and ranged between 12.95 and 90.6 points on the Nutrient Rich Food Index. The cost of the Mediterranean diet is similar to other diets and varied between 3.33 and 14.42€/d per capita. These findings show that no uniformity in assessing the MDiet's sustainability exists.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac066
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Nutri-Epigenetic Effects of Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive
           Oil: A Systematic Review

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      Pages: 2039 - 2060
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDietary components can induce epigenetic changes through DNA methylation, histone modification, and regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Studies of diet-induced epigenetic regulation can inform anticipatory trials and fine-tune public health guidelines. We systematically reviewed data on the effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its phenolic compounds (OOPCs) on the epigenetic landscape. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and scrutinized published evidence. After applying selection criteria (e.g., inclusion of in vitro, animal, or human studies supplemented with EVOO or its OOPCs), we thoroughly reviewed 51 articles, and the quality assessment was performed using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. The results show that both EVOO and its OOPCs can promote epigenetic changes capable of regulating the expression of genes and molecular targets involved in different metabolic processes. For example, oleuropein (OL) may be an epigenetic regulator in cancer, and hydroxytyrosol (HT) modulates the expression of miRNAs involved in the development of cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. We conclude that EVOO and its OOPCs can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms that impact human pathophysiology. A full elucidation of the epigenetic effects of EVOO and its OOPCs may contribute to developing different pharma-nutritional strategies that exploit them as epigenetic agents. This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) as CRD42022320316.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac067
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Vitamin B-12

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2061 - 2063
      Abstract: Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is an essential nutrient required for growth and neurological development. There are 2 currently known enzymes in humans that utilize vitamin B-12 as a cofactor—namely, cytoplasmic methionine synthase and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The cytoplasmic reaction with vitamin B-12 in methylcobalamin form converts homocysteine to methionine for the synthesis of the principal methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine, and regenerates tetrahydrofolates from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate for thymidylate synthesis. In the mitochondria, adenosylcobalamin is a cofactor for conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and so permits oxidation of odd-chain fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac030
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Corrections

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2064 - 2064
      Abstract: Correction for Luis A Moreno (Rosan Meyer, Sharon M Donovan, Olivier Goulet, Jess Haines, Frans J Kok, Pieter Van't Veer, Perspective: Striking a Balance Between Planetary and Human Health—Is There a Path Forward'). Adv Nutr 2022;13(2):355–75.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac045
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Corrections

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      Pages: 2065 - 2065
      Abstract: Correction to: E K Rousham, S Goudet, O Markey, P Griffiths, B Boxer, C Carroll, E S Petherick, R Pradeilles, Unhealthy Food and Beverage Consumption in Children and Risk of Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,  Adv Nutr 2022;nmac032,  https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmac032
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac069
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Expression of Concern: Fructooligosaccharides: From Breast Milk Components
           to Potential Supplements. A Systematic Review

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      Pages: 2065 - 2065
      Abstract: This is an Expression of Concern relating to: Valentina De Cosmi, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carlo Agostoni, Francesco Visioli, Fructooligosaccharides: From Breast Milk Components to Potential Supplements. A Systematic Review, Adv Nutr 2022;13(1)318–27, https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab102
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac080
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • SEARCH ANNOUNCEMENT: Editors-in-Chief: Advances in Nutrition and The
           Journal of Nutrition

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      Pages: 2066 - 2066
      Abstract: The American Society for Nutrition (ASN) announces the search for Editors-in-Chief for two of its premier journals: Advances in Nutrition(AN) andThe Journal of Nutrition(JN).
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac095
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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