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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-0724 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0732
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Comparison of Answers between ChatGPT and Human Dieticians to Common
           Nutrition Questions

    • Abstract: Background. More people than ever seek nutrition information from online sources. The chatbot ChatGPT has seen staggering popularity since its inception and may become a resource for information in nutrition. However, the adequacy of ChatGPT to answer questions in the field of nutrition has not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the competency of ChatGPT in answering common nutrition questions. Methods. Dieticians were asked to provide their most commonly asked nutrition questions and their own answers to them. We then asked the same questions to ChatGPT and sent both sets of answers to other dieticians (N = 18) or nutritionists and experts in the domain of each question (N = 9) to be graded based on scientific correctness, actionability, and comprehensibility. The grades were also averaged to give an overall score, and group means of the answers to each question were compared using permutation tests. Results. The overall grades for ChatGPT were higher than those from the dieticians for the overall scores in five of the eight questions we received. ChatGPT also had higher grades on five occasions for scientific correctness, four for actionability, and five for comprehensibility. In contrast, none of the answers from the dieticians had a higher average score than ChatGPT for any of the questions, both overall and for each of the grading components. Conclusions. Our results suggest that ChatGPT can be used to answer nutrition questions that are frequently asked to dieticians and provide encouraging support for the role of chatbots in offering nutrition support.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2023 04:20:01 +000
  • Novel Anthropometric Indices as Screening Tools for Obesity: A Study on
           Healthy Iranians

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Upper body fat distribution is more related to cardiometabolic diseases than central obesity. Neck circumference (NC) and neck-to-height ratio (NHtR) are two indicators of upper body obesity that are affordable, easy to obtain, highly reproducible, and more practical in the crowded health centers than the classic anthropometric indices. Methods. 18–65-year-old individuals with no past medical history were included. After obtaining written informed consent, they were screened for hypertension, high blood glucose, and other abnormal laboratory results. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Mann–Whitney U test, Chi square test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and ROC curve. Results. In our 2,812 participants, NC had the lowest area under the curve (AUC) in both male and female obese and overweight subjects. NHtR and hip circumference (HC) had the highest AUC in men and women with obesity, respectively. The highest sensitivity for overweight men and women belonged to waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), respectively, and for both males and females with obesity, NHtR had the highest sensitivity. The cutoff point of NHtR had the same value for males and females. HC and NHtR had the highest positive likelihood ratio (PLR) for obesity in men. In addition, HC and WC had the highest PLR for obesity in women. Conclusion. In this study, we revealed that NC had the lowest and NHtR and HC had the highest predictive value for obesity. Furthermore, for both males and females with obesity, NHtR had the highest sensitivity. HC had the highest PLR for obesity in both genders. Our results warrant prospective studies to evaluate the role of NHtR and other novel anthropometric indices in the risk of cardiometabolic diseases.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 10:05:01 +000
  • Study of Drug Target Identification and Associated Molecular Mechanisms
           for the Therapeutic Activity and Hair Follicle Induction of Two
           Ashwagandha Extracts Having Differential Withanolide Constitutions

    • Abstract: Background. Ashwagandha extracts play a significant role in traditional Indian medicine to help treat a wide range of disorders from amnesia, erectile dysfunction, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stress, anxiety, and many more. Ashwagandha root is enriched with bioactive plant metabolites of which withanolides are the most important ones. The concentration and constitution of withanolides primarily determine ashwagandha’s potency and pharmacology. Various factors modulate the withanolide constitution in the plant-derived extracts, rendering inconsistent therapeutic efficacy. Standardisation of the extraction protocol and a better understanding of the pharmacology mechanism of different extracts with varied withanolide constitutions is therefore critical for developing reliable, repeatable, and effective ashwagandha-based treatment. Objectives. Here, we work toward defining indication mechanisms for two varieties of ashwagandha extract—ASHWITH (ASH-Ext1) and Regenolide (ASH-Ext2)—with different proprietary withanolide proportions. Methods. ASH-Ext1 was studied for antioxidant signaling modulation using HEK293, HeLa, and A549 cells, and ASH-Ext2 was studied for subcellular drug targets associated with the reactivation and longevity of human hair follicles, using primary human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). Results. Study findings support the antioxidant activity and Nrf2 signaling modulation by ASH-Ext1 in various cell models. Of note, ASH-Ext2 was found to increase β-catenin and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression levels in HFDPCs. Conclusion. The results of drug target modulation show us that the withanolide constitution associated with different extraction protocols influences the pharmacological potential of the extract significantly and points to the value of standardisation not only of total withanolide content but also of internal withanolide proportions.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2023 13:50:02 +000
  • The Crucial Role of Diet Therapy and Selenium on the Evolution of Clinical
           and Paraclinical Parameters in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    • Abstract: Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and represents a complex disease association that has become a major challenge in the field of public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of introducing selenium in the management of OS, while considering a balanced diet based on a healthy lifestyle and dietary therapy. A total of 206 individuals participated voluntarily in the study, divided into three groups: the control group with 35 individuals (17.0%) designated as control lot (LC), the group undergoing diet therapy with 119 individuals (57.8%) designated as diet therapy lot (LD), and the group undergoing diet therapy supplemented with selenium consisting of 52 individuals (25.2%) designated as diet therapy with selenium lot (LD + Se). The study assessed various clinical parameters (such as body mass index (BMI), body weight status, fat mass, visceral fat, and sarcopenic index), paraclinical parameters (including HOMA index, cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HGS)), as well as OS parameters (measured using the FORD test, FORT test, and MIXED test). The LD + Se group demonstrated the most favourable results in terms of BMI reduction, decreased fat and visceral mass, reduced levels of C-reactive protein, and improved glycosylated haemoglobin levels. By implementing a balanced diet therapy and supplementing the diet with selenium, it was possible to achieve a reduction in adipose tissue and glycosylated haemoglobin levels, ultimately contributing to the reduction of OS in the body.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2023 11:50:01 +000
  • The Effects of Hepatogomax Enteral Formula on Systemic Inflammation,
           Caecum Short-Chain Fatty Acid Levels, and Liver Histopathology in
           Thioacetamide-Induced Rats

    • Abstract: Liver damage characterized by fibrosis and necrosis can worsen the condition of liver disease. Liver disease is associated with impaired immune response and may affect short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) gut metabolites. Hepatogomax enteral formula was developed, which contains brain-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and middle-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which could repair liver tissue damage, improve the inflammatory status, and modulate SCFA in liver damage. The study aimed to determine the effect of hepatogomax on liver tissue repair, inflammation (TNF-α and IL-6), and SCFA levels in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rats. The induction of TAA causes liver steatosis, increasing TNF-α and IL-6, and decreasing SCFA levels. Hepatogomax at a dose of 14.6 g/200 gBW significantly reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels and increases SCFA levels ( 
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 10:35:01 +000
  • Micronutrients and Nutrition Status of School-Aged Children in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) in school-aged children are still a major health problem in Indonesia. This study was designed to examine the status of micronutrients and their relationship to the nutritional status of children aged 5–12 years since an up-to-date database on the micronutrient status of children aged 5–12 years is needed. Data from the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) were used in this study, with 2456 subjects for analysis. Micronutrient analysis was carried out, including iron status (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP)), levels of zinc, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin A (retinol) in school-aged children (5–12 years). The ELISA measurement was applied to measure CRP, ferritin, and vitamin D. Zinc levels were analysed with atomic absorbance spectroscopy (AAS). Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to calculate vitamin A. In addition, stunting and thinness data were also obtained from the Riskesdas study. The results showed that the prevalence of stunting and thinness in school-aged children was 11.4% and 9.2%, respectively, showing that the stunting prevalence in the city was lower than in the village (4.5% vs. 6.9%,  = 0.000, respectively). In addition, the prevalence of MNDs in Indonesian children was 13.4%, 19.7%, 4.2%, 3%, and 12.7% for ferritin, zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D, respectively. The mean serum level of vitamin A and zinc was significantly lower in stunted children compared to normal school children ( = 0.010 and  = 0.014). The serum concentration of vitamin D was significantly lower in overweight children compared to thin and normal children ( = 0.000). Serum values of ferritin, zinc, and vitamin A were significantly higher in overweight children compared to thin and normal children ( = 0.000). A poor correlation was observed between the z-score of height-for-age (HAZ) and the levels of zinc (r = 0.089,  = 0.000), vitamin A (r = 0.105,  = 0.000), and vitamin D (−0.073,  = 0.000). In addition, very weak correlations between z-scores of body mass index-for-age (BAZ) and the serum concentrations of ferritin (0.091,  = 0.000), zinc (r = 0.115,  = 0.000), vitamin A (r = 0.137,  = 0.000), and vitamin D (r = −0.112,  = 0.000) were also seen. In conclusion, school-aged children in Indonesia experienced stunting, thinness, and micronutrient deficiency. Furthermore, stunting and thinness were also related to micronutrient deficiencies.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2023 13:50:01 +000
  • Plasma Adiponectin and Its Correlation with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
           in Obesity and in Type 2 Diabetes and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. Low plasma adiponectin has been found in both obese subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Also, it was reported in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed plasma adiponectin and its correlation with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of atherosclerosis, in Egyptian patients with NAFLD. Methods and Results. The study included 200 Egyptian subjects. They were divided into four equal groups: group 1: obese patients with NAFLD and T2DM (O+/NAFLD+/DM+), group 2: nonobese patients with NAFLD and T2DM (O-/NAFLD+/DM+), group 3: obese nondiabetic patients with NAFLD (O+/NAFLD+/DM-), and group 4: nonobese healthy control subjects. Plasma adiponectin was measured using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose NAFLD. CIMT was assessed using Doppler ultrasonography. Plasma adiponectin was significantly lower and CIMT was significantly higher in O+/NAFLD+/DM+, as compared with O-/NAFLD+/DM+, O+/NAFLD+/DM-, and control subjects ( for all). A significant negative correlation was found between adiponectin and CIMT in obese patients with NAFLD (), but not in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. The significant independent predictors of CIMT were diabetes duration, BMI (body mass index), albumin/creatinine ratio, and cholesterol. Conclusion. Plasma adiponectin is inversely correlated with CIMT in obese patients with NAFLD, but not in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. Hypoadiponectinemia could be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk in obese patients with NAFLD, with or without T2DM, but not in nonobese patients with NAFLD.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2023 14:20:01 +000
  • The Antihyperglycemic Effect of Crude Liang (Gnetum gnemon var. tenerum)
           Leaves Powder on Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin (CHL) demonstrated antidiabetic activity by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and increasing glucose uptake in rats’ muscle cells. Liang leaves contain high amounts of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin and may provide an antidiabetic effect. The antidiabetic activity of chlorophyll and CHL contained in Liang leaves, Cu-chlorophyllin (CCL) Liang leaves treated with CuSO4, and untreated crude Liang leaves (CLL) were compared using commercial chlorophyllin (CHL) as a reference. Twelve Wistar male rats were separated into 4 groups (3 rats/group); the first was a normal one (based line group), the second were the diabetic rats treated with CHL, while the third and the fourth were the diabetic rats treated with 0.97 g/kg of CCL and CLL, respectively. Diabetic rats were induced by a high fructose diet, before being taken to administer commercial CHL, CCL, and CLL for 7 days. Nonfasting blood glucose and body weight were checked daily. After euthanasia, organ weight, biochemical, hematological, and histopathological properties were evaluated. CCL treatment showed no antihyperglycemic activity in the rat model but caused some biochemical abnormalities and thrombocytopenia. Commercial CHL gave a higher reduction of nonfasting blood glucose (NFBG) than Liang leaves powder CCL or CLL but also showed some signs of abnormal biochemical parameters. CLL exhibited an antihyperglycemic effect, with higher body weight and increased HDL/LDL ratio and thus could be a promising alternative natural source for diabetes treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2023 05:50:01 +000
  • Effect of Deworming on Health Outcomes among Children Aged
           12–59 Months in Tanzania: A Multilevel Mixed Effects Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Mass deworming of preschool children is a strategy suggested to prevent soil-transmitted helminth infections in most developing countries. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of data showing the contribution of mass deworming to a child’s nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of deworming on nutritional health outcomes (stunting, underweight, and anemia) in children aged 12 to 59 months. Methods. A secondary analysis of data extracted from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) 2015-16 data was carried out. A total of 7,962 children were included in this study. A multilevel logistic regression was used at a 5% level of significance to determine the individual- and community-level determinants of deworming on health outcomes among children. Results. The prevalence of underweight (62.6%), stunting (61.0%), and anemia (61.8%) was higher in children who were not dewormed than those who were dewormed. Female children were more likely to suffer from poor health outcomes (OR = 1.01 and 95% CI = 0.95–1.07) than male children. Children aged 24–35 months and 36–47 months were significantly less likely to suffer from poor health outcomes (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.82–0.97 and OR = 0.88; 96% CI = 0.81–0.96, respectively; ). Children from households with unimproved toilets (OR = 1.38 and 95% CI = 1.25–1.52), unimproved water sources (OR = 1.08 and 95% CI = 1.01–1.16), and living in rural areas (OR = 1.02 and 95% CI = 0.91–1.14) had higher odds for poor health outcomes. Conclusion. Deworming may be an effective technique for preventing poor health outcomes in children and the risks associated with them, such as poor growth and development.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jul 2023 09:50:01 +000
  • Microwave System: A Novel Treatment for Localized Adiposity Reduction in a
           Latin American Population

    • Abstract: Background. The microwave body remodeling system is indicated for people who want to improve their physical appearance as it can penetrate deep tissues, causing thermic stress on adipocytes to produce adipolysis while in superficial tissues, it dissolves fibrous tracts and stimulates new collagen. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the localized adiposity reduction in Latin American patients using a microwave system. Methods. A total of 35 patients with a mean age of 47.5 (±9.0) years received body remodeling treatment, using the microwave system between the years 2019–2022 in a Bogota, Colombia reference center. Data descriptive analysis was made as well as single-factor repeated measures ANOVA to show pre- and post-treatment difference, and mixed ANOVA for body mass index (BMI) subgroup analysis was performed. Results. In all patients examined, statistical significant differences were found in pre- and post-treatment skinfold test for each body area: superior abdomen (F(1,27) = 63.13; ), iliac crest (F(1, 23) = 114.33; ), posterior waist (F(1, 20) = 27.36; ), trochanter (F(1, 17) = 26.94; ), among others. Conclusions. According to the study’s findings, this microwave system is an innovative and effective technique for body remodeling and cellulite and localized fat reduction.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jul 2023 08:05:00 +000
  • The Effect of Soy and Whey Protein Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis
           in Healthy Normal Weight Asian Indians

    • Abstract: Milk and legumes are good source of protein foods used to sustain muscle mass, but their effects on postprandial glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism may be different. This is relevant, for example, in the dietetic response to obesity or diabetes, where the intake of high-quality protein is often increased significantly. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute effect of whey and soy protein (15% vs. 30%) on glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, and satiety. Healthy, normal body mass index (BMI) Indian adult males aged 20–35 years (n = 15) received 4 test meals (2 proteins (soy vs. whey) and 2 doses (15% vs. 30% protein: energy ratio)). Blood samples were collected serially after the meal to calculate the incremental area under the curve for plasma glucose and insulin. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured after the meal. Satiety was measured with a visual analogue scale. The insulin response, represented by the incremental area under the curve, was significantly higher for the 30% whey compared to the 30% soy protein meal () but was not significantly different between the 15% protein doses. There were no differences in the plasma glucose response across protein sources or doses. The mean peak fat and carbohydrate oxidation, satiety, and energy expenditure did not differ between the protein sources and doses. In conclusion, at higher doses, whey protein has a greater insulinogenic response, compared to soy protein, and exhibits a dose-response effect. However, at lower doses, whey and soy protein elicit similar insulinogenic responses, making them equally effective protein sources in relation to glucose homoeostasis.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2023 11:05:01 +000
  • Enteral Nutrition Safety and Outcomes of Patients with COVID-19 on
           Continuous Infusion of Neuromuscular Blockers: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. Intravenous infusions of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and prone positioning are recommended for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. The safety of enteral nutrition (EN) during these treatments is unclear. This study assessed EN tolerance and safety during NMBA infusion in proned and nonproned patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. Methods. This retrospective study evaluated patients who were admitted to a tertiary-care ICU between March and December 2020, had ARDS due to COVID-19, and received NMBA infusion. We assessed their EN data, gastrointestinal events, and clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was gastrointestinal intolerance, defined as a gastric residual volume (GRV) ≥500 ml or 200–500 ml with vomiting. We compared proned and nonproned patients. Results. We studied 181 patients (mean age 61.2 ± 13.7 years, males 71.1%, and median body mass index 31.4 kg/m2). Most (63.5%) patients were proned, and 94.3% received EN in the first 48 hours of NMBA infusion at a median dose
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2023 12:05:00 +000
  • Western Diet Decreases Hepatic Drug Metabolism in Male
           LDLr−/−ApoB100/100 Mice

    • Abstract: Consumption of a Western diet is an important risk factor for several chronic diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but its effect on the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the liver has been studied incompletely. In this study, male LDLr−/−ApoB100/100 mice were fed with Western diet (WD) or a standard diet for five months to reveal the effects on drug metabolism such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidation and conjugation activities in the liver. Hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, and early fibrosis were observed in WD fed mice, but not in chow diet control mice. When compared to the controls, the WD-fed mice had significantly decreased protein-normalized CYP probe activities of 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylation (52%), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (26%), 7-hydroxylation of 3-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (70%), 7-hydroxylation of 3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-6-methoxycoumarin (78%), 7-hydroxylation of 3-(3-methoxyphenyl)coumarin (81%), and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (66%). Increased activity was seen significantly in sulfonation of 3-(4-methylphenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin (289%) and cytosol catechol O-methyltranferase (COMT, 148%) in the WD group when compared to the controls. In conclusion, the WD-induced steatosis in male LDLr−/−ApoB100/100 mice was associated with decreased CYP oxidation reactions but had no clear effects on conjugation reactions of glucuronidation, sulfonation, and cytosolic catechol O-methylation. Consequently, the WD may decrease the metabolic elimination of drugs compared to healthier low-fat diets.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Mar 2023 13:05:01 +000
  • Associations of Plasma BDNF and BDNF Gene Polymorphism with
           Cardiometabolic Parameters in Thai Children: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Childhood obesity is an important public health crisis worldwide. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to play a role in controlling energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Objectives. To examine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and anthropometric-cardiometabolic and hematological parameters in obese and nonobese children and to determine whether two BDNF gene polymorphisms (G196A and C270T) are linked to BDNF levels, obesity, and anthropometric-cardiometabolic and hematological parameters among Thai children. Methods. This case-control study included an analysis of 469 Thai children: 279 healthy nonobese and 190 obese children. Anthropometric-cardiometabolic and hematological variables and BDNF levels were measured. Genotyping of BDNF G196A and C270T was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results. Children in the obese group had significantly higher white blood cell counts and some cardiometabolic parameters. Although the difference in BDNF level between the nonobese and obese groups was not significant, BDNF level was significantly positively correlated with hematological and cardiometabolic parameters, including blood pressure, triglycerides, and triglycerides and the glucose index. The BDNF G196A polymorphism in children was only associated with decreased systolic blood pressure , while the BDNF C270T polymorphism was found not to be related to BDNF levels, obesity, or other parameters after adjusting for potential covariates. Conclusions. These findings in Thai children suggest that obesity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors, but not with BDNF levels or the two BDNF polymorphisms studied, while the BDNF G196A polymorphism is a beneficial marker for controlling blood pressure among Thai children.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2023 08:05:01 +000
  • The Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Taste Disorder Treatment: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Introduction. Food taste and flavour affect food choice and acceptance, which are essential to maintain good health and quality of life. Reduced circulating zinc levels have been shown to adversely affect the taste, but the efficacy of zinc supplementation to treat disorders of taste remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of taste disorders. Methods. We searched four electronic bibliographical databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid AMAD, and PubMed. Article bibliographies were also searched, which yielded additional relevant studies. There were no restrictions on the publication date to facilitate the collection and identification of all available and relevant articles published before 7 February 2021. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA Statement. This review was registered at PROSPERO and given the identification number CRD42021228461. Results. In total, we included 12 randomized controlled trials with 938 subjects. The intervention includes zinc (sulfate, gluconate, picolinate, polaprezinc, and acetate), and the pooled results of the meta-analysis of subjects with idiopathic and zinc-deficient taste disorder indicate that improvements in taste disorder occurred more frequently in the experimental group compared to the control group (RR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.64, ). Zinc supplementation appears to confer a greater improvement in taste perception amongst those with chronic renal disease using zinc acetate (overall RR = 26.69, 95% CI = 5.52–129.06, ). The doses are equivalent to 17 mg–86.7 mg of elemental zinc for three to six months. Conclusion. Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for taste disorders in patients with zinc deficiency, idiopathic taste disorders, and in patients with taste disorders induced by chronic renal failure when given in high doses ranging from 68 to 86.7 mg/d for up to six months.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 05:35:01 +000
  • Determinants of Child Stunting, Wasting, and Underweight: Evidence from
           2017 to 2018 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey

    • Abstract: Child malnutrition persists in low-resource countries such as Pakistan, indicating an urgent need for interventions and policies aimed to address this critical population health issue. The World Health Organization Global Target 2025 includes the reduction of malnourishment in the form of stunting, wasting, and low weight. This study aims to examine the prevalence of factors associated with three measures of child malnutrition, i.e., stunting, wasting, and low weight in Pakistan. This study uses a secondary data analysis design based on data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2017-18) that used a two-stage cluster sampling approach. National level data covering urban and rural areas were used for this study consisting of 4,226 children less than 5 years of age. Univariate and multivariable analyses using logistic regression models were conducted. Over 23% of the children were underweight, 8.0% suffered wasting, and 37.7% were stunted. Children with small size at birth (60 cm) were also less likely to be stunted (AOR, 0.288) and underweight (AOR, 0.538). Children who consumed fresh milk were less likely to be classified as wasted (AOR, 0.524) than those children who did not consume fresh milk. The children in high- and middle-economic status families were less likely to be stunted, underweight, or wasted. Children of mothers who had secondary and higher education were less likely to be stunted (AOR, 0.584) and were less likely to be underweight (AOR, 0.668) than illiterate mothers’ children. Children of working mothers were less likely to be wasted compared to children of nonworking mothers (AOR, 0.287). Maternal BMI is also inversely associated with being underweight because overweight and obese mothers were less likely to have underweight children (AOR, 0.585). Our findings reflect a need to design targeted public health policies and community-based education that emphasize the mother’s education on nutrition health and provide socioeconomic resources that enable mothers to provide dietary needs that prevent malnutrition.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2023 02:05:01 +000
  • Can Following Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diets Reduce the Risk of

    • Abstract: Background. Psychiatric disorders have been a challenge for public health and will bring economic problems to individuals and healthcare systems in the future. One of the important factors that could affect these disorders is diet. Objective. In the current study with a cross-sectional design, we investigated the association of Paleolithic and Mediterranean diets with psychological disorders in a sample of adult women. Methods. Participants were 435 adult women between 20 and 50 years old that refer to healthcare centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. The diet scores were created by the response to a valid and reliable semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the psychological profile was determined by response to the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was applied to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results. After adjusted for potential confounders, it is evident that participants in the highest Paleolithic diet tertile had lower odds of depression (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.37: ), anxiety (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.45: ), and stress (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.32; ) in comparison to the lowest tertile. Furthermore, those in the third tertile of the Mediterranean diet score were at lower risk of depression (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.36; ), anxiety (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.38; ), and stress (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.39; ) compared with those in the first tertile. Conclusion. The result of the current study suggests that greater adherence to Paleolithic and Mediterranean dietary patterns may be related with a decreased risk of psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Mar 2023 15:50:00 +000
  • Dietary Habits and Nutritional Challenges of the Elderly in Ghana

    • Abstract: The elderly population is increasing worldwide. Dietary habits play a crucial role in prolonging life and preventing diseases. This cross-sectional study sought to investigate the dietary habits of the elderly in the Kwahu South District of the Eastern Region of Ghana and further ascertain the factors that constitute nutritional challenges among this group. A mixed method approach was used for the study. A questionnaire and focus group discussion guide were used to solicit data from study participants. A total of 97 participants made up of 59 males and 38 females participated in the study. Data on food habits reveal that staple food consumption especially those grown within the study area is common. Rice (34.1%), game meat (47.1%), banana (63.9%), and garden eggs (27.8%) were the commonly consumed foods by frequency. Mood (41.2%) and stress (24.8%) were identified as the most predominant determinants of food habits. Poly medication, toothache and loss, immobility, and financial and technological challenges were amongst the nutritional challenges mentioned by the elderly in this study. Results from the focus group discussion revealed high nutrition knowledge among the elderly through factors such as financial constraints that were mentioned as a barrier to the translation of this knowledge into practice. Strengthening of existing interventional programmes such as the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty and social interventions is needed to improve the dietary habits and nutritional intakes of the elderly.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 09:05:00 +000
  • Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) Intake Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced
           Glucose Intolerance via Promoting GLUT4 Expression and Membrane
           Translocation in Muscle

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a lifestyle-related disease, is developed due to eating habits and decreased physical activity. Diabetes also increases the risk of cancer and major neurodegenerative diseases; controlling the onset of diabetes helps prevent various illnesses. Eating seaweed, such as Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), is a part of the Asian food culture. Therefore, we analyzed the antidiabetic effect of wakame intake using the high-fat diet-induced diabetes mouse model. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of wakame extract on the cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) and activation of insulin signal molecules, such as AKT and AMPK, in insulin-sensitive tissues. Differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated with wakame components. The membrane translocation of GLUT4 and phosphorylation of AKT and AMPK were investigated with immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting, respectively. Also, male C57BL/6J mice were fed the normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), ND with 1% wakame powder (ND + W), or HFD with 1% wakame powder (HFD + W). We evaluated the effect of wakame intake on high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance using an oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, we analyzed insulin signaling molecules, such as GLUT4, AKT, and AMPK, in muscle using Western blotting. GLUT4 membrane translocation was promoted by wakame components. Also, GLUT4 levels and AKT and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated by wakame components in C2C12 cells. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC) of the HFD + W group was significantly smaller than that of the HFD group. Furthermore, the level of GLUT4 in the muscle was increased in the wakame intake group. This study revealed that various wakame components exerted antidiabetic effects on the mice on a high-fat diet by promoting glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, enhancing GLUT4 levels, and activating AKT and AMPK.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 05:50:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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