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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-0724 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0732
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) Intake Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced
           Glucose Intolerance via Promoting GLUT4 Expression and Membrane
           Translocation in Muscle

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a lifestyle-related disease, is developed due to eating habits and decreased physical activity. Diabetes also increases the risk of cancer and major neurodegenerative diseases; controlling the onset of diabetes helps prevent various illnesses. Eating seaweed, such as Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), is a part of the Asian food culture. Therefore, we analyzed the antidiabetic effect of wakame intake using the high-fat diet-induced diabetes mouse model. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of wakame extract on the cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) and activation of insulin signal molecules, such as AKT and AMPK, in insulin-sensitive tissues. Differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated with wakame components. The membrane translocation of GLUT4 and phosphorylation of AKT and AMPK were investigated with immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting, respectively. Also, male C57BL/6J mice were fed the normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), ND with 1% wakame powder (ND + W), or HFD with 1% wakame powder (HFD + W). We evaluated the effect of wakame intake on high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance using an oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, we analyzed insulin signaling molecules, such as GLUT4, AKT, and AMPK, in muscle using Western blotting. GLUT4 membrane translocation was promoted by wakame components. Also, GLUT4 levels and AKT and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated by wakame components in C2C12 cells. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC) of the HFD + W group was significantly smaller than that of the HFD group. Furthermore, the level of GLUT4 in the muscle was increased in the wakame intake group. This study revealed that various wakame components exerted antidiabetic effects on the mice on a high-fat diet by promoting glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, enhancing GLUT4 levels, and activating AKT and AMPK.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 05:50:00 +000
  • Iodine Concentration in Brazilian Drinking Water and Its Possible
           Contribution to Iodine Intake for Different Physiological Groups

    • Abstract: Objective. The objective is to analyze the concentration of iodine in Brazilian drinking water and its possible contribution to iodine intake for different groups. Methods. Water samples collected from primary healthcare units in eight locations distributed across all five macroregions of Brazil were analyzed. The quantification of iodine in the water samples was done by spectrophotometry (leuco crystal violet method). To classify the degree of iodine concentration, the recommendation of the Ministry of Health (China) was followed since Brazil lacks a classification standard. To verify the possible contribution of drinking water to iodine intake for different groups, the recommended water intake for each group according to the United States Institute of Medicine (2004) was considered. The percentage of iodine in drinking water and its contribution to iodine intake for different physiological groups were calculated based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) of iodine. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 and Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) version 9.2. Results. Significant differences were found between the maximum and minimum concentrations of iodine in water samples from the same location. In Pinhais (south region), the difference was 44.32 μg⋅ L−1; in Viçosa (southeast region), it was 27.86 μg·L−1; in Rondonópolis (midwest region), it was 12.66 μg·L−1; in São Luís (northeast region), it was 11.82 μg·L−1; in Brasilian Federal District (midwest region), it was 10.98 μg·L−1; in Macaé (southeast region), it was 10.14 μg⋅ L−1; in Palmas (north region), it was 4.22 μg·L−1; and in Vitória (southeast region), it was 1.69 μg·L−1. The maximum concentrations of iodine found in the drinking water of Pinhais and Viçosa can contribute more than 70.0% and 50.0%, respectively, to daily iodine intake for all groups. Conclusion. Monitoring the concentration of iodine in drinking water from different locations in each city or Federal District is a preventive measure against inadequate iodine intake and possible adverse changes in population health.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2022 09:50:01 +000
  • Protective Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and
           Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) against Vascular Dysfunction
           in Hyperglycemic Rats

    • Abstract: Background. Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with the inability of endothelial cells to maintain homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Regular exercise may be considered as an effective and low-cost nonpharmacological tool for improving vascular function, though there is no agreement on the best type of exercise. Objectives. To determine how high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) may prevent endothelial dysfunction under hyperglycemic conditions, and to compare these two interventions. Method. Twenty-four eight-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: healthy nonexercising control (C), hyperglycemic control (HG-C), hyperglycemic + HIIT (HG-IT), and hyperglycemic + MICT (HG-CT). Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic animals were subjected to HIIT or MICT protocols six days a week for six weeks. Decapitation was performed the day after the exercise protocols were completed. The ascending aorta (until the abdominal artery) was examined. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the glucagon-likepeptide-1 (GLP-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. A colorimetric assay was used to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to histologically analyze the aortas. Results. There was a significantly higher level of GLP-1 and lower expression of RAGE, NF-κB, and TNFα in the HG-IT and HG-CT group compared to the HG-C group. Microscopic examination of aortic tissue showed a better tissue arrangement in both treatment groups than in the HG-C group. Except for the MDA level, there were no significant differences in any of the measured parameters between the HG-IT and HG-CT groups. Conclusion. Under hyperglycemic conditions, both HIIT and MICT have a protective role against endothelial dysfunction.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Dec 2022 09:50:00 +000
  • A Study to Improve the Vitamin A and Iodine Status of Pregnant Women
           through a Multiple Micronutrient Fortified Salt

    • Abstract: Background. To study the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient fortified salt enriched with iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, and folic acid in improving serum retinol and iodine status of pregnant women. Methods. It was a randomized control trial in the antenatal clinic of a hospital. 151 women in the experimental group received a multiple micronutrient fortified salt to cook all their meals, and 150 women in the control group did not receive the fortified salt. Blood was collected in the three trimesters. Urine was collected in their first and third trimesters. Serum retinol, CRP (C-reactive protein), and AGP (Alpha glycoprotein) in blood were assessed, and iodine was assessed in urine. All the women were dewormed once. Results. The inflammation adjusted mean serum retinol in three trimesters in the experimental group was 24.51, 27.29, and 25.68 µg/dL, and it was 28.97, 27.63, and 22.72 µg/dL in the control group. Over the study period of 6 months, the increase in serum retinol in the experimental group was 1.17 µg/dL whereas in the control group serum retinol decreased by 6.25 µg/dL. The experimental group increase in serum retinol is significantly more () than the changes in retinol in the control group. The prevalence of serum retinol deficiency in the three trimesters was 39.1%,25.8%, and 37.7% in the experimental group and 14%, 22.7%, and 39.3% in the control group, and the change in the experimental group was significant () compared to the control group by binary logistic regression. Over the study period of 6 months there is a significant increase in urinary iodine concentration in the experimental group (), showing absorption of iodine from the fortified salt whereas there is a significant decline in the iodine values in the control group (). At the end of the study, the urinary iodine concentration of the experimental group was significantly more () than that of the control group. Conclusion. The fortified salt was able to improve serum retinol levels and urinary iodine levels in pregnant women. Trial Registration. This trial was registered retrospectively on 19/02/2022 in the ISRCTN registry with trial ID ISRCTN17782574.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Nov 2022 15:05:00 +000
  • Association between Copeptin and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Copeptin, a reliable marker for vasopressin release, has been associated with cardiometabolic diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aims to evaluate the association between copeptin and MetS. Methods. We searched in Pubmed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases until March 2021 and included observational studies (cohort studies, cross-sectional, and case-control) reporting the risk or prevalence of having MetS in patients with elevated copeptin levels compared to patients without elevated copeptin levels. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of the copeptin cut-off values. Results. A total of 7 studies (5 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 cohort) were included comprising 11,699 participants. Most of them were performed in the adult general population. Two cross-sectional and one case-control studies found a positive significant association between higher levels of copeptin and MetS. While three cross-sectional and one cohort studies found no association. The case-control study had several methodological limitations, most cross-sectional studies were methodologically adequate and the cohort study had no methodological issues. Conclusions. The association between copeptin and MetS is inconsistent. However, the arginine-vasopressin system impairment contributes to metabolic disorders, expressing plasma copeptin changes. Thus, more longitudinal studies are required to corroborate the association of copeptin and MetS.
      PubDate: Sat, 22 Oct 2022 07:35:01 +000
  • A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study about the Knowledge, Attitude, and
           Practices of Food Safety Measures among Rural Households in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Background. Food handlers have been found to play essential roles in transmitting foodborne diseases and can pose a significant public health problem. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of food safety measures among the rural households of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods. We conducted this community-based cross-sectional study among women above 18 years involved with food preparation in rural households of four villages in Bangladesh. A total of 400 respondents were selected using the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using pretested and predesigned questionnaires based on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) five keys for food safety. We used Stata (Version 16) for all statistical analyses. Results. The mean age of the participants was 42.09 ± 12.96 years. The median KAP scores [interquartile range (IQR)] were 7 (21–10), 16 (5–18), and 26 (9–30), respectively. We found the median KAP scores were significantly lower in the age group>55 years than in age groups of 18–25, 26–35, 36–45, and 46–55 years ( for all). In addition, the median KAP scores were significantly higher in respondents who were married, literate, employed/active, living in pakka/semipakka house, and with a monthly family income of>5,000 BDT ( for all). Among all, 33.75%, 80.25%, and 69.00% had good (≥80% of total) KAP scores, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that monthly family income>5,000 BDT was a significant predictor of good knowledge [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 3.51, 95%CI: 1.55–7.98], good attitude (aOR: 5.82, 95%CI: 2.80–11.70), and good practice (aOR: 3.18, 95%CI: 1.67–6.07). Age>55 years was a significant predictor of good attitude (aOR: 0.38, 95%CI: 0.17–0.81) and good practice (aOR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21–0.89). Having ≤4 members in the family was a significant predictor of good practice (aOR: 1.85, 95%CI: 1.13–3.03) regarding food safety measures. Conclusion. The study found that KAP among rural Bangladeshi women regarding food safety were relatively satisfactory. However, having a poor monthly income and living in a large family were impediments to good food-safety practices where work can be done. The findings of this study may help develop health intervention programs for food handlers to further improve KAP toward food safety, thereby reducing foodborne illness in households.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 10:20:03 +000
  • Nutritional Status and Its Determinants among Adult Cancer Patients
           Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment at Hawassa University Comprehensive
           Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Malnutrition is a common problem in cancer patients. It has an impact on all aspects of the patient's life such as increasing the risk of infection, treatment toxicity, hospital stay, and health-care costs. Factors influencing the nutritional status of adult cancer patients undertaking chemotherapy treatment in Ethiopia have not been thoroughly investigated. As a result, the purpose of this study is to assess the nutritional status and its determinants among adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Objectives. The objective of this study is to determine the nutritional status and its determinants among adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital Oncology Treatment Center, from January to May 2021. The data were gathered through a face-to-face interview and chart review method. Epi Data 4.6 was used to enter the data, which was then exported to SPSS version 25 for statistical analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between nutritional status and potential risk factors. A value less than 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Result. This study revealed that 48.1% of participants have some level of malnutrition. Lowest wealth index AOR 0.06 (0.016–0.2), food insecurity AOR 0.1 (0.05–0.24), vomiting AOR 0.2 (0.110–.444), poor appetite AOR 0.2 (0.11–0.44), no diarrhea AOR 2.6 (1.34–5.00), and poor functioning AOR 0.3 (0.2–0.54) were significantly associated with good nutritional status. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of malnutrition among adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment at HUCSH was high. Wealth index, food security, poor appetite, diarrhea, and performance status were significantly correlated with the nutritional status of the patients. To improve the patient’s nutritional status, economic support, early nutritional screening, and assessment, management of chemotherapy-induced symptoms should be considered.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Sep 2022 11:20:04 +000
  • Appropriate Complementary Feeding Practice and Its Associated Factors
           among Mothers Who Have Children Aged between 6 and 24 Months in Ethiopia:
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practices prevent malnutrition among children. The proportion and determinant factors of appropriate complementary feeding practices identified by different studies were inconsistent in Ethiopia. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the pooled proportion and determinants of appropriate complementary feeding practices among mothers. Methods. Databases (PubMed, HINARI, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) and university repositories were used to search for important articles. A critical appraisal of the studies was conducted. Data analysis was conducted using STATA version 11. Cochran (Q test) and I2 test were used to test the heterogeneity of the studies. Publication bias was checked using the funnel plot for asymmetry and Egger’s regression test. Results. Seventeen primary studies with a total sample size of 9166 mothers were involved in this study. The pooled proportion of appropriate complementary feeding practices among mothers who had infants and young children aged between 6 and 24 months was 21.77 (with a 95% CI: 14.07–29.48). Mothers’ educational status of secondary school and above (OR = 3.36 with a 95% CI: 3.03–3.69), having repeated antenatal care visits (OR = 4.77 with a 95% CI: 3.49–6.05), child’s age between 12 and 24 months (OR = 3.7 with a 95% CI: 2.75–4.65), having repeated postnatal care visits (OR = 3.17 with a 95% CI: 1.96–4.38), health education (OR = 4.88 with a 95% CI: 3.86–5.9), knowledge of mothers (OR = 4.85 with a 95% CI: 3.77–5.93), maternal age between 18 and 35 years (AOR = 2.67 with a 95% CI: 1.64–3.72), institutional delivery (OR = 2.23 with a 95% CI: 1.79–2.68), and higher household wealth (OR = 2.65 with a 95% CI: 1.46–3.84) were found to be statistically significant associated factors of appropriate complementary feeding practices among mothers. Conclusions. The pooled proportion of appropriate complementary feeding practices was low in Ethiopia. Knowledge of mothers and maternal health service uptake such as antenatal care, postnatal care, and institutional delivery increase appropriate complementary feeding practices. More focus is required for mothers who have children aged less than 12 months, mothers aged above 35 years and less than 18 years, lower mothers’ educational status, and lower household wealth. Therefore, integrated interventions are still required to improve appropriate complementary feeding practices.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 09:50:02 +000
  • The Effects of Coconut Skim Milk and Coco-Dairy Milk Blend on the
           Nutritional Status of Schoolchildren

    • Abstract: Milk feeding can be an effective response to the high prevalence of child undernutrition as it provides significant amounts of nutrients. This study investigated and compared the effects of coconut skim milk (CocoM) and coco-dairy milk blend (CDMB) to cow’s milk (CM) on improving the nutritional status of Filipino schoolchildren. The study followed a randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group design. A total of 444 underweight/stunted schoolchildren aged 6.0–8.4 years old enrolled in Guadalupe Elementary School in Cebu City, Philippines, have participated. The participants were randomly allocated into three groups, that is, CocoM, CDMB, and CM, in which the milk products were packed in 200 ml color and number-coded bottles given for 95 days. The bottles were similar in form and shape, and the only differentiating factors were the code and color. Weight and height were measured using standard techniques. Nutritional indices such as weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) were measured using the WHO Child Growth Standards (CGS), and the acceptability test was measured using the 5-point facial hedonic scale. The study found that the mean WAZ and BAZ had significantly increased from baseline to endpoint across all groups. Moreover, the prevalence of underweight has also significantly declined from baseline to endpoint in all groups, and the prevalence of stunting significantly declined from baseline to endpoint in the CocoM group only. Lastly, the three milk products were rated as generally acceptable. Overall, the findings indicate that coconut milk consumption could be beneficial for improving a child’s WAZ and BAZ, as well as improving the nutritional status of underweight and stunted schoolchildren. CocoM and CDMB were found to be equally beneficial to child nutrition as cow’s milk. Hence, the present study suggests that CocoM and CDMB could be also provided in school-based feeding programs with the aim of targeting child undernutrition.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 15:35:01 +000
  • Nutrition-Related Mobile Application for Daily Dietary Self-Monitoring

    • Abstract: Nutrition apps for mobile devices such as smartphones are becoming more widely available. They can help ease the arduous chore of documenting intake for nutritional assessment and self-monitoring. This allows people to control food intake, support their participation in physical activities, and promote a healthy lifestyle. However, there remains a lack of research regarding systematic analysis mapping studies in this area. The objective of this study is to identify dietary self-monitoring implementation strategies on a mobile application. This study analyzed 205 journals from the Scopus database using the descriptive-analytic method. The records used in this exploration study were those released between 2007 and 2021 that were collected based on the keywords “dietary self-monitoring,” or “nutrition application,” or “nutrition apps,” and “calorie application.” Data analysis was conducted using the VOSviewer and NVivo software analytical tools. The results show that research studies on dietary self-monitoring increased in 2017. Results also indicated that the country that contributed the most to this topic was China. The study on mobile applications for dietary self-monitoring revealed seven clusters of dominant themes: attitude to improved dietary behaviors, parameters for disease diagnosis, noncommunicable diseases, methods, nutrition algorithms, mobile health applications, and body mass index. This study also analyzed research trends by year. The current research trends are about dietary self-monitoring using a mobile application that can upgrade people’s lifestyles, enable real-time meal recording and the convenience of automatically calculating the calorie content of foods consumed, and potentially improve the delivery of health behavior modification interventions to large groups of people. The researchers summarized the recent advances in dietary self-monitoring research to shed light on their research frontier, trends, and hot topics through bibliometric analysis and network visualization. These findings may provide valuable guidance for future research and perspectives in this rapidly developing field.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2022 13:05:02 +000
  • Meal Pattern in the Colombian Population: Results of the National
           Nutrition Survey. ENSIN, 2015

    • Abstract: Background. Information on meal patterns (type, number, relative contribution to energy/day (%), time, and location of meals) is limited or nonexistent. Design. Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys. Setting. Colombia. Participants. n = 26,115 from 3 to 64 years old. The sample analyzed included 3,127 children between 3 and 4 years old, 13,384 children between 5 and 17 years old, and 9,604 adults between 18 and 64 years old. Data Analysis. Meal patterns were described by age group. Through multiple linear regression, crude and adjusted differences in the categories of the covariates studied were estimated. The number/day of meals was the dependent variable. Results. The number of meals/day (mean ± SD) was 4.4 ± 0.0, without differences by sex , current weight , or wealth index , but there were differences in the level of education of the head of the household and the level of food security of the household . A total of 96.8% of the population eats 3 or more meals/day (95% CI: 96.2, 97.2). The consumption frequency (mean ± SD) of the three main meals was 0.95 ± 0.0 “times/day,” 1.0 ± 0.0 and 0.95 ± 0.0, for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Lunch is the meal that makes the greatest relative contribution to the total energy consumed (energy/day), 33.9% (95% CI: 32.7, 35.1). Breakfast is eaten outside the home by 13.0% of the subjects, lunch by 26.0%, and dinner by 3.8%. The minimum fasting interval is 9 hours and the maximum is 10 hours and 30 minutes. The meal pattern is equivalent to type “A,” with three main meals and two or three intermediate meals (midmorning and midafternoon) taken during 15 hours of the day. Conclusions. All age groups had more than four meals/day. The number is directly related to socioeconomic level. Lunch is the main meal.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 17:35:06 +000
  • Relation of Malnutrition and Nosocomical Infections in Cancer Patients in
           Hospital: An Observational Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate the relation between malnutrition and nosocomial infections (NI) in hospitalized cancer patients. Methods. This observational, cross-sectional, noninterventional, descriptive study was conducted in a 500-bed university hospital in Valencia (Spain). Adult cancer patients admitted to the oncology ward were consecutively enrolled regardless of their nutritional status between November 2019 and March 2020. Patients were nutritionally assessed 24 to 48 hours after admission. Body weight, height and BMI, body composition through measurement of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and muscle strength and functionality using hand grip strength (HGS) were prospectively collected. The diagnosis of malnutrition and sarcopenia was assessed using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, respectively. Patients were followed up during their hospital stay or outpatient oncology visits to identify possible NI. Results. A total of 107 patients were included in this study (mean age 66 years; 66.4% were men). The most frequent reason for admission was cancer treatment (19.6%), followed by infections (18.7%) and digestive tract symptoms (18.7%). Overall, 77.5% (83/107) of the patients were malnourished at admission according to the GLIM criteria, while 52.3% (56/107) were sarcopenic. Nosocomial infections (NI) were significantly more frequent in malnourished (52.1%; 25/48) and severely malnourished (42.1%; 8/19) patients, compared with well-nourished patients without malnutrition (25%; 10/40; ). The mean length of hospital stay was 13.9 days, significantly longer in patients with an NI compared to those without infections (18.6 vs. 10.8 days, ).Conclusion. This study evidenced the need to implement a routine protocol for the nutritional assessment and support of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia to reduce the risk of NI during their hospital stay.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2022 05:20:02 +000
  • Relationship between Atherogenic Dyslipidaemia and Lipid Triad with
           Different Scales of Overweight and Obesity in 418,343 Spanish Workers

    • Abstract: Obesity induces alterations in lipid biochemistry, evolving toward dyslipidaemia atherogenesis, a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular events. Two relevant forms of lipid abnormalities are atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD) and lipid triad (LT), which involve alterations in triglyceride levels, HDL-c, and LDL-c. The aim of this study was to assess the linkage of atherogenic AD and LT with different scales of overweight and obesity. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 418,343 Spanish adult workers, recruited from workplace health assessments. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia was defined as triglyceride levels ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL values 
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Aug 2022 12:50:01 +000
  • Malnutrition, Eating Habits, Food Consumption, and Risk Factors of
           Malnutrition among Students at the University of Maroua, Cameroon

    • Abstract: Context and objective. The time spent by young people at the university is generally marked by a profound transition in lifestyle and eating habits, which exposes them to several risk factors for diseases that will develop later such as chronic diseases related to diet. The objective of this study was to assess malnutrition and identify the particular risk factors for malnutrition among students at the University of Maroua. Methods. Three hundred and thirty students of both sexes, aged between 17 and 35 years old, were recruited from January to February 2018. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and BMI) were measured, and an eating and lifestyle questionnaire was administered to each participant, as well as a 24-hour dietary recall. Results. The mean age of participants was 23.95 ± 3.67 years and BMI was 22.19 ± 2.78 kg/m2. Approximately 6.1% were underweight, 12.1% overweight, and 0.9% obese, and all age groups were affected. Concerning eating habits, low protein, fruit, and vegetable consumption were recorded among students. Cereals were the main source of carbohydrates consumed. Besides, 6% of them had a low dietary intake, 21% had a poorly diversified diet, and 2% were highly food insecure. The students’ daily macronutrient intake was within the recommended reference values, except for carbohydrates, which exceeded and represented 62.69± 13.84% of daily energy intake. Also, only 32.2% of respondents had adequate energy intake. A poorly diversified diet was associated with a high incidence of overweight. Conclusions. Both forms of malnutrition are indeed present among the students of the University of Maroua, and nutritional education for this young segment of the population will be essential to prevent complications associated with malnutrition in the working life.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Aug 2022 11:05:02 +000
  • Iodine Concentration in Drinking Water in the Same or Different Seasons of
           the Year in Brazilian Macroregions

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of iodine in drinking water in the same or different seasons of the year in Brazilian macroregions. Method. Water samples were collected from the Basic Health Units of eight municipalities that make up the different Brazilian macroregions and the Federal District. Sample collection took place in the summer, autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The spectrophotometric method with “leuco crystal violet” was used to determine the concentration of iodine in the water. Descriptive statistics on the data were performed. To verify if there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the climatic seasons of the year in the same place and between the same seasons in different locations, the Mann–Whitney or Kruskal–Wallis test was used and a value was considered significant. Results. Among the climatic seasons throughout the year in the same location, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water in the municipality of Pinhais, state of Paraná/South macroregion, between autumn and summer () and winter and summer seasons (). There was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water in the summer season between the Midwest and South macroregions; Northeast and Midwest, Southeast and South; North and Midwest, Southeast and South (). In the autumn season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Midwest and South macroregions; Northeast and Midwest, Southeast and South; North and Midwest, Northeast and South (). In the winter season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Southeast and Midwest and Southeast and South macroregions (). In the spring season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Southeast and Midwest and Southeast and South macroregions ().Conclusion. There were differences in the iodine concentrations in drinking water in different locations in Brazil, when analyzed in the same seasons, and in the municipality of Pinhais between the autumn and summer and winter and summer seasons. Thus, it is suggested to monitor the iodine concentrations in water, considering the differences in climate, characteristics of each region, and soils throughout the Brazilian territory, since the deficiency or excess of iodine can bring risks to the health of the population.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 06:35:00 +000
  • Pregnant Mothers Diversified Dietary Intake and Associated Factors in
           Southwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Dietary diversity is very critical for fetal growth and development, as well as for the health and wellbeing of the mother. In Ethiopia, 41% of pregnant mothers consume diversified diets. There has been no study assessing whether pregnant women in southwest Ethiopia consume a varied diet. Objective. To estimate the proportion of adequate diversified dietary intake and to determine whether there is an association between diversified dietary intake and mothers’ social capital. Design. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 367 pregnant women in South West Ethiopia. A 24-hour multiple-pass dietary recall method was used to measure dietary intake and the 10 food groups of FANTA/FAO 2016 were used to analyze dietary diversity. Social capital was assessed based on the number of social networks in which a mother participated. Result. The proportion of diversified dietary intake was 14.7% (95% CI: 11.1, 18.3). Pregnant mothers who had social capital, had their own income, had emotional support from their husbands, were from a rich family, and had a frequent dietary intake were statistically associated with a diversified dietary intake, with an AOR of 7.8 (95% CI 1.02, 2.3 (95% CI 1.12, 4.44), 4.0, (95% CI 1.16, 13.7), 59.19), 2.3 (95% CI 1.04, 5.26), and 1.5 (95% CI 1.04, 2.07), respectively. Conclusion. Diversified dietary intake was found to be lower than previously reported, and it was associated with social capital. Methodologically rigorous studies are required to verify the association between social capital and adequate diversified dietary intake.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 05:50:02 +000
  • The Effect of Adding Job’s Tears to Yogurt on Plasma Glycated Albumin,
           Weight, and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Background. A potential effect of Job’s tears on metabolic diseases has been recognized. However, studies on the effect of Job’s tears on lipid profile and glycated albumin (GA) are still rare. This study aimed to examine the influence of Job’s tears in conjunction with probiotics on the lipid profile and GA concentration of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. This double-blind 12-week study involved 60 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned randomly into two groups. The first group consumed yogurt alone (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium Bb12), while the second had yogurt with Job’s tears once daily (200 ml each). Lipids and GA concentrations were measured using an enzymatic colorimetric assay. Paired and unpaired Students t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Mann–Whitney test were applied. Statistical significance was set at .Results. The characteristics of the groups were comparable except for baseline plasma GA (). Subjects who used Metformin were distributed equally between the groups (). Caloric intake between the groups also did not differ (). There was also no change in weight, BMI, or plasma GA. Yogurt and the mixture of Job’s tears and yogurt reduced cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL (all ) within the groups. However, HDL levels in patients who had Job’s tears were significantly elevated than yogurt alone (0.9 vs. 25 mg/dL, ).Conclusion. The combination of Job’s tears and yogurt improved HDL more than yogurt alone.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 09:50:02 +000
  • Aerobic Exercise Associated with Fish Oil Supplementation Decreases
           C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 in Celiac Disease Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Several studies indicate that celiac disease patients present alterations within anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters, while physical exercise and fish oil are known to activate modulatory pathways of such parameters. Objective. To investigate the effects of a 12-week-long protocol of aerobic exercise and its association with fish oil supplementation in nineteen adult celiac disease patients. Material and Methods. The celiacs were divided into 2 groups: (A) FOS: supplementation (n = 11); and (B) EXE: supplementation and exercise (n = 8). The celiac groups were compared to the adult healthy control group (CTR) (n 12). Aerobic exercises were performed weekly, in three sessions of 60 minutes each, with a maximal heart rate intensity of 60–70%. The participants received 2 g/day of fish oil, a daily intake of 420 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid, and 230 mg of docosahexaenoic acid. The following measurements were taken in four phases: (A) anthropometry: body mass, height, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and fat-free mass; (B) metabolic profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL; and (C) inflammatory profile: C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Results. Supplementation associated with aerobic exercise promoted a significant reduction in C-reactive protein () and increased the proportion of individuals in the undetectable range of interleukin-6. Conclusions. The associated interventions showed a corrective and preventive potential in relation to disorders associated with chronic inflammation; however, the experimental design does not allow us to discriminate between the biological effects that are dependent on the association between interventions and those exclusively dependent on aerobic exercise.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 14:05:03 +000
  • Evaluation of the Relationship between Nutritional Status of COVID-19
           Patients Admitted to the ICU and Patients’ Prognosis: A Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Malnutrition in COVID-19 critically ill patients can lead to poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between nutritional status (or risk) and the prognosis of critically ill COVID-19 patients. In this study, prognosis is the primary outcome of “hospital mortality” patients. The second outcome is defined as “need for mechanical ventilation.” Methods and Materials. In this single-center prospective cohort study, 110 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Tehran, Iran) between April and September 2021 were enrolled. Participants formed a consecutive sample. MNA-SF, NRS-2002, mNUTRIC, and PNI scores were used to evaluate nutritional assessment. Patients’ lab results and pulse oximetric saturation SpO2/FiO2 (SF) ratio at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were collected. Patients were screened for nutritional status and categorized into two groups, patients at nutritional risk and nonrisk. Results. Sixty-five (59.1%) of all patients were men. The overall range of age was 52 ± 15. Thirty-six (32.7%) of patients were obese (BMI ≥ 30). The hospital mortality rate was 59.1% (n = 65). According to the different criteria, malnutrition rate was 67.3% (n = 74) (NRS), 28.2% (n = 31) (MNA), 34.5% (n = 38) (mNUTRIC), and 58.2% (n = 64) (PNI). There was a statistically significant association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mNUTRIC risk (OR = 13.5, 95% CI (1.89–16.05), ), diabetes mellitus (DM) and MNA risk (OR = 2.82, 95% CI (1.01–7.83), ), hypertension (HTN) and MNA risk (OR = 5.63, 95% CI (2.26–14.05), ), and malignancy and mNUTRIC risk (). The nutritional risk (all tools) significantly increased the odds of in-hospital death and need for mechanical ventilation. The length of stay was not significantly different in malnourished patients. Conclusion. In the critical care setting of COVID-19 patients, malnutrition is prevalent. Malnutrition (nutritional risk) is associated with an increased risk of need for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality. Patients with a history of HTN, CKD, DM, and cancer are more likely to be at nutritional risk at the time of ICU admission.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 10:35:02 +000
  • Comparison of Cognitive Function in Children with Stunting and Children
           with Undernutrition with Normal Stature

    • Abstract: Background. Stunting is the impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. Children are defined as stunted if their height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards median. According to the Indonesia Basic National Health Survey 2013, Indonesia’s stunting prevalence reached 37.2%. Various studies have shown that impaired cognitive development is found in children with stunting and undernutrition. This study aims to determine cognitive development in stunted and undernutrition with normal stature children using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development III (Bayley-III). Methods. A cross-sectional study on 51 children aged one month to 3 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who visited the outpatient clinic of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital from June 2017 to January 2018 was performed. Cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Results. 26 children with stunting and 25 children with undernutrition with normal stature participated in this study. There was a statistically nonsignificant trend toward lower median score percentiles in the stunted group compared to that in the undernourished with normal stature group in the motor (median (range) 1 (0.1–75) vs. 4 (0–79); ), cognitive (12.5 (0.1–75) vs. 16 (0.1–99.9); ), and adaptive behavior (7 (0.1–75) vs. 12 (0.1–58); ) domains. Conclusions. There is a trend toward lower cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior abilities in stunted children compared to undernourished children with normal stature which needs further study. In addition, children with undernutrition have below-average abilities across all domains even before stunting has occurred.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jul 2022 13:35:00 +000
  • Exploring the Status of Preference, Utilization Practices, and Challenges
           to Consumption of Amaranth in Kenya and Tanzania

    • Abstract: African leafy vegetables such as amaranth have been utilized since time immemorial both as food and as medicine. These vegetables grew naturally in most rural environments, but currently most of them are cultivated both for home consumption and for sale. The aim of this study was to identify the most preferred amaranth species and cooking and utilization practices, as well as the beliefs and attitudes that encourage or discourage use of this vegetable. The study was carried out in seven counties of Kenya and in three regions in Tanzania. Twenty Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with members of the community and twenty Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with agricultural and nutrition officers were conducted in the study areas to obtain information on preferred varieties, sources of amaranth vegetables, common cooking methods, alternative uses, beliefs and taboos surrounding amaranth consumption, and the challenges experienced in production and consumption. The findings of the study showed that amaranth is one of the most commonly consumed indigenous vegetables in Kenya and Tanzania. The preference for varieties and cooking habits differs depending on the community and individuals. Amaranthus dubius and Amaranthus blitum were most common in Kenya, while Amaranthus dubius and Amaranthus hypochondriacus were most common in Tanzania. Most people consumed these vegetables because they were affordable and available or because of circumstance of lacking other foods. Regarding cooking, final taste was mostly considered rather than nutritional attribute. Several alternative uses of amaranth such as uses as medicine and livestock feed were also reported, as well as some beliefs and taboos surrounding the vegetable. Training on nutritional attributes and promotion of food preparation practices that ensure maximum nutrient benefits from amaranth is needed at the community level to realize the nutritional importance of the vegetables. Hands-on training and demonstrations were the most preferred modes of passing information.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 09:05:02 +000
  • Comparison of Gastric Emptying Time after the Ingestion of Whisky with
           Isocalorically Adjusted Glucose Solution

    • Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the liquid gastric emptying mainly depended on energy content, regardless of compositional differences. But the gastric emptying of alcoholic beverages remains unclear. Therefore, we performed the present study to compare gastric emptying times between whisky mixed with water and glucose solution with uniform energy contents and volumes. As a crossover study, 10 healthy male volunteers ingested one of 3 test solutions with a uniform volume of 150 ml, i.e., whisky with water-containing whisky 30 ml (67 kcal), sugar water containing glucose 16.8 g (67 kcal), and water (0 kcal), and the gastric emptying time of each beverage was then assessed by ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral cross-sectional area. The gastric emptying pattern of whisky with water was faster than that of isocaloric sugar water, but slower than that of water. Each antral cross-sectional area 20, 30, and 40 min after the ingestion of sugar water was significantly larger than that of whisky with water. Antral cross-sectional areas 10 and 20 min after the ingestion of water were significantly smaller than those of whisky with water. In conclusion, the gastric emptying time of whisky would be faster than that of isocaloric glucose solution and slower than that of water. Unlike the other beverages, the gastric emptying time of alcohol drinks does not purely depend on the energy content because alcohol itself has no calorie before absorption. This study is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000034443).
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 11:50:03 +000
  • Clinical Efficacy of Curcumin and Vitamin E on Inflammatory-Oxidative
           Stress Biomarkers and Primary Symptoms of Menopause in Healthy
           Postmenopausal Women: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Aims of the Study. Reducing estrogen levels due to menopause activates oxidative and inflammatory processes, which causes symptoms of menopause, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. As a suggestion, potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents such as curcumin and vitamin E could be used as an effective alternative treatment due to parsimony, suitable access, and fewer side effects. Therefore, the present study was conducted to find out whether supplementation with curcumin and vitamin E affects inflammatory-oxidative stress biomarkers and primary symptoms of menopause in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods Used to Conduct the Study. The present study is a triple-blind parallel randomized controlled trial. Eighty-four eligible postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old were randomly assigned into three groups using block randomization with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1 : 1. The curcumin group received one capsule containing 500 mg curcumin twice a day, the vitamin E group received one 500 mg capsule of vitamin E twice a day, and the placebo group took two placebo capsules containing 500 mg of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) daily for eight weeks. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, and early symptoms of menopause were collected at baseline. Serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. Intervention safety and satisfaction with the intervention were also evaluated. Results of the Study. Eighty-one participants completed the trial and were finally analyzed. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics and dietary intake of participants (except for vitamin C intake, ) between the groups at baseline. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) score of total menopause symptoms, depression, anxiety, psychological, vasomotor, and physical domains significantly decreased within all groups (). Between-group analyses indicated that decreasing the mean score of anxiety in the vitamin E group was significantly more than in the placebo group (). The mean (SD) serum levels of MDA and hs-CRP significantly decreased only in the curcumin group ( and , respectively). Serum levels of TAC significantly increased in curcumin and vitamin E groups ( and , respectively). Conclusions Drawn from the Study and Clinical Implications. Curcumin could improve the oxidative stress (MDA and TAC) and inflammatory (hs-CRP) biomarkers. Vitamin E may also improve the antioxidant status by increasing the TAC levels. The alleviation of anxiety in the vitamin E group was more than in the placebo group. Clinical Trial Registration. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (https://irct.ir/IRCT20131009014957N6).
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 09:20:03 +000
  • Efficacy of Curcumin on Treating Cancer Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome in
           Locally or Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: A Double-Blind,
           Placebo-Controlled Randomised Phase IIa Trial (CurChexia)

    • Abstract: Background. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CAS) is a significant comorbidity among all patients with cancer, increasing the mortality rate. Almost all patients with head and neck cancer experience this syndrome. CAS causes increased energy expenditure by increasing systemic inflammation and decreasing energy consumption due to anorexia. It leads to skeleton muscle breakdown and reduces the quality of life. Nutritional interventions and primary cancer treatment are the mainstays to manage this situation. However, a vicious cycle causes CAS to persist, especially in head and neck cancer, where tumour location and its treatment interfere with nutritional interventions. Curcumin shows anti-inflammatory effects, including modulated CAS in animal and in vitro studies. Objective. The study aimed to determine the effect of curcumin to treat cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome among current patients with locally advanced or advanced head and neck cancer. Methods. This constitutes a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study. Twenty patients with CAS in locally advanced or advanced head and neck cancer adequately nourished via a feeding tube were enrolled and randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive oral curcumin (at a dose of 4000 mg daily) (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was body composition (muscle mass, body fat mass, and basal metabolic rate). The secondary endpoints were handgrip muscle strength, body mass index, absolute lymphocyte count, and safety and toxicity. Result. There was a statistically significant benefit from curcumin on improving muscle mass compared with placebo (2.16% [95% confidence interval; CI, −0.75 to 5.07] vs. −3.82% [95% CI, −8.2 to 0.57]; ). The other parameters of body composition were not significant but tended to favour curcumin benefit. The body fat mass (−0.51 [95% CI, −21.89 to 20.86] vs. −8.97% [95% CI, −19.43 to 1.49]; ) and percentage of mean change in the basal metabolic rate were noted (BMR) (0.54% [95% CI, −1.6 to 2.67] vs. −1.61% [95% CI, −4.05 to 0.84]; ). Notably, patients treated with curcumin exhibited less reduction in handgrip muscle strength and absolute lymphocyte count but was not significant. Similarly, most adverse events were grade 1 in both groups. Conclusion. The curcumin add-on resulted in a significant increase in muscle mass than standard nutritional support. Furthermore, it may improve and delay a decrease in the other body composition parameters, handgrip strength, and absolute lymphocyte count. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated. This constitutes an unmet need for clinical trials. This trial is registered with NCT04208334.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 04:20:01 +000
  • Appropriate Timing and Type of Physical Training in Patients with COVID-19
           for Muscle Health and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Physical activity is beneficial to modulate immune system function and has inverse relationship to ARDS linked with SARS-CoV-2. Physical activity consists of daily activity and physical training. Studies regarding effect of physical training on patients with COVID-19 are controversial. This systematic review aims to investigate physical training on muscle health and QOL in patients with COVID-19. The literature review was carried out using keywords: (Exercise) AND (COVID) AND (Muscle) AND (Observational Study) in several databases of PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). All references were reviewed using critical appraisal Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) checklist. The studies were subsequently screened for reporting exercise, muscle, and COVID-19. The descriptions of the extracted data are guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement with GRADE approach. This study is registered in PROSPERO: ID CRD42021295188. Six studies pooled and entered review synthesis. Studies were reviewed using critical appraisal by NOS and CEBM. Two clinical trial studies and four observational designs were selected. Our result showed physical training improved patients’ outcomes in the acute phase, critical phase, and post-COVID-19 phase. Multiple types of physical trainings were suggested by those studies, and most of them showed beneficial effects to patients with COVID-19 in different phases. The level of evidence by GRADE was downgraded, and further investigations are needed to establish guidelines and strong recommendation for a specific stage of COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2022 07:05:01 +000
  • Association of Human Intestinal Microbiota with Lifestyle Activity,
           Adiposity, and Metabolic Profiles in Thai Children with Obesity

    • Abstract: Background. Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota may be linked to pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective. This study compared the gut microbiome of obese Thai children with that of healthy controls and examined their relationships with host lifestyle, adiposity, and metabolic profiles. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled obese children aged 7–15. Body composition was evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Stool samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Relative abundance and alpha- and beta-diversity were compared with normal-weight Thai children from a previous publication using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and ANOSIM. Relationships of gut microbiota with lifestyle activity, body composition, and metabolic profiles were assessed by canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Spearman correlation. Results. The study enrolled 164 obese children with a male percentage of 59%. Mean age was 10.4 ± 2.2 years with a BMI z-score of 3.2 ± 1. The abundance of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were found to be lower in obese children compared to nonobese children. Alpha-diversity indices showed no differences between groups, while beta-diversity revealed significant differences in the family and genus levels. CCA revealed significant correlations of the relative abundance of gut microbial phyla with sedentary lifestyle and certain metabolic markers. Univariate analysis revealed that Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively correlated with body weight and screen time. Additionally, Actinobacteria was also negatively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Lactobacillus showed positive correlation with acanthosis nigricans and adiposity. Cooccurrence analysis revealed 90 significant bacterial copresence and mutual exclusion interactions among 43 genera in obese children, whereas only 2 significant cooccurrences were found in nonobese children. Conclusions. The composition and diversity of gut microbiota in obese Thai children were different from those of their normal-weight peers. Specific gut microbiota were associated with lifestyle, adiposity, and metabolic features in obese children. An interventional study is needed to support causality between specific gut microbiota and obesity.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 09:05:02 +000
  • Caffeine Consumption among Various University Students in the UAE,
           Exploring the Frequencies, Different Sources and Reporting Adverse Effects
           and Withdrawal Symptoms

    • Abstract: Background. Caffeine is widely consumed among students due to its cognitive and physical enhancing effects. However, little is known about the consumption pattern of different caffeinated products among university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Aim. To investigate the frequency of caffeine consumption among the young population of students, assess types of caffeinated products consumed, and document adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms experienced by university students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the UAE from December 2019 to March 2020. A random sample of 500 university students from different universities in the UAE were approached and asked to complete a self-administered online-based questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26. Results. Of (n = 500) surveyed students, (n = 467) completed the survey 93.4%. The average level of caffeine consumption was significantly higher in females compared to male students (). Coffee was the highest favored source of caffeine (67.7%) followed by tea (47.3%). The average daily intake of caffeine was found to be 264 mg/day. Surprisingly, almost a third of students reported a high level of daily consumption (>400 mg/day) and more than half of them consumed less than 199 mg/day. Large proportions of students 91.1% have their caffeinated beverage after or while eating meals and 42.8% considered that this habit helped in avoiding acid reflux. Interestingly, around one third of participants have poor knowledge of caffeine-containing medical products, which seemed to affect the level of consumption in the student population (). The highest reported reason for caffeine intake was for studying purposes (59.4%). Conclusion. Caffeine consumption is highly prevalent among university students in the UAE. Yet, there is insufficiency in the current knowledge of safe caffeine consumption patterns reflecting the importance of health awareness programs and nutritional lectures to decrease the long-term health issues and unintentional overdose of caffeine.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 13:20:02 +000
  • Selenium Supplementation in Pregnancy-Maternal and Newborn Outcomes

    • Abstract: Background. Several studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress during pregnancy may be associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. As selenium is an essential mineral with an antioxidant role, our aim was to perform a systematic review of the existing literature reporting the effects of selenium supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods. Six electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were searched for studies reporting the effects of selenium supplementation during pregnancy and the postpartum period on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Only randomised controlled trials on human subjects reported in English and published up to October 2021 were included. Quality assessments were conducted using the modified Downs and Black quality assessment tool. Data were extracted using a narrative synthesis. Results. Twenty-two articles were included in our systematic review (seventeen reported on maternal outcomes, two on newborn outcomes, and three on both). Maternal studies reported the effects of selenium supplementation in the prevention of thyroid dysfunction, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia, oxidative stress, postpartum depression, premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine growth retardation, breastmilk composition, and HIV-positive women. Newborn studies reported the effects of maternal selenium supplementation on foetal oxidation stress, foetal lipid profile, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and newborn outcomes in HIV-positive mothers. The majority of studies were inappropriately designed to establish clinical or scientific utility. Of interest, four studies reported that selenium supplementation reduced the incidence of thyroid dysfunction and permanent hypothyroidism during the postpartum period by reducing thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibody titres. Conclusion. The evidence supporting selenium supplementation during pregnancy is poor and there is a need for appropriately designed randomised controlled trials before routine use can be recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 13:50:02 +000
  • Consumption of Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Its Relation to the Level of
           Macular Pigment Optical Density in Thai Subjects

    • Abstract: The aim of the study is to determine dietary lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) consumption and to evaluate its association with macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in Thai subjects. Methods. This study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 120 ophthalmologically healthy subjects aged between 40 and 72 years were recruited from Bangkok and the vicinity area. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire, while a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire assessed the L/Z intake. MPOD was determined using the reflectometry method (VISUCAM 500®, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyzed the relationship between L/Z consumption and MPOD. Results. The mean age of the participants was 50.7 ± 7.5 years. The mean consumption of L/Z was 3.03 ± 2.65 mg per day. The mean MPOD was 0.102 ± 0.023 density units. Consumption of foods rich in L/Z, including ivy gourd (r = 0.217, ), Chinese flowering cabbage (r = 0.194, ), balsam pear (r = 0.193, ), lettuce (r = 0.182, ), sweet corn (r = 0.181, ), and pumpkin (r = 0.181, ), was positively associated with the mean optical density (mean MPOD). Consumption of green onion (r = 0.212, ) was positively associated with the sum of optical densities (MPOD volume). In contrast, chilli pepper consumption showed a negative association with mean MPOD (r = −0.220, ) and amaranth showed a negative association with MPOD volume (r = −0.283, ). No association was found between total L/Z consumption and MPOD. Conclusion. L/Z consumption is low among Thais living in Bangkok and the vicinity area, which may not be sufficient to ensure eye health, and total L/Z consumption is not associated with MPOD.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 12:20:02 +000
  • Lipoprotein Levels in Early Adulthood and NAFLD in Midlife: The Coronary
           Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    • Abstract: Objective. We evaluated the association of apolipoprotein B (apoB) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) in early adulthood with concordant/discordant associations and midlife NAFLD. Methods. Participants from the CARDIA study were included (n = 2,655; baseline mean age: 25.0, 59.1% female, and 48.6% black). NAFLD was defined as liver attenuation ≤40 Hounsfield units after excluding other causes of liver fat. Logistic regression models assessed the odds of Y25 NAFLD among tertiles of apoB, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TG and quartiles of the apoB/TG ratio. Discordance/concordance analyses examined the association of apoB with each lipid marker and Y25 NAFLD. Results. The Y25 NAFLD prevalence was 10%. The high-tertile TG group (OR 1.87, 95% CI, and 1.30–2.69) and the low- (OR 1.98, 95% CI, and 1.30–3.01) and middle-apoB/TG ratio groups (OR 1.78, 95% CI, and 1.17–2.72) had the greatest odds of midlife NAFLD. Using discordance/concordance analysis, the high-apoB/high-TG group had the highest odds of NAFLD (OR 1.69, 95% CI, and 1.09–2.61) followed by the low-apoB/high-TG group. The high apoB/low TG group had the lowest odds of NAFLD. Conclusions. Among the studied lipid markers in early adulthood, TG levels have the strongest and most consistent association with midlife NAFLD.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 08:05:04 +000
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