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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.249
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 30  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1279-7707 - ISSN (Online) 1760-4788
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Effect of a Citrus and Pomegranate Complex on Physical Fitness and
           Mental Well-Being in Healthy Elderly: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled
           Trial

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      Abstract: Objectives This study investigates whether a citrus and pomegranate complex (CPC) improves physical fitness, mental well-being, and blood biomarkers for oxidative stress and endothelial function in healthy elderly. Design A randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Participants The study included 36 healthy elderly aged 60–75 years old. Intervention and Measurements Participants received four weeks of CPC supplementation and performed the handgrip strength and senior fitness test. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed and blood samples were analyzed for oxidative stress and endothelial function markers. Results After four weeks of CPC supplementation, handgrip strength significantly improved (p=0.019), compared to placebo. Moreover, the thinking, memory, learning, and concentration facets were improved (p=0.042), compared to placebo, and plasma malondialdehyde decreased, compared to placebo (p=0.033). The intervention did not affect senior fitness and the other QOL domains and blood parameters. Conclusion Four weeks of daily CPC supplementation significantly improves handgrip strength and self-evaluated measures of psychological function in healthy older adults. Further research should focus on mechanisms associated with physical performance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Erratum to: Older Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: Clinical
           Characteristics and Early Outcomes from a Single Center in Istanbul,
           Turkey

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      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Erratum to: Success of simpler modified Fried frailty scale to predict
           mortality among nursing home residents

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      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Erratum to: Malnutrition Prolongs the Hospitalization of Patients with
           COVID-19 Infection: A Clinical Epidemiological Analysis

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      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Eggs Consumption in Relation to Lower Risk of Cognitive Impairment in
           Elderly: Findings from a 6-Year Cohort Study

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      Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the longitudinal association of eggs consumption with cognitive function in Chinese elderly. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants 9028 participants aged ≥60 years from Zhejiang Ageing and Health Cohort Study without cognitive impairment at baseline survey. Measurements Cognitive function was assessed through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and three waves of follow-up (2015, 2016, and 2019–2020). Data on eggs consumption was collected in the diet habits section within the questionnaire at baseline. Log-binomial regression models with the Generalized Estimating Equations, controlled for an extensive range of potential confounders, were used to evaluate the association and estimate relative risks (RRs). Results After 6 years of follow-up, 3266 (36.18%) participants were indicated as cognitive impairment by MMSE at least once. Compared with non-consumers or less-than-weekly consumers, participants consuming 0.1–2.9 eggs/week and 3.0–5.9 eggs/week had 18% (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.76–0.89) and 9% (RR=0.91, 95%CI 0.84–0.99) lower risks of cognitive impairment respectively, whereas no association was found in those consuming ≥6.0 eggs/week (P=0.32). Moreover, infrequent lower-quantity consumption (1–2 days/week and 0.1–1.9 eggs/day), infrequent higher-quantity consumption (1–2 days/ week and ≥2.0 eggs/day), and frequent lower-quantity consumption (≥3 days/week and 0.1–1.9 eggs/day) were associated with better cognitive performance, whereas null association was found among frequent higher-quantity consumers (≥3 days/week and ≥2.0 eggs/day). The sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results to the main analysis. Conclusion Limited eggs consumption is prospectively related to a lower risk of cognitive impairment in Chinese elderly.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Association between Cognitive Frailty and Adverse Outcomes among Older
           Adults: A Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to pool the effect size of the association between cognitive frailty and adverse outcomes (e.g., falls, disability, and hospitalization) among older adults. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase were searched from their respective inceptions to June 1, 2022. We extracted prospective cohort studies that reported the association between cognitive frailty and adverse outcomes. Random or fixed-effects models based on heterogeneity were used to pool the effect sizes of independent associations of cognitive frailty, frailty only, and cognitive impairment only with each adverse outcome. Results Fifteen studies involving 49,122 older adults were included in the meta-analysis. Older adults with cognitive frailty had higher odds ratios (OR) for falls (1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–2.58), disability (3.17, 95%CI: 2.24–4.48), and hospitalization (1.78, 95%CI: 1.48–2.14) compared with those without frailty and cognitive impairment. Older adults with frailty only demonstrated a high risk for falls (pooled OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.25–2.48), disability (pooled OR 1.82, 95%CI: 1.43–2.33), and hospitalization (pooled OR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.45–1.85). The influence of cognitive impairment only on adverse outcomes was lower compared with cognitive frailty or frailty. Subgroup analyses showed that those with cognitive frailty (defined by the frailty phenotype plus Mini-Mental State Examination) were at greater risk for developing adverse outcomes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that cognitive frailty is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes (e.g., falls, disability, and hospitalization). Early screening and comprehensive intervention may improve cognitive frailty and reduce the risk for adverse outcomes among older adults.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Resilience in Nursing Home Residents

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      PubDate: 2022-07-30
       
  • Frailty and Associated Factors among Chinese Centenarians

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      Abstract: Objectives The study aimed to apply the frailty index (FI) to assess frailty status among Chinese centenarians and analyse its associated factors. Design The study was a cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants The study included 1043 centenarians (742 females and 301 males) aged ≥100 years from the 2018 wave of the China Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Measurements All participants were assessed for frailty by the FI. Basic characteristics, including age, height, weight, calf circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, sex, years of education, financial status, exercise, fall status, coresidence, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of natural teeth, denture use, toothache, and tooth brushing, were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between risk factors and frailty. Results The average age of the participants was 102.06±2.55 years (range: 100–117 years). The FI ranged between 0.00 and 0.63. The mean FI for all participants was 0.27±0.13 (median 0.25; interquartile range 0.20–0.35). Participants were divided into quartiles. The number of natural teeth and denture use, coresidence, sex, exercise, and financial status showed significant associations with frailty classes (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that having ≤20 natural teeth without dentures (OR, 95% CI= 1.89(0.004–1.246), P<0.05), having ≤20 natural teeth with dentures (OR, 95% CI=2.21(0.158,1.432), P=0.015), living alone or in an institution (OR, 95% CI=1.68(0.182–0.849), P=0.002), lacking exercise (OR, 95% CI=2.54(0.616–1.246), P<0.001), having insufficient financial resources (OR, 95% CI=2.9(0.664–1.468), P<0.001), and being female (OR, 95% CI=1.47(0.137,0.634), P=0.002) were independent risk factors for frailty. Conclusion Chinese centenarian women are frailer than men. Having fewer natural teeth, living alone or in an institution, lacking exercise, and having insufficient financial resources were the factors associated with frailty among Chinese centenarians. Family conditions and healthy lifestyles may be important for frailty status in centenarians.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • Behavioral and Cognitive Problems as Determinants of Malnutrition in
           Long-Term Care Facilities, a Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study

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      Abstract: Objectives To investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between behavior and cognitive problems and malnutrition in long-term care facilities (LTCF). Design Cross-sectional and prospective routine care cohort study. Setting 6874 Residents in Dutch LTCFs (period 2005–2020). Participants Data were obtained from the InterRAI-LTCF instrument. Cross-sectional analyses on prevalence of malnutrition at admission included 3722 residents. Prospective analyses studied incident malnutrition during stay (total follow-up time 7104 years) and included data of 1826 residents with first measurement on admission (‘newly-admitted’) and n=3152 with first measurement on average ∼1 year after admission (‘existing’). Measurements InterRAI scales for communication problems (CS), aggressive behavior (ABS), social engagement (RISE), depressive symptoms (DRS), cognitive performance (CPS) and the total number of behavior and cognitive problems were investigated as independent variables and malnutrition (ESPEN 2015 definition) as dependent variable in regression analyses. Results were stratified for gender and group ‘newly-admitted’ vs. ‘existing’. Results On admission, 9.5% of residents was malnourished. In men, low social engagement was associated with prevalence of malnutrition. In women, all behavior and cognitive problems except depression were associated with malnutrition in the unadjusted analyses, but this attenuated in the full model taking all problems into account. The incidence of malnutrition during stay amounted to 8.9%. No significant associations of behavior and cognitive problems with malnutrition incidence were seen in ‘newly-admitted’ male residents while in ‘existing’ male residents all determinants were significantly associated. In ‘newly-admitted’ female residents CS, ABS and CPS, and in ‘existing’ female residents CS, RISE, ABS and CPS were significantly associated with incident malnutrition. All associations slightly attenuated after adjustment. Malnutrition incidence increased with increasing number of combined behavior and cognitive problems. Conclusion Residents with behavior and cognitive problems are at an increased risk of being malnourished at admission, or becoming malnourished during stay in a LTCF, especially residents with multiple behavior and cognitive problems.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
       
  • Development of the cMIND Diet and Its Association with Cognitive
           Impairment in Older Chinese People

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      Abstract: Objectives Cognitive impairment commonly occurs among older people worldwide. Although the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet was associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of cognitive impairment, it could not be applied to older Chinese due to the traditional dietary characteristics in China. We aimed to develop the Chinese version of the MIND (cMIND) diet and verify its association with cognitive impairment among older Chinese individuals. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants We included a total of 11,245 participants from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS) follow-up survey in 2018. The mean age of the participants at study baseline was 84.06 (±11.46) years. Measurements We established the cMIND diet based on current evidence in the diet-cognition field, combined with Chinese dietary characteristics. The verification of its association with cognitive impairment was conducted using the data from the CLHLS follow-up survey. Adherence to the cMIND diet was assessed by the cMIND diet score, which was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive impairment was identified by the Mini-Mental State Examination. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability was defined according to the self-reported performance of eight activities. Results The cMIND diet comprised 11 brain-healthy food groups and 1 unhealthy food group. The median cMIND diet score of all participants was 4.5 (from a total of 12 points) and the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 15.2%. Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile score was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.72) and IADL disability (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75–0.98) in the full-adjusted model. Conclusion We developed the cMIND diet that was suitable for older Chinese individuals, and our results suggested that higher adherence to the cMIND diet was associated with reduced odds of cognitive impairment and IADL disability. In view of the limitations of cross-sectional design in the study, further research is clearly warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
       
  • Association of SARC-F Score and Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale with
           CT-Derived Muscle Mass in Patients with Aortic Aneurysms

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      Abstract: Objectives Patients with aortic aneurysms (AA) are often co-morbid and susceptible to frailty. Low core muscle mass has been used as a surrogate marker of sarcopenia and indicator of frailty. This study aimed to assess association between core muscle mass with sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in patients with AA. Methods Prospective audit of patients in pre-operative aortic clinic between 01/07/2019–31/01/2020 including frailty assessment using Rockwood CFS and sarcopenia screening using SARC-F questionnaire. Psoas and sartorius muscle area were measured on pre-operative CT scans and adjusted for height. Association was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results Of 84 patients assessed, median age was 75 years [72,82], 84.5% were men, 65.5% were multimorbid and 63.1% had polypharmacy. Nineteen percent were identified as frail (CFS score >3) and 6.1% positively screened for sarcopenia (SARC-F score 4 or more). Median psoas area (PMA) at L3 was 5.6cm2/m2 [4.8,6.6] and L4 was 7.4cm2/m2 [6.3,8.6]. Median sartorius area (SMA) was 1.8 cm2/m2 [1.5,2.2]. CFS demonstrated weak but statistically significant negative correlation with height-adjusted PMA at L3 (r=−0.25, p=0.034) but not at L4 (r=−0.23, p=0.051) or with SMA (r=−0.22, p=0.065). No association was observed between SARC-F score and PMA or SMA (L3 PMA r=−0.015, p=0.9; L4 PMA r=−0.0014, p= 0.99; SMA r=−0.051, p=0.67) Conclusion CFS showed higher association with CT-derived muscle mass than SARC-F. Comprehensive pre-operative risk-stratification tools which incorporate frailty assessment and body composition analysis may assist in decision making for surgery and allow opportunity for pre-habilitation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Association between the Severity of Sarcopenia and Pneumonia in Patients
           with Stable Schizophrenia: A Prospective Study

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      Abstract: Objectives This study investigates the associations between the severity of sarcopenia and pneumonia in patients with stable schizophrenia. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study that includes patients from the rehabilitation wards of two mental health centres in western China, who were diagnosed with stable schizophrenia. Baseline data were collected from these patients between September 1 and September 30, 2020, while patients’ data associated with pneumonia, diagnosed and treated by clinicians, were collected between October 2020 and October 2021. The severity of sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019. The association between the severity of sarcopenia and pneumonia in patients with schizophrenia was analyzed with the use of logistic regression analysis. Results Three hundred and thirty-five patients with stable schizophrenia were enrolled in the prospective study, among whom 242 (72.24%) were≥60 years old, and 229 (68.36%) were males. Among the patients with stable schizophrenia, 130 (38.8%) were diagnosed with non-severe sarcopenia, whereas 47 (14.0%) had severe sarcopenia. Eighty-two (24.5%) of patients with schizophrenia fought pneumonia. Our study showed that the severe sarcopenia group had the highest incidence of pneumonia, followed by the non-severe sarcopenia group (severe sarcopenia vs. non-severe sarcopenia vs. normal, 38.3% vs. 28.46% vs. 17.09%, p=0.005). Compared with the normal group, the non-severe sarcopenia group (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.1–3.389) and the severe sarcopenia group (OR=3.011, 95%CI: 1.467–6.183) had a higher risk of pneumonia. We further adjusted the potential confounders such as sex, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score, and benzhexol and confirmed that only the severe sarcopenia group had an increased risk of pneumonia (OR=2.366, 95%CI: 1.078–5.191). Conclusions We have demonstrated that severe sarcopenia was associated with pneumonia in patients diagnosed with stable schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Efficacy of Antiresorptive Treatment in Osteoporotic Older Adults: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

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      Abstract: Objectives To investigate concerns surrounding the benefits of antiresorptive drugs in older adults, a systematic review was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments in the prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures in older adults. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Setting and Participants Older adults ≥65 years with osteoporosis, with or without a previous fragility fracture. Studies with cancer-related and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, participants <65 years and no reported hip fracture were not included. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched. The primary outcome was hip fracture, and subgroup analysis (≥75 years, with different drug types and secondary prevention) and sensitivity analysis was carried out using a GRADE evaluation. Secondary outcomes were any type of fractures, vertebral fracture, bone markers and adverse events. The risk of bias was assessment with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) qualified for this meta-analysis, with 36,196 participants. Antiresorptive drugs have a statistically significant effect on the prevention of hip fracture (RR=0.70; 95%CI 0.60 to 0.81), but with a moderate GRADE quality of evidence and a high number needed to treat (NNT) of 186. For other outcomes, there is a statistically significant effect, but with a low to moderate quality of evidence. Antiresorptives showed no reduction in the risk of hip fracture in people ≥75 years. The results for different drug types, secondary prevention and sensitivity analysis are similar to the main analyses and have the same concerns. Conclusions Antiresorptive drugs have a statistically significant effect on preventing hip fracture but with a moderate quality (unclear/high risk of bias) and high NNT (186). This small benefit disappears in those ≥75 years, but increases in secondary prevention. More RCTs in very old osteoporotic adults are needed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Increased Emergency Department Utilization and Costs for Medicare Cancer
           Patients with Malnutrition Diagnoses

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      Abstract: Background Malnutrition or its risk affects up to 70% of cancer patients. Compared to adequately nourished oncology patients, those with malnutrition experience more complications and have poorer prognoses, thus higher needs for healthcare. We compared utilization of emergency department (ED) services and costs for Medicare-covered cancer patients with or without a malnutrition diagnosis. Methods We used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Standard Analytic File to identify fee-for-service beneficiaries who had a cancer diagnosis, and had one or more outpatient claims in 2018. We totaled individual claims and costs for ED visits per beneficiary, then calculated mean per-person claims and costs for malnourished vs non-malnourished patients. Results Using data from over 2.8 million claims of patients with cancer diagnoses, the prevalence of diagnosed malnutrition was 2.5%. The most common cancer types were genitourinary, hematologic/blood, and breast. Cancer patients with a malnutrition diagnosis, compared to those without, had a significantly higher annual total number of outpatient claims (21.4 vs. 11.5, P<.0001), including a 2.5-fold higher rate of ED visits (1.43 vs. 0.56, p<.0001). As result, such patients incurred more than 2-fold higher mean ED claim costs than did their adequately nourished counterparts ($10,724 vs. $4,935, P<.0001). Conclusions Our results suggest that malnutrition in cancer patients imposes a high outpatient burden on resource utilization and costs of care in terms of ED use. We propose that nutritional interventions can be used to improve health outcomes for people with cancer and to improve economic outcomes for patients and providers.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
       
  • Development of Older Adult Food Insecurity Index to Assess Food Insecurity
           of Older Adults

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      Abstract: Objectives Quantifying the number of older adults that are food insecure in a specific geographic area is critical in developing and scaling public health prevention and response programs at the local level. However, current estimates of older adult food insecurity only consider financial constraints, following the same methodology as the general population, even though the drivers for older adults are different and multidimensional. This study aims to build a general approach to quantify the food-insecurity among older adults at the local level, using publicly available data that can be easily obtained across the country. Methods 13 risk factors for food insecurity among older adults were identified leveraging existing studies, following the Social Ecological Model (SEM), and the weighted impact of each factor was determined. Publicly available data sources were identified for each factor, ZIP code level data was compared to national averages, and the weighted data for each factor were aggregated to determine the overall food insecurity at the local level. Results Based on the averaged odds ratios across all the studies, of the 13 risk factors, beyond financial constraints, having a disability was the most impactful factor and distance to the nearest grocery store was the least impactful. A ZIP code level model of Honolulu County was developed as an example to demonstrate the approach, showing that food insecurity among older adults in the county was 2.5 times that which was reported from the Current Population Survey (16.5% versus 6.5%). Conclusion This evidence-based model considered factors that impact food insecurity among older adults across all the spheres of the SEM. The drivers of food insecurity among older adults are different than the drivers for the general population, resulting in a higher percentage of older adults being food insecure than currently reported.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
       
  • A review on the Role of Oral Nutritional Supplements in Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to the high smoking rate in developing countries and the rising aging population in high-income countries, the global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), estimated to be 11.7%, is increasing and is the third-leading cause of mortality. COPD is likely to be present in elderly individuals with impaired gastroenteric functions. Gastrointestinal congestion, dyspnea, and anxiety are pathophysiological characteristics of COPD, contributing to poor appetite, reduced dietary intake, and high-energy expenditure. These factors are implicated in the progression of malnutrition in COPD patients. Malnutrition is detrimental to lung functions and is associated with an increased risk of infection, exacerbation and mortality, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Therefore, nutritional support to treat malnutrition in COPD patients is very vital. Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) may hold the key to COPD treatment. To clarify this statement, we review current evidence for ONS in COPD patients to benefit from clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • Age and Sex Differences in the Association of Sleep Duration and
           Overweight/Obesity among Chinese Participants Age above 45 Years: A Cohort
           Study

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      Abstract: Objectives We aimed to evaluate the association between sleep duration and obesity and estimate the attributable risk of sleep in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study surveys (CHARLS). Methods A total of 9061 adults aged 45 years above from CHARLS (2011–2015) were included. The main outcome of this study was incident overweight/obesity specific to general and abdominal obesity. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 23.0 (kg/m2) and BMI≥27.5 (kg/m2), respectively. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Self-reported sleep durations were obtained using a structured questionnaire. We assessed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as well as the population attributable fraction (PAF) for associations between sleep duration and obesity. Results 986 and 606 participants were identified as overweight and general obesity respectively, 1253 experienced abdominal obesity events. In multivariable-adjusted models, participants with daytime sleep of 0–30 minutes and more than 30 minutes associated with 30% (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87) and 35% (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.55–0.78) decreased incident overweight risk respectively compared to those having no daytime sleep, this association also found among females and middle-aged, not males or elderly. Similarly, 0–30 minutes (HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48–0.96) and more than 30 minutes of daytime sleep (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59–0.91) were associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity, similar results also found among females and middle-aged. Compared with 7–9 hours of nocturnal sleep, people who slept 5–7 hours had a reduced risk of overweight (HR: 0.59, 95% CI=0.47–0.74), but not found in subgroups. The hazard role of long nocturnal sleep for abdominal obesity was only found among elderly (HR: 2.33, 95% CI=1.35–4.04) and males (HR: 2.24, 95% CI=1.17–4.29). Compared with moderate total sleepers (7–9hours/day), participants with short total sleep duration exhibited an elevated risk of overweight (HR: 1.13, 95% CI=1.00–1.28), this also found among middle-aged. The PAF for inadequate total sleep duration (<7 hours/day) was 10.77% for overweight individuals. Conclusions Insufficient sleep duration was associated with an elevated risk of overweight only detected among middle-aged not elderly and other subgroups specific by age. The risks for abdominal obesity were increased for males and middle-aged with long nocturnal sleep. Daytime sleep may significantly reduce the risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in female and middle-aged individuals. The link between sleep duration and obesity requires further study.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Resilience And Successful Aging

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      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Modestly Increased Incidence of Ketosis in Caloric Restriction Does not
           Significantly Alter the Effects of Caloric Restriction

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      Abstract: Objectives Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to slow the aging processes in a number of preclinical studies and reduces expression of aging-associated biomarkers in human trials. We hypothesized that CR would lead to increased incidence of ketosis and that ketosis in CR individuals would alter the aging-protective effects of CR or biomarkers thereof. Design/Setting/Participants We analyzed data from the “Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE, Phase 2)” Public Use Database available at calerie.duke.edu. In this study, non-obese adults between the ages of 21 and 50 were randomized to 25% CR or control (ad lib) diet groups and extensively monitored for two years. Given our focus on the effect of caloric restriction on ketosis, individuals with detectible ketones during the baseline visit (pre-randomization) and those with missing data for ketone testing were excluded from the analysis, leaving 71 control and 117 CR participants. Measurements We analyzed the incidence of ketosis as well as ketosis free survival in control and CR participants and assessed the effect of ketosis on a number of clinical lab values, functional assessments, and participant survey data related to aging biology. Results We report that CR was associated with modestly increased incidence of ketosis (4.4% in CR vs 1.9% in control), though CR-associated changes in T3, VO2, SUMPT-WT (weight normalized composite strength score — peak torque), physical functioning, and general health did not appear to be altered by the presence or absence of ketosis. Additional observations of interest include: 1) striking patterns of biomarker expression changes (MCP-1, TNFα, TGF-β1, GH) in both the control and CR participants between the baseline visit and the 24-month post-randomization visit and 2) pro-growth/anti-inflammatory baseline (pre-randomization) biomarker expression profile in CR individuals that later test ketone positive relative to other CR individuals. Conclusions CR modestly increases the incidence of ketosis in healthy adults, yet the increase in ketosis in CR patients did not significantly affect the aging-protective effects of CR. However, given the relatively small number of participants who were ketone positive, further investigation in larger study cohorts is still required for definitive conclusions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Oral Health, Loneliness and Social Isolation. A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Objectives Thus far, some empirical studies have investigated the association between oral health and loneliness as well as social isolation. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis is lacking synthesizing this evidence. Hence, our purpose was to close this knowledge gap. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting and Participants Observational studies examining the association between oral health and loneliness or social isolation were included. Disease-specific samples were excluded. Methods We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL), and did an additional hand search. Data extraction covered methods, sample characteristics and main findings. To evaluate study quality/risk of bias, the NIH tool was used. Study selection, data extraction and assessment of study quality were each conducted by two reviewers. Results Seven studies were included in our current work. Several cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study reported an association between poorer oral health and higher loneliness as well as higher social isolation. The quality of the studies was mostly fair, with two studies of high quality. The pooled OR was 1.47 (95% CI 1.24–1.75) among the studies with adult samples. Conclusion Most of the included studies demonstrated an association between oral health and loneliness or social isolation. There is a lack of high quality studies on these associations; in particular, future studies should use longitudinal data to clarify the directionality between oral health and loneliness or social isolation. Prospero registration number CRD42021268116.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12603-022-1806-8
       
 
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