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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Journal of Obesity
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.154
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-0708 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0716
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviours Among Adolescents in
           the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Prior to and during COVID-19 Restrictions

    • Abstract: Background. The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has increased dramatically and poses a major public health threat globally. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the main cause of adolescent obesity is an increase in physical inactivity and unhealthy eating habits due to lifestyle changes. This study reports on factors associated with physical activity (PA) prior to and during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) among middle school students in Jeddah, KSA. Method. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Jeddah, KSA among 1500 middle school students aged 11 to 15 years. Sociodemographic characteristics; PA knowledge, attitude, and behaviours; and information about the impact of COVID-19 on PA were collected. Knowledge, attitude, and behaviours of PA before and during COVID-19 restrictions and between gender were compared. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the determinants of PA. Results. Female students were significantly more likely to report better knowledge of PA compared to males (). However, males were significantly more likely to participate in PA compared to females (). Approximately 60% of students reported their PA decreased during COVID-19 isolations. Most students did not participate in the recommended levels of daily PA during COVID-19 lockdowns and school closures. After adjusting for demographics, knowledge, and attitude, students who did not usually participate in school sports () and as members of clubs () were less likely to be active during COVID-19 lockdown. Conclusions. Efforts to enhance PA should be implemented through coordinated school and community-based programs to achieve the recommended PA among adolescents at home and in schools. Policy to ensure students receive PA opportunities at school is recommended.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:50:02 +000
       
  • Changes in Body Composition, Basal Metabolic Rate, and Blood Albumin
           during the First Year following Laparoscopic Mini-Gastric Bypass

    • Abstract: Bariatric surgery is currently the only method that can significantly and continuously reduce weight and improve obesity-related comorbidities in morbidly obese patients. Significant weight loss through bariatric surgery can lead to changes in body composition. This study shows the changes in body composition, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and serum albumin in obese people following bariatric surgery. The study included 880 patients who underwent laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass surgery (LMGBP) between 2016 and 2020. The body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), age, gender, blood albumin, WC (waist circumference), HC (hip circumference), BMR, and blood albumin were recorded at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months, postoperatively. The reduction in serum albumin concentration was not consistent with weight loss. Bariatric surgery promotes the breakdown of both fat and lean mass on the arms, torso, and thighs. This size reduction usually aggravates the concomitant skin redundancy in these areas which is a challenge for the plastic surgery team. Interestingly, the rate of lean mass reduction of the arms is faster than that of the torso and thighs. Excessive loss of lean body mass will also lower BMR and lead to subsequent weight gain. Despite the faster loss of proteins and lean mass in somatic areas, internal organs and viscera lose fats faster than proteins. According to this study, visceral proteins are the latest proteins to be affected by weight loss. This finding shows a different metabolic response of viscera comparing to somatic areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 14:50:03 +000
       
  • Can Obesity Prevalence Explain COVID-19 Indicators (Cases, Mortality, and
           Recovery)' A Comparative Study in OECD Countries

    • Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 virus disease (COVID-19) is declared a global pandemic with multiple risk factors. Obesity is considered by several researchers as one of the serious risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 virus complications based on recent empirical studies. Yet, other scholars argue in favor of the existence of an obesity survival paradox and criticize the former group of studies on the grounds that they lack controls for race, socioeconomic status, or quality of care. The objective of the current study is to analyze the potential relationships between different SARS-CoV-2 virus indicators and obesity on a country-wide level based on an OECD report. In an attempt to test the counterintuitive possibility of an obesity survival paradox, the proposed empirical model relaxes the assumption of monotonic change by applying the quadratic design and testing which one of the two competing models (i.e., quadratic or linear) better fits the data. Findings suggest more complex relationships between SARS-CoV-2 virus indices and obesity rates than previously thought. Consequently, ethical guidelines referring to priority in intubation and intensive care treatments—published by the Israeli Ministry of Health in April 2020—should account for these complex relationships between obesity and SARS-CoV-2 virus. Indeed, there is a linear increase in mortality rate from SARS-CoV-2 virus with an elevated prevalence of obesity. Yet, other indicators, such as the number of infected per 10,00,000 persons, rates of severe SARS-CoV-2 virus cases, rates of recovered SARS-CoV-2 virus patients, and SARS-CoV-2 virus, as the cause of death exhibit quadratic, rather than linear, patterns. The reasons for these nonlinear patterns might be explained by several conditions such as increased metabolic reserves, more aggressive treatment, other non-SARS-CoV-2 virus complications for obese persons, and unidentified factors that should be examined in future research.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jun 2022 11:35:03 +000
       
  • Possible Nonneurological Health Benefits of Ketogenic Diet: Review of
           Scientific Reports over the Past Decade

    • Abstract: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used since the 1920s as a therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Due to the beneficial effects of this diet on the nervous system and the proposed multifaceted effects of ketones on health and disease, researchers have evaluated its use in other nonneurological conditions. The objective of this review was to analyze the most recent papers, which is why meta-analyses were used in which 75% of the studies were from 2012 to 2022.
      Authors also cited single studies from the last decade that lasted longer than 12 months to assess the long-term benefits of KD. Reports from the past decade have highlighted several significant areas regarding the impact of KD. One of these is the use of very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) as an effective possibly safe and patient-motivating component of a long-term weight loss plan. Reports on the positive influence of KD on the health of obese individuals, and the possible resulting validity of its use, should be verified by patients' physical activity levels. A significant number of studies from the last decade evaluate the effect of KD on improving the health of individuals with type 2 diabetes as an effective tool in lowering glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) and required doses of hypoglycemic drugs. The long-term studies indicate a possible beneficial effect of KD on cardiovascular function due to improvement lipid profile, changes in apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, adiponectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).
      PubDate: Fri, 27 May 2022 11:05:02 +000
       
  • Relationship between Emotional Eating, Consumption of Hyperpalatable
           Energy-Dense Foods, and Indicators of Nutritional Status: A Systematic
           Review

    • Abstract: People’s health is closely linked to their diet. Diet can be defined as the set of foods that are consumed in a day, and it is susceptible to being altered by various factors, such as physiological, environmental, psychological, and social. These, in turn, can be affected by an inadequate diet and/or a dysregulation of emotions. Emotions are an immediate response by the organism informing it of the degree of favorability of a certain stimulus or situation. Moods are similar to emotions but more intense and prolonged. Some studies indicate that the consumption of hyperpalatable energy-dense foods may be related to emotional eating. Emotional eating is characterized by the excessive consumption of hyperpalatable energy-dense foods, rich in sugars and fats, in response to negative emotions. But several reports also indicate that emotional eating may be associated with the presence of positive emotions, so further analysis of the available information is necessary. Consuming higher amounts of hyperpalatable energy-dense foods can lead to the accumulation of energy in the body that results in an increase in body weight, as well as other associated diseases. Obesity is the world’s leading diet-related health problem. The objective of this work was to carry out a systematic review of the available literature using the Cochrane methodology, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating, the consumption of hyperpalatable energy-dense foods, and indicators of nutritional status. An exhaustive search in different databases yielded 9431 scientific articles, 45 of which met the inclusion criteria. This review underscores the fact that knowing and understanding the reasons why people consume hyperpalatable energy-dense foods and the possible connection with their emotional eating can provide key data for improving and personalizing patients’ nutritional treatment. This in turn can encourage compliance with treatment plans to improve people’s health and quality of life using an interdisciplinary approach.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 11:50:02 +000
       
  • 10-Year Weight Gain in 13,802 US Adults: The Role of Age, Sex, and Race

    • Abstract: Purpose. The primary objective of the present investigation was to identify 10-year weight gain patterns in 13,802 US adults and also to determine the extent that differences in 10-year weight gains were associated with the key demographic variables: age, sex, and race. Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included the years 2011–2018. Data for 2019–2020 were not available because of COVID. A multistage random sampling strategy was employed. Specifically, individual sample weights and randomly selected clusters and strata were used with each statistical model, allowing the results to be generalized to the US adult population. Results. Mean (±SE) 10-year weight gain was 4.2 ± 0.2 kg or 6.6 ± 0.2% of initial body weight. A total of 51% of the participants gained 5% or more body weight, 36% gained 10% or more, and 16% gained 20% or more across the 10-years. Age was linearly and inversely associated with 10-year weight gain, expressed in kg (F = 166.4, ) or percent weight gain (F = 246.9, ), after adjusting for sex and race. For each 1-year increase in age, 10-year weight gain decreased by 0.20 ± 0.02 kg and 0.28 ± 0.02 percent. After adjusting for age and race, 10-year weight gain (kg) was significantly greater (F = 73.6, ) in women (5.4 ± 0.3) than in men (2.6 ± 0.2). Weight gain also differed across races, kg (F = 27.7, ) and % (F = 28.5, ). Non-Hispanic Blacks gained more weight and NH Asians gained less weight than the other races. Conclusion. Without question, 10-year weight gain is a serious problem within the US adult population. Younger adults, women, and Non-Hispanic Blacks, particularly Black women, seem to experience the highest levels of 10-year weight gain. Consequently, obesity and weight gain prevention programs focusing on these at-risk individuals should be a public health priority.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 08:05:01 +000
       
  • Therapeutic Effect of P-Cymene on Lipid Profile, Liver Enzyme, and
           Akt/Mtor Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar
           Rats

    • Abstract: Diabetes is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. There is a strong link between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and the development of diabetes mellitus. PI3K/Akt/mTOR is the main signaling pathway of insulin for controlling lipid and glucose metabolism. P-cymene is an aromatic monoterpene with a widespread range of therapeutic properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the antidiabetic effects of p-cymene were investigated. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. The effects of p-cymene and metformin were studied on levels of glucose (Glu), lipid profile, liver enzymes, oxidative stress, and the expression of Akt, phospho-Akt, and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) proteins, using biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analysis. Data have shown that p-cymene can improve serum levels of Glu, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of mTOR, Akt, and phospho-Akt protein in diabetic animals. These results suggest that p-cymene has hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia, and antioxidant properties. It can regulate Akt/mTOR pathway and reduce hepatic and pancreas injury. It can be suggested for diabetes management alone or simultaneously with metformin.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 13:05:01 +000
       
  • Connections between Children’s Eating Habits, Mental Health, and
           Parental Stress

    • Abstract: Background. Obesity and eating disorders are increasing in occidental countries and can undermine physical and psychological health. Therefore, preventing the insurgency of unhealthy eating habits in childhood is fundamental. Parents can play an important role in assisting pediatricians, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists in the diagnosis of eating disorders because they have an active role in observing and assessing the quality of their children’s eating habits. Methods. In our study, we collected data from a sample of children (n = 125) and their parents (n = 161) without symptoms related to eating disorders. Parents assessed the eating habits, behavior problems, and mental health of their children and parental stress. In addition, we measured body mass index, anxiety, and lifestyle in children. Data were analyzed with bivariate correlation and MIMIC models. Results. Both mothers’ and fathers’ assessments of children’s eating habits are reliable. Unhealthy eating habits are connected with children’s behavioral problems and parental stress. We did not find significant differences in feeding styles and ways of assessing the quality of eating habits between mothers and fathers. Our study showed greater sensitivity of mothers toward the physical fitness of their children rather than fathers. Conclusions. Mothers and fathers both proved to be good observers of their children’s eating behavior, and they could cooperate with medical and psychological operators in preventing the risk of obesity.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 10:20:03 +000
       
  • Association of Anthropometric Indices with Menstrual Abnormality among
           Nursing Students of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Obesity has been reported to be linked with menstrual abnormalities including abnormality in cycle length, duration, and period blood loss. However, which anthropometric parameter is a better marker of menstrual abnormality is yet unknown. This study aims to explore the association of BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) with menstrual abnormalities. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 240 nursing students on two nursing campuses of Nepal. Demographic and menstrual characteristics related data were collected from the participants via the face-to-face interview technique followed by anthropometric measurements. Binary logistic regression was used to study the association of BMI, WHR, and WHtR with menstrual characteristics. Univariable and multivariable regression models were calculated at 95% confidence interval and a value of 0.05 using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences, IBM SPSS® v21 (IBM, Armonk, New York). Results. Out of 240 participants, 52 participants (21.67%) were underweight (0.5) was associated with abnormal cycle length (AOR = 3.09; 95% CI = 1.09–8.80) and abnormal period duration (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI = 1.10–8.44). An increase in WHR (>0.8) was associated with abnormal cyclical menstrual blood loss (AOR = 4.93; 95% CI = 1.55–15.71). Conclusions. Obesity predisposes to menstrual irregularities. BMI is a better predictor of menstrual irregularity as the increase in BMI is associated with abnormality in menstrual cycle length, period duration, and blood loss. Increased WHR was associated with periodic blood loss only. Increased WHtR was associated with abnormal cycle length and period duration, but not menstrual blood loss.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 12:50:01 +000
       
  • Retracted: Measures of Adiposity and Risk of Testing Positive for
           SARS-CoV-2 in the UK Biobank Study

    • PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 10:20:04 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight among Adults in the Middle East
           Countries from 2000 to 2020: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Obesity has become a significant public health issue worldwide, and it is a major risk factor for many noncommunicable diseases. This systematic review aimed to identify the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Middle East region and different countries in this region. Materials and Methods. PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases were searched from 2000–2020 to identify relevant studies in the Middle East area. The survey was carried out using combinations of Medical Subject Headings (Mesh) keywords like “body mass index”, “obesity”, “overweight”, “prevalence”, “Middle-East”, and “Countries in the Middle East area”. Analysis of the data was done using STATA-14, and a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Results. A total of 101 studies with 698905 participants have been identified that met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Middle East area were 21.17 (95% CI: 17.05–26.29) and 33.14 (95% CI: 26.87–40.87), respectively. The findings showed that obesity prevalence increased with age so that the highest prevalence of obesity and overweight was observed in people >40 years old. Obesity prevalence in the Middle East area remained steady between 2000–2006 and 2014–2020 (23%). During these time intervals, the prevalence of overweight decreased from 34.83 (95% CI: 32.40–37.45) to 32.85 (95% CI: 31.39–34.38). Conclusions. Despite the relative stabilization of the overweight and obesity trend in the Middle East, current interventions to combat the overweight epidemic need to be maintained and strengthened because the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this region is still very high. The prevalence of obesity increases with age so that people over 40 have the highest percentage of obesity and overweight. Therefore, implementing intervention programs to prevent and control obesity and overweight in the Middle East is essential.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Feb 2022 10:05:01 +000
       
  • Age-Related Trends in Body Composition among Women Aged 20–80
           Years: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: The determinants of body composition are likely to vary geographically due to the diversity of genetic and environmental factors between populations. Age-related trends in body composition in a population help understanding the health issues that are linked with different body compartments. In general, such studies are scarce in the South Asian region and this cross-sectional study examined the age-related trends in body composition in a selected group of healthy women aged 20–80 years in Sri Lanka. The study included randomly selected 784 healthy women aged 20–80 years from the Southern province, Sri Lanka. Women were divided into five age groups: 20–29 years (n = 79), 30–39 years (n = 144), 40–49 years (n = 185), 50–59 years (n = 281), and ≥60 years (n = 85). Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD, g/cm2), total body bone mineral content (TBBMC, g), total body fat mass (TBFM, kg), and total body lean mass (TBLM, kg) were measured with central-type dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was performed. The age-related trends of TBBMD and TBBMC were similar with a peak in 40–49-year age group. Between 50 and 59 and ≥60 age categories, TBBMD and TBBMC showed a rapid decline: 16% and 23%, respectively. The rate of TBBMD decline was 0.008 g/cm2 per year after 50 years. TBFM increased by 14% between age categories 20–29 and 40–49 years and remained unchanged after 49 years. TBLM increased by 15% between age groups 20–29 and 40–49 years and then decreased by 13% between age categories 50–59 and ≥60 years. Of the 13% decrease in TBLM after 50 years, 9% loss occurred after 59 years. The trends observed help to understand the occurrence of diseases linked with body composition.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 02:50:01 +000
       
  • Laparoscopic Banded One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: A Single-Center Series

    • Abstract: Introduction. Laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB) is a relatively new procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and related comorbidities. On average, this procedure results in good postoperative weight loss with a low complication rate. Recent publications suggest that dumping syndrome and weight regain might be reduced by placing a silicone ring over the gastric pouch during the procedure, so called laparoscopic banded one anastomosis gastric bypass (LBOAGB). Methods. 86 patients undergoing LBOAGB between 2018 and 2020 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Hospital records were used to assess weight loss, comorbidity resolution, and any complications either in the short or medium term. Results. 54 Female and 32 male patients were included with a mean age of 43 years (25–64), preoperative body mass index of 42 kg/m2 (35–49), and preoperative weight of 114 kg (86–162). Thirty-four patients presented with type 2 diabetes (39.5%), 42 patients (49%) diagnosed with hypertension, 24 presented with OSAS (28%), and 21 (24%) hypercholesterolaemia patients were included. In total, 36 patients were diagnosed with multiple comorbidities. The operative data showed an average operative time of 48 minutes with 3.4% of patients suffering from early (minor) complications and 2.3% with a late (minor) complication. One patient required reoperation due to intra-abdominal bleeding. The median length of hospital stay was 2.5 days. Median follow-up was 18 months (5–36). In that period, no patient required ring removal or conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Food intolerance/vomiting was present in 1 patient (1.1%), bile reflux was present in 1 patient (1.1%), and no stomal ulcers were observed. Mean % excess weight loss at 12 and 24 months was 72% and 80%, respectively. Fifty-two out of 86 patients (60%) had a complete resolution of comorbidities. A CONUT score >2 (mild malnutrition) was found in 40% of patients, while a CONUT score 0-1 was found in 60% of patients. Conclusion. LBOAGB shows promising results in terms of safety and efficacy in the short term. Further prospective studies will be required to evaluate the consistency of the results in the long term.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 14:20:02 +000
       
  • Obesity, Adipose Tissue, and Inflammation Answered in Questions

    • Abstract: Background. Obesity is a global health problem of epidemic proportions, which is characterized by increased adipose tissue (AT) mass and significant repercussions in different body apparati and systems. AT is a special connective tissue, which contains several types of cells, in addition to adipocytes, and is a highly active endocrine and immune organ, which directly modulates many processes, including energy balance, metabolism, and inflammation. Summary. In this paper, the authors list and attempt to answer in a brief and simple way several questions regarding the complex relationships between obesity, adipose tissue, and inflammation, with the objective to provide an easy way to understand the main changes that occur in this pathological state. The questions are the following: Is adipose tissue only made up of adipocytes' Are adipocytes just a reservoir of free fatty acids' Do different types of fatty tissue exist' If so, which types' Can we further subcategorize the types of adipose tissue' Is it possible to form new adipocytes during adulthood' What is the role of inflammation' What is the role of macrophages' Are macrophages central mediators of obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance' What causes macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue' What is the role of hypoxia in AT alterations' Is there cross talk between adipocytes and immune cells' What other changes occur in AT in obesity' Does metabolically healthy obesity really exist' Is this a benign condition' Key messages. Obesity is a complex disease with numerous metabolic consequences, which are mainly the result of dysfunction that occurs in the adipose tissue of patients with this pathology. Understanding the pathophysiology of AT and the changes that occur in obesity would contribute to a better approach to patients with obesity, with the inherent medical implications that could result from this.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Jan 2022 13:50:05 +000
       
 
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