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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.191
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 42  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-3166 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6100
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [424 journals]
  • Reconsidering Food Prescription Programs in Relation to Household Food
           Insecurity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2315 - 2316
      Abstract: See corresponding article on page 2409.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac175
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Vitamin B-12 Requirements in Older Adults—Increasing Evidence
           Substantiates the Need To Re-Evaluate Recommended Amounts and Dietary
           Sources

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 2317 - 2318
      Abstract: See corresponding article on page 2483.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac179
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Food Intake Following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Patients Eat Less but Do Not
           Eat Differently

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      Pages: 2319 - 2332
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLack of robust research methodology for assessing ingestive behavior has impeded clarification of the mediators of food intake following gastric bypass (GBP) surgery.ObjectivesTo evaluate changes in directly measured 24-h energy intake (EI), energy density (ED) (primary outcomes), eating patterns, and food preferences (secondary outcomes) in patients and time-matched weight-stable comparator participants.MethodsPatients [n = 31, 77% female, BMI (in kg/m2) 45.5 ± 1.3] and comparators (n = 32, 47% female, BMI 27.2 ± 0.8) were assessed for 36 h under fully residential conditions at baseline (1 mo presurgery) and at 3 and 12 mo postsurgery. Participants had ad libitum access to a personalized menu (n = 54 foods) based on a 6-macronutrient mix paradigm. Food preferences were assessed by the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Body composition was measured by whole-body DXA.ResultsIn the comparator group, there was an increase in relative fat intake at 3 mo postsurgery; otherwise, no changes were observed in food intake or body composition. At 12 mo postsurgery, patients lost 27.7 ± 1.6% of initial body weight (P < 0.001). The decline in EI at 3 mo postsurgery (–44% from baseline, P < 0.001) was followed by a partial rebound at 12 mo (–18% from baseline), but at both times, dietary ED and relative macronutrient intake remained constant. The decline in EI was due to eating the same foods as consumed presurgery and by decreasing the size (g, MJ), but not the number, of eating occasions. In patients, reduction in explicit liking at 3 mo (–11.56 ± 4.67, P = 0.007) and implicit wanting at 3 (–15.75 ± 7.76, P = 0.01) and 12 mo (–15.18 ± 6.52, P = 0.022) for sweet foods were not matched by reduced intake of these foods. Patients with the greatest reduction in ED postsurgery reduced both EI and preference for sweet foods.ConclusionsAfter GBP, patients continue to eat the same foods but in smaller amounts. These findings challenge prevailing views about the dynamics of food intake following GBP surgery. This trial was registered as clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03113305.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac164
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Investigating Genetic Determinants of Plasma Inositol Status in Adult
           Humans

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      Pages: 2333 - 2342
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundMyo-inositol (MI) is incorporated into numerous biomolecules, including phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates. Disturbance of inositol availability or metabolism is associated with various disorders, including neurological conditions and cancers, whereas supplemental MI has therapeutic potential in conditions such as depression, polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital anomalies. Inositol status can be influenced by diet, synthesis, transport, utilization, and catabolism.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate potential genetic regulation of circulating MI status and to evaluate correlation of MI concentration with other metabolites.MethodsGC-MS was used to determine plasma MI concentration of >2000 healthy, young adults (aged 18–28 y) from the Trinity Student Study. Genotyping data were used to test association of plasma MI with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, encoding inositol transporters and synthesizing enzymes, and test for genome-wide association. We evaluated potential correlation of plasma MI with d-chiro-inositol (DCI), glucose, and other metabolites by Spearman rank correlation.ResultsMean plasma MI showed a small but significant difference between males and females (28.5 and 26.9 μM, respectively). Candidate gene analysis revealed several nominally significant associations with plasma MI, most notably for SLC5A11 (solute carrier family 5 member 11), encoding a sodium-coupled inositol transporter, also known as SMIT2 (sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 2). However, these did not survive correction for multiple testing. Subsequent testing for genome-wide association with plasma MI did not identify associations of genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). However, 8 SNPs exceeded the threshold for suggestive significant association with plasma MI concentration (P < 1 × 10−5), 3 of which were located within or close to genes: MTDH (metadherin), LAPTM4B (lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 β), and ZP2 (zona pellucida 2). We found significant positive correlation of plasma MI concentration with concentration of dci and several other biochemicals including glucose, methionine, betaine, sarcosine, and tryptophan.ConclusionsOur findings suggest potential for modulation of plasma MI in young adults by variation in SLC5A11, which is worthy of further investigation.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac204
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • The Fecal Metabolome Links Diet Composition, Foacidic positive ion
           conditions, chromatographicallyod Processing, and the Gut Microbiota to
           Gastrointestinal Health in a Randomized Trial of Adults Consuming a
           Processed Diet

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      Pages: 2343 - 2357
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFood processing alters diet digestibility and composition, thereby influencing interactions between host biology, diet, and the gut microbiota. The fecal metabolome offers insight into those relations by providing a readout of diet–microbiota interactions impacting host health.ObjectivesThe aims were to determine the effects of consuming a processed diet on the fecal metabolome and to explore relations between changes in the fecal metabolome with fecal microbiota composition and gastrointestinal health markers.MethodsThis was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial wherein healthy adults [94% male; 18–61 y; BMI (kg/m2): 26 ± 3] consumed their usual diet [control (CON), n = 27] or a Meal, Ready-to-EatTM (Ameriqual Packaging) military ration diet composed of processed, shelf-stable, ready-to-eat items for 21 d (MRE; n = 27). Fecal metabolite profiles, fecal microbiota composition, biomarkers of intestinal barrier function, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured before and after the intervention. Between-group differences and associations were assessed using nonparametric t tests, partial least-squares discriminant analysis, correlation, and redundancy analysis.ResultsFecal concentrations of multiple dipeptides [Mann-Whitney effect size (ES) = 0.27–0.50] and long-chain SFAs (ES = 0.35–0.58) increased, whereas plant-derived compounds (ES = 0.31–0.60) decreased in MRE versus CON (P < 0.05; q < 0.20). Changes in dipeptides correlated positively with changes in fecal concentrations of Maillard-reaction products (ρ = 0.29–0.70; P < 0.05) and inversely with changes in serum prealbumin (ρ = −0.30 to −0.48; P ≤ 0.03). Multiple bile acids, coffee and caffeine metabolites, and plant-derived compounds were associated with both fecal microbiota composition and gastrointestinal health markers, with changes in fecal microbiota composition explaining 26% of the variability within changes in gastrointestinal health–associated fecal metabolites (P = 0.001).ConclusionsChanges in the fecal metabolomes of adults consuming a Meal, Ready-to-EatTM diet implicate interactions between diet composition, diet digestibility, and the gut microbiota as contributing to variability within gastrointestinal responses to the diet. Findings underscore the need to consider both food processing and nutrient composition when investigating the impact of diet–gut microbiota interactions on health outcomes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02423551.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac161
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Diet Patterns Are Associated with Circulating Metabolites and Lipid
           Profiles of South Asians in the United States

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      Pages: 2358 - 2366
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSouth Asians are at higher risk for cardiometabolic disease than many other racial/ethnic minority groups. Diet patterns in US South Asians have unique components associated with cardiometabolic disease.ObjectivesWe aimed to characterize the metabolites associated with 3 representative diet patterns.MethodsWe included 722 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort study aged 40–84 y without known cardiovascular disease. Fasting serum specimens and diet and demographic questionnaires were collected at baseline and diet patterns previously generated through principal components analysis. LC-MS–based untargeted metabolomic and lipidomic analysis was conducted with targeted integration of known metabolite and lipid signals. Linear regression models of diet pattern factor score and log-transformed metabolites adjusted for age, sex, caloric intake, and BMI and adjusted for multiple comparisons were performed, followed by elastic net linear regression of significant metabolites.ResultsThere were 443 metabolites of known identity extracted from the profiling data. The “animal protein” diet pattern was associated with 61 metabolites and lipids, including glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine PE(O-16:1/20:4) and/or PE(P-16:0/20:4) (β: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.14) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) NAPE(O-18:1/20:4/18:0) and/or NAPE(P-18:0/20:4/18:0) (β: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.14), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) (22:6/0:0) (β: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.17), and fatty acid (FA) (22:6) (β: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.17). The “fried snacks, sweets, high-fat dairy” pattern was associated with 12 lipids, including PC(16:0/22:6) (β: –0.08; 95% CI: –0.09, –0.06) and FA (22:6) (β: 0.14; 95% CI: –0.17, –0.10). The “fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes” pattern was associated with 5 metabolites including proline betaine (β: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.25) (P < 0.0002).ConclusionsThree predominant dietary patterns in US South Asians are associated with circulating metabolites differentiated by lipids including glycerophospholipids and PUFAs and the amino acid proline betaine.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac191
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Time Courses of Gastric Volume and Content after Different Types of Casein
           Ingestion in Healthy Men: A Randomized Crossover Study

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      Pages: 2367 - 2375
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFew studies have evaluated differences in the curd-forming ability of casein on gastric volume and content directly after ingestion in humans.ObjectivesThis study evaluated the time course of gastric volume and curd conditions in the stomach after protein ingestion.MethodsThis was an open-labeled, randomized crossover trial. Ten healthy men [age: 33.4 ± 7.3 y; BMI (kg/m2): 21.9 ± 0.9] received 350 g of 3 isonitrogenous and isocaloric protein drinks containing 30 g micellar casein (MCN), sodium caseinate (SCN), or whey protein concentrate (WPC). The gastric antrum cross-sectional area (CSA) and curd in the stomach were measured using ultrasonography within 5 h after ingestion. The differences between test foods were tested using the MIXED model and post hoc tests using Fisher's protected least significant difference.ResultsThe incremental AUC of the gastric antrum CSA after MCN ingestion was 1.3-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that after the ingestion of SCN and WPC, respectively (both P < 0.05), but not different between SCN and WPC. The number of participants with curds ≥20 mm with a high echogenicity clot observed in the stomach within 5 h after MCN ingestion was significantly greater than that after the ingestion of other proteins (n = 9 for MCN, n = 2 for SCN, and n = 0 for WPC; bothP < 0.01). The regression line slopes on total plasma amino acid concentration and gastric antrum CSA were significantly different between the participants with and without curds.ConclusionsIn contrast to SCN and WPC, MCN ingestion resulted in slow kinetics of gastric antrum CSA. Differences in curd formation of casein in the stomach affect gastric emptying and plasma amino acid absorption kinetics after ingestion in healthy men. This trial was registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000038388 (https://center6.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi'recptno=R000043746).
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac158
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Raw Eggs To Support Postexercise Recovery in Healthy Young Men: Did Rocky
           Get It Right or Wrong'

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      Pages: 2376 - 2386
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEgg protein is ingested during recovery from exercise to facilitate the postexercise increase in muscle protein synthesis rates and, as such, to support the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. The impact of cooking egg protein on postexercise muscle protein synthesis is unknown.ObjectivesWe sought to compare the impact of ingesting unboiled (raw) compared with boiled eggs during postexercise recovery on postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates.MethodsIn a parallel design, 45 healthy, resistance-trained young men (age: 24 y; 95% CI: 23, 25 y) were randomly assigned to ingest 5 raw eggs (∼30 g protein), 5 boiled eggs (∼30 g protein), or a control breakfast (∼5 g protein) during recovery from a single session of whole-body resistance-type exercise. Primed continuous l-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine infusions were applied, with frequent blood sampling. Muscle biopsies were collected immediately after cessation of resistance exercise and at 2 and 5 h into the postexercise recovery period. Primary (myofibrillar protein synthesis rates) and secondary (plasma amino acid concentrations) outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures (time × group) ANOVA.ResultsIngestion of eggs significantly increased plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations, with 20% higher peak concentrations following ingestion of boiled compared with raw eggs (time × group: P < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were significantly increased during the postexercise period when compared with basal, postabsorptive values in all groups (2–4-fold increase: P < 0.001). Postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 20% higher after ingesting raw eggs [0.067%/h; 95% CI: 0.056, 0.077%/h; effect size (Cohen d): 0.63], and 18% higher after ingesting boiled eggs (0.065%/h; 95% CI: 0.058, 0.073%/h; effect size: 0.69) when compared with the control breakfast (0.056%/h; 95% CI: 0.048, 0.063%/h), with no significant differences between groups (time × group: P = 0.077).ConclusionsThe ingestion of raw, as opposed to boiled, eggs attenuates the postprandial rise in circulating EAA concentrations. However, postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates do not differ after ingestion of 5 raw compared with 5 boiled eggs in healthy young men.This trial was registered at the Nederlands Trial Register as NL6506 (www.trialregister.nl).
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac174
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Weaning Stress in Piglets Alters the Expression of Intestinal Proteins
           Involved in Fat Absorption

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      Pages: 2387 - 2395
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn vivo data on intestinal fat absorption in weanling piglets are scarce.ObjectivesThis study aimed to investigate the effect of weaning stress on intestinal fat absorption.MethodsEighteen 7-d-old sow-reared piglets (Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 6/group, 3 males and 3 females per group). Piglets were nursed by sows until 24 d of age (suckling piglets, S), or weaned at 21 d of age to a corn-soybean meal–based diet until 24 d (3 d postweaning, W3) or 28 d (7 d postweaning, W7) of age, respectively. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected to determine intestinal morphology and abundance of proteins related to fat absorption.ResultsCompared with the S group, the W3 group had lower villus height (17–34%) and villus height to crypt depth ratio (13–53%), as well as 1–1.45 times greater crypt depth; these values were 1.18–1.31, 0.69–1.15, and 1.47–1.87 times greater in the W7 group than in the W3 group, respectively. Compared with the S group, weaning stress for both W3 and W7 groups reduced intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity (26–73%), serum lipids (26–54%), and abundances of proteins related to fatty acid transport [fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP)] and chylomicron assembly [microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4), B (APOB), and A-I (APOA1)] in the duodenum and ileum (10–55%), as well as in the jejunum (25–85%). All these indexes did not differ between W3 and W7 groups. Compared with the S group, the W3 group had lower mRNA abundances of duodenal APOA4 and APOA1 (25–50%), as well as jejunal FATP4, IFABP, MTTP, APOA4, and APOA1 (35–50%); these values were 5–15% and 10–37% lower in the W7 group than in the W3 group, respectively.ConclusionsWeaning stress in piglets attenuates the expression of intestinal proteins related to fatty acid transport (FATP4 and I-FABP) and chylomicron synthesis (APOA4).
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac177
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Lycopene Affects Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiota in
           Weaned Piglets via Antioxidant Signaling Regulation

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      Pages: 2396 - 2408
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn pig production, early and abrupt weaning frequently causes weaning stress, which manifests as oxidative damage, barrier disruption, and digestion and absorption capacity declines. Lycopene exhibits beneficial antioxidant capacity in both humans and other animal models.ObjectivesThe present study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene supplementation on early weaning stress in piglets and the underlying mechanisms by examining the oxidative stress state, gut intestinal barrier function, and the gut microbiota.MethodsTwenty-four 21-day-old weaned piglets [Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire); castrated males; 5.48 ± 0.10 kg initial body weight] were randomly assigned to 2 treatments. The piglets were fed a basal diet (control treatment) or a basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg lycopene (lycopene treatment) for 28 days. The serum lipid levels, serum and jejunum enzyme activities, jejunum morphology, mRNA and protein expression, and gut microbiota were determined.ResultsCompared with the control treatment, lycopene supplementation increased the serum catalase activity (P = 0.042; 62.0%); serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.020; 14.1%); and jejunum superoxide dismutase activity (P = 0.032; 21.4%), whereas it decreased serum (P = 0.039, 23.0%) and jejunum (P = 0.047; 20.9%) hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Additionally, lycopene increased the mRNA and protein expression of NFE2-like bZIP transcription factor 2 (214.0% and 102.4%, respectively) and CD36 (100.8% and 145.2%, respectively) in the jejunum, whereas it decreased the mRNA and protein expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (55.6% and 39.8%, respectively ). Lycopene also improved jejunal morphology, increasing the villus height (P = 0.018; 27.5%) and villus:crypt ratio (P < 0.001; 57.9%). Furthermore, it increased the abundances of potentially beneficial bacterial groups, including Phascolarctobacterium and Parasutterella, and decreased those of potentially pathogenic bacterial groups, including Treponema_2 and Prevotellaceae_unclassified.ConclusionsLycopene supplementation strengthens the intestinal barrier function and improves the gut microbiota in weaned piglets by regulating intestinal antioxidant signaling.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac208
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Testing the Feasibility and Dietary Impact of a “Produce Prescription”
           Program for Adults with Undermanaged Type 2 Diabetes and Food Insecurity
           in Australia

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      Pages: 2409 - 2418
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThere is growing interest in Food is Medicine programs that incorporate food-based interventions into health care for patients with diet-related conditions.ObjectivesWe aimed to test the feasibility of a “produce prescription” program and its impact on diet quality for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) experiencing food insecurity in Australia.MethodsWe conducted a pre–post intervention study in n = 50 adults experiencing food insecurity with T2D and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥8%. Once enrolled, participants received healthy food boxes weekly free of charge, with the contents sufficient to create 2 meals/d, 5 d/wk for the entire household, over 12 wk. Participants were also provided with tailored recipes and behavioral change support. The primary outcome was change in diet quality assessed by 24-h diet recalls. Secondary outcomes included differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors; blood micronutrients; and feasibility indicators. Differences in the baseline and 12-wk mean primary and secondary outcomes were assessed by paired t tests.ResultsParticipants were older adults with mean ± SD age 63 ± 9 y (range: 40–87 y), HbA1c 9.8% ± 1.5%, and 46% were female. Overall, 92% completed the final study follow-up for the primary outcome. Compared with baseline, diet quality improved at week 12, with an increase in the mean overall diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score) of 12.9 (95% CI: 8.7, 17.1; P < 0.001), driven by significant improvements in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, red/processed meat, trans fat, sodium, and alcohol consumption. Blood lipids also improved (total:HDL cholesterol: −0.48; 95% CI: −0.72, −0.24; P < 0.001), and there was significant weight loss (−1.74 kg; 95% CI: −2.80, −0.68 kg, P = 0.002), but no changes in other clinical outcomes. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the program.ConclusionsThese findings provide strong support for an adequately powered randomized trial to assess effects of produce prescription as an innovative approach to improve clinical management among individuals with T2D experiencing food insecurity.This trial was registered at https://anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12621000404820.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac152
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Cumulative Consumption of Sulfur Amino Acids and Risk of Diabetes: A
           Prospective Cohort Study

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      Pages: 2419 - 2428
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundCross-sectional studies have suggested that consumption of sulfur amino acids (SAAs), including methionine and cysteine, is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans and with T2D-related biomarkers in animals. But whether higher long-term SAA intake increases the risk of T2D in humans remains unknown.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the association between long-term dietary SAA intake and risk of T2D.MethodsWe analyzed data collected from 2 different cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term, prospective, and ongoing study. The Offspring cohort (1991–2014) included participants from fifth through ninth examinations, and the Third-Generation cohort (2002–2011) included participants from first and second examinations. After excluding participants with a clinical history of diabetes, missing dietary data, or implausible total energy intake, 3222 participants in the Offspring cohort and 3205 participants in the Third-Generation cohort were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. The relations between energy-adjusted total SAA (methionine and cysteine) intake or individual SAA intake (in quintiles) and risk of incident T2D were estimated via Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for dietary and nondietary risk factors. Associations across the 2 cohorts were determined by direct combination and meta-analysis.ResultsDuring the 23 y of follow-up, 472 participants reported a new diagnosis of T2D in the 2 cohorts. In the meta-analysis, the HRs of T2D comparing the highest with the lowest intake of total SAAs, methionine, and cysteine were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.3), and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), respectively. The association of SAA intake with T2D was attenuated after adjusting animal protein intake in sensitivity analyses.ConclusionsOur findings show that excess intake of SAAs is associated with higher risk of T2D. Dietary patterns that are low in SAAs could help in preventing T2D.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac172
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • An Energy-Restricted Diet Including Yogurt, Fruit, and Vegetables
           Alleviates High-Fat Diet–Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice by
           Modulating the Gut Microbiota

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      Pages: 2429 - 2440
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe importance of the composition of an energy-restricted diet in the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unknown.ObjectivesIn this study we aimed to investigate the benefits of a novel dietary treatment (50% calorie restriction diet composed of yogurt, fruit, and vegetables [CR-YD]) in mice with MetS.MethodsForty 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) that were fed for 14 wk ad libitum with a normal diet (ND; 10%:70%:20% energy from fat: carbohydrate: protein) or for 12 wk with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60:20:20) or the HFD followed by 2 wk of feeding with a 50% calorie-restricted HFD (CR-HFD) or YD (CR-YD, 21.2%:65.4%:13.4% energy). Body weight, fat deposition, hepatic steatosis, serum concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, and glucose homeostasis were assessed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to validate the roles of gut microbiota in MetS.ResultsThe HFD group had 50% greater body weight and 475% greater fat deposition than the ND group (P < 0.05). Compared with the HFD group, the CR-HFD and CR-YD groups had 22% and 31% lower body weight and 49% and 75% less fat deposition, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with the CR-HFD group, the CR-YD group had 11% lower body weight, 96% less fat deposition, 500% less hepatic steatosis, 75% lower glucose, and 450% more hepatic Akkermansia bacteria (P < 0.05). The CR-YD group also had 50% lower histopathology scores and 1.35-fold higher levels of Claudin4 than the CR-HFD group (P < 0.05). The HFD + CR-YD fecal group had 10.6% lower body weight, 119% lower steatosis, and 17.9% lower glucose (P < 0.05) than the HFD + CR-HFD fecal group.ConclusionsCompared with CR alone, the CR-YD diet has a better therapeutic effect in mice with HFD-induced MetS.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac181
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Vitamin D Status of Infants of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes: Status
           at Birth and a Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation
           across Infancy

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      Pages: 2441 - 2450
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin D status and requirements of infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are unclear.ObjectivesThe objectives were to assess vitamin D status in infants of mothers with GDM and compare vitamin D status in response to 400 vs. 1000 IU/d vitamin D supplementation in infants born with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L.MethodsWomen with GDM delivering full-term infants (n = 98; March 2017–2019, Montreal, Canada) were surveyed for demographic and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy history was obtained from medical records. Newborn serum 25(OH)D was measured (immunoassay) and categorized as <30 (deficient) or ≥40 nmol/L (adequate). Breastfed neonates (n = 16) with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L at birth were randomly assigned to 400 or 1000 IU/d of supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline (≤1 mo) and 3, 6, and 12 mo of age. Groups were compared using a linear mixed-effects model and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests.ResultsMean newborn serum 25(OH)D was 46.4 (95% CI: 43.9, 49.9) nmol/L, with 15.3% (95% CI: 8.2%, 22.4%) <30 nmol/L and 61.2% (95% CI: 51.6%, 70.9%) ≥40 nmol/L. During the trial, most infants were breastfed to 3 mo (400 IU/d: 87.5%; 1000 IU/d: 75.0%). Mean (± SEM) infant serum 25(OH)D was higher in the 1000-IU/d group at 3 mo (79.9 ± 5.9 vs. 111.5 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P = 0.0263), and although not different at 6–12 mo, was maintained at >50 nmol/L.ConclusionsMost infants of women with GDM had adequate vitamin D status in this study. In those born with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, vitamin D status was corrected by 3 mo of age in response to 400 or 1000 IU/d of supplemental vitamin D. Dietary guidance should continue to recommend that all women who could become pregnant take a multivitamin supplement and that breastfed infants receive 400 IU/d of supplemental vitamin D. This study and ancillary trial were registered at clinicaltrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02563015) as NCT02563015.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac194
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Lactoferrin Attenuates Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Inflammation by
           Modulating the MAPK Pathway and Gut Microbes in Mice

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      Pages: 2451 - 2460
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDeoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxin present in staple foods (particularly in cereal products) that induces intestinal inflammation and disrupts intestinal integrity. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that contributes to maintaining intestinal homeostasis and improving host health. However, the protective effects of LF on DON-induced intestinal dysfunction remain unclear.ObjectivesThis study aimed to investigate the effects of LF on DON-induced intestinal dysfunction in mice, and its underlying protective mechanism.MethodsMale BALB/c mice (5 wk old) with similar body weights were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group) and treated as follows for 5 wk: Veh [peroral vehicle daily, commercial (C) diet]; LF (peroral 10 mg LF/d, C diet); DON (Veh, C diet containing 12 mg DON/kg); and LF + DON (peroral 10 mg LF/d, DON diet). Intestinal morphology, tight junction proteins, cytokines, and microbial community were determined. Data were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis test.ResultsThe DON group exhibited lower final body weight (−12%), jejunal villus height (VH; −41%), and jejunal occludin expression (−36%), and higher plasma IL-1β concentration (+85%) and jejunal Il1b mRNA expression (+98%) compared with the Veh group (P < 0.05). In contrast, final body weight (+19%), jejunal VH (+49%), jejunal occludin (+53%), and intelectin 1 protein expression (+159%) were greater in LF + DON compared with DON (P < 0.05). Additionally, jejunal Il1b mRNA expression (−31%) and phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (−40% and − 38%) were lower in LF + DON compared with DON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative abundance of Clostridium XIVa (+181%) and colonic butyrate concentration (+53%) were greater in LF + DON compared with DON (P < 0.05).ConclusionsOur study highlights a promising antimycotoxin approach using LF to alleviate DON-induced intestinal dysfunction by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and gut microbial community in mice.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac200
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Herbs and Spices Modulate Gut Bacterial Composition in Adults at Risk for
           CVD: Results of a Prespecified Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized,
           Crossover, Controlled-Feeding Study

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      Pages: 2461 - 2470
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHerbs and spices are rich in polyphenolic compounds that may influence gut bacterial composition. The effect of culinary doses of herbs and spices consumed as part of a well-defined dietary pattern on gut bacterial composition has not been previously studied.ObjectivesThe aim of this prespecified exploratory analysis was to examine gut bacterial composition following an average American diet (carbohydrate: 50% kcal; protein: 17%; total fat: 33%; saturated fat: 11%) containing herbs and spices at 0.5, 3.3, and 6.6 g.d–1.2100 kcal–1 [low-, moderate-, and high-spice diets, respectively (LSD, MSD, and HSD)] in adults at risk for CVD.MethodsFifty-four adults (57% female; mean ± SD age: 45 ± 11 y; BMI: 29.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; waist circumference: 102.8 ± 7.1 cm) were included in this 3-period, randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Each diet was provided for 4 wk with a minimum 2-wk washout period. At baseline and the end of each diet period, participants provided a fecal sample for 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) sequencing. QIIME2 was used for data filtration, sequence clustering, taxonomy assignment, and statistical analysis.Resultsα-diversity assessed by the observed features metric ( P = 0.046) was significantly greater following the MSD as compared with the LSD; no other between-diet differences in α-diversity were detected. Differences in β-diversity were not observed between the diets ( P = 0.45). Compared with baseline, β-diversity differed following all diets ( P < .02). Enrichment of the Ruminococcaceae family was observed following the HSD as compared with the MSD (relative abundance = 22.14%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.22, P = 0.03) and the LSD (relative abundance  = 24.90%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.47, P = 0.004).ConclusionsThe addition of herbs and spices to an average American diet induced shifts in gut bacterial composition after 4 wk in adults at risk for CVD. The metabolic implications of these changes merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03064932.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac201
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Free Amino Acid–Enriched Diets Containing Rapidly but Not Slowly
           Digested Carbohydrate Promote Amino Acid Absorption from Intestine and Net
           Fluxes across Skeletal Muscle of Pigs

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      Pages: 2471 - 2482
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe approach to matching appropriate carbohydrates alongside free amino acids to achieve optimal muscle growth remains unclear.ObjectivesWe investigated whether the consumption of a diet containing rapidly digested carbohydrate and free amino acids can enhance intestinal absorption and muscular uptake of amino acids in pigs.MethodTwelve barrows (28 kg; 11 wk old) with catheters installed in the portal vein, mesenteric vein, femoral artery, and femoral vein were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 free amino acid–enriched diets (3.34%) containing rapidly [waxy corn starch (WCS)] or slowly [pea starch (PS)] digested carbohydrate for 27 d. Blood was collected to determine the fluxes of plasma glucose and amino acids across the portal vein and the hindlimb muscle. Dietary in vitro carbohydrate digestive rates were also determined. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures (time × group) ANOVA.ResultsCarbohydrate in vitro cumulative digestibility at 30 and 240 min was 69.00% and 95.25% for WCS and 23.25% and 81.15% for PS, respectively. The animal experiment presented WCS increased individual amino acids (lysine, 0.67 compared with 0.53 mmol/min; threonine, 0.40 compared with 0.29 mmol/min; isoleucine, 0.33 compared with 0.22 mmol/min; glutamate, 0.51 compared with 0.35 mmol/min; and proline, 0.51 compared with 0.27 mmol/min), essential amino acid (EAA; 3.26 compared with 2.65 mmol/min), and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; 0.86 compared with 0.65 mmol/min) fluxes across the portal vein during 8 h postprandial, as well as individual amino acids (isoleucine, 0.08 compared with 0.02 mmol/min; leucine, 0.06 compared with 0.02 mmol/min; and glutamine, 0.44 compared with 0.25 mmol/min), EAA (0.50 compared with 0.21 mmol/min), and BCAA (0.17 compared with 0.06 mmol/min) net fluxes across the hindlimb muscle during 8 h postprandial compared with PS (P < 0.05).ConclusionsA diet containing rapidly digested carbohydrate and free amino acids can promote intestinal absorption and net fluxes across hindlimb muscle of amino acids in pigs.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac165
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Vitamin B-12 Intake from Dairy but Not Meat Is Associated with Decreased
           Risk of Low Vitamin B-12 Status and Deficiency in Older Adults from
           Quebec, Canada

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      Pages: 2483 - 2492
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundVitamin B-12 deficiency can result in irreversible neurologic damages. It is most prevalent among older adults (∼5%–15%), mainly due to impaired absorption. Vitamin B-12 bioavailability varies between food sources, so their importance in preventing deficiency may also vary.ObjectivesUsing the NuAge Database and Biobank, we examined the associations between vitamin B-12 intake (total and by specific food groups) and low vitamin B-12 status and deficiency in older adults.MethodsNuAge—the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging—included 1753 adults aged 67–84 y who were followed 4 y. Analytic samples comprised 1230–1463 individuals. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake was assessed annually using three 24-h dietary recalls. Vitamin B-12 status was assessed annually as low serum vitamin B-12 (<221 pmol/L), elevated urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA)/creatinine ratio (>2 μmol/mmol), and a combination of both (deficiency). Vitamin B-12 supplement users were excluded. Multilevel logistic regressions, adjusted for relevant confounders, were used.ResultsAcross all study years, 21.8%–32.5% of participants had low serum vitamin B-12, 12.5%–17.0% had elevated urine MMA/creatinine, and 10.1%–12.7% had deficiency. Median (IQR) total vitamin B-12 intake was 3.19 μg/d (2.31–4.37). Main sources were “dairy” and “meat, poultry, and organ meats.” The ORs (95% CIs) in the fifth quintile compared with the first of total vitamin B-12 intake were as follows: for low serum vitamin B-12, 0.52 (0.37, 0.75; P-trend < 0.0001); for elevated urine MMA/creatinine, 0.63 (0.37, 1.08; P-trend = 0.091); and for vitamin B-12 deficiency, 0.38 (0.18, 0.79; P-trend = 0.006). Similarly, ORs (95% CIs) in the fourth quartile compared with the first of dairy-derived vitamin B-12 intake were 0.46 (0.32, 0.66; P-trend < 0.0001), 0.51 (0.30, 0.87; P-trend = 0.006), and 0.35 (0.17, 0.73; P-trend = 0.003), respectively. No associations were observed with vitamin B-12 from “meat, poultry, and organ meats.”ConclusionsHigher dietary vitamin B-12 intake, especially from dairy, was associated with decreased risk of low vitamin B-12 status and deficiency in older adults. Food groups might contribute differently at reducing risk of deficiency in older populations.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac143
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Mortality Associated with Healthy Eating Index Components and an
           

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      Pages: 2493 - 2504
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundStudies of diet and chronic disease include a recent important focus on dietary patterns. Patterns are typically defined by listing dietary variables and by totaling scores that reflect whether consumption is encouraged or discouraged for listed variables. However, precision may be improved by including total energy consumption among the dietary variables and by scoring dietary variables empirically.ObjectivesTo relate Healthy Eating Index (HEI)–2010 components and total energy intake to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts and to define and evaluate an associated Empirical-Scores Healthy Eating Index (E-HEI).MethodsAnalyses are conducted in WHI cohorts (n = 67,247) of healthy postmenopausal women, aged 50–79 y, when enrolled during 1993–1998 at 40 US clinical centers, with embedded nutrition biomarker studies. Replicate food-frequency assessments for HEI-2010 ratio variables and doubly labeled water total energy assessments, separated by ∼6 mo, are used as response variables to jointly calibrate baseline dietary data to reduce measurement error influences, using 2 nutrition biomarker studies (n = 199). Calibrated dietary variables are associated with mortality risk, and an E-HEI is defined, using cross-validated HR regression estimation.ResultsOf 15 dietary variables considered, all but empty calories calibrated well. Ten variables related significantly (P < 0.05) to total mortality, with favorable fruit, vegetable, whole grain, refined grain, and unsaturated fat associations and unfavorable sodium, saturated fat, and total energy associations. The E-HEI had cross-validated total mortality HRs (95% CIs) of 0.87 (0.82, 0.93), 0.80 (0.76, 0.86), 0.77 (0.72, 0.82), and 0.74 (0.69, 0.79) respectively, for quintiles 2 through 5 compared with quintile 1. These depart more strongly from the null than do HRs for HEI-2010 quintiles, primarily because of total energy.ConclusionsMortality among US postmenopausal women depends strongly on diet, as evidenced by a new E-HEI that differs substantially from earlier dietary pattern score specifications.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac068
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Association Between Birthplace and Time in the United States With Diet
           Quality in US Adolescents: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition
           Examination Survey, 2007 to 2018

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      Pages: 2505 - 2513
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundDuring adolescence, diet quality reaches its lowest point compared to other childhood life stages. Acculturation is associated with decreased diet quality among many groups of US immigrant adults, but research is limited among adolescents.ObjectivesWe investigated the associations between birthplace and length of time living in the United States, 2 proxy measures of acculturation, and diet quality among adolescents (12–19 years old).MethodsData were from the NHANES (2007–2018), which included two 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 6113) to estimate Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015) total scores and component scores. Multivariate linear regression and generalized linear models were performed to compare HEI-2015 total scores and component scores between US-born adolescents (n = 5342) and foreign-born adolescents with <5 years (n = 244), 5 to <10 years (n = 201), and ≥10 years (n = 290) of US residency.ResultsForeign-born adolescents with <5 years (53.3 ± 1.2), 5 to <10 years (51.4 ± 1.5), and ≥10 years of US residency (49.9 ± 0.8) had higher HEI-2015 total scores than US-born adolescents (47.0 ± 0.3; P < 0.0001) and higher component scores for total vegetables, seafood and plant proteins, and added sugars (P values ≤ 0.0001). Foreign-born adolescents with more years of US residency had higher component scores for total fruits, whole fruits, and saturated fats than those with fewer years of US residency. A sensitivity analysis revealed this pattern held for Mexican-American and other Hispanic adolescents.ConclusionsBeing born outside the United States and living in the United States for less time (among foreign-born adolescents) are associated with higher diet quality. Culturally informed health promotion programs may help to reduce diet-related disparities related to acculturation among adolescents.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac117
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Approximately Half of Total Protein Intake by Adults Must be Animal-Based
           to Meet Nonprotein, Nutrient-Based Recommendations, With Variations Due to
           Age and Sex

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      Pages: 2514 - 2525
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundShifting towards a more plant-based diet, as promoted in Western countries, will reduce the animal protein contribution to total proteins. Such a reduction may not only impair protein adequacy, but also the adequacy in other nutrients.ObjectivesWe determined, for different adult subpopulations, the minimum total protein levels and the minimum animal protein contributions to total proteins that are compatible with the fulfillment of all nonprotein nutrient-based recommendations.MethodsMean nutritional contents and mean diet costs were estimated using a French, cross-sectional, representative survey for 5 French subpopulations: 1) women < 50 y; 2) women 50–64 y; 3) women ≥ 65 y; 4) men < 65 y; and 5) men ≥ 65 y. For each subpopulation, linear programming optimization was used to assess the minimum protein level (model set #1) and the minimum animal protein contribution to total proteins (model set #2) that are compatible with the fulfillment of all nutrient-based recommendations (except proteins, for which levels were analyzed as outputs). Total diet costs were not allowed to increase. Eating habits were considered in model set #2 only.ResultsThe minimum amount of protein that was theoretically compatible with the fulfillment of nutrient-based recommendations (model set #1) was below the minimum recommended protein intake for all subpopulations except women < 50 y. In model set #2, for women and men ≥ 65 y, decreasing animal protein contributions to total proteins below 55% and 60%, respectively, led to protein levels below recommended levels. For the other subpopulations (women < 50 y, women 50–64 y, and men < 65 y), the lowest animal protein contributions to total proteins compatible with a nutritionally adequate diet (including protein adequacy) were 55%, 50%, and 45%, respectively.ConclusionsThis study provides factual information about the animal protein contributions to total proteins compatible with meeting all nutrient-based recommendations at no additional cost, and shows that they vary between 45% and 60% depending on the group of adults considered.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac150
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern Scores Are Not Associated with
           Worse Cognitive Performance in the Nurses’ Health Study

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      Pages: 2526 - 2533
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLow-grade chronic inflammation associated with unhealthy diets may lead to cognitive aging.ObjectivesWe evaluated whether higher long-term adherence to an empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) was associated with lower cognitive function after age 70 y in the Nurses’ Health Study.MethodsA total of 16,058 older (mean ± SD age: 74 ± 2 y) highly educated (≥ bachelor degree) White women completed up to 5 validated 116-item food-frequency questionnaires. An EDIP score, previously derived with the use of reduced rank regression to predict circulating inflammatory markers (i.e., C-reactive protein, TNF-α receptor 2, and IL-6), was computed based on 9 anti-inflammatory and 9 proinflammatory components. A long-term EDIP score was calculated by averaging across 5 exams. The EDIP score was categorized into quintiles, taking the first (anti-inflammatory) quintile as the reference category. Cognitive testing was performed through telephone interviews over 4 follow-up exams (1995–2008). A composite global cognition score, a composite verbal memory score, and the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) were calculated and averaged across the 4 exams (6 y of follow-up). Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine longitudinal relations under study.ResultsHigher long-term EDIP scores (i.e., more proinflammatory) were significantly associated with worse performance on global cognitive function (P-trend= 0.018) and TICS (P-trend= 0.004) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. The associations became nonsignificant after additional adjustments for disease (related) risk factors for dementia. No association was observed between the EDIP score and verbal memory.ConclusionsWe observed no relation between long-term EDIP scores and averaged global cognitive function and verbal memory among older women. Our findings suggest no relation between long-term adherence to a proinflammatory diet and cognitive function in a large population of mostly White and generally highly educated older women. Future studies are encouraged to investigate the relation between inflammatory diets and cognitive function in other races/ethnicities and men, and over a longer follow-up period.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac157
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol,
           

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      Pages: 2534 - 2545
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundProspective cohort studies have found a relation between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption (sodas and fruit drinks) and dyslipidemia. There is limited evidence linking SSB consumption to emerging features of dyslipidemia, which can be characterized by variation in lipoprotein particle size, remnant-like particle (RLP), and apolipoprotein concentrations.ObjectivesTo examine the association between SSB consumption and plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and lipoprotein particle size concentrations among US adults.MethodsWe examined participants from the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS; 1987–1995, n = 3047) and the Women's Health Study (1992, n = 26,218). Concentrations of plasma LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), triglyceride (TG), and non–HDL cholesterol, as well as total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio and apoB:apoA1 ratio, were quantified in both cohorts; concentrations of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein C3, RLP-TG, and RLP cholesterol (RLP-C) were measured in the FOS only. Lipoprotein particle sizes were calculated from nuclear magnetic resonance signals for lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations (TG-rich lipoprotein particles [TRL-Ps]: very large, large, medium, small, and very small; LDL particles [LDL-Ps]: large, medium, and small; HDL particles [HDL-Ps]: large, medium, and small). SSB consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaire data. We examined the associations between SSB consumption and all lipoprotein and apoprotein measures in linear regression models, adjusting for confounding factors such as lifestyle, diet, and traditional lipoprotein risk factors.ResultsSSB consumption was positively associated with LDL cholesterol, apoB, TG, RLP-TG, RLP-C, and non–HDL cholesterol concentrations and total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol and apoB:apoA1 ratios; and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol and apoA1 concentrations (P-trend range: <0.0001 to 0.008). After adjustment for traditional lipoprotein risk factors, SSB consumers had smaller LDL-P and HDL-P sizes; lower concentrations of large LDL-Ps and medium HDL-Ps; and higher concentrations of small LDL-Ps, small HDL-Ps, and large TRL-Ps (P-trend range: <0.0001 to 0.001).ConclusionsHigher SSB consumption was associated with multiple emerging features of dyslipidemia that have been linked to higher cardiometabolic risk in US adults.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac166
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Higher Dietary Intake of Animal Protein Foods in Pregnancy Is Associated
           with Lower Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes

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      Pages: 2546 - 2554
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe prevalence of adverse birth outcomes is highest in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. Maternal consumption of diets with adequate nutrients during pregnancy may protect against these adverse outcomes.ObjectivesThe objective was to determine the association between maternal dietary consumption of animal source foods (ASFs) and the risk of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-negative pregnant women in Tanzania.MethodsUsing dietary intake data from 7564 HIV-negative pregnant women, we used Poisson regression with the empirical variance (generalized estimating equation) to estimate the RR of adverse birth outcomes—preterm birth, very preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), stillbirth, and neonatal death—for higher and lower frequency of ASF intake.ResultsMedian daily dietary intake of animal protein was 17 g (IQR: 1–48 g). Higher frequency of ASF protein intake was associated with lower risk of neonatal death (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.90; P-trend = 0.01). Higher fish intake was associated with lower risk of very preterm birth (high tertile compared with low; RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02). Any meat intake was protective of preterm birth (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.82; P < 0.001), very preterm birth (P < 0.001), LBW (P < 0.001), and neonatal death (P = 0.01) but was associated with increased risk of SGA (RR:1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.36; P = 0.04). Any egg intake was protective of very preterm birth (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.83; P = 0.01) as compared with no egg intake. Finally, any dairy intake was associated with lower risk of preterm birth (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.98; P = 0.03) and very preterm birth (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.84; P = 0.01).ConclusionsHigher frequency of dietary intake of ASF is associated with lower risk of adverse birth outcomes in urban Tanzania. Promoting prenatal dietary intake of ASF may improve birth outcomes in this region and similar resource-limited settings
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac183
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Early Childhood Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intake Is Positively Associated with
           Early Childhood Receptive Vocabulary and Mid-Childhood Executive Function
           But No Other Cognitive or Behavioral Outcomes in Project Viva

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      Pages: 2555 - 2564
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids associated with better cognition in older adults. Recent evidence suggests that their dietary intake may also have cognitive implications in childhood.ObjectiveThe aim was to examine associations of early childhood lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) intake with cognition in early and mid-childhood.MethodsAmong 1378 children in Project Viva, a prospective cohort, mothers reported their child's dietary intake in early childhood (median: 3.2 y) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Child cognition and behavior were assessed at the same time point using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) and at mid-childhood (median: 7.7 y) using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, the WRAVMA drawing subtest, the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.ResultsChildren consumed a daily mean (SD) of 1.0 (0.4) mg L/Z in early childhood. Children in the third-quartile category of L/Z intake had a mean PPVT-III score 2.40 (95% CI: 0.27, 4.53) points higher than children in the lowest quartile category in early childhood, suggesting better receptive vocabulary. Children in the highest quartile category of L/Z intake had a parent-reported mean BRIEF Global Executive Composite score 1.65 (95% CI: −3.27, −0.03) points lower than children in the lowest quartile category in mid-childhood, indicating better executive function. We did not observe associations between L/Z intake and any of the other cognitive or behavioral outcomes assessed.ConclusionsThe overall findings do not provide strong evidence of an association between child L/Z intake and cognition and behavior. However, the positive associations found between early childhood L/Z intake and early childhood receptive vocabulary and mid-childhood executive function, in addition to previous evidence of neurodevelopmental benefit of L/Z intake, suggest that this relation deserves further investigation.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac188
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Threshold of BMI for the Development of Hypertension among Japanese Adults

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      Pages: 2565 - 2571
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe optimal value of BMI for the development of hypertension and the influence of BMI on the development of stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension remain unclear.ObjectivesWe sought to identify the BMI threshold for the prevention of hypertension and how changes in BMI would influence the risk of developing hypertension.MethodsWe analyzed 1,262,356 participants (median age: 43 y; 50.9% men) with normal blood pressure [BP; systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) <80 mmHg] or elevated BP (SBP: 120–129 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg). The primary outcome was stage 1 (SBP 130–139 mmHg or DBP 80–89 mmHg) or stage 2 hypertension (SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥90 mmHg). We analyzed the relation between baseline BMI, change in BMI, and the risk of developing hypertension using generalized additive models with a smoothing spline.ResultsDuring the median follow-up of 851 d, 341,212 cases of stage 1 hypertension and 70,968 cases of stage 2 hypertension were detected. The risk of developing stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension increased steeply after BMI (kg/m2) exceeded 20. The annual change in BMI was positively correlated with the risk of developing stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Contour mapping using generalized additive models demonstrated an additive increase in the risk of developing hypertension with higher baseline BMI and increases in BMI over 1 y. Body-weight gain increases the risk of developing hypertension even in underweight or normal-weight individuals based on the WHO classification.ConclusionsIn Japanese adults with normal or elevated BP, the risk of developing hypertension increased with BMI when baseline BMI was >20. Body-weight gain additively interacted with baseline BMI during hypertension development. Our results underscore the importance of maintaining body weight in preventing the development of hypertension.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac192
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Dietary Exposure to Toxic Elements and the Health of Young Children:
           Methodological Considerations and Data Needs

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      Pages: 2572 - 2581
      Abstract: ABSTRACTConcerns have been raised regarding toxic-element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) contamination of commercially available infant foods around the world. Young children are vulnerable to the effects of toxic elements, based on higher absorption levels and potentially poorer detoxification capacities. Toxic-element exposures in early life exact high societal costs, but it is unclear how much dietary exposure to these elements contributes to adverse health outcomes. Well-designed epidemiological studies conducted in different geographical and socioeconomic contexts need to estimate dietary toxicant exposure in young children and to determine whether causal links exist between toxicants in children's diets and health outcomes. This commentary outlines the methodological considerations and data needs to advance such research.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac185
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Differential Associations Between Changes in Food Environment and Changes
           in BMI Among Adults Living in Urban, Low-Income Communities

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      Pages: 2582 - 2590
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFood environments can contribute to excess weight gain among adults, but the evidence is mixed.ObjectivesThis longitudinal study investigated the associations between changes in the food environment and changes in BMI in adults and whether changes in the food environment differentially impact various subgroups.MethodsAt 2 time points, BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight data from 517 adults (mean age, 41 years) living in 4 New Jersey cities. The counts of different types of food outlets within 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 km of respondents’ residences were collected at baseline and tracked until follow-up. A binary measure of social standing (social-advantage group, n = 219; social-disadvantage group, n = 298) was created through a latent class analysis using social, economic, and demographic variables. Multivariable linear regression modeled the associations between changes in BMI with measures of the food environment; additionally, interaction terms between the measures of food environment and social standing were examined.ResultsOverall, over 18 months, an increase in the number of small grocery stores within 0.4 km of a respondent's residence was associated with a decrease in BMI (β = −1.0; 95% CI: −1.9, −0.1; P = 0.024), while an increase in the number of fast-food restaurants within 1.6 km was associated with an increase in BMI (β = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.2; P = 0.027). These overall findings, however, masked some group-specific associations. Interaction analyses suggested that associations between changes in the food environment and changes in BMI varied by social standing. For instance, the association between changes in fast-food restaurants and changes in BMI was only observed in the social-disadvantage group (β = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.2; P = 0.021).ConclusionsIn a sample of adults living in New Jersey, changes in the food environment had differential effects on individuals’ BMIs, based on their social standing.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac186
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Trends and Inequities in Food, Energy, Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate
           Intakes in Rural Bangladesh

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      Pages: 2591 - 2603
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundTracking dietary changes can inform strategies to improve nutrition, yet there is limited evidence on food consumption patterns and how disparities in food and nutrient intakes have changed in Bangladesh.ObjectivesWe assessed trends and adequacies in energy and macronutrient intakes and evaluated changes in inequities by age group, sex, and expenditure quintile.MethodsWe used panel data from the 2011 and 2018 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (n = 20,339 and 19,818 household members aged ≥2 y, respectively). Dietary intakes were collected using 24-h recall and food-weighing methods. Changes in energy and macronutrient intakes were assessed using generalized linear models and adjusted Wald tests. Inequities in outcomes were examined by age group, sex, and expenditure quintile using the Slope Index of Inequality and Concentration Index.ResultsBetween 2011 and 2018, dietary diversity improved across sex and age groups (30–46% in children, 60–65% in adolescents, 37–87% in adults), but diets remain imbalanced with ∼70% of energy coming from carbohydrates. There were declines in intakes of energy (3–8%), protein (3–9%), and carbohydrate (9–16%) for all age groups (except children aged 2–5 y), but an increase in fat intake (57–68% in children and 22–40% in adults). Insufficient intake remained high for protein (>50% among adults) and fat (>80%), whereas excessive carbohydrate intake was >70%. Insufficient energy, protein, and fat intakes, and excessive carbohydrate intakes, were more prevalent among poor households across survey years. Inequity gaps decreased for insufficient energy intake in most age groups, remained stable for insufficient protein intake, and increased for insufficient fat and excessive carbohydrate intakes.ConclusionsDespite improvements in dietary diversity, diets remain imbalanced and inequities in insufficient energy, protein, and fat intakes persist. Our findings call for coherent sets of policies and investments toward a well-functioning food system and social protection to promote healthier, more equitable diets in rural Bangladesh.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac198
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • The Lipid-Soluble Forms of Choline Enhance Ex Vivo Responses from the
           Gut-Associated Immune System in Young Female Rat Offspring

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      Pages: 2604 - 2614
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn humans, the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) occurs in the first years of life and can be influenced by diet.ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary choline on the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).MethodsThree feeding trials were conducted in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Beginning 3 d before parturition (studies 1 and 3) or at day 10 of gestation (study 2), control dams consumed a 100% free choline (FC) diet until the end of the lactation period. In studies 1 and 3, test dams consumed a high-glycerophosphocholine (HGPC) diet [75% glycerophosphocholine (GPC), 12.5% phosphatidylcholine (PC), 12.5% FC] and a 100% PC diet, respectively (both 1 g of choline/kg diet). In study 2, test dams consumed a high–sphingomyelin (SM) and PC (SMPC) diet (34% SM, 37% PC, 17% GPC, 7% FC, 5% phosphocholine) or a 50% PC diet (50% PC, 25% FC, 25% GPC), both 1.7 g of choline/kg diet. Immune cell phenotypes and ex vivo cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated immune cells were measured.ResultsFeeding of the HGPC diet lowered T-cell IL-2 (44%), IFN-γ (34%), and TNF-α (55%) production in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) compared with control. Feeding both SMPC and 50% PC diets during the lactation and weaning periods increased IL-2 (54%) and TNF-α (46%) production after T-cell stimulation compared with control. There was a lower production of IL-2 (46%), IL-6 (66%), and TNF-α (45%), and a higher production of IL-10 (44%) in both SMPC and 50% PC groups following ovalbumin stimulation compared with control in MLNs. Feeding a diet containing 100% PC increased the production of IFN-γ by 52% after T-cell stimulation compared with control.ConclusionFeeding a diet containing a mixture of choline forms with a high content of lipid-soluble forms during both the lactation and weaning periods enhances ex vivo immune responses from the GALT in female Sprague-Dawley offspring.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac180
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Advanced Dietary Analysis and Modeling: A Deep Dive into the National
           Cancer Institute Method

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      Pages: 2615 - 2625
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe National Cancer Institute (NCI) method has been used widely by researchers to make inferences about usual dietary intake distributions of foods and nutrients based on a limited number of 24-h dietary recalls (24-HRs). Although the NCI method does not provide individual estimates of usual intake, it can be used to address many research questions, including modeling effects of nutrition interventions on population distributions of usual intake. Software for implementing the NCI method, and corresponding code examples, is publicly available in the form of SAS macros but little formal guidance exists for conducting advanced analyses.ObjectivesWe aim to present advanced techniques for working with NCI macros to conduct both basic and advanced dietary analyses and modeling.MethodWe first present the 3 basic building blocks of analyses using the NCI method: 1) data set preparation, 2) application of the MIXTRAN macro to estimate parameters of the usual intake distribution, including effects of covariates, after transformation of 24-HRs to approximate normality, and 3) application of the DISTRIB macro to estimate the distribution of usual nutrient intake. Then, we illustrate how researchers can employ these building blocks to answer questions beyond typical descriptive analyses.ResultsResearchers can adapt the building blocks to: 1) account for factors such as demographic changes or nutrition interventions such as food fortification, 2) estimate the prevalence of dietary inadequacy via the full probability method, 3) incorporate nutrient intake from sources not always captured by 24-HRs, such as dietary supplements and human milk, and 4) carry out multiple subgroup analyses. This article describes the theoretical basis and operational guidance for these techniques.ConclusionWith this article as a detailed resource, researchers can leverage the basic NCI building blocks to investigate a wide range of questions about usual dietary intake distribution.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac144
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Allometric Scaling: Comparison of Interspecies Nutritional Relationships
           and Requirements

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      Pages: 2626 - 2627
      Abstract: Dear Editor:
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac189
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Correction to: Daniel J Hoffman, Hannah R Posluszny, Navigating Linear and
           Ponderal Growth in Undernourished Children, The Journal of Nutrition,
           2022;152(8):1810–11.

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      Pages: 2628 - 2628
      Abstract: Address correspondence to DJH (e-mail: dhoffman@aesop.rutgers.edu).
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac190
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Calendar of Events

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      Pages: 2629 - 2629
      Abstract: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, events around the world are being postponed or moved online. For the most current information on events listed below, please visit the meeting's website.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac235
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 11 (2022)
       
 
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