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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.196
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 55  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2161-8313 - ISSN (Online) 2156-5376
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [424 journals]
  • COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the
           WorldWealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable
           countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2067 - 2069
      Abstract: The 2022 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) paints a dark picture of the future of life on earth, characterised by ecosystem collapse, species extinction, and climate hazards such as heatwaves and floods (1). These are all linked to physical and mental health problems, with direct and indirect consequences of increased morbidity and mortality. To avoid these catastrophic health effects across all regions of the globe, there is broad agreement—as 231 health journals argued together in 2021—that the rise in global temperature must be limited to less than 1.5°C compared with pre-industrial levels.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac106
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Flavan-3-ols and Cardiometabolic Health: First Ever Dietary Bioactive
           Guideline

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      Pages: 2070 - 2083
      Abstract: ABSTRACTGuideline recommendation for a plant bioactive such as flavan-3-ols is a departure from previous recommendations because it is not based on deficiencies but rather improvement in health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is a rapidly growing body of clinical data reflecting benefits of flavan-3-ol intake that outweigh potential harms. Thus, the objective of the Expert Panel was to develop an intake recommendation for flavan-3-ols and cardiometabolic outcomes to inform multiple stakeholders including clinicians, policymakers, public health entities, and consumers. Guideline development followed the process set forth by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, which includes use of the Evidence to Decision Framework. Studies informing this guideline (157 randomized controlled trials and 15 cohort studies) were previously reviewed in a recently published systematic review and meta-analysis. Quality and strength-of-evidence along with risk-of-bias in reporting was reviewed. In drafting the guideline, data assessments and opinions by authoritative scientific bodies providing guidance on the safety of flavan-3-ols were considered. Moderate evidence supporting cardiometabolic protection resulting from flavan-3-ol intake in the range of 400–600 mg/d was supported in the literature. Further, increasing consumption of dietary flavan-3-ols can help improve blood pressure, cholesterol concentrations, and blood sugar. Strength of evidence was strongest for some biomarkers (i.e., systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin/glucose dynamics). It should be noted that this is a food-based guideline and not a recommendation for flavan-3-ol supplements. This guideline was based on beneficial effects observed across a range of disease biomarkers and endpoints. Although a comprehensive assessment of available data has been reviewed, evidence gaps identified herein can inform scientists in guiding future randomized clinical trials.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac105
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Assessing Tolerance to Nondigestible Carbohydrate Consumption

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2084 - 2097
      Abstract: ABSTRACTHuman intestinal enzymes do not hydrolyze nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs), and thus, they are not digested and absorbed in the small intestine. Instead, NDCs are partially to completely fermented by the intestinal microbiota. Select NDCs are associated with health benefits such as laxation and lowering of blood cholesterol and glucose. NDCs provide functional attributes to processed foods, including sugar or fat replacers, thickening agents, and bulking agents. Additionally, NDCs are incorporated into processed foods to increase their fiber content. Although consumption of NDCs can benefit health and contribute functional characteristics to foods, they can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, such as flatulence and bloating. As gastrointestinal symptoms negatively affect consumer well-being and their acceptance of foods containing NDC ingredients, it is crucial to consider tolerance when designing food products and testing their physiological health benefits in clinical trials. This perspective provides recommendations for the approach to assess gastrointestinal tolerance to NDCs, with a focus on study design, population criteria, intervention, comparator, and outcome. Special issues related to studies in children and implications for stakeholders are also discussed. It is recommended that the evaluation of gastrointestinal tolerance to NDCs be conducted in randomized, blinded, controlled crossover studies using standard gastrointestinal questionnaires, with attention to study participant background diets, health status, lifestyle, and medications.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac091
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Perspective: Human Milk Composition and Related Data for National Health
           and Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research

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      Pages: 2098 - 2114
      Abstract: ABSTRACTNational health and nutrition monitoring is an important federal effort in the United States and Canada, and the basis for many of their nutrition and health policies. Understanding of child exposures through human milk (HM) remains out of reach due to lack of current and representative data on HM's composition and intake volume. This article provides an overview of the current national health and nutrition monitoring activities for HM-fed children, HM composition (HMC) and volume data used for exposure assessment, categories of potential measures in HM, and associated variability factors. In this Perspective, we advocate for a framework for collection and reporting of HMC data for national health and nutrition monitoring and programmatic needs, including a shared vision for a publicly available Human Milk Composition Data Repository (HMCD-R) to include essential metadata associated with HMC. HMCD-R can provide a central, integrated platform for researchers and public health officials for compiling, evaluating, and sharing HMC data. The compiled compositional and metadata in HMCD-R would provide pertinent measures of central tendency and variability and allow use of modeling techniques to approximate compositional profiles for subgroups, providing more accurate exposure assessments for purposes of monitoring and surveillance. HMC and related metadata could facilitate understanding the complexity and variability of HM composition, provide crucial data for assessment of infant and maternal nutritional needs, and inform public health policies, food and nutrition programs, and clinical practice guidelines.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac099
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Poultry Consumption and Human Health: How Much Is Really Known' A
           Systematically Searched Scoping Review and Research Perspective

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      Pages: 2115 - 2124
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis scoping review was conducted to systematically search and chronicle scientific literature pertinent to poultry intake and human health. The protocol (uploaded to Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/2k7bj/) was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews guidelines. Articles with observational and experimental research, narrative and systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were included. Among 13,141 articles identified, 525 met inclusion criteria. Among these 525 articles, 212 focused on cancer morbidity and mortality; 41 on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality; 52 on CVD risk factors; 32 on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) morbidity and mortality; 33 on T2DM risk factors; and 42 on body weight and body composition. An “Other” category (181 articles) included nutrient status, psychological well-being/mental health, cognition, microbiome, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, skin disorders, and fertility, among others. Among the 525 included articles, 366 were observational, 64 were experimental, and 76 were reviews and meta-analyses. Eighty-three percent of articles focused on adults or older adults. A paucity of research exists to support poultry as health-promoting foods, with most research only indirectly assessing poultry intake compared with other foods of interest (e.g., red meats or plant-based protein foods). No randomized controlled trials and only 1% of OBS assessed the influence of processed poultry intake on human health. In the future, the relative health effects of consuming poultry will be compared with a widening array of traditional and new protein-rich food products, necessitating the need for research to assess poultry as foods of choice. Science and health professionals, the poultry industry, and the public will benefit from new observational and experimental research to address cutting-edge scientific, public policy, and consumer topics pertinent to poultry intake and human health.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac074
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated
           Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2125 - 2135
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to pool findings of cohort studies that investigated hazards of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in relation to intakes of SFAs. A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases up to June 2021 to find eligible studies. Review articles or commentaries, clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, studies on gestational or type 1 diabetes patients, animal studies, articles with no access to full-texts, articles published in non-English languages, and articles with missing critical data needed for the systematic review were excluded from the meta-analysis. A random-effects model was used to combine study-specific results. Thirteen cohort studies with 361,686 participants and 11,865 T2DM events were included. Dietary total SFA intake, as well as dietary palmitic acid (PA) or stearic acid (SA) were not associated with risk of T2DM when the highest was compared with the lowest intake category (HR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09; n = 13 for total SFAs; HR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.15; n = 4 for PA; and HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.49; n = 4 for SA). However, the risk of T2DM decreased by 11% in the highest compared with the lowest category of dietary lauric acid (HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97; n = 2), and by 17% in the highest compared with lowest category of dietary myristic acid (MA) (HR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.92; n = 3). There was evidence of publication bias among studies on dietary total SFAs and T2DM. Our results indicated no significant association between dietary total SFA and risk of T2DM. However, dietary intake of MA was negatively associated with developing T2DM.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac071
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Consumption of Nuts and Seeds and Health Outcomes Including Cardiovascular
           Disease, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: An
           Umbrella Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2136 - 2148
      Abstract: ABSTRACTConsumption of nuts and seeds is associated with a range of health outcomes. Summarizing the best evidence on essential health outcomes from the consumption of nuts is essential to provide optimal recommendations. Our objective is to comprehensively assess health outcome associations related to the consumption of nuts and seeds, using a culinary definition including tree nuts and peanuts (registered in PROSPERO: CRD42021258300). Health outcomes of interest include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, respiratory disease, mortality, and their disease biomarkers. We present associations for high compared with low consumption, per serving, and dose–response relations. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Epistemonikos were searched and screened for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was extracted from 89 articles on the consumption of nuts and relevant health outcomes, including 23 articles with meta-analysis on disease and mortality, 66 articles on biomarkers for disease, and 9 articles on allergy/adverse outcomes. Intake of nuts was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors, with moderate quality of evidence. An intake of 28 g/d nuts compared with not eating nuts was associated with a 21% RR reduction of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease incidence and mortality, atrial fibrillation, and stroke mortality), an 11% risk reduction of cancer deaths, and 22% reduction in all-cause mortality. Nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and diabetes; however, associations between nut consumption and diabetes incidence were mixed. Meta-analyses of trials on biomarkers for disease generally mirrored meta-analyses from observational studies on cardiovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes. Allergy and related adverse reactions to nuts were observed in 1–2% of adult populations, with substantial heterogeneity between studies. Overall, the current evidence supports dietary recommendations to consume a handful of nuts and seeds per day for people without allergies to these foods.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac077
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Fish-Oil Consumption on Psychological Function Outcomes in
           Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of
           Randomized Controlled Trials

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      Pages: 2149 - 2164
      Abstract: ABSTRACTResearch on the effects of fish oil on clinical symptoms and psychosocial functioning in people with psychosis has been inconsistent. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available data on the effects of oral intake of fish oil on psychological functioning in patients with psychosis. Three online databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant studies published by April 2021. The exposure was oral fish-oil supplementation. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were our outcome measures. Seventeen randomized clinical trials involving 1390 patients were included. No change in PANSS was observed following oral fish-oil intake [weighted mean difference (WMD): −0.87; 95% CI: −16.99, 15.26; P = 0.92]. In a nonlinear dose–response analysis, a significant inverse association was observed between <10 wk of fish-oil supplementation and PANSS (WMD: −10; P-nonlinearity = 0.02). Although analysis of 4 studies showed a nonsignificant reduction in BPRS after fish-oil intake (WMD: −2.990; 95% CI: −6.42, 0.44; P = 0.08), a nonlinear dose–response analysis revealed significant inverse associations between dose (>2200 mg/d) and duration of fish-oil supplementation (<15 wk) with BPRS score (WMD: −8; P-nonlinearity = 0.04). Combined effect sizes from 6 randomized clinical trials showed significant increases in GAF after oral administration of fish oil (WMD: 6.66; 95% CI: 3.39, 9.93; P < 0.001). In conclusion, we did not find any significant changes in PANSS and BPRS scores following fish-oil supplementation. Nevertheless, oral fish-oil intake significantly contributed to improvement in GAF scores. This is the first meta-analysis to examine the effects of fish oil on the psychological functioning scores of PANSS, BPRS, and GAF simultaneously.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac083
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Consumption of Dairy Products and the Risk of Overweight or Obesity,
           Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Dose–Response
           Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

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      Pages: 2165 - 2179
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDairy products have been suggested to be related to the prevention of overweight or obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These associations are currently controversial, however, and a systematic quantitative meta-analysis is lacking. In this study, we examined the associations between dairy products and the risk of overweight or obesity, hypertension, and T2DM and tested for dose–response relations. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to April 2021. Cohort studies were included if dairy food consumption was reported at a minimum of 3 levels or as continuous variables, and the associations were assessed with overweight or obesity, hypertension, and T2DM. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were estimated for the dose–response association. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the linear or nonlinear relations. Among the 9887 articles retrieved, 42 articles were included. For overweight or obesity, a linear association was observed for total dairy, milk, and yogurt. The risk decreased by 25%, 7%, and 12% per 200-g/d increase for total dairy, high-fat dairy, and milk, respectively, and by 13% per 50-g/d increment of yogurt. For hypertension, a nonlinear association was observed with total dairy, whereas significant inverse associations were found for low-fat dairy (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and milk (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97) per 200-g/d intake increase. For T2DM, all types of dairy food consumption except for milk and low-fat dairy products showed nonlinear associations, with total dairy and yogurt intake associated with 3% and 7% lower risk per 200-g/d and 50-g/d intake increase, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that total dairy is associated with a low risk of overweight or obesity, hypertension, and T2DM, especially milk and yogurt for overweight or obesity, low-fat dairy and milk for hypertension, and yogurt for T2DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac096
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Dose-Response Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Blood Pressure
           among Patients with Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Grading of
           Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE)-Assessed
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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      Pages: 2180 - 2194
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPrevious studies have shown beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on blood pressure (BP). However, the optimal intake of CoQ10 for BP regulation in patients with cardiometabolic disorders is unknown, and its effect on circulating CoQ10 is also unclear. We aimed to assess the dose-response relation between CoQ10 and BP, and quantify the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on the concentration of circulating CoQ10 by synthesizing available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search was performed in 3 databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library) to 21 March, 2022. A novel 1-stage restricted cubic spline regression model was used to evaluate the nonlinear dose-response relation between CoQ10 and BP. Twenty-six studies comprising 1831 subjects were included in our meta-analysis. CoQ10 supplementation significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (−4.77 mmHg, 95% CI: −6.57, −2.97) in patients with cardiometabolic diseases; this reduction was accompanied by a 1.62 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.97) μg/mL elevation of circulating CoQ10 compared with the control group. Subgroup analyses revealed that the effects of reducing SBP were more pronounced in patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia and in studies with longer durations (>12 wk). Importantly, a U-shaped dose-response relation was observed between CoQ10 supplementation and SBP level, with an approximate dose of 100–200 mg/d largely reducing SBP (χ2 = 10.84, Pnonlinearity = 0.004). The quality of evidence was rated as moderate, low, and very low for SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and circulating CoQ10 according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach (GRADE), respectively. The current finding demonstrated that the clinically beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation may be attributed to the reduction in SBP, and 100–200 mg/d of CoQ10 supplementation may achieve the greatest benefit on SBP in patients with cardiometabolic diseases. This study was registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021252933.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac100
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • High Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is Associated with Higher
           Physical Fitness in Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 2195 - 2206
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAlthough prior research has synthesized the relationships between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and components of physical fitness (PF) in adults, they are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize the associations between high (compared with low) MD adherence and PF levels with each of its components (cardiorespiratory, motor, and musculoskeletal) in adulthood. We conducted a systematic search in 5 databases from inception to January 2022. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and effect sizes (Cohen d index) with their 95% CIs were calculated via a random effects model. A total of 30 studies were included (19 cross-sectional in young, middle-aged, and older adults; 10 prospective cohort in older adults; and 1 randomized controlled trial in young adults) involving 36,807 individuals (mean age range: 20.9–86.3 y). Pooled effect sizes showed a significant cross-sectional association between higher MD adherence scores (as a continuous variable) and overall PF (d = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.75; I2 = 91.0%, n = 6). The pooled ORs from cross-sectional data showed that high adherence to MD was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 2.06, 2.47; I2 = 0%, n = 4), musculoskeletal fitness (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.47; I2 = 61.4%, n = 13), and overall PF (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68; I2 = 83.2%, n = 17) than low adherence to MD (reference category: 1). Pooled ORs from prospective cohort studies (3- to 12-y follow-up) showed that high adherence to MD was associated with higher musculoskeletal fitness (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.38; I2 = 0%, n = 4) and overall PF (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.26; I2 = 9.7%, n = 7) than low adherence to MD (reference category: 1). Conversely, no significant association was observed between MD and motor fitness. High adherence to MD was associated with higher PF levels, a crucial marker of health status throughout adulthood. This trial was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42022308259.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac104
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Diet and Esophageal Cancer Risk: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews
           and Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies

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      Pages: 2207 - 2216
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDiet may play an important role in the occurrence of esophageal cancer (EC). The aim of this umbrella review was to grade the evidence for the association between dietary factors and EC risk. A protocol for this review was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42021283232). Publications were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL databases. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies (cohort studies, case-cohort studies, nested case-control studies) were eligible. AMSTAR-2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) was used to assess the methodological quality of included systematic reviews. For each association, random-effects pooled effect size, 95% CI, number of cases, 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity, small-study effect, and excess significance bias were calculated to grade the evidence. From 882 publications, 107 full-text articles were evaluated for eligibility, and 20 systematic reviews and meta-analyses describing 32 associations between dietary factors and EC risk were included in the present umbrella review. By assessing the strength and validity of the evidence, 1 association (positively associated with alcohol intake) was supported by highly suggestive evidence and 1 (inversely associated with calcium intake) showed a suggestive level of evidence. Evidence for 7 associations was weak (positively associated with red meat and processed-meat intake; inversely associated with whole grains, fruits, green leafy vegetables, green tea, and zinc intake). The remaining 23 associations were nonsignificant. In conclusion, the findings of this umbrella review emphasize that habitually consuming calcium, whole grains, fruits, green leafy vegetables, green tea, and zinc and reducing alcohol, red meat, and processed-meat intake are associated with a lower risk of EC. Since this umbrella review included only observational study data and some of the associations were graded as weak, caution should be exercised in interpreting these relations.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac087
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Mental Disorders: An Umbrella Review of
           Meta‐Analyses

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      Pages: 2217 - 2236
      Abstract: ABSTRACTUnsaturated fatty acids might be involved in the prevention of and improvement in mental disorders, but the evidence on these associations has not been comprehensively assessed. This umbrella review aimed to appraise the credibility of published evidence evaluating the associations between unsaturated fatty acids and mental disorders. In this umbrella review, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies comparing unsaturated fatty acids (including supplementation, dietary intake, and blood concentrations) in participants with mental disorders with healthy individuals were included. We reanalyzed summary estimates, between-study heterogeneity, predictive intervals, publication bias, small-study effects, and excess significance bias for each meta-analysis. Ninety-five meta-analyses from 29 systematic reviews were included, encompassing 43 studies on supplementation interventions, 32 studies on dietary factors, and 20 studies on blood biomarkers. Suggestive evidence was only observed for dietary intake, in which higher intake of fish was associated with reduced risk of depression (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.89) and Alzheimer disease (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.87), and higher intake of total PUFAs might be associated with a lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (RR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84). Evidence showed that PUFA supplementation was favorable but had weak credibility in anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia (P-random effects <0.001–0.040). There was also weak evidence on the effect of decreased circulating n–3 (ɷ-3) PUFAs among patients on risk of ADHD, ASD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia (P-random effects <10−6–0.037). Our results suggest that higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids may relieve symptoms or reduce the risk of various mental disorders; however, the strength of the associations and credibility of the evidence were generally weak. Future high-quality research is needed to identify whether PUFA interventions should be prioritized to alleviate mental disorders.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac084
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Gastrointestinal Effects and Tolerance of Nondigestible Carbohydrate
           Consumption

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      Pages: 2237 - 2276
      Abstract: ABSTRACTNondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs) are food components, including nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starches. Many NDCs are classified as dietary fibers by the US FDA. Because of their beneficial effects on human health and product development, NDCs are widely used in the food supply. Although there are dietary intake recommendations for total dietary fiber, there are no such recommendations for individual NDCs. NDCs are heterogeneous in their chemical composition and physicochemical properties—characteristics that contribute to their tolerable intake levels. Guidance on tolerable intake levels of different NDCs is needed because overconsumption can lead to undesirable gastrointestinal side effects, further widening the gap between actual and suggested fiber intake levels. In this review, we synthesize the literature on gastrointestinal effects of NDCs that the FDA accepts as dietary fibers (β-glucan, pectin, arabinoxylan, guar gum, alginate, psyllium husk, inulin, fructooligosaccharides and oligofructose, galactooligosaccharides, polydextrose, cellulose, soy fiber, resistant maltodextrin/dextrin) and present tolerable intake dose recommendations for their consumption. We summarized the findings from 103 clinical trials in adults without gastrointestinal disease who reported gastrointestinal effects, including tolerance (e.g., bloating, flatulence, borborygmi/rumbling) and function (e.g., transit time, stool frequency, stool consistency). These studies provided doses ranging from 0.75–160 g/d and lasted for durations ranging from a single-meal tolerance test to 28 wk. Tolerance was NDC specific; thus, recommendations ranged from 3.75 g/d for alginate to 25 g/d for soy fiber. Future studies should address gaps in the literature by testing a wider range of NDC doses and consumption forms (solid compared with liquid). Furthermore, future investigations should also adopt a standard protocol to examine tolerance and functional outcomes across studies consistently.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac094
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Orally Ingested Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics as Countermeasures
           for Respiratory Tract Infections in Nonelderly Adults: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 2277 - 2295
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe impact of gut microbiota–targeted interventions on the incidence, duration, and severity of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in nonelderly adults, and factors moderating any such effects, are unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of orally ingested probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics compared with placebo on RTI incidence, duration, and severity in nonelderly adults, and to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. Studies were identified by searching CENTRAL, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science up to December 2021. English-language, peer-reviewed publications of randomized, placebo-controlled studies that tested an orally ingested probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic intervention of any dose for ≥1 wk in adults aged 18–65 y were included. Results were synthesized using intention-to-treat and per-protocol random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool for randomized trials version 2 (RoB2). Forty-two manuscripts reporting effects of probiotics (n = 38), prebiotics (n = 2), synbiotics (n = 1) or multiple -biotic types (n = 1) were identified (n = 9179 subjects). Probiotics reduced the risk of experiencing ≥1 RTI (relative risk = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01), and total days (rate ratio = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.83; P < 0.001), duration (Hedges’ g = −0.23; 95% CI: −0.39, −0.08; P = 0.004), and severity (Hedges’ g = −0.16; 95% CI: −0.29, −0.03; P = 0.02) of RTIs. Effects were relatively consistent across different strain combinations, doses, and durations, although reductions in RTI duration were larger with fermented dairy as the delivery matrix, and beneficial effects of probiotics were not observed in physically active populations. Overall risk of bias was rated as “some  concerns” for most studies. In conclusion, orally ingested probiotics, relative to placebo, modestly reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of RTIs in nonelderly adults. Physical activity and delivery matrix may moderate some of these effects. Whether prebiotic and synbiotic interventions confer similar protection remains unclear due to few relevant studies. This trial was registered at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ as CRD42020220213.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac086
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Prebiotics on Human Iron Absorption: A Review

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      Pages: 2296 - 2304
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency. Oral iron supplementation is the recommended first-line treatment and used as a preventive measure as well. Enhancers of iron absorption are highly sought after to improve supplementation outcomes. Evidence from animal and human studies exists that prebiotics can enhance iron absorption. The purpose of this present narrative review of the literature is to summarize the existing evidence on the effects of prebiotics on human iron absorption. Relevant articles were identified from PUBMED, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception to November 2021. Only human trials investigating the effect of prebiotics on iron absorption were included. Eleven articles were identified and included for review. There are promising findings supporting an enhancing effect of certain prebiotics, but inconsistencies between the studies and results exist. The most convincing evidence exists for the prebiotics galacto-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides combined with the commonly used iron compound ferrous fumarate, from studies in adult women with low iron stores and in anemic infants. Many factors seem to play a role in the enhancing effect of prebiotics on iron absorption such as type of prebiotic, dose, acute (single-dose) or chronic (long-term) prebiotic consumption, iron compound, iron status, inflammatory status, and age of the population studied. More research investigating the optimal combination of prebiotic, iron compound, and dose as well as the effect of long-term application on iron status outcomes is needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac079
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of the Meat Factor in Animal-Source Foods on Micronutrient
           Absorption: A Scoping Review

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      Pages: 2305 - 2315
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe EAT-Lancet Commission's planetary health guidelines suggest a reduction in the consumption of animal-source foods (ASFs) for better health and more sustainable food systems. ASFs are highly nutrient dense, therefore suited to address the widespread issue of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in low-resource settings where diets are predominantly plant based. ASFs are also believed to contain the meat factor, a substance enhancing the absorption of micronutrients from plant-based foods. We conducted a scoping review with the objective of systematically mapping the available evidence on the meat factor. The MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for literature published up to September 2021. Articles eligible for inclusion were all studies assessing the effect of adding ASFs and/or ASF fractions on micronutrient absorption from a plant-based meal or the overall diet in animal models and human subjects. Screening and data extraction were performed, and results were charted into 12 categories. We identified 77 articles eligible for inclusion, 52 of which were conducted in human subjects, 24 in animal models, and 1 in both. The addition of muscle tissue and muscle tissue fractions to single plant-based meals steadily increased absorption of iron and zinc across studies. The efficacy of the meat factor in increasing iron and zinc absorption in the overall diet is less clear. No clear differences emerged between red meat, poultry, and fish in promoting the meat factor effect. No clear evidence indicates that milk and egg products contain the meat factor. Our review highlights the importance of muscle tissue for the potential of the meat factor to enhance absorption of micronutrients of concern. Although the literature supports including sustainable and economically accessible forms of these ASFs into the diet, we found limited studies in resource-poor countries and of diets with low meat intake.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac089
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Potential Mechanisms by Which Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic Acids Regulate
           Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity

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      Pages: 2316 - 2328
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDysregulation of glucose metabolism in response to diet-induced obesity contributes toward numerous complications, such as insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective strategies to improve glucose homeostasis. In this review, we first discuss emerging evidence from epidemiological studies and rodent experiments that increased consumption of EPA (either as oily fish, or dietary/pharmacological supplements) may have a role in preventing impairments in insulin and glucose homeostasis. We then review the current evidence on how EPA-derived metabolites known as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs) may be a major mode of action by which EPA exerts its beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Notably, cell culture and rodent studies show that HEPEs prevent fat accumulation in metabolic tissues through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)–mediated mechanisms. In addition, activation of the resolvin E1 pathway, either by administration of EPA in the diet or via intraperitoneal administration of resolvin E1, improves hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and liver steatosis through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include shifting immune cell phenotypes toward resolution of inflammation and preventing dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Finally, we present the next steps for this line of research that will drive future precision randomized clinical trials with EPA and its downstream metabolites. These include dissecting the variables that drive heterogeneity in the response to EPA, such as the baseline microbiome profile and fatty acid status, circadian rhythm, genetic variation, sex, and age. In addition, there is a critical need to further investigate mechanisms of action for HEPEs and to establish the concentration of HEPEs in differing tissues, particularly in response to consumption of oily fish and EPA-enriched supplements.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac073
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • The Combined Effects of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K Blends on Appetite: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

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      Pages: 2329 - 2340
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAspartame (Asp) and acesulfame-K (Ace-K) are nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) commonly used in combination to replace added sugars in reduced- or low-calorie foods and beverages. Despite Asp/Ace-K blends having negligible calories, their effects on appetite have not been reviewed systematically. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the metabolic effects of Asp/Ace-K blends on energy intake (EI), subjective appetite scores, blood glucose, and the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide. MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases (Embase, PubMed, and CINAHL) were searched (May 2021) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Human RCTs using Asp/Ace-K blends compared with sugar and water controls were included, whereas isolated cell and animal studies were excluded. An overall 4829 publications were identified and 8 studies, including 274 participants, were retrieved for review. The Asp/Ace-K group's EI was significantly reduced compared with sugar [mean difference (MD): –196.56 kcal/meal; 95% CI: –332.01, –61.11 kcal/meal; P = 0.004] and water (MD: –213.42 kcal/meal; 95% CI: –345.4, –81.44 kcal/meal; P = 0.002). Meta-analysis of subjective appetite scores and incretins could not be undertaken due to inconsistencies in data reporting and insufficient data, respectively, but of the 4 studies identified, no differences were observed between Asp/Ace-K blends and controls. The Asp/Ace-K group's blood glucose was nonsignificantly reduced compared with sugar (MD: –1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: –3.26, 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.1) and water (MD: –0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: –0.62, 0.47 mmol/L; P = 0.78). Lower EI in participants who were predominantly healthy and assigned to Asp/Ace-K blends could not be reliably attributed to changes in subjective appetite scores. Blood glucose and incretins were also generally not affected by Asp/Ace-K blends when compared with controls. Additional short- and long-term RCTs using NNSs and sugars at dietarily relevant levels are needed. This trial was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42017061015).
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac072
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Scoping Review and Evidence Map of the Relation between Exposure to
           Dietary Sweetness and Body Weight-Related Outcomes in Adults

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      Pages: 2341 - 2356
      Abstract: ABSTRACTNumerous governmental and health organizations recommend reduced intake of added sugars due to the health risks associated with excess intake, including the risk of obesity. Some organizations further recommend avoiding dietary sweetness, regardless of the source. A scoping review and evidence map were completed to characterize the research that investigated associations between dietary sweetness and body weight. The aim was to identify and map published studies that have investigated total dietary sweetness, sweet food/beverages, sugar, or sweetener intake, and body weight–related outcomes and/or energy intake. Using preregistered search terms (osf.io/my7pb), 36,779 publications (duplicates removed) were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus and screened for inclusion. Eligible studies were clinical trials, longitudinal cohorts, case–control studies, cross-sectional studies, and systematic reviews conducted among adults (age ≥18 y), which were performed to investigate associations between dietary sweetness, sweet foods/beverages, sugar, or sweetener (energetic or nonenergetic) intake and body weight, BMI, adiposity, and/or energy intake. A total of 833 eligible publications were identified, detailing 804 studies. Only 7 studies (0.9% of included studies; 2 clinical trials, 4 cross-sectional studies, and 1 with another design type) investigated associations between total dietary sweetness and body weight-related outcome and/or energy intake. An additional 608 (75.6%) studies investigated intakes of sweet foods/beverages, sugar, or sweetener, and body weight-related outcomes and/or energy intake, including 225 clinical trials, 81 longitudinal cohorts, 4 case–control studies, and 280 cross-sectional studies. Most studies (90.6%) did not measure the sweetness of the diet or individual foods consumed. Ninety-two (11.4%) publications reported data from studies on dietary patterns that included sweet foods/beverages alongside other dietary components and 97 (12.1%) systematic reviews addressed different but related research questions. Although there is a breadth of evidence from studies that have investigated associations between intakes of sweet foods and beverages, sugars, and sweeteners and body weight, there is a limited depth of evidence on the association between total dietary sweetness and body weight.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac090
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Chronotype Differences in Body Composition, Dietary Intake and Eating
           Behavior Outcomes: A Scoping Systematic Review

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      Pages: 2357 - 2405
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe timing and nutritional composition of food intake are important zeitgebers for the biological clocks in humans. Thus, eating at an inappropriate time (e.g., during the night) may have a desynchronizing effect on the biological clocks and, in the long term, may result in adverse health outcomes (e.g., weight gain, obesity, and poor metabolic function). Being a very late or early chronotype not only determines preferred sleep and wake times but may also influence subsequent mealtimes, which may affect the circadian timing system. In recent years, an increased number of studies have examined the relation between chronotype and health outcomes, with a main focus on absolute food intake and metabolic markers and, to a lesser extent, on dietary intake distribution and eating behavior. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically determine whether chronotype indirectly affects eating behaviors, dietary intake (timing, choice, nutrients), and biomarkers leading to body composition outcomes in healthy adults. A systematic literature search on electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane library) was performed (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews number: CRD42020219754). Only studies that included healthy adults (aged >18 y), classified according to chronotype and body composition profiles, using outcomes of dietary intake, eating behavior, and/or biomarkers, were considered. Of 4404 articles, 24 met the inclusion criteria. The results revealed that late [evening type (ET)] compared with early [morning type (MT)] chronotypes were more likely to be overweight/obese with poorer metabolic health. Both MT and ET had similar energy and macronutrient intakes, consuming food during their preferred sleep–wake timing: later for ET than MT. Most of the energy and macronutrient intakes were distributed toward nighttime for ET and exacerbated by unhealthy eating behaviors and unfavorable dietary intakes. These findings from our systematic review give further insight why higher rates of overweight/obesity and unhealthier metabolic biomarkers are more likely to occur in ET.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac093
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Unraveling the Complex Interactions between the Fat Mass and
           Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene, Lifestyle, and Cancer

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      Pages: 2406 - 2419
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCarcinogenesis is a complicated process and originates from genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Recent studies have reported a potential critical role for the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene in carcinogenesis through different signaling pathways such as mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylation. The most common internal modification in mammalian mRNA is the m6A RNA methylation that has significant biological functioning through regulation of cancer-related cellular processes. Some environmental factors, like physical activity and dietary intake, may influence signaling pathways engaged in carcinogenesis, through regulating FTO gene expression. In addition, people with FTO gene polymorphisms may be differently influenced by cancer risk factors, for example, FTO risk allele carriers may need a higher intake of nutrients to prevent cancer than others. In order to obtain a deeper viewpoint of the FTO, lifestyle, and cancer-related pathway interactions, this review aims to discuss upstream and downstream pathways associated with the FTO gene and cancer.The present study discusses the possible mechanisms of interaction of the FTO gene with various cancers and provides a comprehensive picture of the lifestyle factors affecting the FTO gene as well as the possible downstream pathways that lead to the effect of the FTO gene on cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac101
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Current Insights in Nutrition Assessment and Intervention for Malnutrition
           or Muscle Loss in People with Lung Cancer: A Narrative Review

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      Pages: 2420 - 2432
      Abstract: ABSTRACTUp to 70% of people with lung cancer may be affected by cancer-related malnutrition or muscle loss, depending on treatment modality and disease stage. This narrative review explores recent studies on malnutrition and muscle loss as well as nutritional and multimodal interventions to treat these conditions in the context of the changing treatment landscape in lung cancer. Various types of interventions, including individualized counseling, protein and other specific nutrient supplementation, as well as multimodal interventions to treat malnutrition and muscle loss, have been investigated. Overall, individualized dietary counseling, increasing protein intake, and supplementation with omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids appear to be beneficial for some, albeit varying, patient outcomes. Multimodal interventions, generally including a nutrition and exercise component, show promising results; however, the impact on patient outcomes is mixed. A key finding of this review is a lack of large, randomized trials to guide nutrition intervention specifically in people with lung cancer. Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition and muscle loss in people with lung cancer and the known adverse outcomes, current evidence for nutrition intervention is limited. A targeted effort is required to improve the quality of evidence for nutrition intervention in this population to provide support for clinicians to deliver effective nutrition care.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac070
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Prevalence and Impact of Computed Tomography–Defined Sarcopenia on
           Survival in Patients with Human Papillomavirus–Positive Oropharyngeal
           Cancer: A Systematic Review

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      Pages: 2433 - 2444
      Abstract: ABSTRACTSarcopenia is a known independent prognostic factor for decreased survival in patients with head and neck cancer; yet, its importance for the growing number of younger patients diagnosed with human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC+) has not been established. This systematic literature review aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of computed tomography (CT)–defined sarcopenia on survival outcomes for adult OPC+ patients (>18 y) undergoing any treatment modality. Prospective studies were searched using PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Web of Science up until and including February 2022. Bias was assessed using the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool, and certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. In total, 9 studies (total pooled OPC+ patients, n  = 744) were identified and included in this review; 2 at low, 6 at moderate, and 1 at high risk of bias. All studies varied in sarcopenia assessment methods and skeletal muscle index threshold cutoff values. These studies demonstrated the cumulative prevalence of sarcopenia for OPC+ patients to be 42.9% (95% CI: 37.8%, 47.9%). While overall survival (3 studies, n = 253) and progression-free survival (1 study, n = 117) was lower in sarcopenic OPC+ patients, this was not statistically significant. GRADE certainty of evidence for impact of pretreatment sarcopenia on overall survival was low and progression-free survival was very low. Although these studies showed there to be a high prevalence of pretreatment sarcopenia in patients with OPC+, which may decrease survival, the impact on progression-free survival is very uncertain. Further, high-quality research utilizing consistent sarcopenia definitions and assessment methods that are conducted specifically in OPC+ is required to strengthen evidence certainty and determine if sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor for this population.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac076
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Association between Maternal Choline, Fetal Brain Development, and Child
           Neurocognition: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Human Studies

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      Pages: 2445 - 2457
      Abstract: ABSTRACTWe studied associations between prenatal and early postnatal choline intake, brain development, and neurocognitive function of children. We conducted a systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and critical appraisal of human studies published from 1997 to 2021. Thirty publications were identified. The meta-analysis included 5 of 7 case-control studies studying neural tube defects (NTDs) in relation to maternal choline intakes/circulating concentrations. Low maternal choline intake/circulating concentrations were associated with a higher OR for NTDs among 1131 mothers of newborns with NTDs and 4439 control mothers (pooled estimate = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.67). The 95% prediction intervals were 0.78, 2.36. Findings and critical evaluation of 10 publications with interventional designs showed that higher maternal choline intakes during the second half of pregnancy and early postnatal period (550 mg up to 1 g/d on top of the diet) or a child intake of 513 to 625 mg/d from supplements were safe and likely to demonstrate favorable effects on several domains of child neurocognition, such as memory, attention, and visuospatial learning versus the comparators. Findings from observational studies (n = 13) partly supported the association between maternal choline intake/serum concentrations and child neurocognition, but there was low confidence in the use of plasma choline concentrations as a choline intake marker. In conclusion, low maternal choline intakes were associated with a higher OR for NTDs. The risk could be up to 2.36-fold in some populations. Despite limitations of available trials and observational studies, higher maternal choline intake was likely to be associated with better child neurocognition/neurodevelopment. The results should be used to guide choline intake recommendations in pregnancy and lactation, especially because most young women are not achieving the reference intake of choline. This meta-analysis is registered at PROSPERO as CRD42021233790.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac082
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Fish and Fish-Based Products for Nutrition and Health in the First 1000
           Days: A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Low and Middle-Income
           Countries

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      Pages: 2458 - 2487
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFish provide essential nutrients for the critical window of growth and development in the first 1000 d of life and are thus an attractive option for inclusion in nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programming. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for fish and fish-based products for nutrition and health outcomes during the first 1000 d of life in low- and middle-income countries, searching the peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1999 to 2020. Databases included PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest, and the Clinical Trials repository. Our search returned 1135 articles, 39 of which met the inclusion criteria. All studies were dual evaluated for risk of bias. Of the included studies, 18 measured maternal health and nutrition outcomes and 24 measured infant/child outcomes (3 measured both). Our search uncovered 10 impact evaluations, all of which measured consumption of fish or fish-based complementary food products in children aged 6–24 mo. We did not find strong evidence for fish consumption in children improving child growth from the impact evaluations; however, the studies were highly heterogeneous in their design and likely underpowered to detect an effect. Results from observational studies were mixed but provided evidence that adding fish to maternal and child diets is associated with improved nutrition outcomes, such as reducing the risk of anemia and improving vitamin D status. Given the nutrient richness of fish and the fact that production is often more environmentally friendly as compared with other animal source foods, more robust evidence is needed on the role of fish consumption in nutrition interventions to inform policy and programming recommendations in low- and middle-income countries.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac102
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Adverse Effects of Excessive Zinc Intake in Infants and Children Aged
           0–3 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 2488 - 2518
      Abstract: ABSTRACTZinc supplementation reduces morbidity, but evidence suggests that excessive intakes can have negative health consequences. Current guidelines of upper limits (ULs) of zinc intake for young children are extrapolated from adult data. This systematic review (PROSPERO; registration no. CRD42020215187) aimed to determine the levels of zinc intake at which adverse effects are observed in young children. Studies reporting potential adverse effects of zinc intake in children aged 0–3 y were identified (from inception to August 2020) in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, with no limits on study design. Adverse clinical and physical effects of zinc intake were synthesized narratively, and meta-analyses of biochemical outcomes were conducted. Random effects models were used to generate forest plots to examine the evidence by age category, dose, dose duration, chemical formula of zinc, and zinc compared with placebo. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist, Cochrane Risk of Bias 2, and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guideline were employed to assess risk of bias and to appraise the certainty of evidence. Fifty-eight studies assessed possible adverse effects of zinc doses ranging from 3 to 70 mg/d. Data from 39 studies contributed to meta-analyses. Zinc supplementation had an adverse effect on serum ferritin, plasma/serum copper concentration, serum transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and the odds of anemia in ≥1 of the subgroups investigated. Lactulose:mannitol ratio was improved with zinc supplementation, and no significant effect was observed on C-reactive protein, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, zinc protoporphyrin, blood cholesterol, and iron deficiency anemia. The certainty of the evidence, as assessed using GRADE, was very low to moderate. Although possible adverse effects of zinc supplementation were observed in some subgroups, it is unclear whether these findings are clinically important. The synthesized data can be used to undertake a dose–response analysis to update current guidelines of ULs of zinc intake for young children.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac088
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Human Milk Lipid Profiles around the World: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Pages: 2519 - 2536
      Abstract: ABSTRACTReported breast milk lipid concentrations may vary with geographical region, postnatal age, and year of sample collection. In this review, we summarized data on the concentrations of total fat, total phospholipids, cholesterol, and fatty acids in human milk worldwide and their variation according to lactation stage, study area, and sample collection year. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline databases for English-language papers and Wanfang and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for Chinese-language papers. A total of 186 studies evaluating the human milk lipid profiles were included. According to random-effects models based on worldwide data, the summarized means (95% CIs) as percentages of total fat were 42.2% (41.1%, 43.3%) for SFAs, 36.6% (35.6%, 37.5%) for MUFAs, and 21.0% (19.3%, 22.7%) for PUFAs. However, the study heterogeneity was high for most types of fatty acids (I2 > 99%). Human milk from Western countries had higher concentrations of MUFAs and 18:1n–9 (ω-9), but lower concentrations of PUFAs, 18:2n–6, 20:4n–6, 18:3n–3, 20:5n–3, 22:6n–3, and total n–6 PUFA compared with those from non-Western countries (P < 0.001–0.011). Significant lactation stage differences were observed for total fat and some individual fatty acids. The concentrations of SFAs and 16:0 were significantly negatively correlated with sampling year (P < 0.001–0.028). In contrast, a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of 18:2n–6 and 18:3n–3 and sampling year was observed (P < 0.001–0.035). Our results suggest that the pooling of data on human milk lipid profiles in different studies should be done with caution due to the high between-study heterogeneity. The concentration of lipids, including total fat, cholesterol, and specific fatty acids, differs in human milk according to lactation stage, geographical region, and year of sample collection.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac097
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Food Security Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada According to the 4
           Pillars of Food Security: A Scoping Review

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      Pages: 2537 - 2558
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFood insecurity is a significant public health problem for Indigenous peoples in Canada. A comprehensive literature review is needed to organize the evidence according to the 4 pillars of food security (i.e., availability, access, utilization, and stability) and identify gaps in the published literature on this topic. Therefore, in this scoping review we aimed to summarize the published research discussing any of the 4 pillars of food security among Indigenous peoples in Canada. We conducted a literature search of the following databases: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), and CINAHL, as well as the Indigenous Studies Portal (up to June 19, 2021). Population-based studies of any design were included, except for review-style articles. Articles published in languages other than English were also excluded. Of the 4687 studies identified by the database searches, 91 met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from these studies indicates that all dimensions of food security among Indigenous peoples in Canada have been impacted. Lack of availability of both traditional and market foods is highlighted among Inuit and First Nation communities. Economic disadvantages, high food prices, and lack of access to transportation are major factors affecting the accessibility pillar of food security. Major factors affecting the utilization pillar of food security are the loss of traditional knowledge and skills, lack of knowledge on market foods, low quality of market foods, and food safety issues. Climate change has affected all 4 pillars of food security among Indigenous peoples. These findings suggest that resolving food insecurity issues among Indigenous peoples in Canada, especially those living in remote communities, requires a culturally specific integrated approach targeting food availability, food cost, food knowledge, food safety, and food quality.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac081
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Scoping Review of the Environmental Impacts and Nutrient Composition of
           Plant-Based Milks

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      Pages: 2559 - 2572
      Abstract: Dairy milk is a ubiquitous nutrient-dense beverage and ingredient, especially in Western diets. However, consumers are increasingly seeking alternatives to dairy, called plant-based milks (PBMs), to avoid allergens, pursue a plant-based diet, or reduce their environmental impacts. The base ingredients used in PBMs have a wide range of environmental impacts, which may translate to substantial variation across the impacts associated with PBMs themselves. To assess the state of the literature on this topic, we performed a scoping review of the environmental impacts of PBMs, following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. Recent growth in the variety of PBMs available means that there is unlikely yet enough data for conclusive statements regarding environmental impacts of all PBM types, which makes this topic appropriate for a scoping review. We included all relevant documents found through searching scholarly databases. We found 20 studies covering 6 types of PBMs, but the literature does not examine many other types of PBMs. All studies examined use the life cycle assessment methodology. The most data regarding environmental impacts were available for soy- and almond-based milks, and the most common impact quantified was greenhouse gas emissions. We also examined the nutrient composition of PBMs compared with dairy using data from the USDA. PBMs attempt to replicate the organoleptic properties of dairy but often do not exactly match the nutrient profile of dairy. We identified a need for the application of a standardized methodology to facilitate more comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts of the wide variety of PBMs available, which are presented as environmentally preferable to dairy.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac098
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Machine Learning in Nutrition Research

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      Pages: 2573 - 2589
      Abstract: ABSTRACTData currently generated in the field of nutrition are becoming increasingly complex and high-dimensional, bringing with them new methods of data analysis. The characteristics of machine learning (ML) make it suitable for such analysis and thus lend itself as an alternative tool to deal with data of this nature. ML has already been applied in important problem areas in nutrition, such as obesity, metabolic health, and malnutrition. Despite this, experts in nutrition are often without an understanding of ML, which limits its application and therefore potential to solve currently open questions. The current article aims to bridge this knowledge gap by supplying nutrition researchers with a resource to facilitate the use of ML in their research. ML is first explained and distinguished from existing solutions, with key examples of applications in the nutrition literature provided. Two case studies of domains in which ML is particularly applicable, precision nutrition and metabolomics, are then presented. Finally, a framework is outlined to guide interested researchers in integrating ML into their work. By acting as a resource to which researchers can refer, we hope to support the integration of ML in the field of nutrition to facilitate modern research.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac103
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Applying Image-Based Food-Recognition Systems on Dietary Assessment: A
           Systematic Review

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      Pages: 2590 - 2619
      Abstract: ABSTRACTDietary assessment can be crucial for the overall well-being of humans and, at least in some instances, for the prevention and management of chronic, life-threatening diseases. Recall and manual record-keeping methods for food-intake monitoring are available, but often inaccurate when applied for a long period of time. On the other hand, automatic record-keeping approaches that adopt mobile cameras and computer vision methods seem to simplify the process and can improve current human-centric diet-monitoring methods. Here we present an extended critical literature overview of image-based food-recognition systems (IBFRS) combining a camera of the user's mobile device with computer vision methods and publicly available food datasets (PAFDs). In brief, such systems consist of several phases, such as the segmentation of the food items on the plate, the classification of the food items in a specific food category, and the estimation phase of volume, calories, or nutrients of each food item. A total of 159 studies were screened in this systematic review of IBFRS. A detailed overview of the methods adopted in each of the 78 included studies of this systematic review of IBFRS is provided along with their performance on PAFDs. Studies that included IBFRS without presenting their performance in at least 1 of the above-mentioned phases were excluded. Among the included studies, 45 (58%) studies adopted deep learning methods and especially convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in at least 1 phase of the IBFRS with input PAFDs. Among the implemented techniques, CNNs outperform all other approaches on the PAFDs with a large volume of data, since the richness of these datasets provides adequate training resources for such algorithms. We also present evidence for the benefits of application of IBFRS in professional dietetic practice. Furthermore, challenges related to the IBFRS presented here are also thoroughly discussed along with future directions.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac078
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Systematic Review Examining Contributors to Misestimation of Food and
           Beverage Intake Based on Short-Term Self-Report Dietary Assessment
           Instruments Administered to Adults

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      Pages: 2620 - 2665
      Abstract: ABSTRACTError in self-reported food and beverage intake affects the accuracy of dietary intake data. Systematically synthesizing available data on contributors to error within and between food groups has not been conducted but may help inform error mitigation strategies. In this review we aimed to systematically identify, quantify, and compare contributors to error in estimated intake of foods and beverages, based on short-term self-report dietary assessment instruments, such as 24-h dietary recalls and dietary records. Seven research databases were searched for studies including self-reported dietary assessment and a comparator measure of observed intake (e.g., direct observation or controlled feeding studies) in healthy adults up until December 2021. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data from included studies, recording quantitative data on omissions, intrusions, misclassifications, and/or portion misestimations. Risk of bias was assessed using the QualSyst tool. A narrative synthesis focused on patterns of error within and between food groups. Of 2328 articles identified, 29 met inclusion criteria and were included, corresponding to 2964 participants across 15 countries. Most frequently reported contributors to error were omissions and portion size misestimations of food/beverage items. Although few consistent patterns were seen in omission of consumed items, beverages were omitted less frequently (0–32% of the time), whereas vegetables (2–85%) and condiments (1–80%) were omitted more frequently than other items. Both under- and overestimation of portion size was seen for most single food/beverage items within study samples and most food groups. Studies considered and reported error in different ways, impeding the interpretation of how error contributors interact to impact overall misestimation. We recommend that future studies report 1) all error contributors for each food/beverage item evaluated (i.e., omission, intrusion, misclassification, and portion misestimation), and 2) measures of variation of the error. The protocol of this review was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42020202752 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac085
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Poor Reporting Quality in Basic Nutrition Research: A Case Study Based on
           a Scoping Review of Recent Folate Research in Mouse Models (2009–2021)

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      Pages: 2666 - 2678
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTransparent reporting of nutrition research promotes rigor, reproducibility, and relevance to human nutrition. We performed a scoping review of recent articles reporting dietary folate interventions in mice as a case study to determine the reporting frequency of generic study design items (i.e., sex, strain, and age) and nutrition-specific items (i.e., base diet composition, intervention doses, duration, and exposure verification) in basic nutrition research. We identified 798 original research articles in the EMBASE, Medline, Food Science and Technology s (FSTA), Global Health, and International Pharmaceutical s (IPA) databases published between January 2009 and July 2021 in which a dietary folic acid (FA) intervention was used in mice. We identified 312 original peer-reviewed articles including 191 studies in nonpregnant and 126 in pregnant mice. Most studies reported sex (99%), strain (99%), and age (83%). The majority of studies used C57BL/6 (53%) or BALB/c (11%) mice aged 3–9 wk. Nonpregnancy studies were more likely to use only male mice (57%). Dietary FA interventions varied considerably and overlapped: deficiency (0–3 mg/kg), control (0–16 mg/kg), and supplemented (0–50 mg/kg). Only 63% of studies used an open-formula base diet with a declared FA content and 60% of studies verified FA exposure using folate status biomarkers. The duration of intervention ranged from 1 to 104 wk for nonpregnancy studies. The duration of intervention for pregnancy studies was 1–19 wk, occurring variably before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy and/or lactation. Overall, 17% of studies did not report ≥1 generic study design item(s) and 40% did not report ≥1 nutrition-specific study design item(s). The variability and frequent lack of reporting of important generic and nutrition-specific study design details in nutrition studies limit their generalizability, reproducibility, and interpretation. The use of reporting checklists for animal research would enhance reporting quality of key study design and conduct factors in animal-based nutrition research.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac056
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Fluoride

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      Pages: 2679 - 2680
      Abstract: Fluorine is a natural element present in water, food, soil, and air. However, due to being extremely electronegative, it largely emerges as fluoride (F−), the monatomic anion of fluorine. Despite being present in only trace amounts in the body (∼2.6 g), fluoride has a significant nutritional and public health impact due to its role in the mineralization of hard tissues including bones and teeth (1).
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac050
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Energy

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      Pages: 2681 - 2685
      Abstract: USDA10.13039/100000199Agricultural Research Service10.13039/100007917
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac092
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2022)
       
 
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