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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.499
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 38  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0029-6643 - ISSN (Online) 1753-4887
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [424 journals]
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dyslipidemia: a systematic review and
           dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

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      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: AbstractContextFindings of previous observational studies that examined the association between circulating vitamin D levels and lipid profiles have been inconsistent.ObjectiveA dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dyslipidemia in adults.Data SourcesElectronic databases were searched systematically for articles published up to June 2021.Data ExtractionFifty-seven observational studies and 2 cohort studies that reported odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) with 95%CIs for dyslipidemia in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adults were included.Data AnalysisA high level, vs a low level, of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was related to a significant 19% decrease in the odds of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 0.81; 95%CI, 0.74–0.89), an 18% reduction in low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR 0.82; 95%CI, 0.76–0.89), and an 18% reduction in dyslipidemia (OR 0.82; 95%CI, 0.75–0.91). No significant association was found between a high vs a low level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (OR 0.86; 95%CI, 0.62–1.19) or hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.03; 95%CI, 0.93–1.15). Dose-response analyses demonstrated that each 10 ng/mL increase in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was linked, respectively, to a 7% (OR 0.93;95%CI, 0.85–1.02), a 3% (OR 0.97; 95%CI, 0.90–1.05), and a 4% (OR 0.96; 95%CI, 0.92–1.00) marginally significant decrease in the odds of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and dyslipidemia.ConclusionHigher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with significant reductions in the odds of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and dyslipidemia in a dose-response trend.Systematic Review RegistrationPROSPERO registration no. CRD42021219484.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac038
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Walnut consumption and health outcomes with public health relevance—a
           systematic review of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials
           published from 2017 to present

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      Pages: 26 - 54
      Abstract: AbstractContextConsidering the accumulation of recent studies investigating the health effects of walnut consumption, both including and beyond cardiovascular health effects, a systematic review of this literature to investigate the strength of the evidence is warranted.ObjectiveTo investigate associations between walnut consumption and outcomes with public health relevance (specifically all-cause mortality, type 2 diabetes, CVD, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, neurological and mental health, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and maternal disorders) and the effect on associated disease risk markers, reported in studies published from 2017 to present.Data SourcesMEDLINE, FSTA, CENTRAL, and Scopus were searched from 1 January 2017 to 5 May 2021.Data ExtractionHuman studies (cohort studies and RCTs) ≥3 weeks in duration comparing consumption of walnuts (whole, pieces, or 100% butter) to a control and measuring associations with relevant public health outcomes and disease risk markers were assessed. Key study characteristics were extracted independently by 2 investigators using a standardized table. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool 2.0 and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale.Data AnalysisOnly 1 RCT was considered to be at low risk of bias for any of its outcomes. The cohort studies were considered to be of moderate or high quality. The results were synthesized using vote counting, based on the direction of effect. Thirty-three articles, 23 describing RCTs (walnut dose ∼10–99 g/day, 1,948 subjects) and 10 describing cohort studies (∼675,928 subjects), were included. Vote counting could be performed for the blood lipids, cardiovascular function, inflammation- and hemostatic-related factors, markers of glucose metabolism, and body weight and composition outcome groupings. The results are presented in effect direction plots. With respect to blood lipids, results from 8/8 RCTs favoured walnuts, in accordance with associations with a reduced risk of CVD suggested by cohort studies; results from 6/6 RCTs favoured control with respect to body weight and composition, although most of these effects were small. This was contrary to cohort study results suggesting small benefits of walnut consumption on body weight. There was no overall consistent direction of effect for cardiovascular function, markers of glucose metabolism, or inflammation- and hemostatic-related factors.ConclusionsEvidence published since 2017 is consistent with previous research suggesting that walnut consumption improves lipid profiles and is associated with reduced CVD risk. Evidence is accumulating in other areas, such as cognitive health, although more research is needed to draw firm conclusions.Systematic Review RegistrationPROSPERO registration no. CRD4202122.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac040
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of anti-inflammatory diets on inflammation markers in adult human
           populations: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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      Pages: 55 - 74
      Abstract: AbstractContextChronic inflammation, characterized by prolonged elevated inflammation markers, is linked to several chronic conditions. Diet can influence the levels of inflammation markers in the body.ObjectiveThe aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of anti-inflammatory diets on 14 different inflammation markers in adults.Data SourcesThis systematic review conducted searches using Medline, PubMed, EMCare, Cochrane, and CINAHL, to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Data ExtractionTwo researchers independently screened 1537 RCTs that measured changes in inflammation markers after prescription of an intervention diet.Data AnalysisIn total, 20 RCTs were included and assessed qualitatively. The results demonstrated that a Mediterranean diet can bring about statistically significant and clinically meaningful between-group differences in interleukins -1α, -1β, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -10, and -18, interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, as compared with a control diet.ConclusionsThere may be a link between diet, inflammation markers, and disease outcomes in various adult populations. However, further research using consistent RCT protocols is required to determine correlations between diet, specific inflammation markers, and clinically relevant outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac045
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Role of chronotype in dietary intake, meal timing, and obesity: a
           systematic review

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      Pages: 75 - 90
      Abstract: ContextRecent studies show that dietary habits and obesity seem to be influenced by chronotype, which reflects an individual’s preference for the timing of sleeping, eating, and activity in a 24-hour period.ObjectiveThis review aimed to analyze the association of chronotype with dietary habits, namely energy and macronutrient intakes, meal timing, and eating patterns, as well as with obesity.Data SourcesPubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, and Google Scholar databases were searched between 2004 and 2020. Study selection was performed by 2 authors independently; disagreements on eligibility of articles were resolved by a third author. After assessment of 12 060 abstracts, 43 studies (21 articles on obesity; 13 on food consumption, meal timing, and eating patterns; and 9 that addressed both obesity and dietary behavior) were included.Data ExtractionA standard form was used to extract study design, country, number of participants, method of chronotype determination, and main findings.Data AnalysisApproximately 95% of included studies showed an association between eveningness and at least 1 unhealthy eating habit. Morningness was associated with regular consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods. In addition, about 47% of studies showed a higher association between late types and obesity.ConclusionLate types are more likely to present unhealthy eating habits, such as eating late at night, skipping breakfast often, and eating processed/ultraprocessed foods, while early types are more likely to have healthy and protective habits, such as eating early and eating predominantly fresh/minimally processed foods. Intermediate types tend to have a pattern of health and eating more similar to early types than to late types. Late types are also more likely to present higher weight and body mass index than early or intermediate types.Systematic Review RegistrationPROSPERO registration no. CRD42021256078.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac044
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The relationship between individual and environmental factors related to
           health, nutritional status, and diet in elderly people living alone in
           Japan

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      Pages: 91 - 94
      Abstract: AbstractAging is an essential milestone that governments worldwide must plan for. At a global level, Japan currently has the highest share of population older than 65 years. Thus, the Japanese experience may be a useful guide to other countries as they consider their policies. Elderly individuals living alone encounter many challenges typically not faced by those living in a multiperson household. Nutrition status and diet are 2 such challenges, both of which are crucial determinants of health and well-being. The health and nutrition statuses as well as some other factors in elderly individuals living alone in Japan were investigated. The identification of the factors relating to food diversity, social relationships, and physical ability, among others, indicates, as hypothesized, that the relationship between individual and environmental factors is associated with the health, nutritional statuses, and diets of elderly people living alone. The findings and approach may be useful to scholars and policy makers in significantly aging societies like Japan as well as other societies experiencing population aging.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac041
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Insights into diet-associated oxidative pathomechanisms in inflammatory
           bowel disease and protective effects of functional amino acids

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      Pages: 95 - 113
      Abstract: AbstractThere has been a substantial rise in the incidence and prevalence of clinical patients presenting with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Accumulating evidence has corroborated the view that dietary factors (particularly diets with high levels of saturated fat or sugar) are involved in the development and progression of IBD, which is predominately associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Notably, the ecological imbalance of the gut microbiome exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, leading to perturbations of the intestinal redox balance and immunity, as well as mucosal integrity. Recent findings have revealed that functional amino acids, including L-glutamine, glycine, L-arginine, L-histidine, L-tryptophan, and hydroxyproline, are effectively implicated in the maintenance of intestinal redox and immune homeostasis. These amino acids and their metabolites have oxygen free-radical scavenging and inflammation-relieving properties, and they participate in modulation of the microbial community and the metabolites in the gut. The principal focus of this article is a review of recent advances in the oxidative pathomechanisms of IBD development and progression in relation to dietary factors, with a particular emphasis on the redox and signal transduction mechanisms of host cells in response to unbalanced diets and enterobacteria. In addition, an update on current understanding of the protective effects of functional amino acids against IBD, together with the underlying mechanisms for this protection, have been provided.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac039
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Riboflavin intake and status and relationship to anemia

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      Pages: 114 - 132
      Abstract: AbstractRiboflavin in its coenzyme forms, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, is essential for multiple redox reactions necessary for energy production, antioxidant protection, and metabolism of other B vitamins, such as niacin, pyridoxine, and folate. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac) is a biomarker of riboflavin status; ratios ≥1.40 are commonly interpreted as indicating biochemical deficiency. Most research on riboflavin status comes from low-income countries and rural settings, which reported high rates of riboflavin deficiency and inadequate intake. However, some studies suggest that riboflavin deficiency, based on the functional indicator EGRac, is also of concern in middle- and high-income countries. Biochemical riboflavin deficiency that does not cause clinical symptoms may contribute to anemia, particularly among women and children. Riboflavin enhances iron absorption, and riboflavin deficiency decreases iron mobilization from stores. The current knowledge on riboflavin’s role in metabolic processes and its biochemical status is summarized in this review, and the available evidence on the role of riboflavin in anemia among different populations is discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac043
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Nutritional importance of tryptophan for improving treatment in depression
           and diabetes

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      Pages: 133 - 149
      Abstract: AbstractThe importance of nutrients in our diet is becoming increasingly recognized. From the viewpoint of protein synthesis and other physiologic and metabolic functions, all amino acids are important, but some of these amino acids are not synthesized endogenously. This subset, called essential amino acids, comprise dietarily indispensable nutrients. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neuronal as well as peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Its systemic or oral administration increases serotonin synthesis because tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-hydroxytryptamine biosynthesis, is physiologically unsaturated with its substrate. Central serotonin is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses, including depression, and in responses to stress. Acting peripherally, serotonin affects vasoconstriction, intestinal motility, control of T cell–mediated immunity, and liver and pancreatic functions. Depression and diabetes are 2 highly prevalent diseases that often coexist. There is evidence that occurrence of depression is 2–3 times higher in people with diabetes mellitus. A comorbid condition of diabetes and depression worsens the treatment and increases risk for death. Stress, known for its causal role in depression, can also enhance risk for diabetes. Stress-induced decreases in the circulating levels of tryptophan can impair brain and pancreatic serotonin-dependent functions to precipitate these diseases. The importance of tryptophan supplementation for improving therapeutic intervention in depression and diabetes is the focus of this article. A deficiency of this essential amino acid may enhance risk for depression as well as diabetes, and can also weaken treatment efficacy of medicinal compounds for treating these diseases. Guidelines for optimal levels of circulating tryptophan can help if supplements of this amino acid can improve treatment efficacy.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac042
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reviewer Acknowledgement

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      Pages: 150 - 151
      Abstract: With sincere gratitude, Nutrition Reviews recognizes the following individuals who generously devoted their time and expertise to review articles for the journal in 2022. Their careful attention and voluntary service are critical to the advancement of nutrition science.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuac102
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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