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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition Bytes
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1548-4327 - ISSN (Online) 1548-601X
Published by eScholarship Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Are There Healthy Sweeteners: The Effects of Sugar Substitutes on the Gut
           Microbiome. Yun, Lisa

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of sugar substitutes on the gut microbiome. Methods: PUBMED was used to find articles that studied the gut microbiome after consumption of a sugar substitute in humans. Both observational and interventional studies were selected for this review. Results: Starting with 31 articles found on PUBMED, 5 articles were included to be reviewed after 26 articles were excluded. Three natural sugar substitutes and four categories of artificial sweeteners were studied. Maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt were the natural sugar substitutes, and aspartame, acesulfame-K, non-caloric artificial sweeteners, and saccharin were the artificial sweeteners. The outcomes for Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacilli, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Enterobacteriaceae were addressed. Natural sugar substitutes were seen to increase bacterial populations that are believed to ...
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jan 2016 12:00:00 GMT
  • Daily Coffee: Safeguard Against Liver Injury'. Walker, Naomi

    • Abstract: A growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that coffee may exhibit protective effects on the liver, and thus prevent or reduce the risk of liver damage. The aim of this research was to identify and review original investigations, which characterize the association between coffee consumption and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a common marker of liver injury.  A literature search was conducted via an electronic search of the PubMed database between years 1993 and 2015. Twelve observational studies were identified, eleven of which demonstrated a significant inverse association between coffee intake and serum ALT. In contrast, three experimental studies from one week to 6 months in duration report a rise in serum ALT with coffee consumption. In summary, many current research findings appear to support that consistent and/or high coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of elevated serum ALT. Additional experimental research is warranted to further explore possible co...
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jan 2016 12:00:00 GMT
  • Orthodontic Appliance Effect on Nutrition. Miresmaili, Armin

    • Abstract: Orthodontic appliances have been used for many years to treat malocclusions and poor jaw relationships, but their effects on the nutritive intake of the patient have not been extensively documented. This paper aims to consolidate the findings of three studies on the effects of appliances on nutrition by Riordan DJ, Shirazi et al., and Al Jawad et al. Based on a review of these studies, nutrition intake is altered as well as ability to consume the nutrients. Studies showed that copper, manganese, and lipid levels were decreased notably while total fat, cholesterol, saturated fat, monosaturated fat, polysaturated fat, linoleic fat, linolenic fat levels increased. The message conveyed through all three studies is that appliances will acutely alter the patient’s diet. This review of the current literature highlights several of the key nutritional changes once orthodontic appliances have been applied to patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Jan 2016 12:00:00 GMT
  • Comparison and Effectiveness of Behavioral Cardiovascular Interventions in
           High Risk Latinos. Viramontes, Omar; Swendeman, Dallas

    • Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Latinos. The use of promotoras, in conjunction with interpersonal and printed nutrition and exercise information can aid in healthy changes in Spanish speaking communities.8 Designing and delivering culturally appropriate interventions are critical for behavioral and nutritional success of Latinos. Objective: This literature review will provide information of the evidence-based behavioral intervention strategies developed for and tested with Latinos in order to inform clinicians of options for supporting improved cardiovascular outcomes in high risk Latinos. Methods: A literature search was performed in Pubmed that generated 110 RCT initial studies, four of which met the inclusion criteria after assessment for eligibility based on the following criteria: behavioral lifestyle intervention study, more than 1 CVD risk factor, biological outcomes report...
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 12:00:00 GMT
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enriched Enteral Nutrition Improves Lean Body Mass
           in Esophageal, Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Shieh, Christine

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Cachexia is a nutrient deficient condition affecting millions of cancer patients. Cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, head and neck are often the most severely affected. Currently, there is no established therapy for cachexia, although several potential anti-cachectic agents are being explored. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched enteral nutrition on lean body mass (LBM) in esophageal, head and neck cancer patients at risk for progression of cachexia. METHODS: An evidence based review was conducted beginning with a Pubmed database literature search using the terms ‘EPA esophageal cancer’, ‘Eicosapentaenoic acid esophageal cachexia’, ‘Eicosapentaenoic acid esophageal’, ‘Eicosapentaenoic acid cachexia head and neck cancer’, and ‘EPA cachexia head and neck cancer’ for human clinical trials. The results were reviewed for relevance and the data from original research was abstracted for amount of EPA enriched formula supplemented,...
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 12:00:00 GMT
  • Ingestion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in adult male rats reduces sperm
           count, testosterone, and disrupts testicular histology. Dong, Huan V.;
           Robbins, Wendie A.

    • Abstract: Objective: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used food additive with controversial side effects. Though neonatal administration of MSG has been shown to affect fertility via arcuate nucleus ablation, the body of work involving the effects of adult MSG administration on male rat fertility has yet to be collectively assessed. Design: Systematic review. Methods: A PubMed search using terms “monosodium glutamate” in addition to “male fertility” or “male reproduction” or “sperm” or “testes” was performed. Inclusion criteria included: English language, adult administration of MSG, male reproductive outcomes, and control groups. Additional studies were identified via reference lists of relevant articles. Results: Of 167 records originally identified, six studies remained after removal of duplicates and studies not meeting inclusion criteria. Data ranges included: cohort sizes of 24 – 32 animals, dosing from 0 to 4 g/kg, MSG administration duration of ...
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 12:00:00 GMT
  • You Are What You Eat: RCTs show a low glycemic index diet improves facial
           acne. Kazemi, Tiana

    • Abstract: An evidence-based literature review was conducted in order to identify human clinical trials that assess the effect of a low glycemic index diet on facial acne severity (Acne vulgaris). Of the twenty-one studies identified, three met the inclusion criteria of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a primary endpoint of changes in number and severity of acne lesions and were included for final analysis.7-9 During the trials, mean glycemic load in control groups ranged from 157 to 207, and mean glycemic load in intervention groups ranged from 102 to 130. In two studies, improvement in acne severity at the end of the trial between the control and intervention groups reached significance. In one trial, the difference between the two groups did not reach significance, however, the intervention group experienced a much greater magnitude of facial acne improvement than the control group. The results of this systematic review of RCTs strongly indicate that a low glycemic index diet improves the severity of...
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 12:00:00 GMT
  • Nutrient Requirements in Dental Surgery Wound Healing – Does it Matter?.
           Arab, Lenore; Faria, Robin

    • Abstract: Dental wound healing is a complex process that can be affected by several factors, including nutrition. Therefore, it is important to take into consideration the nutritional status of a patient prior to dental surgeries. There are several nutrients needed for adequate wound healing, which include macronutrients, vitamins and several trace minerals. The aim of this paper is to guide the dentist in understanding recommended nutritional doses, how they affect wound healing, and the potential need for nutritional supplementation in pre-operative dental patients to aid healing after invasive dental surgery.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2014 12:00:00 GMT
  • Can Calcium Make you Skinny?. Higgins, Shauna; Faria, Robin

    • Abstract: To assess the association between calcium intake and anthropomorphic measurements such as BMI and weight, a literature search was conducted to identify human clinical trials that compared calcium intake with body mass index (BMI) and related measures such as weight and percent body fat. Forty-four studies were identified. Of those, 12 were human experimental studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the final analysis. 5, 18-23, 25-27, 32, 35 Although observational studies uniformly propose an inverse correlation between calcium intake and weight, the clinical data fail to support these reports. Most clinical trials indicate no correlation, while several report a positive correlation. In the clinical trials, calcium intakes in control groups ranged from approximately 390-1000mg/d with the median intake being approximately 683mg/d. Intakes for calcium-supplemented groups ranged from approximately 942-1256 mg/d with the median being approximately 1176mg/d. The weight change in control groups ranged from a ...
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2013 12:00:00 GMT
  • Excess consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sodium in children and
           adolescents. Banerjee, Victoria; Dankiewicz, Cheryl

    • Abstract: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sodium-rich foods are increasingly becoming commonplace in the diets of American children and adolescents. Aside from the well-characterized health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, these foods pose direct risks in terms of increasing the likelihood of dental caries, elevated uric acid, and hypertension in children and adolescents as well as displacing foods necessary to healthy growth and development. The following two-part review examines consumption of sweetened beverages and sodium-rich foods in relationship to associations with immediate and long-term health effects, describes population subgroups that are especially susceptible, and proposes policy and individual-level prevention strategies.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2013 12:00:00 GMT
  • Spice Up Your Lipids: The Effects of Curcumin on Lipids in Humans. Wang,
           Michelle Yixiao

    • Abstract: Curcumin has been lauded for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties in various research studies, but its effects on cholesterol levels are not as well-understood. This review paper aims to consolidate the findings from three recent investigations on curcumin's reputed hypolipidemic effect in humans by Pungcharoenkul, Alwi, and Baum. No consistent effect was noted in healthy subjects receiving a 500mg or 6,000mg daily dose of curcumin, in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving a daily supplementation of 45-180mg curcumin, or in subjects with cognitive decline given 1,000mg or 4,000mg curcumin per day, as compared with controls. Two earlier studies generated enthusiasm regarding curcumin's ability to lower apo B/apo A ratio, serum cholesterol, and lipid peroxides in healthy humans, but those were flawed and less rigorous trials. Pungcharoenkul showed that daily curcumin dosages of 500mg and 6,000mg significantly decreased subjects' cholesterol levels, but this hypolipidemic effe...
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2012 12:00:00 GMT
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