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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access  
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.191
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 38  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0022-3166 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6100
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Optimizing Fortification of Rice with Micronutrients to Improve Public
           Health

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hennigar S; Hamaker B.
      Pages: 1179 - 1180
      Abstract: See corresponding article on page 1220.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac023
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Red and Processed Meat Consumption: What's at Stake'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bradbury K.
      Pages: 1181 - 1182
      Abstract: Health Research Council of New Zealand10.13039/501100001505
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac036
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Water Insecurity in the United States: Quantifying an Invisible Crisis

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      Authors: Young S; Miller J.
      Pages: 1183 - 1184
      Abstract: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases10.13039/100000062T32DK007686National Institutes of Health10.13039/100000002
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac048
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Has Zinc Lost Its Shine'

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      Authors: Wieringa F.
      Pages: 1185 - 1186
      Abstract: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute10.13039/100012960
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac028
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Guide to Dietary Pattern–Microbiome Data Integration

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      Authors: Choi Y; Hoops S, Thoma C, et al.
      Pages: 1187 - 1199
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe human gut microbiome is linked to metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary modulation of the human gut microbiome offers an attractive pathway to manipulate the microbiome to prevent microbiome-related disease. However, this promise has not been realized. The complex system of diet and microbiome interactions is poorly understood. Integrating observational human diet and microbiome data can help researchers and clinicians untangle the complex systems of interactions that predict how the microbiome will change in response to foods. The use of dietary patterns to assess diet–microbiome relations holds promise to identify interesting associations and result in findings that can directly translate into actionable dietary intake recommendations and eating plans. In this article, we first highlight the complexity inherent in both dietary and microbiome data and introduce the approaches generally used to explore diet and microbiome simultaneously in observational studies. Second, we review the food group and dietary pattern–microbiome literature focusing on dietary complexity—moving beyond nutrients. Our review identified a substantial and growing body of literature that explores links between the microbiome and dietary patterns. However, there was very little standardization of dietary collection and assessment methods across studies. The 54 studies identified in this review used ≥7 different methods to assess diet. Coupled with the variation in final dietary parameters calculated from dietary data (e.g., dietary indices, dietary patterns, food groups, etc.), few studies with shared methods and assessment techniques were available for comparison. Third, we highlight the similarities between dietary and microbiome data structures and present the possibility that multivariate and compositional methods, developed initially for microbiome data, could have utility when applied to dietary data. Finally, we summarize the current state of the art for diet–microbiome data integration and highlight ways dietary data could be paired with microbiome data in future studies to improve the detection of diet–microbiome signals.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac033
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Importance of Carbohydrate Quality: What Does It Mean and How to Measure
           It'

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      Authors: Campos V; Tappy L, Bally L, et al.
      Pages: 1200 - 1206
      Abstract: Dietary carbohydrates are our main source of energy. Traditionally, they are classified based on the polymer length between simple and complex carbohydrates, which does not necessarily reflect their impact on health. Simple sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and lactose, despite having a similar energy efficiency and caloric content, have very distinct metabolic effects, leading to increased risk for various chronic diseases when consumed in excess. In addition, beyond the absolute amount of carbohydrate consumed, recent data point out that the food form or processing level can modulate both the energy efficiency and the cardiometabolic risk associated with specific carbohydrates. To account for both of these aspects—the quality of carbohydrates as well as its food form—several metrics can be proposed to help identifying carbohydrate-rich food sources and distinguish between those that would favor the development of chronic diseases and those that may contribute to prevent these. This review summarizes the findings presented during the American Society of Nutrition Satellite symposium on carbohydrate quality, in which these different aspects were presented.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac039
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Multi-Omics Profiling Reveals Se Deficiency–Induced Redox Imbalance,
           Metabolic Reprogramming, and Inflammation in Pig Muscle

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      Authors: Zhang K; Li S, Zhao Q, et al.
      Pages: 1207 - 1219
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundNutritional muscle dystrophy is associated with selenium (Se) deficiency; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.ObjectivesThis study aimed to understand the crosstalk among redox status, energy metabolism, and inflammation in nutritional muscle dystrophy induced by dietary Se deficiency.MethodsEighteen castrated male pigs (Yorkshire, 45 d old) were fed Se-deficient (Se-D; 0.007 mg Se/kg) or Se-adequate (Se-A; in the form of selenomethionine, 0.3 mg Se/kg) diets for 16 wk. The muscle Se concentrations; antioxidant capacity; and gene expression, transcriptome, global proteome, metabolome, and lipidome profiles were analyzed. The transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome profiles were analyzed with biostatistics, bioinformatics, and pathway enrichment analysis; other data were analyzed with Student's 2-sided t tests.ResultsThe muscle Se content in the Se-D group was 96% lower than that in the Se-A group (P < 0.05). The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) in the Se-D group was 42%–69% lower than that in the Se-A group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 10 selenoprotein genes were 25%–84% lower than those in the Se-A group (P < 0.05). Multi-omics analyses indicated that the levels of 1378 transcripts, 83 proteins, 22 metabolites, and 55 lipid molecules were significantly altered in response to Se deficiency. Se deficiency–induced redox imbalance led to muscle central carbon and lipid metabolism reprogramming, which enhanced the glycolysis pathway and decreased phospholipid synthesis. Inflammation and apoptosis were observed in response to Se deficiency–induced muscle oxidative stress, which may have been associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, suppressed focal adhesion and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling, and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.ConclusionsThese results contributed to understanding the crosstalk among redox, energy metabolism, and inflammation in Se deficiency–induced muscle dystrophy in pigs, and may provide intervention targets for muscle disease treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac016
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The Role of D-allulose and Erythritol on the Activity of the Gut Sweet
           Taste Receptor and Gastrointestinal Satiation Hormone Release in Humans: A
           Randomized, Controlled Trial

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      Authors: Teysseire F; Bordier V, Budzinska A, et al.
      Pages: 1228 - 1238
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundGlucose induces the release of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in part via the activation of the gut sweet taste receptor (T1R2/T1R3).ObjectivesThe primary objective was to investigate the importance of T1R2/T1R3 for the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), GLP-1, and PYY in response to D-allulose and erythritol by assessing the effect of the T1R2/T1R3 antagonist lactisole on these responses and as secondary objectives to study the effect of the T1R2/T1R3 blockade on gastric emptying, appetite-related sensations, and GI symptoms.MethodsIn this randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 18 participants (5 men) with a mean ± SD BMI (in kg/m2) of 21.9 ± 1.7 and aged 24 ± 4 y received an intragastric administration of 25 g D-allulose, 50 g erythritol, or tap water, with or without 450 parts per million (ppm) lactisole, respectively, in 6 different sessions. 13C-sodium acetate was added to all solutions to determine gastric emptying. At fixed time intervals, blood and breath samples were collected, and appetite-related sensations and GI symptoms were assessed. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-model analysis.ResultsD-allulose and erythritol induced a significant release of CCK, GLP-1, and PYY compared with tap water (all PHolm < 0.0001, dz >1). Lactisole did not affect the D-allulose– and erythritol-induced release of CCK, GLP-1, and PYY (all PHolm > 0.1). Erythritol significantly delayed gastric emptying, increased fullness, and decreased prospective food consumption compared with tap water (PHolm = 0.0002, dz = –1.05; PHolm = 0.0190, dz = 0.69; and PHolm = 0.0442, dz = –0.62, respectively).ConclusionsD-allulose and erythritol stimulate the secretion of GI satiation hormones in humans. Lactisole had no effect on CCK, GLP-1, and PYY release, indicating that D-allulose– and erythritol-induced GI satiation hormone release is not mediated via T1R2/T1R3 in the gut.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac026
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharide Compositions Illustrate Global Variations in
           Early Nutrition

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      Authors: Vinjamuri A; Davis J, Totten S, et al.
      Pages: 1239 - 1253
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are an abundant class of compounds found in human milk and have been linked to the development of the infant, and specifically the brain, immune system, and gut microbiome.ObjectivesAdvanced analytical methods were used to obtain relative quantitation of many structures in approximately 2000 samples from over 1000 mothers in urban, semirural, and rural sites across geographically diverse countries.MethodsLC-MS−based analytical methods were used to profile the compounds with broad structural coverage and quantitative information. The profiles revealed their structural heterogeneity and their potential biological roles. Comparisons of HMO compositions were made between mothers of different age groups, lactation periods, infant sexes, and residing geographical locations.ResultsA common behavior found among all sites was a decrease in HMO abundances during lactation until approximately postnatal month 6, where they remained relatively constant. The greatest variations in structural abundances were associated with the presence of α(1,2)-fucosylated species. Genomic analyses of the mothers were not performed; instead, milk was phenotyped according to the abundances of α(1,2)-fucosylated structures. Mothers from the South American sites tended to have higher proportions of phenotypic secretors [mothers with relatively high concentrations of α(1,2)-fucosylated structures] in their populations compared to the rest of the globe, with Bolivia at ∼100% secretors, Peru at ∼97%, Brazil at ∼90%, and Argentina at ∼85%. Conversely, the cohort sampled in Africa manifested the lowest proportion of secretors (South Africa ∼ 63%, the Gambia ∼ 64%, and Malawi ∼ 75%). Furthermore, we compared total abundances of HMOs in secretors compared with nonsecretors and found that nonsecretors have lower abundances of HMOs compared to secretors, regardless of geographical location. We also observed compositional differences of the 50+ most abundant HMOs between milk types and geographical locations.ConclusionsThis study represents the largest structural HMO study to date and reveals the general behavior of HMOs during lactation among different populations.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac027
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Using Water Intake Dietary Recall Data to Provide a Window into US Water
           Insecurity

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      Authors: Rosinger A.
      Pages: 1263 - 1273
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundIn the United States, problems with the provision of safe, affordable water have resulted in an increasing number of adults who avoid their tap water, which could indicate underlying water insecurity. Dietary recalls provide critical nutritional surveillance data, yet have been underexplored as a water insecurity monitoring tool.ObjectivesThis article aims to demonstrate how water intake variables from dietary recall data relate to and predict a key water insecurity proxy, that is, tap water avoidance.MethodsUsing 2005–2018 NHANES data from 32,329 adults, I examine distributions and trends of mean intakes of total, plain (sum of tap and bottled water), tap, and bottled water, and percentage consuming no tap and exclusive bottled water. Second, I use multiple linear and logistic regressions to test how tap water avoidance relates to plain water intake and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Next, I use receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves to test the predictive accuracy of no plain water, no tap, and exclusive bottled water intake, and varying percentages of plain water consumed from tap water compared with tap water avoidance.ResultsTrends indicate increasing plain water intake between 2005 and 2018, driven by increasing bottled water intake. In 2017–18, 51.4% of adults did not drink tap water on a given day, whereas 35.8% exclusively consumed bottled water. Adults who avoided their tap water consumed less tap and plain water, and significantly more bottled water and SSBs on a given day. No tap intake and categories of tap water intake produced 77% and 78% areas under the ROC curve in predicting tap water avoidance.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that water intake variables from dietary recalls can be used to accurately predict tap water avoidance and provide a window into water insecurity. Growing reliance on bottled water could indicate increasing concerns about tap water.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac017
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors on Overweight and
           Obesity among Boys may Differ from those among Girls in China: An Open
           Cohort Study

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      Authors: Mo Z; Wang H, Zhang B, et al.
      Pages: 1274 - 1282
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundChildhood overweight and obesity are increasing steadily in China, yet few studies have focused on exploring the risk factors associated with sex differences.ObjectivesWe tested the hypothesis that the effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on overweight and obesity differ between boys and girls.MethodsWe used data collected from 4520 children and adolescents aged 6–18 y from 2004 to 2015 in an ongoing open-cohort study, the China Health and Nutrition Survey, to explore the effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on the risk of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents. We collected detailed information on physical activity and sedentary behavior along with dietary data, and we measured height and weight with standardized methods. We used random-effects logistic regression models to analyze the associations between total physical activity and sedentary behavior and overweight and obesity.ResultsThe effects of sedentary behaviors and vigorous physical activity were only significant among girls. Vigorous physical activity decreased the risk of overweight and obesity by 63% (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.67) among girls ages 6–11 y and by 54% (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.85) among girls ages 12–18 y. High sedentary-hour values increased the risk by 96% (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.54) among girls ages 12–18 y. None of the effects were significant among boys.ConclusionLow physical activity and high sedentary time increase the risk of overweight and obesity, particularly among adolescent girls. The effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on overweight and obesity among boys may differ from those among girls. Sex effects should be taken into consideration when promoting physical activity. Whether this sex difference is a result of high male preferences in China that preclude many activities among boys or other factors requires further study.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxab446
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Associations between Genetically Proxied Inhibition of Lipid-Lowering Drug
           Targets and Serum Micronutrients among Individuals of European Descent: A
           Mendelian Randomization Study

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      Authors: He J; Zhang X, Wang K, et al.
      Pages: 1283 - 1290
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundLimited and inconclusive data exist concerning the associations between lipid-lowering drugs and serum micronutrient concentrations.MethodsWe conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to explore the associations between lipid-lowering drug targets and serum micronutrients. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding molecular targets of LDL cholesterol-lowering therapies were selected as instrumental variables for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR; target of statins), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9; target of PCSK9 inhibitors), and Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1; target of ezetimibe). Exposure data were extracted from a published genome-wide association study (GWAS) of lipids in 188,577 European individuals, with outcome data obtained from the Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) GWAS database (https://gwas.mrcieu.ac.uk). Overall, age and sex information were not calculable from the summary-level GWAS data. MR analyses were performed using the inverse-variance weighted method and MR sensitivity analysis methods.ResultsWe found genetically proxied inhibition of HMGCR to lower iron (effect, –0.16; 95% CI: –0.27, –0.06; P value = 0.003), zinc (effect, –0.83; 95% CI: –1.36, –0.31; P value = 0.002), magnesium (effect, –0.17; 95% CI: –0.27, –0.06; P value = 0.003), potassium (effect, –0.17; 95% CI: –0.27, –0.06; P value = 0.002), genetically proxied inhibition of NPC1L1 to increase calcium (effect, 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.46; P value = 0.003), retinol (effect, 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.44; P value = 0.01), and genetically proxied inhibition of PCSK9 to increase vitamin D (effect, 0.10; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.12; P value = 1.8 × 10–19). These associations were robust in MR sensitivity analyses. However, the associations between genetically proxied inhibition of HMGCR and NPC1L1 and the micronutrients were not consistent in multiple comparisons.ConclusionsOur results provide evidence that statin use may lower serum concentrations of iron, zinc, magnesium, and potassium, PCSK9 inhibitors may increase serum vitamin D, and ezetimibe may increase serum calcium and retinol concentrations.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac012
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Time-Varying Associations between Food Insecurity and Infant and Maternal
           Health Outcomes

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      Authors: Orr C; Ritter V, Coker T, et al.
      Pages: 1291 - 1297
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundFood insecurity (FI) is dynamic for families and adversely affects infant and maternal health. However, few studies have examined the longitudinal impact of FI on infant and maternal health.ObjectivesWe aimed to examine the relation between food insecurity in the first year of life and infant and maternal health outcomes. We hypothesized FI would be associated with poorer infant and maternal health outcomes.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study of 364 infants 12–15 months and their caregivers receiving care at a single primary care clinic. The exposure of interest was food insecurity measured during well-child checks using a validated 2-item screening tool. The primary outcome was infant weight-for-length z score. Secondary outcomes included infant log-transformed ferritin, infant hemoglobin, infant lead concentrations, and maternal depression, assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Unadjusted and adjusted effects were estimated using generalized mixed linear models, and the linear effect of visit time was tested using likelihood ratios.ResultsIn adjusted models, no overall association between FI and infant weight-for-length z score was observed; however, FI male infants had lower weight-for-length z scores than female infants (P = 0.05). FI infants had 14% lower log ferritin concentrations per month of exposure to FI. FI was positively associated with maternal depression (IRR 5.01 [95% CI 2.21–11.3]).ConclusionsFood insecurity can have longitudinal and demographically-varied associations with infant and maternal outcomes that warrant further exploration.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac020
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Risk of Disease Recurrence and Mortality Varies by Type of Fat Consumed
           before Cancer Treatment in a Longitudinal Cohort of Head and Neck Squamous
           Cell Carcinoma Patients

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      Authors: Taha H; Rozek L, Chen X, et al.
      Pages: 1298 - 1305
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe associations between specific types of fat and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) recurrence and mortality rates have not yet been examined.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to determine how intakes of various fat subtypes before cancer treatment are associated with recurrence and mortality in adults diagnosed with HNSCC.MethodsThis was a secondary analysis longitudinal cohort study of data collected from 476 newly diagnosed patients with HNSCC. Patients completed baseline FFQs and epidemiologic health surveys. Recurrence and mortality events were collected annually. Fat intakes examined included long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), unsaturated fatty acids (FAs), PUFAs, ω-3 (n–3) PUFAs, ω-6 (n–6) PUFAs, MUFAs, animal fats, vegetable fats, saturated FAs, and trans fats. Associations between fat intake (categorized into tertiles) and time to event were tested using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, human papillomavirus status, tumor site, cancer stage, and total caloric intake. Intake of fats was compared with the lowest tertile.ResultsDuring the study period, there were 115 recurrent and 211 death events. High LCFA intake was associated with a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91; P-trend = 0.02). High unsaturated FA intake was associated with a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97; P-trend = 0.04) and HNSCC-specific mortality risk (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.90; P-trend = 0.02). High intakes of ω-3 PUFAs (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.91; P-trend = 0.02) and ω-6 PUFAs (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.94; P-trend = 0.02) were significantly associated with a reduced all-cause mortality risk. There were no significant associations between other fat types and recurrence or mortality risk.ConclusionsIn this prospective survival cohort of 476 newly diagnosed patients with HNSCC, our data suggest that HNSCC prognosis may vary depending on the fat types consumed before cancer treatment. Clinical intervention trials should test these associations.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac032
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Different Doses, Forms, and Frequencies of Zinc Supplementation for the
           Prevention of Diarrhea and Promotion of Linear Growth among Young
           Bangladeshi Children: A Six-Arm, Randomized, Community-Based Efficacy
           Trial

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      Authors: Islam M; Black R, Krebs N, et al.
      Pages: 1306 - 1315
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundChildren in resource-limited settings remain vulnerable to zinc deficiency and its consequences.ObjectivesTo evaluate the effects of different doses, durations, and frequencies of zinc supplementation on the incidence of diarrhea and change in linear growth among young children.MethodsWe conducted a randomized, partially double-blind, controlled, 6-arm, community-based efficacy trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children aged 9–11 mo were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following interventions for 24 wk: 1) standard micronutrient powder (MNP) containing 4.1 mg zinc and 10 mg iron, daily; 2) high-zinc (10 mg), low-iron (6 mg) (HiZn LoFe) MNP, daily; 3) HiZn (10 mg) LoFe (6 mg)/HiZn (10 mg), no-iron MNPs on alternating days; 4) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily; 5) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily for 2 wk at enrollment and 12 wk; 6) placebo powder, daily. Primary outcomes were incidence of diarrhea and change in length-for-age z-score (LAZ) over the 24-wk intervention period. Home visits were conducted twice weekly to assess diarrhea and other morbidity. Incidence and prevalence outcomes were compared among groups with Poisson regression; continuous outcomes were compared using ANCOVA.ResultsA total of 2886 children were enrolled between February 2018 and July 2019. The mean incidence and prevalence of diarrhea among all participants was 1.21 episodes per 100 d and 3.76 d per 100 d, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence or prevalence of diarrhea across intervention groups. The decline in LAZ was slightly smaller among children in the daily HiZn LoFe MNP group compared with the placebo powder group (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe dose of zinc in MNPs as well as the duration and frequency of supplementation evaluated in this trial were not effective in reducing diarrhea; however, the daily HiZn LoFe MNP formulation offered modest improvements in linear growth among young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03406793.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxab439
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Breastfeeding Interpersonal Communication, Mobile Phone Support, and Mass
           Media Messaging Increase Exclusive Breastfeeding at 6 and 24 Weeks Among
           Clients of Private Health Facilities in Lagos, Nigeria

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      Authors: Flax V; Ipadeola A, Schnefke C, et al.
      Pages: 1316 - 1326
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundAlthough most health facilities in urban Nigeria are privately owned, interventions to promote optimal breastfeeding practices in private facilities have not previously been implemented.ObjectivesWe tested the impact of a breastfeeding promotion intervention on early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding among clients of private facilities in Lagos, Nigeria.MethodsThe intervention included training for health-care providers on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and breastfeeding counseling skills, provision of interpersonal communication and support to women at facilities and on WhatsApp, distribution of behavior change communication materials, and mobile phone and mass media messaging. We used logistic regression models adjusted for clustering to measure intervention impact in a cohort of women (n = 1200) at 10 intervention and 10 comparison facilities interviewed during their third trimester and at 6 and 24 weeks postpartum.ResultsThe intervention significantly increased the percentage of infants who were exclusively breastfed at 6 weeks (83% intervention; 76% comparison; P = 0.02) and 24 weeks (66% intervention; 52% comparison; P < 0.001), but had no impact on early initiation of breastfeeding (35% intervention; 33% comparison; P = 0.65). Among infants who were exclusively breastfed at 6 weeks, the odds of continued exclusive breastfeeding at 24 weeks were higher in the intervention arm than in the comparison arm (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1). Infants had increased odds of being exclusively breastfed at 6 weeks if their mothers discussed breastfeeding with a private health provider (OR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.4), received text or WhatsApp messages about breastfeeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.7), or heard breastfeeding radio spots (OR, 4.2; 95% CI: 1.2-14.7). Infants had increased odds of exclusive breastfeeding at 24 weeks if their mothers participated in a WhatsApp breastfeeding support group (OR, 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2).ConclusionsA breastfeeding intervention in private health facilities in Lagos increased exclusive breastfeeding. Implementation of breastfeeding interventions in private facilities could extend the reach of breastfeeding promotion programs in urban Nigeria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04835051.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxab450
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Caregivers Systematically Overestimate Their Child's Height-for-Age
           Relative to Other Children in Rural Ethiopia

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      Authors: Passarelli S; Sudfeld C, Davison K, et al.
      Pages: 1327 - 1335
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundStunting affects one-quarter of children <5 y of age, yet little is known about the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions regarding their child's linear growth. Most existing quantitative research on this topic has been conducted in high-income countries and has examined perceptions of children's weight rather than height.ObjectivesIn rural Ethiopia where linear growth faltering is highly prevalent, this study aimed to better understand how caregivers perceive their child's growth. The objectives of this analysis were to 1) assess caregivers’ perceptions of their child's height; 2) investigate whether there is a discrepancy between a child's actual height and caregivers’ perceptions of their child's height; and 3) examine the factors that influence discrepancies in estimating a child's height (secondary outcomes), including the role of the average height in the community (primary outcome).MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from 808 woman caregivers of children ages 6–35 mo in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We assessed caregivers’ rankings (from 1 to 10) of their child's height relative to other children their age in their village. We then converted these rankings to z scores based on an age- and region-specific distribution in order to calculate their difference with the child's actual height-for-age z score and to determine the degree of overestimation. Lastly, we used multivariate log Poisson regressions to determine factors associated with overestimating a child's height.ResultsForty-three percent of caregivers scored their child's height as the median; 37% overestimated their child's height relative to other children. Regression results showed caregivers who were poorer, and had children who were female, older, and stunted, were more likely to overestimate.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that caregivers of young children in Oromia systematically overestimated their children's height, which could adversely affect child health if these misperceptions translate to insufficient care-seeking behavior or feeding choices for children.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac015
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Poultry Value Chain Intervention Promoting Diversified Diets Has Limited
           Impact on Maternal and Child Diet Adequacy during the Lean Season in a
           Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

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      Authors: Becquey E; Diop L, Awonon J, et al.
      Pages: 1336 - 1346
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundSoutenir l'Exploitation Familiale pour Lancer l’Élevage des Volailles et Valoriser l’Économie Rurale (SELEVER) is a nutrition- and gender-sensitive poultry value chain project designed and implemented by international nongovernmental organization Tanager, which consists of poultry market facilitation and behavior change activities aiming at increasing poultry production and improving diets without free inputs transfer.ObjectivesThe study aimed at assessing the impact of SELEVER on diets of women and children during the lean season.MethodsWithin a cluster randomized controlled trial, 45 communes were assigned to 1 of 3 arms, including 1) SELEVER interventions, 2) SELEVER with an intensive hygiene and sanitation component (SELEVER + WASH), and 3) a control group without intervention. Two rounds of survey were conducted 2 y apart during the lean season. Primary dietary outcomes were the probability of adequacy (PA) of iron, zinc, and vitamin A intakes; mean PA of 11 micronutrients and individual dietary diversity score collected through quantitative 24-h recall in longitudinal samples of women and index children (2–4 y old) in 1054 households; and minimum acceptable diet in the repeated cross-sectional sample of their younger sibling aged 6–23 mo. Impacts were assessed by intention-to-treat ANCOVA.ResultsRelative to control, SELEVER interventions (groups 1 + 2) increased the PA of iron intakes in women by 1.8 percentage points (pp) (P = 0.030). We found no further impact on primary outcomes, although egg consumption increased in index children (+0.73 pp, P = 0.010; +0.69 kcal/d, P = 0.036). Across the 3 groups, we observed negative effects of SELEVER on the PA of zinc intakes in women relative to SELEVER + WASH (–4.1 pp, P = 0.038) and on a variety of secondary dietary outcomes relative to both other groups. The study was registered on the ISCRCTN registry (ISRCTN16686478).ConclusionsInformation-only-based value chain interventions may not have meaningful positive effects on diets of women and children in the lean season in settings with largely inadequate diets. We found suggestive evidence that synergies between intervention components may have introduced heterogeneity in effects on diet.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac034
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Sex Differences Distinctly Impact High-Fat Diet-Induced Immune Dysfunction
           in Wistar Rats

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      Authors: Braga Tibaes J; Azarcoya-Barrera J, Wollin B, et al.
      Pages: 1347 - 1357
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundImmune function is altered during obesity. Moreover, males and females across different species demonstrate distinct susceptibility to several diseases. However, less is known regarding the interplay between high-fat diet (HFD) and sex in the context of immune function.ObjectivesThe objective was to determine sex differences on immune function in response to an HFD compared with a control low-fat diet (LFD) in Wistar rats.MethodsAt 5 wk of age, male and female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets for 9 wk: ad libitum control LFD (20 kcal% fat, 53 kcal% carbohydrate, and 27 kcal% protein) or HFD (50 kcal% fat, 23 kcal% carbohydrate, and 27 kcal% protein). At 13 wk of age, rats were killed and splenocytes were isolated. Immune cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Immune cell function was determined by measuring the ex vivo cytokine production following stimulation with mitogens. Two-factor ANOVA was used to assess the main effect of sex, diet, and their interaction.ResultsMales gained more weight than females (410 ± 46 vs. 219 ± 45 g), independently of diet (P-sex < 0.01). The HFD led to a lower production of IL-2 while increasing the production of IL-10 (both P-diet ≤ 0.05), independently of sex. HFD-fed females had increased production of cytokines (IL-2 and IL-6) after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I), as well as a higher T-helper (Th) 1:Th2 balance compared with HFD-fed males (all P < 0.05). Males fed the HFD had significantly lower production of IL-2 upon stimulation compared with all other groups.ConclusionsFemale Wistar rats developed a milder obesity phenotype and maintained enhanced cytokine production compared with males fed the HFD. Sex differences modulate immune function in the context of high-fat feeding and it should be considered in research design to establish personalized health-related recommendations.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac024
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Human Gastrointestinal Transit and Hormonal Response to Different Meal
           Types: A Randomized Crossover Study

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      Authors: Jensen M; Pedersen H, Clemmensen K, et al.
      Pages: 1358 - 1369
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundThe wireless motility capsule (WMC) technique is a noninvasive and radiation-free method for measuring regional and whole gut transit in response to ingestion of a granola bar (SmartBar) or an eggbeater meal. The WMC has the potential to measure gastrointestinal transit in metabolic research as part of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test.ObjectivesTo evaluate gastrointestinal transit with the WMC and postprandial plasma/serum concentrations of metabolites and gastrointestinal hormones as well as subjective appetite following ingestion of a SmartBar compared with a standardized mixed meal.MethodsFourteen healthy participants [3 men, median (IQR) age 53.8 (45.8; 64.50) y, body weight 63.9 (59.9; 69.7) kg, BMI 23.1 (21.8; 23.9) kg/m2] completed a 2-d crossover study. Following ingestion of either a SmartBar (260 kcal, 7 energy percent (E%) fat, 74E% carbohydrate, and 19E% protein) or a standardized mixed meal (498 kcal, 34E% fat, 49E% carbohydrate, and 17E% protein), participants swallowed the WMC. Blood samples were drawn in the fasted state and postprandially for analyses of gastrointestinal hormones and metabolites. The primary outcome was difference in gastric emptying time between the 2 test days. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test differences between test days.ResultsMedian (IQR) gastric emptying time was 98.0 (70.0; 113.0) min longer (P = 0.001) and incremental area under the curve of triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and peptide YY were 40 mmol/L × min, 45.7%, and 63.7% greater after the standardized mixed meal compared with the SmartBar (all P < 0.001).ConclusionsThe WMC can be used in combination with a standardized mixed meal for evaluation of gastrointestinal transit in healthy men and women. Gastric emptying time was prolonged in response to the standardized mixed meal whereas transit times of the small bowel, colon, and whole gut did not differ between the test meals.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac002
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Limits of Detection in Acute-Phase Protein Biomarkers Affect Inflammation
           Correction of Serum Ferritin for Quantifying Iron Status among School-Age
           and Preschool-Age Children and Reproductive-Age Women

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      Authors: Gosdin L; Sharma A, Suchdev P, et al.
      Pages: 1370 - 1377
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundStandardized practices are needed in the analysis of inflammation biomarker values outside limits of detection (LODs) when used for inflammation correction of nutritional biomarkers.ObjectiveWe assessed the direction and extent to which serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP) values outside LODs (<0.05 mg/L and >4.0 g/L, respectively) affect inflammation regression correction of serum ferritin and compared approaches to addressing such values when estimating inflammation-adjusted ferritin and iron deficiency (ID).MethodsWe examined 29 cross-sectional datasets from 7 countries with reproductive-age women (age 15–49 y) (n = 12,944), preschool-age children (age 6–59 mo) (n = 18,208), and school-age children (age 6–14 y) (n = 4625). For each dataset, we compared 6 analytic approaches for addressing CRP <LOD: listwise deletion, single imputation (lower, middle, or upper bound; LOD/√2; random number), with multiple imputation (MI). For each approach, inflammation-adjusted ferritin and ID using BRINDA (Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia) regression correction were estimated. We calculated deviance of each estimate from that given by MI within each dataset and performed fixed-effects multivariate meta-regression with an analytic approach as a moderator to compare the reliability of each approach to MI.ResultsAcross datasets, observations outside LOD ranged from 0.0 to 35.0% of CRP values and 0.0 to 2.5% of AGP values. Pooled deviance estimates for mean ferritin (μg/L) and ID (percentage points) were: listwise deletion −0.46 (95% CI: −0.76, −0.16) and 0.14 (−0.43, 0.72), lower bound 0.45 (0.14, 0.76) and −0.36 (−0.91, 0.20), middle bound −0.21 (−0.51, 0.09) and 0.22 (−0.34, 0.79), LOD/√2 −0.26 (−0.57, 0.04) and 0.25 (−0.31, 0.81), upper bound −0.31 (−0.61, −0.01) and 0.30 (−0.27, 0.86), and random number −0.08 (−0.38, 0.22) and 0.11 (−0.46, 0.67). There was moderation by approach in the ferritin model (P < 0.001).ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate the need for standardized analyses of inflammation biomarker values outside LODs and suggest that random number single imputation may be a reliable and feasible alternative to MI for CRP <LOD.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac035
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Increased Incidence of Epilepsy in Response to Soy-Based Infant Formula in
           a National Korean Cohort Study

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      Authors: Westmark C.
      Pages: 1378 - 1379
      Abstract: USDA10.13039/1000001992018-67001-28266
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac040
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Calendar of Events

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      Pages: 1380 - 1380
      Abstract: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, events around the world are being postponed or moved online. For the most current information on events listed below, please visit the meeting's website.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxac083
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Higher Extrusion Temperature Induces Greater Formation of Less Digestible
           Type V and Retrograded Starch in Iron-Fortified Rice Grains But Does Not
           Affect Iron Bioavailability: Stable Isotope Studies in Young Women

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      Authors: Scheuchzer P; Zimmerman M, Zeder C, et al.
      Pages: 1220 - 1227
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundHot extrusion is widely used to produce iron-fortified rice, but heating may increase resistant starch and thereby decrease iron bioavailability. Cold-extruded iron-fortified rice may have higher bioavailability but has higher iron losses during cooking. Thus, warm extrusion could have nutritional benefits, but this has not been tested. Whether the addition of citric acid (CA) and trisodium citrate (TSC) counteracts any detrimental effect of high-extrusion temperature on iron bioavailability is unclear.ObjectivesOur aim was to assess the effects of varying processing temperatures on the starch microstructure of extruded iron-fortified rice and resulting iron solubility and iron bioavailability.MethodsWe produced extruded iron-fortified rice grains at cold, warm, and hot temperatures (40°C, 70°C, and 90°C), with and without CA/TSC at a molar ratio of iron to CA/TSC of 1:0.3:5.5. We characterized starch microstructure using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, assessed color over 6 mo, and measured in vitro iron solubility. In standardized rice and vegetable test meals consumed by young women (n = 22; mean age: 23 y; geometric mean plasma ferritin: 29.3 μg/L), we measured iron absorption from the fortified rice grains intrinsically labeled with 57ferric pyrophosphate (57FePP), compared with ferrous sulfate (58FeSO4) solution added extrinsically to the meals.ResultsWarm and hot extrusion altered starch morphology from native type A to type V and increased retrograded starch. However, extrusion temperature did not significantly affect iron solubility or iron bioavailability. The geometric mean fractional iron absorption of iron from fortified rice extruded with CA/TSC (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9%, 11.0%) was more than twice that from extruded rice without CA/TSC (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.7%, 3.4%; P < 0.001).ConclusionsHigher extrusion temperatures did not affect iron bioavailability from extruded rice in young women, but co-extrusion of CA/TSC with FePP sharply increased iron absorption independently from extrusion temperature. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03703726.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxab435
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • A Prospective Analysis of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to
           Colorectal Cancer in the Black Women's Health Study

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      Authors: Yiannakou I; Barber L, Li S, et al.
      Pages: 1254 - 1262
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundBlack Americans have the highest incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. High intake of red and processed meats has been associated with an increased CRC risk in predominately White populations. However, 3 prior studies in Black populations, who have been reported to have high intakes of red and processed meats, have reported no associations. Data on a possible association between CRC risk and SFAs and MUFAs, the primary types of fat in red and processed meats, are inconclusive.ObjectivesWe prospectively assessed intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, SFAs, and MUFAs in relation to CRC risk, utilizing data from the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS, 1995–2018).MethodsDietary data were derived from validated FFQs completed in 1995 and 2001. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsAmong 52,695 BWHS participants aged 21–69 y at baseline and followed for ≤22 y, 564 women developed incident CRC. Unprocessed red meat intake was associated with a 33% increased CRC risk per 100 g/d (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03–1.71). Examination of CRC anatomic sites revealed that unprocessed red meat was associated with 2-times increased rectal cancer risk (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.15–4.26). There was no evidence of an interaction with age (pinteraction = 0.4), but unprocessed red meat intake was only associated with a significant increased risk of late-onset CRC (≥50 y of age, HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05–1.88). Processed red meat and total SFA and MUFA intakes were not associated with CRC risk.ConclusionsUnprocessed red meat intake was associated with an increased CRC risk in the present study, the first positive evidence that red meat plays a role in the etiology of CRC in Black women. The findings suggest prevention opportunities.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxab419
      Issue No: Vol. 152, No. 5 (2021)
       
 
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