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Nutrients
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.557
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2072-6643
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2570: The Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated
           with Iodine Deficiency in Canadian Adults

    • Authors: Stellena Mathiaparanam, Adriana Nori de Macedo, Andrew Mente, Paul Poirier, Scott A. Lear, Andreas Wielgosz, Koon K. Teo, Salim Yusuf, Philip Britz-Mckibbin
      First page: 2570
      Abstract: Iodine is a trace micronutrient that is critical for normal thyroid function and human health. Inadequate dietary intake is associated with cognitive impairment, infertility, growth retardation and iodine deficiency disorders in affected populations. Herein, we examined the prevalence of iodine deficiency in adults (median age of 61 years) based on the analysis of 24 h urine samples collected from 800 participants in four clinical sites across Canada in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. Urinary iodide together with thiocyanate and nitrate were measured using a validated capillary electrophoresis assay. Protective/risk factors associated with iodine deficiency were identified using a binary logistic regression model, whereas daily urinary iodine concentration (24 h UIC, μg/L) and urinary iodine excretion (24 h UIE, mg/day) were compared using complementary statistical methods with covariate adjustments. Overall, our Canadian adult cohort had adequate iodine status as reflected by a median UIC of 111 mg/L with 11.9% of the population <50 mg/L categorized as having moderate to severe iodine deficiency. Iodine adequacy was also evident with a median 24 h UIE of 226 mg/day as a more robust metric of iodine status with an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 7.1% (< 95 mg/day) and a tolerable upper level (UL) of 1.8% (≥1100 mg/day) based on Canadian dietary reference intake values. Participants taking iodine supplements (OR = 0.18; p = 6.35 × 10−5), had greater 24 h urine volume (OR = 0.69; p = 4.07 × 10−4), excreted higher daily urinary sodium (OR = 0.71; p = 3.03 × 10−5), and/or were prescribed thyroxine (OR = 0.33; p = 1.20 × 10−2) had lower risk for iodine deficiency. Self-reported intake of dairy products was most strongly associated with iodine status (r = 0.24; p = 2.38 × 10−9) after excluding for iodine supplementation and T4 use. Participants residing in Quebec City (OR = 2.58; p = 1.74 × 10−4) and Vancouver (OR = 2.54; p = 3.57 × 10−4) were more susceptible to iodine deficiency than Hamilton or Ottawa. Also, greater exposure to abundant iodine uptake inhibitors from tobacco smoking and intake of specific goitrogenic foods corresponded to elevated urinary thiocyanate and nitrate, which were found for residents from Quebec City as compared to other clinical sites. Recent public health policies that advocate for salt restriction and lower dairy intake may inadvertently reduce iodine nutrition of Canadians, and further exacerbate regional variations in iodine deficiency risk.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132570
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2571: Food Environments and Their Influence on
           Food Choices: A Case Study in Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya

    • Authors: Shauna M. Downs, Elizabeth L. Fox, Vincent Mutuku, Zacharia Muindi, Tasneem Fatima, Irena Pavlovic, Sana Husain, Minna Sabbahi, Simon Kimenju, Selena Ahmed
      First page: 2571
      Abstract: The food environments that people have access to shape their food choices. The purpose of this study was to use mixed methods to characterize the external food environment in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya and to examine the individual factors that influence the way in which women interact with those environments to make food choices. We used a combination of food environment assessments (vendor mapping, collection of food prices, food quality assessments) and five focus group discussions with women (n = 26) in four villages within two informal settlements in Nairobi (Mukuru and Kibera) to better understand the drivers of food choice. We found a large number (n = 1163) of vendors selling a variety of food within the settlements. The highest number of vendors were selling fruits and/or vegetables; however, there was limited diversity of fruits available. Animal-source foods were considered relatively expensive as compared to plant-based foods, including prepared fried snacks. We found that the way women interacted with their food environments was influenced by individual factors such as income, time, convenience, and preferences. Our findings suggest that interventions targeting both the external food environment as well as individual factors such as income will be necessary to support healthy diets among low-income populations living in informal settlements in Kenya.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132571
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2572: The Impact of the Different Stages of
           COVID-19, Time of the Week and Exercise Frequency on Mental Distress in
           Men and Women

    • Authors: Lina Begdache, Anseh Danesharasteh, Zeynep Ertem
      First page: 2572
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic produced life disturbances and loss of routine which affected diet and sleep quality as well as physical exercise frequency. Interestingly, mental distress was higher even in those who exercised. The purpose of this study was to assess exercise frequency in relation to different levels of mental distress severity in men and women while accounting for working days and weekends. A de-identified secondary data set was analyzed. Regression analyses produced models of the different stages of COVID-19 in relation to physical exercise frequency and mental distress levels. Margin analysis generated predictive models that could be used prophylactically to customize physical exercise frequencies in men and women to reduce their risk of mental distress during future pandemics. Mental distress during the lockdown and after ease of restrictions was associated with different physical exercise frequencies, with a noticeable difference between men and women. During a pandemic, sedentary men are more likely to be mentally distressed during working days. Nevertheless, moderately active, but not very active women, may be less distressed during pandemic weekends. These findings may provide a framework to optimize mental health during different stages of a pandemic by customizing physical exercise frequencies based on gender and time of the week.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132572
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2573: Experiences and Perspectives of
           Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis and Their Families Related to Food
           Insecurity

    • Authors: Montserrat A. Corbera-Hincapie, Samar E. Atteih, Olivia M. Stransky, Daniel J. Weiner, Iris M. Yann, Traci M. Kazmerski
      First page: 2573
      Abstract: Food insecurity (FI) rates among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are significantly higher than in the general US population. This study explored the experiences and perceptions of adults and parents of children with CF surrounding FI. We recruited parents of children with CF ages 0–18 years and adults with CF ages 18 years and older from a large, accredited U.S. CF care center and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Community Voice to participate in a qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews to explore experiences and preferences related to food insecurity. Two coders independently reviewed each transcript to apply the codebook and identify any emerging codes using an ongoing, iterative process to identify central themes. We interviewed 20 participants (six adults with CF and 14 parents of children with CF) and identified five major themes: (1) FI in CF is influenced by a variety of factors, ranging from nutritional demands to competing financial barriers; (2) FI impacts CF health outcomes; (3) Open patient-provider communication around FI is vital; (4) FI screening and discussions should be normalized in CF care; (5) Comprehensive FI resources are vital. FI is an important topic that should routinely be addressed with the CF care team to destigmatize and encourage individuals to be more forthcoming about their FI status. Results from this study will inform future larger investigations on the impact of FI on CF health and aid in the design and planning of targeted interventions and advocacy efforts.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132573
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2574: Sclerostin in Excessive Drinkers:
           Relationships with Liver Function and Body Composition

    • Authors: Candelaria Martín González, Camino María Fernández Rodríguez, Pedro Abreu González, Alen García Rodríguez, Julio César Alvisa Negrín, Elisa Cabañas Perales, Lourdes González Navarrete, Víctor Eugenio Vera Delgado, Paula Ortega Toledo, Emilio González Reimers
      First page: 2574
      Abstract: Background: Sclerostin was initially described as an inhibitor of the Wnt-β catenin bone-forming pathway, but it also exerts important effects on intermediate metabolism and body composition. Osteosarcopenia and altered body fat distribution are common findings in excessive drinkers. The role of sclerostin in these patients is uncertain. We aim to analyze the behavior of sclerostin in excessive drinkers and its relationships with body composition (fat mass, lean mass, bone mass), handgrip strength, body mass index (BMI), liver function and ethanol intake. Methods: 107 male active heavy drinkers and 26 age-matched controls were included. Serum sclerostin was determined by ELISA. Body composition analysis was performed by double X-ray absorptiometry. Handgrip strength was recorded using a dynamometer. Liver function was assessed according to Child’s classification. Results: Sclerostin was higher among Child’s C patients, keeping a relationship with deranged liver function. Obesity, defined according to BMI, and body fat were strongly related to sclerostin, being independent of serum creatinine and of liver function. The relationship of sclerostin with total hip bone mineral density was displaced by BMI. Conclusion: Deranged liver function is associated with higher sclerostin levels in alcoholics. Raised sclerostin levels are related to fat deposition and increased BMI.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132574
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2575: Zinc and Breast Cancer Survival: A
           Prospective Cohort Study of Dietary Intake and Serum Levels

    • Authors: Ylva Bengtsson, Kamil Demircan, Ann H. Rosendahl, Signe Borgquist, Malte Sandsveden, Jonas Manjer
      First page: 2575
      Abstract: Zinc has been suggested to play a role in breast cancer progression; however, no previous study on zinc levels and the potential effect on breast cancer survival has been conducted. This study investigates recurrence-free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) in relation to zinc levels, in serum and diet, overall and stratified for phosphorus and selenium levels. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective population-based cohort in Sweden including 17,035 women, was used to identify breast cancer patients diagnosed in the period 1991–2013. Diet was assessed by a validated modified diet history method. A Cox regression analysis yielded hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Out of 1062 patients with invasive breast cancer, 268 recurrences, 205 breast cancer deaths and 228 deaths from other causes were recorded. No overall associations were seen between zinc and RFS, BCSS or OS. However, in women with a high phosphorus intake, a higher BCSS and OS were seen in zinc intake Q2 to Q4 versus Q1; the adjusted HR was 0.41 (0.23–0.73) and 0.64 (0.41–1.00), respectively. The results indicate that the combination of intermediate/high zinc intake and high phosphorus intake may lead to a better breast cancer survival.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132575
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2576: The Increase in FGF23 Induced by Calcium
           Is Partially Dependent on Vitamin D Signaling

    • Authors: Sandra Rayego-Mateos, Nuria Doladé, Alicia García-Carrasco, Juan Miguel Diaz-Tocados, Merce Ibarz, Jose Manuel Valdivielso
      First page: 2576
      Abstract: Background: Increased FGF23 levels are an early pathological feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD), causing increased cardiovascular risk. The regulation of FGF23 expression is complex and not completely understood. Thus, Ca2+ has been shown to induce an increase in FGF23 expression, but whether that increase is mediated by simultaneous changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or vitamin D is not fully known. Methods: Osteoblast-like cells (OLCs) from vitamin D receptor (VDR)+/+ and VDR−/− mice were incubated with Ca2+ for 18 h. Experimental hypercalcemia was induced by calcium gluconate injection in thyro-parathyroidectomized (T-PTX) VDR +/+ and VDR−/− mice with constant PTH infusion. Results: Inorganic Ca2+ induced an increase in FGF23 gene and protein expression in osteoblast-like cells (OLCs), but the increase was blunted in cells lacking VDR. In T-PTX VDR +/+ and VDR−/− mice with constant PTH levels, hypercalcemia induced an increase in FGF23 levels, but to a lower extent in animals lacking VDR. Similar results were observed in FGF23 expression in bone. Renal and bone 1α-hydroxylase expression was also modulated. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that Ca2+ can increase FGF23 levels independently of vitamin D and PTH, but part of the physiological increase in FGF23 induced by Ca2+ is mediated by vitamin D signaling.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132576
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2577: Association between Dietary Macronutrient
           Intake and Symptoms in Uninvestigated Dyspepsia: Evidence from a
           Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Shahram Agah, Azadeh Aminianfar, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Vida Bitarafan, Peyman Adibi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Christine Feinle-Bisset
      First page: 2577
      Abstract: (1) Background: Limited evidence from laboratory-based studies suggests that specific dietary macronutrients, particularly fat, can induce dyspeptic symptoms. Through a population-based study, we investigated the relationship between dietary macronutrients and dyspeptic symptoms and sought to determine macronutrient intake thresholds to predict or prevent dyspepsia and reduce symptoms in patients with dyspepsia. (2) Methods: A total of 4763 Iranian people were enrolled in this population-based, cross-sectional study. Uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD) and its symptoms, including postprandial fullness, early satiation, and epigastric pain, were evaluated using a modified Persian version of the Rome III criteria. The dietary intakes of participants were evaluated using a validated food–frequency questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate threshold intakes of dietary macronutrients to prevent UD in the general population. The analysis was then repeated in those with UD to calculate intake thresholds for reducing UD symptoms. (3) Results: Early satiation occurred in 6.3% (n = 302), postprandial fullness in 8.0% (n = 384) and epigastric pain in 7.8% (n = 371) of participants. The prevalence of UD was 15.2%. Compared with individuals without UD, those with UD had a lower intake of carbohydrates (48.2% vs. 49.1%) and a higher intake of fats (38.3% vs. 37.4%), while protein and energy intakes did not differ. Higher dietary fat and protein intakes were associated with a higher prevalence of postprandial fullness and epigastric pain, respectively. Macronutrient intakes to predict UD in the general population were <49% of energy from carbohydrates, >14.7% from protein, and >37.7% from fats. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes to prevent symptoms among those with UD were calculated to be >48.2%, <14.6%, and <38.6%, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Higher carbohydrate intake and lower fat or protein intakes were associated with a lower likelihood of UD. Prospective studies carefully manipulating dietary macronutrient composition are warranted to investigate the value of dietary changes to improve symptoms in people with UD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132577
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2578: The Number of Fungiform Papillae, Taste
           Sensitivity and Smell Functions of Children Aged 11–15

    • Authors: Grzegorz Sobek, Paweł Jagielski
      First page: 2578
      Abstract: Differences in the ability to identify and perceive tastes and smells might influence food consumption and, ultimately, chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweightness and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste sensitivity and odour function, anthropometry, and quantity of fungiform papillae in children at age 11–15. Taste strips (4 base tastes), U-Sniff sticks (12 selected smells), and a filter paper strip impregnated with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were used. The photographic method was used to estimate the number of fungiform papillae (FP) on the tongue. The results showed that the quantity of FP was not related to anthropometry or gender. The taste test total scores were higher for girls, for whom the median score was 14 (12.0–15.0), than for boys, for whom the median score was 12 (9.0–13.0). Of the children, 13.9% had some difficulty in identifying odours. The Mann–Whitney U test showed that children who were most sensitive to bitter taste had more FP (p = 0.0001). The median score for this group (score = 4) was 34.0 (27.0–37.0). For those who had some problems with correctly assessing all bitter taste strips (score = 0–3), the median score was 24.0 (20.0–31.0). Higher numbers of FP were also observed in tasters, that is, people sensitive to PROP, than in nontasters. Only some measures of the taste function correlated with each other, but not very significantly. We concluded that there are multiple perceptual phases of taste, with no single measure able to entirely represent the sense of taste.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132578
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2579: CYP7A1, NPC1L1, ABCB1, and CD36
           Polymorphisms Associated with Coenzyme Q10 Availability Affect the
           Subjective Quality of Life Score (SF-36) after Long-Term CoQ10
           Supplementation in Women

    • Authors: Michiyo Takahashi, Tetsu Kinoshita, Koutatsu Maruyama, Toshikazu Suzuki
      First page: 2579
      Abstract: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3808607, rs2072183, rs2032582, and rs1761667 are associated with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) bioavailability in women after long-term CoQ10 supplementation. However, the beneficial aspects of the association between these SNPs and CoQ10 supplementation remain unknown. We investigated their relationship using the subjective quality of life score SF-36 by reanalyzing previous data from 92 study participants who were receiving ubiquinol (a reduced form of CoQ10) supplementation for 1 year. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between rs1761667 and the SF-36 scores of role physical (p = 0.016) and mental health (p = 0.017) in women. Subgrouping of participants based on the above four SNPs revealed significant interactions between these SNPs and the SF-36 scores of general health (p = 0.045), role emotional (p = 0.008), and mental health (p = 0.019) and increased serum CoQ10 levels (p = 0.008), suggesting that the benefits of CoQ10 supplementation, especially in terms of psychological parameters, are genotype-dependent in women. However, significant interactions were not observed in men. Therefore, inclusion of SNP subgrouping information in clinical trials of CoQ10 supplementation may provide conclusive evidence supporting other beneficial health effects exerted by the association between these SNPs and CoQ10 on women.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132579
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2580: Urinary Aflatoxin M1 Concentration and Its
           Determinants in School-Age Children in Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Tafere Gebreegziabher, Melanie Dean, Elilta Elias, Workneh Tsegaye, Barbara J. Stoecker
      First page: 2580
      Abstract: Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that can contaminate grains, legumes, and oil seeds. These toxic compounds are an especially serious problem in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The objective of this study was to raise awareness of aflatoxin exposure among primary school children in Shebedino woreda, southern Ethiopia, by measuring urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The study employed a cross-sectional design and systematic random sampling of children from eight schools in the district. The mean ± SD age of the children was 9.0 ± 1.8 years. Most (84.6%) households were food insecure with 17.9% severely food insecure. Urinary AFM1 was detected in more than 93% of the children. The median [IQR] concentration of AFM1/Creat was 480 [203, 1085] pg/mg. Based on a multiple regression analysis: DDS, consumption of haricot bean or milk, source of drinking water, maternal education, and household food insecurity access scale scores were significantly associated with urinary AFM1/Creat. In conclusion, a high prevalence of urinary AFM1 was observed in this study. However, the relation between AFM1 and dietary intake was analyzed based on self-reported dietary data; hence, all of the staple foods as well as animal feeds in the study area should be assessed for aflatoxin contamination.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132580
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2581: An Evaluation of Nutritional Status and
           Problems with Dietary Compliance in Polish Patients with Celiac Disease

    • Authors: Malgorzata Kostecka, Joanna Kostecka-Jarecka, Katarzyna Iłowiecka, Julianna Kostecka
      First page: 2581
      Abstract: Celiac disease (CD, enteropathy) is a genetic autoimmune disease (abnormal immune response that attacks healthy tissues) associated with gluten intolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the nutritional status of CD patients, explore the problems associated with diet planning and dietary adherence among children and adults, and assess the impact of these factors on the persistence of CD symptoms. This study was carried out as part of the project entitled “A gluten-free diet without obstacles—eating well and healthy” (POWR 03.01.00-00-T153/18), conducted in Lublin Voivodeship. The study involved 87 persons, including 23 children younger than 18. At the beginning of the study and after nine months, all adult participants (older than 18) were subjected to a body composition analysis with the SECA mBCA 515 analyzer. During the project, the participants attended three consultations with a dietician. During each visit, the subjects’ body weight, nutritional status and diets were evaluated; their diets were modified, and problems relating to dietary adherence were resolved. The initial body composition analysis revealed a risk of sarcopenic obesity in 30% of adult participants, in particular in women (p = 0.003) older than 45 (p = 0.001). The risk of being underweight was diagnosed in 25% of the subjects, in particular, in women younger than 35 (p = 0.0023) and in participants who had been affected by short stature and underweight in childhood, i.e., before CD diagnosis (p = 0.0024). The analysis demonstrated that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting) of CD were significantly more likely to avoid even accidental exposure to gluten and were more likely to strictly follow GFD recommendations (1.97; 95CI:1.56–2.12, p = 0.0001) and safety guidelines when preparing meals at home (1.76; 95CI: 1.34–192, p = 0.0023). Parents, in particular, parents of toddlers and preschoolers who are at significantly higher risk of CD, adhered strictly to dietary guidelines and did not allow for any exceptions when preparing meals (1.88; 95CI: 1.53–2.09, p = 0.001). Persons at risk of malnutrition were also far less likely to deliberately choose gluten-containing foods (0.74; 95CI: 0.53–0.91, p = 0.021), in particular, patients with Marsh type 3a and 3b classification (p = 0.01) and persons whose intestinal histology scores did not fully improve after switching to a GFD. An assessment of the effectiveness of diet therapy based on the phase angle revealed that dietary recommendations had a positive impact on patients who had been recently diagnosed with CD. In all age groups, the main problem was accidental exposure to gluten, in particular in foods that were not labeled with the crossed grain symbol. A comparative analysis of CDAT questionnaires revealed that dietary advice on eating out significantly improved adherence to a GFD and reduced the frequency of unintentional gluten exposure in all age groups.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132581
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2582: Association between Excessive Dietary
           Branched-Chain Amino Acids Intake and Hypertension Risk in Chinese
           Population

    • Authors: Yuyan Liu, Chengwen Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xuheng Jiang, Yuanhong Liang, Huan Wang, Yongfang Li, Guifan Sun
      First page: 2582
      Abstract: The dietary intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been reported to be associated with both elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension risk, while published findings were inconsistent, and the causality has never been well disclosed. We performed this prospective study aiming to find out the relationship between dietary BCAAs intake and hypertension risk in the Chinese population. A total of 8491 participants (40,285 person-years) were selected. The levels of dietary BCAAs intake were estimated using the 24-h Food Frequency Questionnaire. Associations of both BP values and hypertension risk with per standard deviation increase of BCAAs were estimated using linear and COX regression analysis, respectively. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were given. Restricted cubic spline analysis (RCS) was used to estimate the nonlinearity. Both systolic and diastolic BP values at the end points of follow-up were positively associated with dietary BCAAs intake. Positive associations between BCAAs intake and hypertension risk were shown in both men and women. By performing a RCS analysis, the nonlinear relationship between BCAAs intake and hypertension was shown. As the intake levels of Ile, Leu, and Val, respectively, exceeded 2.49 g/day, 4.91 g/day, and 2.88 g/day in men (2.16 g/day, 3.84 g/day, and 2.56 g/day in women), the hypertension risk increased. Our findings could provide some concrete evidence in the primary prevention of hypertension based on dietary interventions.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132582
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2583: Dietary pH Enhancement Improves Metabolic
           Outcomes in Diet-Induced Obese Male and Female Mice: Effects of Beef vs.
           Casein Proteins

    • Authors: Kalhara R. Menikdiwela, João Pedro Tôrres Guimarães, Shane Scoggin, Lauren S. Gollahon, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
      First page: 2583
      Abstract: (1) Consumption of diets that are caloric dense but not nutrient dense have been implicated in metabolic diseases, in part through low-grade metabolic acidosis. Mitigation strategies through dietary intervention to alleviate acidosis have not been previously reported. Our objective is to determine the effects of pH enhancement (with ammonia) in high fat diet-induced obese mice that were fed beef or casein as protein sources compared to low fat diet-fed mice. (2) Methods: B6 male and female mice were randomized (n = 10) into eight diets that differ in protein source, pH enhancement of the protein, and fat content, and fed for 13 weeks: low fat (11% fat) casein (LFC), LF casein pH-enhanced (LFCN), LF lean beef (LFB), LFBN, high fat (46%) casein (HFC), HFCN, HF beef (HFB), and HFBN. Body weights and composition, and glucose tolerance tests were conducted along with terminal serum analyses. Three-way ANOVA was performed. (3) Results: A significant effect of dietary fat (LF vs. HF) was observed across all variables in both sexes (final body weight, fat mass, glucose clearance, and serum leptin). Importantly, pH enhancement significantly reduced adiposity (males only) and final body weights (females only) and significantly improved glucose clearance in both sexes. Lastly, clear sex differences were observed across all variables. (4) Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate metabolic benefits of increasing dietary pH using ammonia, while high fat intake per se (not protein source) is the major contributor to metabolic dysfunctions. Additional research is warranted to determine mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of pH enhancement, and interactions with dietary fat content and proteins.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132583
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2584: Leuconostoc mesenteroides LVBH107
           Antibacterial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and
           Anti-Inflammatory Activity against P. gingivalis
           Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    • Authors: Chang Luan, Jiaqing Yan, Ning Jiang, Chuang Zhang, Xu Geng, Zhengqiang Li, Chen Li
      First page: 2584
      Abstract: Probiotics, active microorganisms benefiting human health, currently serve as nutritional supplements and clinical treatments. Periodontitis, a chronic infectious oral disease caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), activates the host immune response to release numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we aimed to clarify Leuconostoc mesenterica (L. mesenteroides) LVBH107 probiotic effects based on the inhibition of P. gingivalis activities while also evaluating the effectiveness of an in vitro P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell-based inflammation mode. L. mesenteroides LVBH107 survived at acid, bile salts, lysozyme, and hydrogen peroxide conditions, auto-aggregated and co-aggregated with P. gingivalis, exhibited strong hydrophobicity and electrostatic action, and strongly adhered to gingival epithelial and HT-29 cells (thus exhibiting oral tissue adherence and colonization abilities). Moreover, L. mesenteroides LVBH107 exhibited sensitivity to antibiotics erythromycin, doxycycline, minocycline, ampicillin, and others (thus indicating it lacked antibiotic resistance plasmids), effectively inhibited P. gingivalis biofilm formation and inflammation (in vitro inflammation model), reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE2), and decreased the expression levels of inflammation related genes. Thus, L. mesenterica LVBH107 holds promise as a probiotic that can inhibit P. gingivalis biofilm formation and exert anti-inflammatory activity to maintain oral health.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132584
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2585: Current Status and Influencing Factors of
           Eating Behavior in Residents at the Age of 18~60: A Cross-Sectional Study
           in China

    • Authors: Dongli Mei, Yuqian Deng, Qiyu Li, Zhi Lin, Huiwen Jiang, Jingbo Zhang, Waikit Ming, Hao Zhang, Xinying Sun, Guanyun Yan, Yibo Wu
      First page: 2585
      Abstract: As eating behavior is important to health, this cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the eating behavior related to overweight and obesity of Chinese residents aged 18~60 based on the Ecological Model of Health Behavior. The short-form of the Eating Behavior Scale (EBS-SF) was applied to evaluate eating behavior. The multivariable linear stepwise regression analysis was used to identify and analyze the influence factors, and the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis to validate the predictive capability of the EBS-SF score in differentiating overweight and obesity. A total of 8623 participants were enrolled. In the personal characteristics, male (β = −0.03), older [36–45 years (β = −0.06) or 46–60 years (β = −0.07)], higher scores of Agreeableness (β = −0.04), Conscientiousness (β = −0.14) or Openness (β = −0.03) contributed to healthy eating behavior. In the individual behaviors, those who smoked (β = 0.04), drank alcohol (β = 0.05), exercised frequently (β = 0.07), had higher PHQ-9 scores (β = 0.29) may have improper eating habits. As for the interpersonal networks, the residents who were married (β = −0.04) behaved well when eating, while those who had offspring or siblings tended to have unhealthy eating behavior. At the community level, living in Western China (β = −0.03), having a monthly household income of 6001–9000 yuan per capita (β = −0.04), having no debt (β = −0.02), being retired (β = −0.03), or having lower PSSS scores (β = −0.03) led to lower EBS-SF scores. And the EBS-SF score demonstrated a moderate-high accuracy in predicting overweight and obesity.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132585
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2586: The Perception of Minerals and Their
           Prevalence in Fortified Foods and Supplements in Japan

    • Authors: Tsuyoshi Chiba, Nanae Tanemura, Chiharu Nishijima
      First page: 2586
      Abstract: People’s intake of some minerals does not meet the nutrient reference values even in high-income countries. Recently, the deficiency of zinc and/or selenium has been considered to cause greater risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. To investigate consumer awareness, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire online survey among Japanese people (7500 males and 7500 females) concerning their perceptions of each mineral and the prevalence of mineral-fortified foods and/or mineral supplements. People’s perception of each mineral varied: the highest was for calcium (91.8%) and the lowest was for selenium (44.7%). In addition, only a portion of participants believed that they consumed a sufficient amount of each mineral; the highest was sodium (23.7%), and the lowest was manganese (5.2%). In addition, 18.2% of them felt that they could not consume enough sodium, even though most of the Japanese’s intake is excessive. Among mineral-fortified-food and/or mineral-supplement users, the purposes for these products were to maintain health (80.6%), supplement nutrients (48.0%), and prevent infectious diseases (23.2%). Only 18.4% of participants knew what amount they took. In conclusion, education is needed to prevent not only the insufficiency/deficiency of each mineral but also an excess intake of sodium.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132586
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2587: Nutritional Risk Factors Associated with
           Vasomotor Symptoms in Women Aged 40–65 Years

    • Authors: Alexandra Tijerina, Yamile Barrera, Elizabeth Solis-Pérez, Rogelio Salas, José L. Jasso, Verónica López, Erik Ramírez, Rosario Pastor, Josep A. Tur, Cristina Bouzas
      First page: 2587
      Abstract: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the most common symptoms among menopausal women; these include hot flashes and night sweats, and palpitations often occur along with hot flashes. Some studies in Mexico reported that around 50% of women presented with VMS mainly in the menopausal transition. It has been proven that VMS are not only triggered by an estrogen deficiency, but also by nutritional risk factors. Evidence of an association between nutritional risk factors and VMS is limited in Mexican women. The aim of this study is to identify nutritional risk factors associated with VMS in women aged 40–65 years. This is a comparative cross-sectional study, undertaken in a retrospective way. A sample group (n = 406 women) was divided into four stages according to STRAW+10 (Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop): late reproductive, menopausal transition, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause. Hot flashes were present mainly in the early postmenopause stage (38.1%, p ≤ 0.001). Two or more VMS were reported in 23.2% of women in the menopausal transition stage and 29.3% in the early postmenopause stage (p < 0.001). The presence of VMS was associated with different nutritional risk factors (weight, fasting glucose levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and tobacco use) in women living in the northeast of Mexico.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132587
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2588: Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Combat
           Sports: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Néstor Vicente-Salar, Encarna Fuster-Muñoz, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez
      First page: 2588
      Abstract: Nutritional ergogenic aids (NEAs) are substances included within the group of sports supplements. Although they are widely consumed by athletes, evidence-based analysis is required to support training outcomes or competitive performance in specific disciplines. Combat sports have a predominant use of anaerobic metabolism as a source of energy, reaching peak exertion or sustained effort for very short periods of time. In this context, the use of certain NEAs could help athletes to improve their performance in those specific combat skills (i.e., the number of attacks, throws and hits; jump height; and grip strength, among others) as well as in general physical aspects (time to exhaustion [TTE], power, fatigue perception, heart rate, use of anaerobic metabolism, etc.). Medline/PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO were searched from their inception to May 2022 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Out of 677 articles found, 55 met the predefined inclusion criteria. Among all the studied NEAs, caffeine (5–10 mg/kg) showed strong evidence for its use in combat sports to enhance the use of glycolytic pathways for energy production during high-intensity actions due to a greater production of and tolerance to blood lactate levels. In this regard, abilities including the number of attacks, reaction time, handgrip strength, power and TTE, among others, were improved. Buffering supplements such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and beta-alanine may have a promising role in high and intermittent exertion during combat, but more studies are needed in grappling combat sports to confirm their efficacy during sustained isometric exertion. Other NEAs, including creatine, beetroot juice or glycerol, need further investigation to strengthen the evidence for performance enhancement in combat sports. Caffeine is the only NEA that has shown strong evidence for performance enhancement in combat sports.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132588
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2589: Vitamin D Treatment Prevents
           Uremia-Induced Reductions in Aortic microRNA-145 Attenuating Osteogenic
           Differentiation despite Hyperphosphatemia

    • Authors: Natalia Carrillo-López, Sara Panizo, Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono, Sandra de la Fuente, Laura Martínez-Arias, Emerenziana Ottaviano, Catalina Ulloa, María Piedad Ruiz-Torres, Isabel Rodríguez, Jorge B. Cannata-Andía, Manuel Naves-Díaz, Adriana S. Dusso
      First page: 2589
      Abstract: In chronic kidney disease, systemic inflammation and high serum phosphate (P) promote the de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to osteoblast-like cells, increasing the propensity for medial calcification and cardiovascular mortality. Vascular microRNA-145 (miR-145) content is essential to maintain VSMC contractile phenotype. Because vitamin D induces aortic miR-145, uremia and high serum P reduce it and miR-145 directly targets osteogenic osterix in osteoblasts, this study evaluated a potential causal link between vascular miR-145 reductions and osterix-driven osteogenic differentiation and its counter-regulation by vitamin D. Studies in aortic rings from normal rats and in the rat aortic VSMC line A7r5 exposed to calcifying conditions corroborated that miR-145 reductions were associated with decreases in contractile markers and increases in osteogenic differentiation and calcium (Ca) deposition. Furthermore, miR-145 silencing enhanced Ca deposition in A7r5 cells exposed to calcifying conditions, while miR-145 overexpression attenuated it, partly through increasing α-actin levels and reducing osterix-driven osteogenic differentiation. In mice, 14 weeks after the induction of renal mass reduction, both aortic miR-145 and α-actin mRNA decreased by 80% without significant elevations in osterix or Ca deposition. Vitamin D treatment from week 8 to 14 fully prevented the reductions in aortic miR-145 and attenuated by 50% the decreases in α-actin, despite uremia-induced hyperphosphatemia. In conclusion, vitamin D was able to prevent the reductions in aortic miR-145 and α-actin content induced by uremia, reducing the alterations in vascular contractility and osteogenic differentiation despite hyperphosphatemia.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132589
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2590: Female Endurance Runners Have a Healthier
           Diet than Males—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)

    • Authors: Mohamad Motevalli, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Claus Leitzmann, Derrick Tanous, Gerold Wirnitzer, Beat Knechtle, Katharina Wirnitzer
      First page: 2590
      Abstract: Sex has been recognized to be an important indicator of physiological, psychological, and nutritional characteristics among endurance athletes. However, there are limited data addressing sex-based differences in dietary behaviors of distance runners. The aim of the present study is to explore the sex-specific differences in dietary intake of female and male distance runners competing at >10-km distances. From the initial number of 317 participants, 211 endurance runners (121 females and 90 males) were selected as the final sample after a multi-level data clearance. Participants were classified to race distance (10-km, half-marathon, marathon/ultra-marathon) and type of diet (omnivorous, vegetarian, vegan) subgroups. An online survey was conducted to collect data on sociodemographic information and dietary intake (using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire with 53 food groups categorized in 14 basic and three umbrella food clusters). Compared to male runners, female runners had a significantly greater intake in four food clusters, including “beans and seeds”, “fruit and vegetables”, “dairy alternatives”, and “water”. Males reported higher intakes of seven food clusters, including “meat”, “fish”, “eggs”, “oils”, “grains”, “alcohol”, and “processed foods”. Generally, it can be suggested that female runners have a tendency to consume healthier foods than males. The predominance of females with healthy dietary behavior can be potentially linked to the well-known differences between females and males in health attitudes and lifestyle patterns.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132590
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2591: Drug D, a Diosgenin Derive, Inhibits
           L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis through Meditating GSDMD in the
           Endoplasmic Reticulum via the TXNIP/HIF-1α Pathway

    • Authors: Cuicui Zhang, Hai Niu, Chengyu Wan, Xiuxian Yu, Guang Xin, Yuda Zhu, Zeliang Wei, Fan Li, Yilan Wang, Kun Zhang, Shiyi Li, Yuman Dong, Yangying Li, Wen Huang
      First page: 2591
      Abstract: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases, with high morbidity and mortality. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and Gasdermin D (GSDMD) mediate AP, but little is known about their mutual influence on AP. Diosgenin has excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study investigated whether Diosgenin derivative D (Drug D) inhibits L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis through meditating GSDMD in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our studies were conducted in a mouse model of L-arginine-induced AP as well as in an in vitro model on mouse pancreatic acinar cells. The GSDMD accumulation in ER was found in this study, which caused ERS of acinar cells. GSDMD inhibitor Disulfiram (DSF) notably decreased the expression of GSDMD in ER and TXNIP/HIF-1α signaling. The molecular docking study indicated that there was a potential interaction between Drug D and GSDMD. Our results showed that Drug D significantly inhibited necrosis of acinar cells dose-dependently, and we also found that Drug D alleviated pancreatic necrosis and systemic inflammation by inhibiting the GSDMD accumulation in the ER of acinar cells via the TXNIP/HIF-1α pathway. Furthermore, the level of p-IRE1α (a marker of ERS) was also down-regulated by Drug D in a dose-dependent manner in AP. We also found that Drug D alleviated TXNIP up-regulation and oxidative stress in AP. Moreover, our results revealed that GSDMD-/- mitigated AP by inhibiting TXNIP/HIF-1α. Therefore, Drug D, which is extracted from Dioscorea zingiberensis, may inhibit L-arginine-induced AP by meditating GSDMD in the ER by the TXNIP /HIF-1α pathway.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132591
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2592: Global, Regional, and National Burden of
           Protein–Energy Malnutrition: A Systematic Analysis for the Global
           Burden of Disease Study

    • Authors: Xu Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yuanchun Pu, Min Sun, Yan Zhao, Dan Zhang, Xin Wang, Yarui Li, Dan Guo, Shuixiang He
      First page: 2592
      Abstract: Background: Statistical data on the prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of protein–energy malnutrition are valuable for health resource planning and policy-making. We aimed to estimate protein–energy malnutrition burdens worldwide according to gender, age, and sociodemographic index (SDI) between 1990 and 2019. Methods: Detailed data on protein–energy malnutrition from 1990 to 2019 was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database. The global prevalence, deaths, and DALYs attributable to protein–energy malnutrition and the corresponding age-standardized rates (ASRs) were analyzed. Results: In 2019, the global prevalence of protein–energy malnutrition increased to 14,767,275 cases. The age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR) showed an increasing trend between 1990 and 2019, while the age-standardized deaths rate (ASDR) and age-standardized DALYs rate presented a significantly decreasing trend in the same period. Meanwhile, there was a clearly ASPR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALYs rate downtrend of the prediction curve when the SDI went up. Conclusions: PEM still has a relatively serious disease burden in the world, especially in children and the elderly. At the same time, this phenomenon will be more obvious due to the aging of the world’s population. Effective prevention measures should be strengthened to continuously improve public health conditions.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132592
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2593: The Controversial Role of Vitamin D in
           Thyroid Cancer Prevention

    • Authors: Ana Palanca, Francisco Javier Ampudia-Blasco, José T. Real
      First page: 2593
      Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and exhibits rising incidence. Annual incidence varies by sex, age, and geographical location. It has been reported that impairment of vitamin D signalling promotes thyroid cancer progression. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as both a nutrient and a hormone, may have utility in the prevention of autoimmune thyroid-related diseases. However, the precise role of vitamin D in the pathobiology of thyroid cancer is controversial. Previous studies have suggested that elevated serum vitamin D levels have a protective role in thyroid cancer. However, there is also evidence demonstrating no inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and the occurrence of thyroid cancer. Furthermore, recent data provide evidence that circulating vitamin D concentration is inversely correlated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis, while evidence of an association with tumour initiation remains weak. Nevertheless, a variety of data support an anti-tumorigenic role of vitamin D and its potential utility as a secondary chemopreventive agent. In this review, we highlighted recent findings regarding the association of vitamin D status with the risk of thyroid cancer, prognosis, potential mechanisms, and possible utility as a chemopreventive agent.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132593
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2594: Validity of the Food Frequency
           Questionnaire—Estimated Intakes of Sodium, Potassium, and
           Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio for Screening at a Point of Absolute Intake
           among Middle-Aged and Older Japanese Adults

    • Authors: Tomoka Matsuno, Ribeka Takachi, Junko Ishihara, Yuri Ishii, Kumiko Kito, Sachiko Maruya, Kazutoshi Nakamura, Junta Tanaka, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Taiki Yamaji, Hiroyasu Iso, Motoki Iwasaki, Shoichiro Tsugane, Norie Sawada
      First page: 2594
      Abstract: Using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) to compare dietary references for screening has been in high demand. However, FFQs have been widely used for ranking individuals in a population based on their dietary intake. We determined the validity of sodium (salt equivalent) intake, potassium intake, and sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio obtained using the FFQ for identifying individuals who deviated from the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) measured using multiple 24-h urinary excretion measurements or 12-day weighed food records (WFR). This study included 235 middle-aged subjects. The correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and WFR estimates were mostly moderate (0.24–0.54); the CCs between the FFQ and 24-h urinary excretion measurements were low or moderate (0.26–0.38). Values of area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) at the point of DRIs for salt equivalent or potassium were >0.7 with the WFR as the reference standard and 0.60–0.76 with the 24-h urinary excretion as the reference standard. Using both standard measures, the AUC for the Na/K ratio was <0.7. The accuracy of salt equivalent and potassium intake estimation using the FFQ to determine absolute intake point was comparable to that using WFR, allowing for quantified error, but not as good as that of 24-h urinary excretion.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132594
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2595: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Vitamin K in Chronic Disease and Human Health”

    • Authors: Evangelia Dounousi, Vasillios Liakopoulos
      First page: 2595
      Abstract: Vitamin K and its derivatives represent a complex of fat-soluble vitamins, playing a major role in the regulation of a large number of physiologic processes required for optimal homeostasis [...]
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132595
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2596: The Relationship of Energy Malnutrition,
           Skeletal Muscle and Physical Functional Performance in Patients with
           Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Authors: Manabu Tomita, Masaru Uchida, Yujiro Imaizumi, Megumi Monji, Emiko Tokushima, Michihiro Kawashima
      First page: 2596
      Abstract: Weight loss is a factor that affects prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independent of lung function. One of the major factors for weight loss is energy malnutrition. There have been no reports on the factors related to energy malnutrition in COPD patients. This retrospective observational study aimed to investigate these factors. We included 163 male subjects with COPD. Respiratory quotient (RQ), an index of energy malnutrition, was calculated by expiratory gas analysis using an indirect calorimeter. RQ < 0.85 was defined as the energy-malnutrition group and RQ ≥ 0.85 as the no energy-malnutrition group. Factors related to energy malnutrition were examined by multivariate and decision-tree analysis. We finally analyzed data from 56 selected subjects (median age: 74 years, BMI: 22.5 kg/m2). Energy malnutrition was observed in 43%. The independent factors associated with energy malnutrition were tidal volume (VT) (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.985–0.998; p = 0.015) and Th12 erector spinae muscle cross-sectional area SMI (Th12ESMSMI) (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.535–0.946; p = 0.019). In decision-tree profiling of energy malnutrition, VT was extracted as the first distinguishable factor, and Th12ESMSMI as the second. In ROC analysis, VT < 647 mL (AUC, 0.72) or Th12ESMSMI < 10.1 (AUC, 0.70) was the cutoff value for energy malnutrition. Energy malnutrition may be an early warning sign of nutritional disorders.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132596
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2597: Nutritional Outcomes One Year after One
           Anastomosis Gastric Bypass Compared to Sleeve Gastrectomy

    • Authors: Naama Shirazi, Nahum Beglaibter, Ronit Grinbaum, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Anna Aronis
      First page: 2597
      Abstract: One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (OAGB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) are the most common bariatric procedures performed worldwide. SG is a restrictive procedure whereas OAGB involves malabsorption as well, supposing a risk of deficiency development post OAGB. The aim of the study was to compare nutritional deficiencies and metabolic markers one year after the procedures, while adhering to the current protocols. Retrospective analysis was performed for data on 60 adults undergoing primary OAGB, compared to 60 undergoing primary SG. Mean pre-surgery BMI for SG was 42.7 kg/m2 and 43.3 kg/m2 for OAGB. A multidisciplinary team followed up with the patients at least 3 times during the first year. Mean weight loss was 39.0 kg for SG and 44.1 kg for OAGB. The OAGB group presented a significantly sharper decline in T.Chol and a trend for sharper LDL decrease; a higher increase in folate and a trend for a greater decrease in albumin and hemoglobin were observed in OAGB. For vitamin B12, D, iron and ferritin, no difference was observed between the treatment groups, although there were some in-group differences. Nutritional recommendations and adopted supplement plans minimize the risk of deficiencies and result in improvement in metabolic biomarkers one year after OAGB, which was comparable to SG.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132597
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2598: Parental Traits Associated with Adherence
           to the Mediterranean Diet in Children and Adolescents in Croatia: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Ivana Franić, Petra Boljat, Endica Radić Hozo, Ante Burger, Antonela Matana
      First page: 2598
      Abstract: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns. Despite the significance of a healthful diet during the early stage of life, data for young individuals indicate that nutrition problems are common. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine parental factors associated with MD adherence in children and adolescents living in the Mediterranean region in Croatia. In total, 2623 children aged 2 to 18 years and their parents participated in this study. Data were collected during the period from September 2021 to February 2022 by using an anonymous questionnaire. We used KIDMED and MEDAS questionnaires for assessing MD adherence in young individuals and their parents, respectively. To assess the association of children’s MD adherence categories with the parental predictors, we performed multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results showed that the children of parents with a low MD adherence are much more likely to have poor MD adherence than good (OR = 47.54 (95% C.I 18.24, 123.87), p < 0.001) or average (OR = 5.64 (95% C.I 3.70, 8.6), p < 0.001) MD adherence. Further, children of fathers with higher BMI (OR = 1.035 (95% C.I 1.0, 1.071)) and those who do not live with both parents (OR = 1.703 (95% C.I 0.994, 2.916), p = 0.053) are more likely to have poor MD adherence than good MD adherence. These results indicate that interventions focusing on enhancing the quality of both parents’ diets could effectively improve their children’s eating habits.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132598
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2599: Effects of Postdischarge High-Protein Oral
           Nutritional Supplements and Resistance Training in Malnourished Surgical
           Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Poula Patursson, Grith Møller, Bjartur Bernhardson Thomsen, Eyðfinnur Olsen, Jann Mortensen, Guðrið Andorsdóttir, Magni Mohr, Jens Rikardt Andersen
      First page: 2599
      Abstract: The presence of malnutrition is increasingly becoming a postdischarge problem in surgical patients. We aimed to investigate whether oral nutritional supplements combined with resistance training could minimize skeletal muscle atrophy in surgical patients after discharge. This randomized controlled study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, National Hospital of Faroe Islands from 2018 to 2020. A total of 45 patients aged 37–74 years participated and were allocated to one of three groups: diet (DI; n = 13), exercise and diet (EX + DI; n = 16), or control (CON; n = 16). The intervention period lasted 8 weeks. The intervention groups received individual dietary counselling and a protein-rich oral nutritional supplement twice a day containing 22 g of protein/day. Patients in the EX + DI group were assigned to resistance training sessions. Patients in the CON group received standard care. The primary outcome was change in lean body mass (LBM). Secondary outcomes were change in body weight, handgrip strength, quality of life, surgery-related side effects, energy and protein intake, length of stay and one-year mortality. To estimate within-group changes, linear mixed models including group–time interactions as fixed effects and patients as random effects were fitted. Within-group change in LBM was 233, 813 and 78 g in the DI, EX + DI and CON groups, respectively, with no significant between-group difference (p > 0.05). Pain score declined more (p = 0.04) in the EX + DI group compared with the CON group. Body weight, handgrip strength, quality of life and surgery-related side effects did not differ between groups. At the end of study, mean cumulative weight change in the DI and EX + DI groups was 0.4% and 1.6%, respectively, whereas the CON group experienced a weight loss of −0.6%. No significant difference in primary outcome between groups was noted. However, our results indicate some benefits from exercise and nutrition for malnourished surgical patients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132599
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2600: TRPV1-Mediated Sensing of Sodium and
           Osmotic Pressure in POMC Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the
           Hypothalamus

    • Authors: Boyang Zhang, Kazuomi Kario, Toshihiko Yada, Masanori Nakata
      First page: 2600
      Abstract: The central melanocortin system conducted by anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) not only regulates feeding behavior but also blood pressure. Excessive salt intake raises the Na+ concentration ([Na+]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and worsens hypertension. The blood–brain barrier is immature in the ARC. Therefore, both AgRP and POMC neurons in the ARC have easy access to the electrolytes in the blood and can sense changes in their concentrations. However, the sensitivity of AgRP and POMC neurons to Na+ remains unclear. This study aimed to explore how the changes in the extracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]) influence these neurons by measuring the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the single neurons isolated from the ARC that were subsequently immunocytochemically identified as AgRP or POMC neurons. Both AgRP and POMC neurons responded to increases in both [Na+] and osmolarity in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout (KO) mice, POMC neurons failed to respond to increases in both [Na+] and osmolarity, while they responded to high glucose and angiotensin II levels with increases in [Ca2+]i. Moreover, in KO mice fed a high-salt diet, the expression of POMC was lower than that in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that changes in [Na+] and osmolarity are sensed by the ARC POMC neurons via the TRPV1-dependent mechanism.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132600
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2601: Impact of a Farm-to-School Nutrition and
           Gardening Intervention for Native American Families from the FRESH Study:
           A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Tori Taniguchi, Alyson Haslam, Wenjie Sun, Margaret Sisk, Jann Hayman, Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan
      First page: 2601
      Abstract: Establishing healthy eating habits during childhood is critical to prevent chronic diseases that develop in adulthood. Tribally owned Early Childhood and Education (ECE) programs signify fundamental influence in childhood obesity disparities. A strategy to improve diet is the use of school gardens; however, few studies have used rigorous methods to assess diet and health outcomes. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe results from the six-month Food Resource Equity for Sustainable Health (FRESH) study among Native American families. We aimed to recruit 176 families of children attending Osage Nation ECE programs in four communities. Two communities received the intervention and two served as wait-list controls. Outcomes included change in dietary intake, body mass index, health status, systolic blood pressure (adults only), and food insecurity in children and parents. There were 193 children (n = 106 intervention; n = 87 control) and 170 adults (n = 93 intervention; n = 77 control) enrolled. Vegetable intake significantly increased in intervention children compared to controls for squash (p = 0.0007) and beans (p = 0.0002). Willingness to try scores increased for beans in intervention children (p = 0.049) and tomatoes in both groups (p = 0.01). FRESH is the first study to implement a farm-to-school intervention in rural, tribally owned ECEs. Future interventions that target healthy dietary intake among children should incorporate a comprehensive parent component in order to support healthy eating for all household members.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132601
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2602: Effect of Cholecalciferol Supplementation
           on the Clinical Features and Inflammatory Markers in Hospitalized COVID-19
           Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Center Study

    • Authors: Tatiana L. Karonova, Ksenia A. Golovatyuk, Igor V. Kudryavtsev, Alena T. Chernikova, Arina A. Mikhaylova, Arthur D. Aquino, Daria I. Lagutina, Ekaterina K. Zaikova, Olga V. Kalinina, Alexey S. Golovkin, William B. Grant, Evgeny V. Shlyakhto
      First page: 2602
      Abstract: Recent studies showed that a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was associated with a higher risk of morbidity and severe course of COVID-19. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on the clinical features and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19. A serum 25(OH)D level was determined in 311 COVID-19 patients. Among them, 129 patients were then randomized into two groups with similar concomitant medication. Group I (n = 56) received a bolus of cholecalciferol at a dose of 50,000 IU on the first and the eighth days of hospitalization. Patients from Group II (n = 54) did not receive the supplementation. We found significant differences between groups with the preferential increase in serum 25(OH)D level and Δ 25(OH)D in Group I on the ninth day of hospitalization (p < 0.001). The serum 25(OH)D level on the ninth day was negatively associated with the number of bed days (r = −0.23, p = 0.006); we did not observe other clinical benefits in patients receiving an oral bolus of cholecalciferol. Moreover, in Group I, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher (p = 0.04; p = 0.02), while the C-reactive protein level was significantly lower on the ninth day of hospitalization (p = 0.02). Patients with supplementation of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol, compared to those without supplementation, showed a decrease in the frequencies of CD38++CD27 transitional and CD27−CD38+ mature naive B cells (p = 0.006 and p = 0.02) and an increase in the level of CD27−CD38− DN B cells (p = 0.02). Thus, the rise in serum 25(OH)D level caused by vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D insufficient and deficient patients may positively affect immune status and hence the course of COVID-19.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132602
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2603: Methodological Rigor and Transparency in
           Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition Care in Critically Ill Adults:
           A Systematic Review Using the AGREE II and AGREE-REX Tools

    • Authors: John K. Noyahr, Oana A. Tatucu-Babet, Lee-anne S. Chapple, Christopher Jake Barlow, Marianne J. Chapman, Adam M. Deane, Kate Fetterplace, Carol L. Hodgson, Jacinta Winderlich, Andrew A. Udy, Andrea P. Marshall, Emma J. Ridley
      First page: 2603
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate the methodological quality of (1) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that inform nutrition care in critically ill adults using the AGREE II tool and (2) CPG recommendations for determining energy expenditure using the AGREE-REX tool. Methods: CPGs by a professional society or academic group, intended to guide nutrition care in critically ill adults, that used a systematic literature search and rated the evidence were included. Four databases and grey literature were searched from January 2011 to 19 January 2022. Five investigators assessed the methodological quality of CPGs and recommendations specific to energy expenditure determination. Scaled domain scores were calculated for AGREE II and a scaled total score for AGREE-REX. Data are presented as medians (interquartile range). Results: Eleven CPGs were included. Highest scoring domains for AGREE II were clarity of presentation (82% [76–87%]) and scope and purpose (78% [66–83%]). Lowest scoring domains were applicability (37% [32–42%]) and stakeholder involvement (46% [33–51%]). Eight (73%) CPGs provided recommendations relating to energy expenditure determination; scores were low overall (37% [36–40%]) and across individual domains. Conclusions: Nutrition CPGs for critically ill patients are developed using systematic methods but lack engagement with key stakeholders and guidance to support application. The quality of energy expenditure determination recommendations is low.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132603
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2604: Fisetin, a Potent Anticancer Flavonol
           Exhibiting Cytotoxic Activity against Neoplastic Malignant Cells and
           Cancerous Conditions: A Scoping, Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Robert Kubina, Kamil Krzykawski, Agata Kabała-Dzik, Robert D. Wojtyczka, Ewa Chodurek, Arkadiusz Dziedzic
      First page: 2604
      Abstract: Diet plays a crucial role in homeostasis maintenance. Plants and spices containing flavonoids have been widely used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Flavonols present in our diet may prevent cancer initiation, promotion and progression by modulating important enzymes and receptors in signal transduction pathways related to proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, metastasis and reversal of multidrug resistance. The anticancer activity of fisetin has been widely documented in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. This review summarizes the worldwide, evidence-based research on the activity of fisetin toward various types of cancerous conditions, while describing the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects, molecular targets and mechanisms that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of fisetin. In addition, this review synthesized the results from preclinical studies on the use of fisetin as an anticancer agent. Based on the available literature, it might be suggested that fisetin has a bioactive potential to become a complementary drug in the prevention and treatment of cancerous conditions. However, more in-depth research is required to validate current data, so that this compound or its derivatives can enter the clinical trial phase.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132604
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2605: Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorates In
           Vivo Progression of Osteoarthritis

    • Authors: Shang-Yu Yang, Chi-Jung Fang, Yu-Wen Chen, Wan-Ping Chen, Li-Ya Lee, Chin-Chu Chen, Yen-You Lin, Shan-Chi Liu, Chun-Hao Tsai, Wei-Chien Huang, Yang-Chang Wu, Chih-Hsin Tang
      First page: 2605
      Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related disorder that affects the joints and causes functional disability. Hericium erinaceus is a large edible mushroom with several known medicinal functions. However, the therapeutic effects of H. erinaceus in OA are unknown. In this study, data from Sprague-Dawley rats with knee OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) indicated that H. erinaceus mycelium improves ACLT-induced weight-bearing asymmetry and minimizes pain. ACLT-induced increases in articular cartilage degradation and bone erosion were significantly reduced by treatment with H. erinaceus mycelium. In addition, H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in OA cartilage and synovium. H. erinaceus mycelium shows promise as a functional food in the treatment of OA.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132605
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2606: Mealtime TV Use Is Associated with Higher
           Discretionary Food Intakes in Young Australian Children: A Two-Year
           Prospective Study

    • Authors: Eloise-kate Litterbach, Miaobing Zheng, Karen J. Campbell, Rachel Laws, Alison C. Spence
      First page: 2606
      Abstract: Background: Mealtime television use has been cross-sectionally associated with suboptimal diets in children. This study aimed to assess the two-year prospective association between baseline mealtime television use and subsequent diets in young children, and identify socioeconomic differences. Methods: Parents reported their child’s television use at meals, and fruit, vegetable, and discretionary food intakes. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between baseline mealtime television use and follow-up diet outcomes. Differences were assessed by socioeconomic position. Results: Participants were 352 Australian parents of children aged six months to six years. Daily mealtime television use (average frequency/day) was associated with higher daily frequency of discretionary food intakes (β 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07–0.67) at the 2-year follow-up. Individually, television use during breakfast and dinner (1–2 days/week compared to never) predicted higher daily intake frequency of discretionary food, β 0.36 (95% CI 0.12–0.60) and β 0.19 (95% CI 0.00–0.39), respectively. Similarly, 3–7 days/week of television use during breakfast and lunch predicted higher frequency of discretionary food intake, β 0.18 (95% CI 0.02–0.37) and β 0.31 (95% CI 0.07–0.55), respectively. Associations were not socioeconomically patterned. Conclusions: Investigating mealtime television use motivators across the socioeconomic spectrum could inform interventions targeting the high consumption of discretionary foods in children.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132606
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2607: The Profiling of Diet and Physical
           Activity in Reproductive Age Women and Their Association with Body Mass
           Index

    • Authors: Mamaru Ayenew Awoke, Thomas P. Wycherley, Arul Earnest, Helen Skouteris, Lisa J. Moran
      First page: 2607
      Abstract: Pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and postpartum are critical life stages associated with higher weight gain and obesity risk. Among these women, the sociodemographic groups at highest risk for suboptimal lifestyle behaviours and core lifestyle components associated with excess adiposity are unclear. This study sought to identify subgroups of women meeting diet/physical activity (PA) recommendations in relation to sociodemographics and assess diet/PA components associated with body mass index (BMI) across these life stages. Cross-sectional data (Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–2012) were analysed for pre-pregnancy, pregnant and postpartum women. The majority (63–95%) of women did not meet dietary or PA recommendations at all life stages. Core and discretionary food intake differed by sociodemographic factors. In pre-pregnant women, BMI was inversely associated with higher whole grain intake (β = −1.58, 95% CI −2.96, −0.21; p = 0.025) and energy from alcohol (β = −0.08, −0.14, −0.005; p = 0.035). In postpartum women, BMI was inversely associated with increased fibre (β = −0.06, 95% CI −0.11, −0.004; p = 0.034) and PA (β = −0.002, 95% CI −0.004, −0.001; p = 0.013). This highlights the need for targeting whole grains, fibre and PA to prevent obesity across life stages, addressing those most socioeconomically disadvantaged.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132607
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2608: Intestinal Morphometric Changes Induced by
           a Western-Style Diet in Wistar Rats and GSPE Counter-Regulatory Effect

    • Authors: Helena Segú, Florijan Jalševac, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardévol, Ximena Terra, Maria Teresa Blay
      First page: 2608
      Abstract: Western-style diet is an obesogenic diet for rodents and humans due to its content of saturated fat and refined sugars, mainly sucrose and, in consequence, sucrose-derived fructose. This type of diets relates with intestinal disturbances when consumed regularly. The aim of this work was to analyse the adaptive morphologic and functional changes at intestinal level derived from the unhealthy components of a Cafeteria diet in rats. The effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in the prevention of diet-induced intestinal dysfunction was also analysed. Rats were fed a 17-week cafeteria diet (CAF) without or with oral-GSPE supplementation, either intermittent GSPE administration (SIT-CAF); last 10-day GSPE supplementation at doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg day (CORR-100) and (CORR-500) or pre-supplementation with 500 mg/kg GSPE (PRE-CAF). GSPE-CAF supplemented groups showed similar results to CAF diet group regarding morphology and inflammatory score in the duodenum. As an adaptive response to diet, CAF increased intestinal absorptive surface (1.24-fold) all along the intestinal tract and specifically in the small intestine, duodenum, due to increase villus height and a higher villus/crypt ratio, in addition to increase in Goblet cell percentage and inflammatory index. Animals fed GSPE at the current doses and times had higher villus heights and absorptive surface similar to Cafeteria diet group. In the duodenum, villus height correlated with body weight at 17 week and negatively with MLCK gene expression. In the colon, villus height correlated with the percentage of goblet cells. In conclusion, the CAF diet produced adaptive modifications of the intestine by increasing the absorptive area of the small intestine, the percentage of goblet cells and the inflammatory index at the duodenal level. GSPE supplementation can partially reverse the intestinal morphological changes induced by the high fat/sucrose diet when administered intermittently.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132608
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2609: Evaluation of a Physical Activity and
           Multi-Micronutrient Intervention on Cognitive and Academic Performance in
           South African Primary Schoolchildren

    • Authors: Johanna Beckmann, Siphesihle Nqweniso, Sebastian Ludyga, Rosa du Randt, Annelie Gresse, Kurt Z. Long, Madeleine Nienaber, Harald Seelig, Uwe Pühse, Peter Steinmann, Jürg Utzinger, Cheryl Walter, Markus Gerber, Christin Lang
      First page: 2609
      Abstract: Executive functions (EFs) are essential for optimal academic development. Appropriate nutrition and physical activity (PA) have been shown to facilitate optimal cognitive development. Therefore, this study examined whether a 12-week school-based PA and multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMNS) intervention would improve cognitive and academic performance. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Children from four schools located in a peri-urban area of South Africa were randomly assigned to (i) PA + MMNS, (ii) PA + placebo, (iii) MMNS or (iv) placebo. Information processing and inhibitory control were measured with a computerized Flanker task. End-of-year results provided insight into academic achievement. Anthropometric measures were used to determine nutritional status. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-models, adjusting for baseline scores, school classes and age; 932 children (458 girls (49.1%), Mage (mean age) = 8.42 ± 1.94 years) completed baseline and post-intervention assessments. Cognitive performance improved among all four groups, with no significant group × time effects. For academic achievement, there was no significant interaction effect between the combined intervention group and placebo. We encourage future studies in this neglected area in order to determine the most optimal design of school-based nutrition and PA programs to enhance overall cognitive performance.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132609
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2610: Ileal Pouch–Anal Anastomosis and
           Pouchitis: The Role of the Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Therapy

    • Authors: Roberto Gabbiadini, Arianna Dal Buono, Carmen Correale, Antonino Spinelli, Alessandro Repici, Alessandro Armuzzi, Giulia Roda
      First page: 2610
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are life-long disorders characterized by the chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with the intermittent need for escalation treatment and, eventually, even surgery. The total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical intervention of choice in subjects affected by ulcerative colitis (UC). Although IPAA provides satisfactory functional outcomes, it can be susceptible to some complications, including pouchitis as the most common. Furthermore, 10–20% of the pouchitis may develop into chronic pouchitis. The etiology of pouchitis is mostly unclear. However, the efficacy of antibiotics in pouchitis suggests that the dysbiosis of the IPAA microbiota plays an important role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to review the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis and as a target therapy in subjects who develop pouchitis after undergoing the surgical intervention of total proctocolectomy with IPAA reconstruction.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132610
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2611: Eating Disorders and Intimate Partner
           Violence: The Influence of Fear of Loneliness and Social Withdrawal

    • Authors: Janire Momeñe, Ana Estévez, Mark D. Griffiths, Patricia Macía, Marta Herrero, Leticia Olave, Itziar Iruarrizaga
      First page: 2611
      Abstract: Eating disorders are vulnerability factors that increase the likelihood of intimate partner violence. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Although eating disorders have been associated with increased perception and fear of loneliness, they have also been associated with increased social withdrawal resulting from decreased enjoyment of social situations and poorer social functioning. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediating role of fear of loneliness in the relationship between the behavioural characteristics of eating disorders and intimate partner violence, as well as to explore the moderating role of social withdrawal in the relationship between fear of loneliness and intimate partner violence. The sample comprised 683 participants (78% female and 22% male) with a mean age of 21.14 years (SD = 2.72). The psychometric scales used were Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI 2), Emotional Dependency Questionnaire (EDQ), Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI) and the Violence Received, Exercised and Perceived in Youth and Adolescent Dating Relationships Scale (VREPS). The hypothesised model was tested by path analysis using maximum likelihood. The path analysis of the hypothesised model showed that inefficacy, fear of maturity, and impulsivity were the behavioural characteristics of eating disorders predominantly related to fear of loneliness. Fear of loneliness had no direct significant effect on any of the received violence variables. However, interaction effects indicated that there was a moderately significant effect of fear of loneliness on physical, psychological, and social violence received as a function of levels of social withdrawal. These findings show the need to take into account and work on fear of loneliness and social withdrawal among individuals with an eating disorder to decrease the likelihood of establishing violent intimate partner relationships. Improving interpersonal functioning and social support is key to recovery from eating disorders.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132611
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2612: Key Challenges to Optimal Therapeutic
           Coverage and Maternal Utilization of CMAM Program in Rural Southern
           Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploratory Study

    • Authors: Farooq Ahmed, Najma Iqbal Malik, Nudra Malik, Madeeha Gohar Qureshi, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Shahid, Sidra Zia, Kun Tang
      First page: 2612
      Abstract: Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) is a serious public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therapeutic programs are often considered the most effective solution to this problem. However, multiple social and structural factors challenge the social inclusion, sustainability, and effectiveness of such programs. In this article, we aim to explore how poor and remote households face structural inequities and social exclusion in accessing nutrition-specific programs in Pakistan. The study specifically highlights significant reasons for the low coverage of the Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) program in one of the most marginalized districts of south Punjab. Qualitative data are collected using in-depth interviews and FGDs with mothers and health and nutrition officials. The study reveals that mothers’ access to the program is restricted by multiple structural, logistical, social, and behavioral causes. At the district level, certain populations are served, while illiterate, and poor mothers with lower cultural capital from rural and remote areas are neglected. The lack of funding for nutrition causes the deprioritization of nutrition by the health bureaucracy. The subsequent work burden on Lady Health Workers (LHWs) and the lack of proper training of field staff impact the screening of SAM cases. Moreover, medical corruption in the distribution of therapeutic food, long distances, traveling or staying difficulties, the lack of social capital, and the stigmatization of mothers are other prominent difficulties. The study concludes that nutrition governance in Pakistan must address these critical challenges so that optimal therapeutic coverage can be achieved.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132612
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2613: Elevation of Serum Spermidine in Obese
           Patients: Results from a Cross-Sectional and Follow-Up Study

    • Authors: Hanshu Gao, Qianlong Zhang, Jiahui Xu, Wei Yuan, Ruixue Li, Hui Guo, Cuiying Gu, Wenjing Feng, Yanan Ma, Zhaoqing Sun, Liqiang Zheng
      First page: 2613
      Abstract: Background: Spermidine, a natural polyamine, appears to be a promising intervention for the treatment of obesity in animal studies, but epidemiological studies on the association between spermidine and obesity are inadequate. Methods: In the cross-sectional study, a total of 4230 eligible Chinese rural participants aged ≥ 35 years at baseline were recruited, of whom 1738 completed the two-year follow-up. Serum spermidines were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Obesity and change in BMI were used as outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Participants who were obese had higher serum spermidine concentrations than those who were of normal weight (median (IQR), 27.2 ng/mL (14.8–53.4 ng/mL) vs. 23.8 ng/mL (12.8–46.6 ng/mL), p = 0.002). Compared with participants in the first quartile, those in the third quartile (OR 1.327, 95% CI 1.050 to 1.678) and the fourth quartile (OR 1.417, 95% CI 1.121 to 1.791) had a significantly increased risk of prevalent obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. In the follow-up study, participants in the third quartile (OR 0.712, 95% CI 0.535 to 0.946) and the fourth quartile (OR 0.493, 95% CI 0.370 to 0.657) had significantly lower risks of an increase in BMI after adjustment for confounding factors, with the lowest quartile as the reference. Meanwhile, we found a nonlinear relationship between spermidine and BMI in the follow-up study (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Serum spermidine was positively associated with increased odds of obesity in the cross-sectional study but reduced odds of an increase in BMI in the follow-up study among Chinese adults. Future studies are warranted to determine the exact mechanism underlying the association between spermidine and obesity and the scope for interventions.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132613
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2614: Effects of Developmental Failure of
           Swallowing Threshold on Obesity and Eating Behaviors in Children Aged
           5–15 Years

    • Authors: Yuko Fujita
      First page: 2614
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to identify factors related to developmental failure of swallowing threshold in children aged 5–15 years. Methods: A total of 83 children aged 5–15 years were included in this study. A self-administered lifestyle questionnaire was completed, along with hand grip strength and oral function tests. Swallowing threshold was determined based on the concentration of dissolved glucose obtained from gummy jellies when the participants signaled that they wanted to swallow the chewed gummy jellies. Developmental failure of swallowing threshold was defined as glucose concentrations in the lowest 20th percentile. After univariate analysis, multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developmental failure of swallowing threshold. Results: Hand grip strength was significantly correlated with masticatory performance (r = 0.611, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed factors related to developmental failure of swallowing threshold, i.e., overweight/obesity (Odds ratio) (OR) = 5.343, p = 0.031, 95% CI = 1.168–24.437) and eating between meals at least once a day (OR = 4.934, p = 0.049, 95% CI = 1.004–24.244). Conclusions: Developmental failure of swallowing threshold was closely associated with childhood obesity in 5- to 15-year-old children.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132614
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2615: Plant-Based Foods and Vascular Function: A
           Systematic Review of Dietary Intervention Trials in Older Subjects and
           Hypothesized Mechanisms of Action

    • Authors: Massimiliano Tucci, Mirko Marino, Daniela Martini, Marisa Porrini, Patrizia Riso, Cristian Del Bo’
      First page: 2615
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases, still the leading cause of mortality in the world, are closely related to vascular function. Older subjects are more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction and therefore it is important to define possible preventive or support strategies, such as consumption of foods with health-promoting effects. This systematic review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on acute or chronic trials testing the effect of selected plant-based foods on vascular function parameters in older subjects, and consider plausible mechanisms that may support the main findings. A total of 15 trials were included and analyzed, testing the effects of beetroot, plum, blueberry, and vegetable oils. We found some interesting results regarding markers of vascular reactivity, in particular for beetroot, while no effects were found for markers of arterial stiffness. The amelioration of vascular function seems to be more related to the restoration of a condition of nitric oxide impairment, exacerbated by diseases or hypoxic condition, rather than the enhancement of a physiological situation, as indicated by the limited effects on healthy older subjects or in control groups with young subjects. However, the overall set of selected studies is, in any case, rather limited and heterogeneous in terms of characteristics of the studies, indicating the need for additional high-quality intervention trials to better clarify the role of vegetable foods in restoring and/or improving vascular function in order to better elucidate the mechanisms through which these foods may exert their vascular health benefits in older subjects.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132615
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2616: Implications of Dietary Intake and Eating
           Behaviors for People with Serious Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Annabel S. Mueller-Stierlin, Sebastian Cornet, Anna Peisser, Selina Jaeckle, Jutta Lehle, Sabrina Moerkl, Scott B. Teasdale
      First page: 2616
      Abstract: The impact of poor diet quality and nutritional inadequacies on mental health and mental illness has recently gained considerable attention in science. As the opinions and experiences of people living with serious mental illness on dietary issues are unknown, we aimed to understand the role of nutrition in a biopsychosocial approach. In total, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people living with serious mental illness (SMI) in Australia, Germany and Austria, and a generic thematic analysis approach was applied. Four positive (positive effects on the body and mind, therapeutic effects in treating somatic illnesses, pleasure and opportunity for self-efficacy) and three negative (impairment related to mental illness and its treatment, perceived stigma and negative effects on the body and mind) implications of diet were identified. A key issue for most of the participants was the mental burden arising from their body weight. This might indicate that negative implications, such as guilt and stigma, were of primary importance for people with SMI when talking about their dietary behavior. In conclusion, diet-related support is urgently needed for people with SMI. However, especially participants from Germany and Austria reported that this is not yet widely available in mental health settings, leading to hopelessness and resignation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132616
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2617: Positive Effects of a Mediterranean Diet
           Supplemented with Almonds on Female Adipose Tissue Biology in Severe
           Obesity

    • Authors: Óscar Osorio-Conles, Romina Olbeyra, Violeta Moizé, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Oriol Giró, Judith Viaplana, Amanda Jiménez, Josep Vidal, Ana de Hollanda
      First page: 2617
      Abstract: It has been suggested that weight-loss-independent Mediterranean diet benefits on cardiometabolic health and diabetes prevention may be mediated, at least in part, through the modulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) biology. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of a dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet supplemented with almonds (MDSA) on the main features of obesity-associated WAT dysfunction. A total of 38 women with obesity were randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention with MDSA versus continuation of their usual dietary pattern. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies were obtained before and after the dietary intervention, and at the end of the study period, respectively. MDSA favored the abundance of small adipocytes in WAT. In SAT, the expression of angiogenesis genes increased after MDSA intervention. In VAT, the expression of genes implicated in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, autophagy and fatty acid usage was upregulated. In addition, a higher immunofluorescence staining for PPARG, CD31+ cells and M2-like macrophages and increased ADRB1 and UCP2 protein contents were found compared to controls. Changes in WAT correlated with a significant reduction in circulating inflammatory markers and LDL-cholesterol levels. These results support a protective effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with almonds on obesity-related WAT dysfunction.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132617
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2618: The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on
           the Severity of Symptoms and the Quality of Life in Irritable Bowel
           Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized
           Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Mohamed Abuelazm, Shoaib Muhammad, Mohamed Gamal, Fatma Labieb, Mostafa Atef Amin, Basel Abdelazeem, James Robert Brašić
      First page: 2618
      Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a gastrointestinal disorder affecting 7–12% of the population, is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and alternating bowel patterns. Data on risk and protective influences have yielded conflicting evidence on the effects of alternative interventions, such as vitamin D. This review focuses on the effects of vitamin D on IBS. A systematic review and meta-analysis considered all articles published until 4 April 2022. The search for randomized controlled trials assessing vitamin D efficacy in IBS with outcomes, primary (Irritable Bowel Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS)) and secondary (IBS quality of life (IBS-QoL) and serum level of calcifediol (25(OH)D)), was performed on six databases, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EMBASE, PubMed (MEDLINE), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included six trials with 616 patients. The pooled analysis found no difference between vitamin D and placebo in improving IBS-SSS (MD: −45.82 with 95% CI [−93.62, 1.98], p = 0.06). However, the pooled analysis favored vitamin D over placebo in improving the IBS-Qol (MD: 6.19 with 95% CI [0.35, 12.03], p = 0.04) and serum 25(OH)D (MD: 25.2 with 95% CI [18.41, 31.98], p = 0.00001). Therefore, further clinical trials are required to reach clinically applicable and generalizable findings.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132618
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2619: Acute Supplementation of Yerba Mate
           Extract Did Not Change Muscle Strength in Physically Active Men Following
           the Strength Muscle Test: A Pilot Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Patrícia C. B. Lobo, Débora D. da Silva, Gustavo D. Pimentel
      First page: 2619
      Abstract: Polyphenol supplementation may be useful during exercise. However, there is no evidence indicating yerba mate (YM) increases muscle strength. Thus, this study sought to evaluate the effect of acute YM supplementation on muscle strength following the strength test. In a crossover and pilot clinical trial, ten men were divided into two groups, receiving either supplementation with YM or a placebo. One hour after consumption of beverages, the participants were submitted to tests of one-repetition maximum (1 RM) on the bench press and leg press. The average age of the participants was 25.5 ± 4.1 years, and the average body mass index was 24.4 ± 2.9 kg/m². YM was not able to increase muscle strength when compared to the placebo in either the 1RM leg press exercise (YM: 225 ± 56.2 kg, vs. placebo: 223 ± 64.3 kg, p = 0.743, Cohen’s d = 0.03) or in the 1 RM bench press exercise (YM: 59.5 ± 20.7 kg vs. placebo: 59.5 ± 21.5 kg, p = 1.000, Cohen’s d = 0.) In conclusion, acute intake of YM did not change muscle strength in physically active men.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132619
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2620: A Four-Probiotic Regime to Reduce Surgical
           Site Infections in Multi-Trauma Patients

    • Authors: Georgios Tzikos, Despoina Tsalkatidou, George Stavrou, Giannoula Thoma, Angeliki Chorti, Maria Tsilika, Antonios Michalopoulos, Theodosios Papavramidis, Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Katerina Kotzampassi
      First page: 2620
      Abstract: Investigations that focused on the protective role of probiotics against Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in multiple-trauma (MT) patients are generally few, probably due to the complexity of the concept of trauma. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a four-probiotic regime to reduce the incidence of SSI in MT patients, with a brain injury included. MT patients, being intubated and expected to require mechanical ventilation for >10 days, were randomly allocated into placebo (n = 50) or probiotic treatment (n = 53) comprising Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (1.75 × 109 cfu), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum UBLP-40 (0.5 × 109 cfu), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (1.75 × 109 cfu), and Saccharomycesboulardii Unique-28 (1.5 × 109 cfu) in sachets. All patients received two sachets of placebo or probiotics twice/day for 15 days and were followed-up for 30 days. The operations were classified as neurosurgical, thoracostomies, laparotomies, orthopedics, and others; then, the SSI and the isolated pathogen were registered. A total of 23 (46.0%) and 13 (24.5%) infectious insults in 89 (50 placebo patients) and 88 (53 probiotics-treated) operations (p = 0.022) were recorded, the majority of them relating to osteosynthesis—17 and 8, respectively. The most commonly identified pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Our results support published evidence that the prophylactic administration of probiotics in MT patients exerts a positive effect on the incidence of SSI.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132620
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2621: Toward Oral Supplementation of Diamine
           Oxidase for the Treatment of Histamine Intolerance

    • Authors: Lucas Kettner, Ines Seitl, Lutz Fischer
      First page: 2621
      Abstract: A new diamine oxidase (DAO-1) was discovered recently in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica PO1f and investigated for its histamine degradation capability under simulated intestinal conditions. DAO-1 was formulated together with catalase as a sucrose-based tablet. The latter (9 × 7 mm; 400 mg) contained 690 nkat of DAO-1 activity, which was obtained from a bioreactor cultivation of a genetically modified Y. lipolytica with optimized downstream processing. The DAO-1 tablet was tested in a histamine bioconversion experiment under simulated intestinal conditions in the presence of food constituents, whereby about 30% of the histamine was degraded in 90 min. This amount might already be sufficient to help people with histamine intolerance. Furthermore, it was found that the stability of DAO-1 in a simulated intestinal fluid is influenced distinctively by the presence of a food matrix, indicating that the amount and type of food consumed affect the oral supplementation with DAO. This study showed for the first time that a microbial DAO could have the potential for the treatment of histamine intolerance by oral supplementation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132621
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2622: Current Advancements in Antitumor
           Properties and Mechanisms of Medicinal Components in Edible Mushrooms

    • Authors: Jing Xu, Rui Shen, Zhuoya Jiao, Weidong Chen, Daiyin Peng, Lei Wang, Nianjun Yu, Can Peng, Biao Cai, Hang Song, Fengyuan Chen, Bin Liu
      First page: 2622
      Abstract: Edible and medicinal fungi, a group of eukaryotic organisms with numerous varieties, including Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps sinensis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Grifola frondosa, have been demonstrated to possess a board range of pharmaceutical properties, including anti-virus, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotection. Moreover, edible and medicinal fungi have been traditionally consumed as food to provide multiple nutrients and as drugs owing to having the activities of invigorating blood circulation, reinforcing the healthy qi, clearing away heat, and eliminating stasis for thousands of years in China. Malignant tumors, well-known as the second leading cause of death globally, accounted for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020. Thus, in-depth exploration of strategies to prevent and treat cancer is extremely urgent. A variety of studies have reported that the main bioactive components of edible and medicinal fungi, mainly polysaccharides and triterpenoids, exhibit diverse anticancer activities via multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis, induction of apoptosis and autophagy, reversing multidrug resistance, and regulation of immune responses, thus suggesting their substantial potential in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Our review summarizes the research progress on the anticancer properties of edible and medicinal fungi and the underlying molecular mechanism, which may offer a better understanding of this field. Additionally, few studies have reported the safety and efficacy of extracts from edible and medicinal fungi, which may limit their clinical application. In summary, there is a need to continue to explore the use of those extracts and to further validate their safety and efficacy.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132622
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2623: High Diet Quality Is Linked to Low Risk of
           Abdominal Obesity among the Elderly Women in China

    • Authors: Lixin Hao, Hongru Jiang, Bing Zhang, Huijun Wang, Jiguo Zhang, Wenwen Du, Chunlei Guo, Zhihong Wang, Liusen Wang
      First page: 2623
      Abstract: How diet as a whole impacts the risk of general overweight and abdominal obesity among the Chinese elderly is unclear. The present study aimed to examine the association of overall diet quality with general overweight and abdominal obesity in the Chinese elderly. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1993 to 2015, an ongoing cohort study, we selected participants aged 60 and older who were not generally overweight, but who had abdominal obesity at baseline and who had participated in at least two waves of the survey as subjects. The China Elderly Dietary Guidelines Index (CDGI-E) was used, based on the critical diet-related recommendations of the 2016 Chinese Dietary Guideline (CDG-2016), to assess overall diet quality. Consecutive 3 d, 24 h recalls and household weighing for seasonings and edible oils were used to collect dietary data and calculate the CDGI-E scores. Three-level (community-individual-wave) random intercept logistic regression models were used to analyze the impact of diet quality on the risk of general overweight and abdominal obesity in the elderly. The results showed that the older women in the top sixtiles of the CDGI-E scores had a 38% reduction —0.62, 95% CI (0.41, 0.92)—in the risk of abdominal obesity, as compared to those in the bottom sixtiles after adjusting for all potential confounders, while the null association was observed in the older men. The relationship between CDGI-E score and the risk of overweight/general obesity in the Chinese elderly has not been found. It was concluded that a high diet quality was associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity among elderly women in China. Our findings will help to improve the understanding of the relationship between the overall effect of diet and health. It may provide a new avenue for obesity intervention policy formulation from the aspect of improving overall dietary quality.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132623
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2624: Iron Supplementation Is Associated with
           Improvement of Motor Development, Hemoglobin Level, and Weight in Preterm
           Infants during the First Year of Life in China

    • Authors: Suhua Xu, Liya Ma, Hailin Li, Xiaotong Wang, Miao Wu, Jiajia Jing, Xiaoyan Chen, Ruiling Lan, Weike Tang, Yanna Zhu
      First page: 2624
      Abstract: Iron supplementation is recommended for preterm infants due to impaired iron endowment. However, the health outcomes of this recommendation remain controversial. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association of iron supplementation with neurobehavioral development, hemoglobin (Hb), and anthropometric characteristics in preterm infants. A retrospective cohort design was applied to collect data from 1568 preterm infants at 0–3 months of corrected age (mo CA) from a hospital in South China. Infants were categorized into a 3-month iron supplementation group (IG, n = 697) or a control group (CG, n = 871) according to medical records, and then followed through to 12 mo CA. Data on neurobehavioral development, anthropometry, Hb level, history of diseases, and nutrition were collected at 3, 6, and 12 mo CA. The results showed that, compared with the CG, iron supplementation was positively related to improved gross motor skills and weight at 6 mo CA (β = 1.894, β = 5.322) and 12 mo CA (β = 4.019, β = 6.830) and fine motor skills at 12 mo CA (β = 1.980), after adjustment for confounding factors including illness, nutritional supplements, and diet. Iron supplementation was also related to elevated Hb levels and its increase at 3 mo CA (β = 2.196, β = 3.920) and 6 mo CA (β = 3.011, β = 7.259). In conclusion, iron supplementation for 3 months in Chinese preterm infants is positively associated with improved motor development, elevated Hb levels, and higher body weight during the first year of life.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132624
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2625: Growth and Gastrointestinal Tolerance in
           Healthy Term Infants Fed Milk-Based Infant Formula Supplemented with Five
           Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs): A Randomized Multicenter Trial

    • Authors: John Lasekan, Yong Choe, Svyatoslav Dvoretskiy, Amy Devitt, Sue Zhang, Amy Mackey, Karyn Wulf, Rachael Buck, Christine Steele, Michelle Johnson, Geraldine Baggs
      First page: 2625
      Abstract: Background: Five of the most abundant human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human milk are 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3′-sialyllactose (3′-SL) and 6′-sialyllactose (6′-SL). Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled parallel feeding trial evaluated growth in healthy term infants fed a control milk-based formula (CF; n = 129), experimental milk-based formula (EF; n = 130) containing five HMOs (5.75 g/L; 2′-FL, 3-FL, LNT, 3′-SL and 6′-SL) or human milk (HM; n = 104). Results: No significant differences (all p ≥ 0.337, protocol evaluable cohort) were observed among the three groups for weight gain per day from 14 to 119 days (D) of age, irrespective of COVID-19 or combined non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. There were no differences (p ≥ 0.05) among the three groups for gains in weight and length from D14 to D119. Compared to the CF group, the EF group had more stools that were soft, frequent and yellow and were similar to the HM group. Serious and non-serious adverse events were not different among groups, but more CF-fed infants were seen by health care professionals for illness from study entry to D56 (p = 0.044) and D84 (p = 0.028) compared to EF-fed infants. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the EF containing five HMOs supported normal growth, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and safe use in healthy term infants.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132625
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2626: The Effect of a Product Placement
           Intervention on Pupil’s Food and Drink Purchases in Two Secondary
           Schools: An Exploratory Study

    • Authors: Suzanne Spence, John N. S. Matthews, Lorraine McSweeney, Ashley J. Adamson, Jennifer Bradley
      First page: 2626
      Abstract: Limited research exists on the effectiveness of product placement in secondary schools. We explored the impact of re-positioning sweet-baked goods, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and water on pupil’s lunchtime purchases in two secondary schools in North-East England. We employed a stepped-wedge design with two clusters and four time periods. The intervention(s) involved re-positioning selected food and drinks to increase and decrease accessibility of ‘healthier’ and ‘less healthy’ items, respectively. Unidentifiable smartcard data measured the change in number of pupil’s purchasing the above items. McNemar tests were undertaken on paired nominal data in Stata(v15). In School A, pupils purchasing fruit pots from control to intervention increased (n = 0 cf. n = 81; OR 0, 95% CI 0 to 0.04); post-intervention, this was not maintained. In School B, from control to intervention pupil’s purchasing sweet-baked goods decreased (n = 183 cf. n = 147; OR 1.2, 95% CI 1 to 1.6). This continued post-intervention (n = 161 cf. n = 122; OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) and was similar for SSBs (n = 180 cf. n = 79; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.0). We found no evidence of other changes. There is some evidence that product placement may positively affect pupil’s food and drink purchases. However, there are additional aspects to consider, such as, product availability, engaging canteen staff and the individual school context.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132626
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2627: Prolonged Isolated Soluble Dietary Fibre
           Supplementation in Overweight and Obese Patients: A Systematic Review with
           Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Valentina V. Huwiler, Katja A. Schönenberger, Alexander Segesser von Brunegg, Emilie Reber, Stefan Mühlebach, Zeno Stanga, Maria L. Balmer
      First page: 2627
      Abstract: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising rapidly, currently affecting 1.9 billion adults worldwide. Prebiotic dietary fibre supplementation is a promising approach to improve weight loss and reduce metabolic complications in overweight and obese subjects due to modifications of the microbiota composition and function. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses addressing similar questions revealed discordant evidence and/or are outdated. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and forward and backward citations for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with isolated soluble dietary fibre supplementation for at least 12 weeks in overweight and obese patients measuring body weight, published through April 2022. We expressed the results as mean differences (MDs) using the random-effects model of the metafor package in R and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB2 tool. We conducted the study according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered the protocol on PROSPERO (CRD42022295246). The participants with dietary fibre supplementation showed a significantly higher reduction in body weight (MD −1.25 kg, 95% CI −2.24, −0.25; 27 RCTs; 1428 participants) accompanied by a significant decrease in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood insulin, and HOMA-IR compared to the control group. Certainty of evidence was high, paving the way for the implementation of isolated soluble dietary fibre supplementation into clinical practice.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132627
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2628: Understanding Enablers and Barriers to the
           Implementation of Nutrition Standards in Publicly Funded Institutions in
           Victoria

    • Authors: Emalie Rosewarne, Wai-Kwan Chislett, Briar McKenzie, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Tara Boelsen-Robinson, Miranda Blake, Jacqui Webster
      First page: 2628
      Abstract: Effective implementation of nutrition standards in publicly funded institutions can facilitate healthy food and beverage consumption by communities and populations, which can enable improvements in dietary intake and reduce disease burden. This study aimed to understand stakeholder perspectives on the implementation of government nutrition standards in publicly funded institutions in the Australian state of Victoria, as well as to determine enablers and barriers to successful implementation. Pre-interview questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were administered to stakeholders involved in the implementation of nutrition standards in publicly funded institutions in Victoria. The Interactive Systems Framework, which allows understanding of the infrastructure and systems needed to implement policies, was used to design the survey instruments and guide the data analysis. Forty-four stakeholders were interviewed, including program implementers, support personnel and food providers, across public sector hospitals and health services, workplaces, sport and recreation centres and schools. Though translated materials and resources have been developed for end-users to facilitate uptake and implementation, current nutrition standards were perceived to be long and complex, which hindered implementation. The existence of a government-funded implementation support service enabled action by providing technical support, troubleshooting and capacity-building. A specific pathway for successful guideline implementation was determined through the analysis. Opportunities to close the policy-implementation gap were identified. This will be crucial to maximising the impact of nutrition standards on population diets and reducing diet-related disease. Strengthening the guidelines and their governance, streamlining the support system and overcoming barriers within and outside of implementing organisations, are urgently required to propel statewide progress.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132628
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2629: Associations of Nutritional,
           Environmental, and Metabolic Biomarkers with Diabetes-Related Mortality in
           U.S. Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
           between 1988–1994 and 2016

    • Authors: Xi Zhang, Shirin Ardeshirrouhanifard, Jing Li, Mingyue Li, Hongji Dai, Yiqing Song
      First page: 2629
      Abstract: Background: Nutritional, environmental, and metabolic status may play a role in affecting the progression and prognosis of type 2 diabetes. However, results in identifying prognostic biomarkers among diabetic patients have been inconsistent and inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutritional, environmental, and metabolic status with disease progression and prognosis among diabetic patients. Methods: In a nationally representative sample in the NHANES III (The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994), we analyzed available data on 44 biomarkers among 2113 diabetic patients aged 20 to 90 years (mean age: 58.2 years) with mortality data followed up through 2016. A panel of 44 biomarkers from blood and urine specimens available from NHANES III were included in this study and the main outcomes as well as the measures are mortalities from all-causes. We performed weighted logistic regression analyses after controlling potential confounders. To assess incremental prognostic values of promising biomarkers beyond traditional risk factors, we compared c-statistics of the adjusted models with and without biomarkers, separately. Results: In total, 1387 (65.2%) deaths were documented between 1988 and 2016. We observed an increased risk of all-cause mortality associated with higher levels of serum C-reactive protein (p for trend = 0.0004), thyroid stimulating hormone (p for trend = 0.04), lactate dehydrogenase (p for trend =0.02), gamma glutamyl transferase (p for trend = 0.02), and plasma fibrinogen (p for trend = 0.03), and urine albumin (p for trend < 0.0001). In contrast, higher levels of serum sodium (p for trend = 0.005), alpha carotene (p for trend = 0.006), and albumin (p for trend = 0.005) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality. In addition, these significant associations were not modified by age, sex, or race. Inclusion of thyroid stimulating hormone (p = 0.03), fibrinogen (p = 0.01), and urine albumin (p < 0.0001), separately, modestly improved the discriminatory ability for predicting all-cause mortality among diabetic patients. Conclusions: Our nationwide study findings provide strong evidence that some nutritional, environmental, and metabolic biomarkers were significant predictors of all-cause mortality among diabetic patients and may have potential clinical value for improving stratification of mortality risk.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132629
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2630: Does Internet Use Connect Us to a Healthy
           Diet' Evidence from Rural China

    • Authors: Baojie Ma, Xin Jin
      First page: 2630
      Abstract: Dietary patterns in China have changed dramatically over the past few decades as the Internet has become rapidly available. Based on data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006–2011), we use a two-way fixed effects model and an instrumental variable approach to determine the impact of Internet use on the dietary quality of rural residents. The results indicate that Internet use could significantly improve the dietary quality of Chinese rural residents, with an increase of about 10.4% in the China Food Pagoda Score (CFPS), mainly due to the increase in the dietary quality score for five food groups: fruits, meats, eggs, oil, and salt. We also found that Internet use significantly increased the consumption amounts of milk and its products (4 g), fruits (31 g), eggs (8 g), and vegetables (34 g), while also decreasing the intake of salts (2 g) and oil (6 g). A possible mechanism is that Internet use improves the dietary knowledge of rural residents, thus optimizing their dietary structure. Moreover, the effect of the Internet was greater among females and those who prepare food for a family. Rural residents without a college degree enjoyed more benefits. In summary, governments should further promote Internet penetration in rural areas for health purposes.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132630
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2631: Effects of Fermented Milk Containing
           Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis MN-Gup (MN-Gup) and MN-Gup-Based
           Synbiotics on Obesity Induced by High Fat Diet in Rats

    • Authors: Chenyuan Wang, Shusen Li, Erna Sun, Ran Xiao, Ran Wang, Yimei Ren, Jingjing He, Qi Zhang, Jing Zhan
      First page: 2631
      Abstract: Given the probiotic effects previously found in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis MN-Gup (MN-Gup) and its great application potential in dairy products, this study aimed to investigate the effects of fermented milk containing MN-Gup or MN-Gup-based synbiotics on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) were selected as the tested prebiotics in MN-Gup-based synbiotics due to their promotion of MN-Gup growth in vitro. After nine weeks of HFD feeding, the obese rats were intervened with fermented milk containing MN-Gup (MN-Gup FM) or its synbiotics (MN-Gup + GOS FM, MN-Gup + XOS FM) for eight weeks. The results showed that the interventions could alleviate HFD-induced body weight gain, epididymal fat deposition, adipocyte hypertrophy, dyslipidemia and inflammation, but GOS and XOS did not exhibit significant synergies with MN-Gup on those alleviations. Furthermore, the interventions could regulate the HFD-affected gut microbiota and microbial metabolites, as shown by the increases in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and alterations in obesity-related bile acids (BAs), which may play important roles in the mechanism underlying the alleviation of obesity. This study revealed the probiotic effects of MN-Gup on alleviating obesity and provided the basis for MN-Gup applications in the future.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132631
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2632: The Roles and Pathogenesis Mechanisms of a
           Number of Micronutrients in the Prevention and/or Treatment of Chronic
           Hepatitis, COVID-19 and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Khalid M. Sumaily
      First page: 2632
      Abstract: A trace element is a chemical element with a concentration (or other measures of an amount) that is very low. The essential TEs, such as copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and the electrolyte magnesium (Mg) are among the most commonly studied micronutrients. Each element has been shown to play a distinctive role in human health, and TEs, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are among the essential elements required for the organisms’ well-being as they play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways where they act as enzyme co-factors, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Epidemics of infectious diseases are becoming more frequent and spread at a faster pace around the world, which has resulted in major impacts on the economy and health systems. Different trace elements have been reported to have substantial roles in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Micronutrients have been proposed in various studies as determinants of liver disorders, COVID-19 and T2DM risks. This review article sheds light on the roles and mechanisms of micronutrients in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic hepatitis B, C and E, as well as Coronavirus-19 infection and type-2 diabetes mellitus. An update on the status of the aforementioned micronutrients in pre-clinical and clinical settings is also briefly summarized.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132632
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2633: Changes in Sleep Patterns during Pregnancy
           and Predictive Factors: A Longitudinal Study in Saudi Women

    • Authors: Sara Al-Musharaf
      First page: 2633
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess sleep patterns during the three trimesters of pregnancy and whether vitamin D concentrations, along with other risk factors, are associated with these alterations. In a longitudinal study, 140 pregnant women (age 18 to 39 years) were followed throughout their first, second, and third trimesters. Sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at each trimester, along with an assessment of biochemical parameters, including serum vitamin D levels. The information that was collected included anthropometric data, socio-economic status, dietary intake, and physical activity. The PSQI was higher in mid and late pregnancy than in early pregnancy (both p = 0.001), and the sleep duration was also higher in late versus early pregnancy. Linear regression analyses revealed independent predictors of deteriorating sleep quality from early to late pregnancy, including low income (B ± SE −0.60 ± 0.26, p = 0.03) and low serum vitamin D levels in the second trimester (B ± SE −0.20 ± 0.01, p = 0.04). Energy intake and sitting in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with changes in the PSQI score from the second to third trimesters (B ± SE 0.15 ± 0.07, p = 0.048) and (B ± SE 0.01 ± 0.00, p = 0.044), respectively. Low socio-economic status, low serum vitamin D levels, greater energy intake, and sitting time were associated with worsening patterns of sleep quality from early to late pregnancy.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132633
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2634: Nutritional Status and Related Factors in
           Patients with Gastric Cancer after Gastrectomy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Hui-Mei Wang, Tsae-Jyy Wang, Ching-Shui Huang, Shu-Yuan Liang, Chia-Hui Yu, Ting-Ru Lin, Kuo-Feng Wu
      First page: 2634
      Abstract: Patients after gastrectomy for gastric cancer are at risk of malnutrition, and poor nutritional status negatively affects patients’ clinical outcomes. Knowledge of the factors influencing patients’ nutritional status can inform interventions for improving patients’ nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe nutritional status and related factors in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy. A convenience sample of gastric cancer patients with gastrectomy was recruited from general surgery or oncology clinics of a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected with self-reported questionnaires, including the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy—Gastric Module version 4, the Concerns in Meal Preparation scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Mini Nutrition Assessment. One hundred and one gastric cancer patients participated in the study. There were 81 cases of subtotal gastrectomy and 20 cases of total gastrectomy. Most patients (52.5%) were malnourished or at risk. Linear regression showed that symptom severity (β = −0.43), employment status (β = 0.19), and difficulty in diet preparation (β = −0.21) were significant predictors of nutritional status. Together, these three variables explained 35.8% of the variance in patient nutritional status (F = 20.3, p < 0.001). More than 50% of our participants were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition, indicating a need for continued monitoring and support after discharge from hospitals. Special attention should be given to patients with severe symptoms, unemployment, and difficulties in diet preparation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132634
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2635: Artificial Sweeteners in Breast Milk: A
           Clinical Investigation with a Kinetic Perspective

    • Authors: Sofie Stampe, Magnus Leth-Møller, Eva Greibe, Elke Hoffmann-Lücke, Michael Pedersen, Per Ovesen
      First page: 2635
      Abstract: Artificial sweeteners (ASs) are calorie-free chemical substances used instead of sugar to sweeten foods and drinks. Pregnant women with obesity or diabetes are often recommended to substitute sugary products with ASs to prevent an increase in body weight. However, some recent controversy surrounding ASs relates to concerns about the risk of obesity caused by a variety of metabolic changes, both in the mother and the offspring. This study addressed these concerns and investigated the biodistribution of ASs in plasma and breast milk of lactating women to clarify whether ASs can transfer from mother to offspring through breast milk. We recruited 49 lactating women who were provided with a beverage containing four different ASs (acesulfame-potassium, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose). Blood and breast milk samples were collected before and up to six hours after consumption. The women were categorized: BMI < 25 (n = 20), BMI > 27 (n = 21) and type 1 diabetes (n = 8). We found that all four ASs were present in maternal plasma and breast milk. The time-to-peak was 30–120 min in plasma and 240–300 min in breast milk. Area under the curve (AUC) ratios in breast milk were 88.9% for acesulfame-potassium, 38.9% for saccharin, and 1.9% for cyclamate. We observed no differences in ASs distributions between the groups.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132635
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2636: Broussonetia papyrifera Polysaccharide
           Alleviated Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Regulating the Intestinal
           Flora

    • Authors: Baichang Xu, Kaiyuan Hao, Xiaogang Chen, Enyun Wu, Dongyang Nie, Geyin Zhang, Hongbin Si
      First page: 2636
      Abstract: Liver injury caused by an overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is a major public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Broussonetia papyrifera polysaccharide (BPP) on liver injury and intestinal flora induced by APAP. The results showed that BPP could protect against APAP-induced liver injury, alleviate liver apoptosis, improve antioxidant capacity and enhance the liver’s detoxification ability to APAP. At the same time, BPP improved the intestinal flora disorder caused by APAP. More importantly, we found that the hepatoprotective effect of BPP disappeared after the depletion of gut microbiota in mice. Further, we reconstructed the intestinal flora structure of mice through fecal microbiota transplantation and found that the symptoms of APAP—induced liver injury were effectively alleviated. Overall, BPP was a potential hepatoprotective drug that could protect against APAP-induced liver injury and might be mediated by intestinal flora.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132636
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2637: Association between Dietary Fat Intake and
           Hyperuricemia in Men with Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Authors: Fumika Oku, Akinori Hara, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Keita Suzuki, Kim-Oanh Pham, Fumihiko Suzuki, Sakae Miyagi, Masaharu Nakamura, Chie Takazawa, Kuniko Sato, Toru Yanagisawa, Takayuki Kannon, Atsushi Tajima, Hiroyuki Nakamura
      First page: 2637
      Abstract: Despite a close relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and uric acid level, few studies have examined the relationship between uric acid level and fat intake by kidney function status. Therefore, we investigated the association between dietary fat intake and hyperuricemia with and without decreased kidney function in males living in Shika Town, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This study included 361 males with a mean age of 60.7 years. Dietary fat and fatty acid intakes were evaluated using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Reduced kidney function was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level > 7.0 mg/dL. A two-way analysis of covariance showed that saturated fatty acid (p = 0.026), monounsaturated fatty acid (p = 0.014), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in the high uric acid group than in the normal uric acid group. In multiple logistic analysis stratified by renal function, lipid intake was negatively associated with hyperuricemia in the low eGFR group. These findings suggest that higher dietary lipid/fatty acid intake may be effective in the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia in men with CKD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132637
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2638: Health Behaviours among Nursing Students
           in Poland during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Ewa Kupcewicz, Kamila Rachubińska, Aleksandra Gaworska-Krzemińska, Anna Andruszkiewicz, Ilona Kuźmicz, Dorota Kozieł, Elżbieta Grochans
      First page: 2638
      Abstract: (1) Background: An individual’s health status can be perceived as a consequence of their health behaviours. This research aimed to determine the intensity of health-promoting behaviours and to identify factors determining the health behaviours of nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: This study included 894 nursing students from six universities in Poland, and it was conducted between 20 March and 15 December 2021. A diagnostic survey was applied as the research method, and the data were collected using the Health Behaviour Inventory and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. (3) Results: Nearly half of the students participating in the study (48.43%) declared that the intensity of their general health behaviours was low. A positive and significant correlation (r = 0.426) was found between general health behaviours and satisfaction with life. A regression model demonstrated general satisfaction with life to be a predictor of taking up health-related behaviours (18%; β = 0.34), as well as in terms of proper eating habits (4%; β = 0.15), prophylactic behaviours (6%; β = 0.21), positive mental attitudes (26%; β = 0.44) and applied pro-health practices (10%; β = 0.25). (4) Conclusions: Most nursing students showed low levels of health-promoting behaviours. More research is needed on health behaviours and their determinants among nursing students, as it may be important in explaining the mechanisms of health behaviour formation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132638
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2639: Habitual Diet Pattern Associations with
           Gut Microbiome Diversity and Composition: Results from a Chinese Adult
           Cohort

    • Authors: Yuhan Zhang, Hongda Chen, Ming Lu, Jie Cai, Bin Lu, Chenyu Luo, Min Dai
      First page: 2639
      Abstract: The influence of long-term diet on gut microbiota is an active area of investigation. The present work aimed to explore the associations between habitual diet patterns and gut microbiota in a large sample of asymptomatic Chinese adults. The gut microbiome was profiled through the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in stool samples from 702 Chinese adults aged 50–75 years who underwent colonoscopies and were diagnosed to be free of colorectal neoplasm. Long-term dietary consumption was assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire. The microbial associations with specific food groups and the posteriori dietary pattern were tested using the Kruskal–Wallis H test, permutational ANOVAs, and multivariate analyses with linear models. The Shannon indexes generally shared similar levels across different food intake frequency groups. Whole grain and vegetable intakes totally explained 1.46% of the microbiota compositional variance. Using the data-driven posteriori approach, a general dietary pattern characterized by lower intakes of refined grains was highlighted to be associated with higher abundances of the genus Anaerostipes and a species of it. We also observed 17 associations between various food group intakes and specific genera and species. For instance, the relative abundances of the genus Weissella and an uncultured species of it were negatively associated with red meat intake. The results of this study support the idea that the usual dietary consumption measured by certain food items or summary indexes is associated with gut microbial features. These results deepen the understanding of complex relationships of diet and gut microbiota, as well as their implications for gut microbiome studies of human chronic diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132639
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2640: Association of Preconception Blood
           Pressure with the Risk of Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age: A
           Large Longitudinal Chinese Birth Cohort

    • Authors: Hang An, Huiting Chen, Zhiwen Li, Le Zhang, Yali Zhang, Jianmeng Liu, Rongwei Ye, Nan Li
      First page: 2640
      Abstract: Hypertension during pregnancy may increase the risk of anemia in the offspring. However, few studies have investigated the effects of elevated blood pressure during the preconception period on childhood anemia. This large population-based birth cohort study was performed to determine whether abnormal preconception blood pressure has long-term consequences for childhood health. Data were obtained from the China–US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. The study consisted of 40,638 women with singleton live births who were registered in a monitoring system before pregnancy in southern China during the period 1993–1996. Children were assessed by hemoglobin measurement at approximately 53 months of age. The incidences of childhood anemia were 19.80% in the hypertension group and 16.07% in the non-hypertension group. Compared with the non-hypertension group, the hypertension group had an increased risk of childhood anemia (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.41). After categorization according to blood pressure, combined systolic and diastolic hypertension was associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood anemia, compared with normotension (adjusted RR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.16–1.63). Compared with women who had normal blood pressure, the adjusted RRs for childhood anemia were 1.20 (95% CI: 1.13–1.28), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08–1.47), and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.14–1.67) among women with prehypertension, stage-1 hypertension, and stage-2 hypertension, respectively. Our results suggest a linear association between prepregnancy hypertension and the risk of childhood anemia in the Chinese population. Interventions targeting preconception blood pressure may have a positive effect on childhood health.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132640
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2641: Therapeutic Benefits and Dietary
           Restrictions of Fiber Intake: A State of the Art Review

    • Authors: Corina-Bianca Ioniță-Mîndrican, Khaled Ziani, Magdalena Mititelu, Eliza Oprea, Sorinel Marius Neacșu, Elena Moroșan, Denisa-Elena Dumitrescu, Adrian Cosmin Roșca, Doina Drăgănescu, Carolina Negrei
      First page: 2641
      Abstract: Throughout history, malnutrition and deficiency diseases have been a problem for our planet’s population. A balanced diet significantly influences everyone’s health, and fiber intake appears to play a more important role than previously thought. The natural dietary fibers are a category of carbohydrates in the constitution of plants that are not completely digested in the human intestine. High-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains, have consistently been highly beneficial to health and effectively reduced the risk of disease. Although the mode of action of dietary fiber in the consumer body is not fully understood, nutritionists and health professionals unanimously recognize the therapeutic benefits. This paper presents the fiber consumption in different countries, the metabolism of fiber and the range of health benefits associated with fiber intake. In addition, the influence of fiber intake on the intestinal microbiome, metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes), neurological aspects, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer prevention are discussed. Finally, dietary restrictions and excess fiber are addressed, which can cause episodes of diarrhea and dehydration and increase the likelihood of bloating and flatulence or even bowel obstruction. However, extensive studies are needed regarding the composition and required amount of fiber in relation to the metabolism of saprotrophic microorganisms from the enteral level and the benefits of the various pathologies with which they can be correlated.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132641
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2642: Dietary Supplements in People with
           Metastatic Cancer Who Are Experiencing Malnutrition, Cachexia, Sarcopenia,
           and Frailty: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Jolyn Johal, Chad Yixian Han, Ria Joseph, Zachary Munn, Oluwaseyifunmi Andi Agbejule, Fiona Crawford-Williams, Matthew P. Wallen, Raymond J. Chan, Nicolas H. Hart
      First page: 2642
      Abstract: Cancer-associated malnutrition, or cachexia, stemming from cancer or its treatments, is particularly prevalent in metastatic cancers, and is often interrelated with sarcopenia and frailty. Evidence suggests that dietary supplements play a role in managing these conditions. As metastatic cancer cells are associated with notable genomic and phenotypic alterations, response to dietary supplements may differ between metastatic and non-metastatic cancers. However, research in this area is lacking. This scoping review aims to identify the dietary supplements that have been studied in patients with metastatic cancers and malnutrition-related conditions, along with their proposed effects, mechanisms, outcome measures, and tools used. A systematic search was conducted across databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical trial registries. Of the initial 6535 records screened, a total of 48 studies were included, covering a range of dietary supplements—vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, fiber, and others. While the types of dietary supplements included varied across cancer types, omega-3 and carnitine were investigated most often. Proposed relevant attributes of dietary supplements included their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory properties. Overall, there was a paucity of interventional studies, and more randomized controlled trials are warranted.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132642
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2643: Association between Dietary Anthocyanidins
           and Risk of Lung Cancer

    • Authors: Yin Zhang, Min Zhu, Huajing Wan, Ling Chen, Fengming Luo
      First page: 2643
      Abstract: Background: Anthocyanidins are a kind of water-soluble flavonoids widely found in flowers and fruits of many plants. Although the beneficial effect of anthocyanidins in cancer prevention has been discussed, the value of anthocyanidins in lung cancer prevention requires further investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of dietary anthocyanidins in the prevention of lung cancer in population-based prospective studies. Methods: Data of participants in this study were collected from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in Cox proportional hazards regression for the association of dietary anthocyanidins and lung cancer risk. The dose-response relationship was explored between total anthocyanidins and the incidence of lung cancer. Results: A total of 97,993 participants were included in this study. The calculated HRs showed a trend that a higher quartile of total anthocyanidins indicated lower risk of lung cancer after adjusting for covariates (HRQ4vsQ1: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.55,0.73; p for trend < 0.001). A non-linear association between total anthocyanidins and lung cancer risk was found in the restricted cubic spline model. Conclusion: A protective association between dietary anthocyanidins and risk of lung cancer in Americans was investigated.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132643
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2644: Association between Micronutrient Intake
           and Breast Cancer Risk According to Body Mass Index in South Korean Adult
           Women: A Cohort Study

    • Authors: Huiyeon Song, Ansun Jeong, Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Jiseon Lee, Mikyung Kim, Boyoung Park
      First page: 2644
      Abstract: This study investigated the association between micronutrient intake and breast cancer risk in South Korean adult women. This association was stratified according to body mass index (BMI) categories. Data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and the Health Examinee Study were analyzed. Altogether, 63,337 individuals (aged ≥40 years) completed the baseline and first follow-up surveys; 40,432 women without a history of cancer at baseline were included in this study. The association between micronutrient intake and breast cancer was determined by estimating the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. A stratified analysis by BMI (<25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2) was performed. The an analysis of 15 micronutrients and breast cancer risk revealed that none of the micronutrients were associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for covariates. In obese women, the risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in the group that consumed vitamin C more than the recommended level (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93) and vitamin B6 levels above the recommended level (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25–0.89). In obese women, exceeding the recommended daily intake levels of vitamin C and vitamin B6 was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. However, other micronutrients were not associated with breast cancer risk in these women.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132644
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2645: Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on
           Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Athletes: A Systematic Review of Randomized
           Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Karolina Łagowska, Joanna Bajerska, Szymon Kamiński, Cristian Del Bo’
      First page: 2645
      Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the gut barrier function, and inflammatory markers in athletes based on data from randomised controlled trials. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science up to October 2021. The protocol for this review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021284938). Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts to identify articles on the influence of probiotics or symbiotics on GI symptoms, gut barrier function, and cytokines, and the quality of the studies was assessed using RoB2. Ten articles involving 822 athletes were included in this review. A single strain Lactobacillus bacteria was used in three studies, seven studies used a Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium multi-strain cocktail, and one study used this cocktail with a prebiotic. Only slight evidence was found for a positive effect of probiotics on GI symptoms in athletes during training, exercise, and competition, so it was not possible to identify the best product for managing GI symptoms in athletes. Due to the small number of studies, it was also difficult to find a direct association between the reduced exercise-induced perturbations in cytokines, gut barrier function, and GI symptoms after probiotic supplementation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132645
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2646: Complementary Feeding Caregivers’
           Practices and Growth, Risk of Overweight/Obesity, and Other
           Non-Communicable Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Marcello Bergamini, Giovanni Simeone, Maria Carmen Verga, Mattia Doria, Barbara Cuomo, Giuseppe D’Antonio, Iride Dello Dello Iacono, Giuseppe Di Di Mauro, Lucia Leonardi, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Filomena Palma, Immacolata Scotese, Giovanna Tezza, Margherita Caroli, Andrea Vania
      First page: 2646
      Abstract: Several institutions propose responsive feeding (RF) as the caregivers’ relational standard when nurturing a child, from breast/formula feeding onwards. Previous systematic reviews (SRs) on caregivers’ feeding practices (CFPs) have included studies on populations from countries with different cultures, rates of malnutrition, and incomes, whereas this SR compares different CFPs only in healthy children (4–24 months) from industrialized countries. Clinical questions were about the influence of different CFPs on several important outcomes, namely growth, overweight/obesity, risk of choking, dental caries, type 2 diabetes (DM2), and hypertension. The literature review does not support any Baby Led Weaning’s or Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS’ (BLISS) positive influence on children’s weight–length gain, nor their preventive effect on future overweight/obesity. RF-CFPs can result in adequate weight gain and a lower incidence of overweight/obesity during the first two years of life, whereas restrictive styles and coercive styles, two kinds of non-RF in CF, can have a negative effect, favoring excess weight and lower weight, respectively. Choking risk: failure to supervise a child’s meals by an adult represents the most important risk factor; no cause–effect relation between BLW/BLISS/RF/NRCF and choking could be found. Risks of DM2, hypertension, and caries: different CFPs cannot be considered as a risky or preventive factor for developing these conditions later in life.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132646
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2647: Bioavailability of Hesperidin and Its
           Aglycone Hesperetin—Compounds Found in Citrus Fruits as A Parameter
           Conditioning the Pro-Health Potential (Neuroprotective and Antidiabetic
           Activity)—Mini-Review

    • Authors: Kamil Wdowiak, Jarosław Walkowiak, Robert Pietrzak, Aleksandra Bazan-Woźniak, Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
      First page: 2647
      Abstract: Hesperidin and hesperetin are polyphenols that can be found predominantly in citrus fruits. They possess a variety of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective and antidiabetic activity. However, the bioavailability of these compounds is limited due to low solubility and restricts their use as pro-healthy agents. This paper described the limitations resulting from the low bioavailability of the presented compounds and gathered the methods aiming at its improvement. Moreover, this work reviewed studies providing pieces of evidence for neuroprotective and antidiabetic properties of hesperidin and hesperetin as well as providing a detailed look into the significance of reported modes of action in chronic diseases. On account of a well-documented pro-healthy activity, it is important to look for ways to overcome the problem of poor bioavailability.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132647
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2648: The Effect of Ramadan and COVID-19 on the
           Relationship between Physical Activity and Burnout among Teachers

    • Authors: Maamer Slimani, Hela Znazen, Fairouz Azaiez, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
      First page: 2648
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the effect of COVID-19 and Ramadan on physical activity (PA) and burnout in teachers and the relationship between them. A total of 57 secondary school teachers from public education centers participated in the present study. They were aged between 29 and 52 years. To determine the effect of Ramadan and COVID-19 on PA and burnout, participants completed the online questionnaires before COVID-19, one week before Ramadan and during the second week of Ramadan. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-BREF and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey were used to assess PA intensities and burnout, respectively. The data revealed that total PA (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively) vigorous metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively), moderate MET (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively) were higher before COVID-19 and before Ramadan than during Ramadan. Regarding burnout subscales, emotional exhaustion (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively) was higher before Ramadan than before COVID-19 and during Ramadan. A lower personal accomplishment was reported before Ramadan than before COVID-19 and during Ramadan (both p < 0.05). In addition, low to high correlations were observed between PA intensities and burnout subscales, except for the correlation between depersonalization and all PA intensities. In conclusion, Ramadan intermittent fasting along with PA was highly recommended for teachers and the general population to improve positive emotions and general health.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132648
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2649: Dietary Therapy in Prevention of
           Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)—Tradition or Modernity' A Review of
           the Latest Approaches to Nutrition in CVD

    • Authors: Elżbieta Szczepańska, Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Barbara Janota, Oskar Kowalski
      First page: 2649
      Abstract: The development of cardiovascular diseases is undoubtedly influenced by improper dietary behavior. The most common mistakes include irregularity of meal consumption, high dietary atherogenicity: snacking on sweets between meals, low supply of dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, legume seeds, and high supply of meat and meat products. Among many food components, some are characterized by a specific cardioprotective effect, which means that their supply of food may prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular disease or improve the health of the sick. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is one of the ingredients showing cardioprotective effects on the heart and blood vessels. Antioxidant and lipid profile-enhancing effects are also attributed to sitosterol which is one of the plant-derived sterols. A very important argument indicating the necessity of a varied diet rich in a variety of plant products is the beneficial effect of polyphenols, which are most abundant in multicolored vegetables and fruits. Numerous studies show their effectiveness in lowering blood pressure, improving lipid profile, and regeneration of vascular endothelium. The collected publications from the field of lifestyle medicine can be a source of knowledge for dieticians, physicians, and people associated with physical culture and human mental health to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and reduce the risk of death from this cause.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132649
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2650: Associations between Consumption of
           Dietary Fibers and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity,
           Cardiovascular Diseases, and Mortality in Chinese Adults: Longitudinal
           Analyses from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    • Authors: Zhaoxia Zhang, Bo Chen, Jingjing Zeng, Menglin Fan, Wenlei Xu, Xiaying Li, Ying Xing, Shaoyong Xu
      First page: 2650
      Abstract: Although many studies have explored the relationship between total dietary fiber intake and the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, the results are mixed. There is also a lack of research on the association between dietary fiber intake from different food sources and disease. Using data from the China Nutrition and Health Database from 2004 to 2015, Cox proportional risk models were used to explore the associations between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from different food sources and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. After multi-factorial adjustment, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of total dietary fiber intake (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality cohorts were 1.20 (0.93, 1.55), 0.91 (0.75, 1.12), 0.93 (0.64, 1.35), 1.13 (0.60, 2.12), 1.13 (0.60, 2.12), and 1.13 (0.84, 1.52). Whole-grain fiber intake was positively associated with hypertension but not with the occurrence of other diseases. No association was observed between legume fibers, fruit fibers, and vegetable fibers in the cohorts of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Our study did not find any association between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber intake from different food sources and type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in the Chinese population. The role of dietary fiber in the Chinese population may be overestimated. More extraordinary efforts are needed to further confirm the association between dietary fiber and these diseases in the Chinese population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132650
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2651: Comment on Brinkis et al. Nutrient Intake
           with Early Progressive Enteral Feeding and Growth of Very Low-Birth-Weight
           Newborns. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1181

    • Authors: Shabih Manzar
      First page: 2651
      Abstract: I read with great interest the article by Brinkis et al [...]
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132651
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2652: Exercise: A Possibly Effective Way to
           Improve Vitamin D Nutritional Status

    • Authors: Jinghua Zhang, Zhen-Bo Cao
      First page: 2652
      Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency has become a widespread public health problem owing to its potential adverse health effects. Generally, the nutritional status of vitamin D depends on sunlight exposure and dietary or supplementary intake. However, recent studies have found that exercise can influence circulating 25(OH)D levels; although, the results have been inconclusive. In this review, we focused on the effect of exercise on circulating vitamin D metabolites and their possible mechanisms. We found that endurance exercise can significantly increase serum 25(OH)D levels in vitamin D-deficient people but has no significant effect on vitamin D-sufficient people. This benefit has not been observed with resistance training. Only chronic endurance exercise training can significantly increase serum 1,25(OH)2D, and the effect may be sex-dependent. Exercise may influence 25(OH)D levels in the circulation by regulating either the vitamin D metabolites stored in tissues or the utilization by target tissues. The effects of exercise on 25(OH)D levels in the circulation may be dependent on many factors, such as the vitamin D nutritional status, exercise type and intensity, and sex. Therefore, further research on the effects and mechanisms of exercise on vitamin D metabolites is required.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132652
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2653: Reply to Manzar, S. Comment on
           “Brinkis et al. Nutrient Intake with Early Progressive Enteral
           Feeding and Growth of Very Low-Birth-Weight Newborns. Nutrients 2022, 14,
           1181”

    • Authors: Rasa Brinkis, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Rasa Tamelienė, Asta Vinskaitė, Kastytis Šmigelskas, Rasa Verkauskienė
      First page: 2653
      Abstract: We appreciate Dr. Shabih Manzar’s interest [...]
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132653
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2654: Gut Microbiota-Derived Metabolites and
           Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort
           Studies

    • Authors: Raul Sanchez-Gimenez, Wahiba Ahmed-Khodja, Yesica Molina, Oscar M. Peiró, Gil Bonet, Anna Carrasquer, George A. Fragkiadakis, Mònica Bulló, Alfredo Bardaji, Christopher Papandreou
      First page: 2654
      Abstract: Gut microbiota-derived metabolites have recently attracted considerable attention due to their role in host-microbial crosstalk and their link with cardiovascular health. The MEDLINE-PubMed and Elsevier’s Scopus databases were searched up to June 2022 for studies evaluating the association of baseline circulating levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), secondary bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), tryptophan and indole derivatives, with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review after evaluating 1210 non-duplicate records. There were nineteen of the twenty-one studies that were cohort studies and two studies had a nested case–control design. All of the included studies were of high quality according to the “Newcastle–Ottawa Scale”. TMAO was positively associated with adverse cardiovascular events and CVD/all-cause mortality in some, but not all of the included studies. Bile acids were associated with atrial fibrillation and CVD/all-cause mortality, but not with CVD. Positive associations were found between BCAAs and CVD, and between indole derivatives and major adverse cardiovascular events, while a negative association was reported between tryptophan and all-cause mortality. No studies examining the relationship between SCFAs and CVD risk were identified. Evidence from prospective studies included in the systematic review supports a role of microbial metabolites in CVD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132654
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2655: Ameliorating Effect of Crassocephalum
           rabens (Asteraceae) Extract on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Parallel,
           Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Study

    • Authors: Chen-Meng Kuan, Chia-Hua Liang, Wei-Hsiu Chuang, Ting-Yu Lin, Pang-Kuei Hsu
      First page: 2655
      Abstract: Crassocephalum rabens (Asteraceae) is a common herb used in Taiwanese folk medicine to treat inflammation-related syndromes. Pharmacological studies have revealed that galactolipids exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyaluronidase activities and improve skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity in healthy subjects. However, the anti-aging effects of C. rabens and its primary active compound, 1,2-di-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (dLGG), remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether C. rabens can improve skin conditions in healthy individuals using a double-blind approach. Forty enrolled volunteers were randomly and equally assigned to the control or treatment group and were required to take either a placebo or a C. rabens extract capsule daily for one month. Skin parameters were measured before and after the study. The results showed significant differences in skin elasticity, wrinkles, collagen content, brightness, and hydration between the baseline and week 4 in the treatment group. Particularly, compared with those in the placebo group, skin wrinkles (p < 0.05), brightness (p < 0.001), collagen content (p < 0.01), and UV spots (p < 0.05) were notably improved after treatment with the C. rabens extract. Our study successfully demonstrated the application of C. rabens in preventing skin aging. Further investigations will be conducted to study the underlying anti-aging mechanism of dLGG.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132655
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2656: Assessing the Association between
           Important Dietary Habits and Osteoporosis: A Genetic Correlation and
           Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study

    • Authors: Jiawen Xu, Shuai Li, Yi Zeng, Haibo Si, Yuangang Wu, Shaoyun Zhang, Bin Shen
      First page: 2656
      Abstract: Objective: Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disease. The genetic and metabolic factors play important roles in OP development. However, the genetic basis of OP is still elusive. The study aimed to explore the relationships between OP and dietary habits. Methods: This study used large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from the UK Biobank to explore potential associations between OP and 143 dietary habits. The GWAS summary data of OP included 9434 self-reported OP cases and 444,941 controls, and the GWAS summary data of the dietary habits included 455,146 participants of European ancestry. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) was used to detect the genetic correlations between OP and each of the 143 dietary habits, followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further assess the causal relationship between OP and candidate dietary habits identified by LDSC. Results: The LDSC analysis identified seven candidate dietary habits that showed genetic associations with OP including cereal type such as biscuit cereal (coefficient = −0.1693, p value = 0.0183), servings of raw vegetables per day (coefficient = 0.0837, p value = 0.0379), and spirits measured per month (coefficient = 0.115, p value = 0.0353). MR analysis found that OP and PC17 (butter) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.974, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (0.973, 0.976), p value = 0.000970), PC35 (decaffeinated coffee) (OR = 0.985, 95% CI = (0.983, 0.987), p value = 0.00126), PC36 (overall processed meat intake) (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = (1.033, 1.037), p value = 0.000976), PC39 (spirits measured per month) (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = (1.011, 1.015), p value = 0.00153), and servings of raw vegetables per day (OR = 0.978, 95% CI = (0.977, 0.979), p value = 0.000563) were clearly causal. Conclusions: Our findings provide new clues for understanding the genetic mechanisms of OP, which focus on the possible role of dietary habits in OP pathogenesis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132656
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2657: Skipping Breakfast and Incidence of
           Frequent Alcohol Drinking in University Students in Japan: A Retrospective
           Cohort Study

    • Authors: Yuichiro Matsumura, Ryohei Yamamoto, Maki Shinzawa, Taisuke Matsushita, Ryuichi Yoshimura, Naoko Otsuki, Masayuki Mizui, Isao Matsui, Junya Kaimori, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Chisaki Ishibashi, Seiko Ide, Kaori Nakanishi, Makoto Nishida, Takashi Kudo, Keiko Yamauchi-Takihara, Izumi Nagatomo, Toshiki Moriyama
      First page: 2657
      Abstract: Frequency of alcohol drinking is a potential predictor of binge drinking of alcohol, a serious social problem for university students. Although previous studies have identified skipping breakfast as a predictor of various health-compromising behaviors and cardiometabolic diseases, few studies have assessed the association between skipping breakfast and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking. This retrospective cohort study included 17,380 male and 8799 female university students aged 18–22 years admitted to Osaka universities between 2004 and 2015. The association between breakfast frequency (eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually) and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking, defined as drinking ≥4 days/week, was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During the median observational period of 3.0 years, 878 (5.1%) men and 190 (2.2%) women engaged in frequent alcohol drinking. Skipping breakfast was significantly associated with the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval] of eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually: 1.00 [reference], 1.02 [0.84–1.25], and 1.48 [1.17–1.88] in men; 1.00 [reference], 1.60 [1.03–2.49], and 3.14 [1.88–5.24] in women, respectively). University students who skipped breakfast were at a higher risk of frequent alcohol drinking than those who ate breakfast every day.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132657
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2658: Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome in Allergic
           March

    • Authors: Hiroki Yasudo, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Limin Yang, Mayako Saito-Abe, Miori Sato, Yumiko Miyaji, Mami Shimada, Seiko Hirai, Kenji Toyokuni, Fumi Ishikawa, Yusuke Inuzuka, Shigenori Kabashima, Tatsuki Fukuie, Yukihiro Ohya
      First page: 2658
      Abstract: The association between pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) and allergic march remains unclear. In this prospective cohort study of the general population in Tokyo (T-Child Study), we found that sensitization to Cry j 1 and Fel d 1 at ages 5 and 9 years was associated with an increased risk of PFAS at 13 years old (at 5 years, Cry j 1: adjusted odds ratio aOR, 2.74; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.53–4.91; Fel d 1: aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.31–5.19; at 9 years, Cry j 1: adjusted odds ratio aOR, 4.28; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.98–9.25; Fel d 1: aOR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.33–4.32). In particular, sensitization to Bet v 1 at ages 5 and 9 years was associated with a strong risk of PFAS at the age of 13 years (at 5 years: aOR, 10.6; 95% CI, 2.64–42.5; at 9 years: aOR, 9.1; 95% CI, 4.71–17.6). PFAS risk by age 13 years was increased by any allergic symptom at 5 or 9 years, a combination of wheezing, eczema, and rhinitis, and Bet v 1 sensitization. Our findings suggest that PFAS may be associated with allergic march.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132658
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2659: Relevance of Early Introduction of
           Cow’s Milk Proteins for Prevention of Cow’s Milk Allergy

    • Authors: Laurien Ulfman, Angela Tsuang, Aline B. Sprikkelman, Anne Goh, R. J. Joost van Neerven
      First page: 2659
      Abstract: Food allergy incidence has increased worldwide over the last 20 years. For prevention of food allergy, current guidelines do not recommend delaying the introduction of allergenic foods. Several groundbreaking studies, such as the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy study, showed that the relatively early introduction of this allergenic food between 4–6 months of age reduces the risk of peanut allergy. However, less is known about the introduction of cow’s milk, as many children already receive cow’s-milk-based formula much earlier in life. This can be regular cow’s milk formula with intact milk proteins or hydrolyzed formulas. Several recent studies have investigated the effects of early introduction of cow’s-milk-based formulas with intact milk proteins on the development of cow’s milk allergy while breastfeeding. These studies suggest that depending on the time of introduction and the duration of administration of cow’s milk, the risk of cow’s milk allergy can be reduced (early introduction) or increased (very early introduction followed by discontinuation). The aim of this narrative review is to summarize these studies and to discuss the impact of early introduction of intact cow’s milk protein - as well as hydrolyzed milk protein formulas - and the development of tolerance versus allergy towards cow’s milk proteins.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132659
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2660: Food Selectivity and Its Implications
           Associated with Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Autism
           Spectrum Disorders

    • Authors: Angel F. Valenzuela-Zamora, David G. Ramírez-Valenzuela, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
      First page: 2660
      Abstract: Food selectivity (FS) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is common, and its impact on a nutritional level is known. However, the etiology of gastrointestinal disorders (GID) related to alterations in the intestinal microbiota in children with ASD remains unclear. This article provides a narrative review of the literature on FS from the last 15 years, and its relationship with GID in children with ASD. Sensory aversion in ASD leads to food elimination, based on consistencies, preferences, and other sensory issues. The restriction of food groups that modulate the gut microbiota, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as the fibers of some cereals, triggers an intestinal dysbiosis with increased abundance in Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella Escherichia/Shigella, and Clostridium XIVa, which, together with an aberrant immune response and a leaky gut, may trigger GID. It is observed that FS can be the product of previous GID. GID could provide information to generate a hypothesis of the bidirectional relationship between FS and GID. Emphasis is placed on the need for more studies with methodological rigor in selecting children with ASD, the need for homogeneous criteria in the evaluation of GID, and the adequate classification of FS in children with ASD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132660
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2661: Overlapping Mechanisms of Action of
           Brain-Active Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in the Pathogenesis of
           Common Brain Diseases

    • Authors: Tanja Patricia Eicher, M. Hasan Mohajeri
      First page: 2661
      Abstract: The involvement of the gut microbiota and the metabolites of colon-residing bacteria in brain disease pathogenesis has been covered in a growing number of studies, but comparative literature is scarce. To fill this gap, we explored the contribution of the microbiota–gut–brain axis to the pathophysiology of seven brain-related diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder). In this article, we discussed changes in bacterial abundance and the metabolic implications of these changes on disease development and progression. Our central findings indicate that, mechanistically, all seven diseases are associated with a leaky gut, neuroinflammation, and over-activated microglial cells, to which gut-residing bacteria and their metabolites are important contributors. Patients show a pro-inflammatory shift in their colon microbiota, harbouring more Gram-negative bacteria containing immune-triggering lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in their cell walls. In addition, bacteria with pro-inflammatory properties (Alistipes, Eggerthella, Flavonifractor) are found in higher abundances, whereas lower abundances of anti-inflammatory bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Eucbacterium, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium, Faecalibacterium prasunitzii, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Roseburia) are reported, when compared to healthy controls. On the metabolite level, aberrant levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are involved in disease pathogenesis and are mostly found in lower quantities. Moreover, bacterial metabolites such as neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, GABA, glutamate, serotonin) or amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan) also play an important role. In the future, defined aberrations in the abundance of bacteria strains and altered bacterial metabolite levels could likely be possible markers for disease diagnostics and follow-ups. Moreover, they could help to identify novel treatment options, underlining the necessity for a deeper understanding of the microbiota–gut–brain axis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132661
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2662: Association between the Dietary
           Inflammatory Index and Gastric Disease Risk: Findings from a Korean
           Population-Based Cohort Study

    • Authors: Sundara Raj Sreeja, Trong-Dat Le, Bang Wool Eom, Seung Hyun Oh, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hebert, Mi Kyung Kim
      First page: 2662
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that diets with high pro-inflammatory potential may play a substantial role in the origin of gastric inflammation. This study aimed to examine the association between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and gastric diseases at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 7.4 years in a Korean population. A total of 144,196 participants from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_Health Examination (KoGES_HEXA) cohort were included. E-DII scores were computed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess the association between the E-DII and gastric disease risk. In the prospective analysis, the risk of developing gastric disease was significantly increased among individuals in the highest quartile of E-DII compared to those in the lowest quartile (HRquartile4vs1 = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.08–1.38). Prospective analysis also showed an increased risk in the incidence of gastritis (HRquartile4vs1 = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04–1.37), gastric ulcers (HRquartile4vs1 = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.16–1.85), and gastric and duodenal ulcers (HRquartile4vs1 = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.17–1.81) in the highest E-DII quartile compared to the lowest quartile. In the cross-sectional analysis, the E-DII score was not associated with the risk of gastric disease. Our results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet, indicated by high E-DII scores, is prospectively associated with an increased risk of gastric diseases. These results highlight the significance of an anti-inflammatory diet in lowering the risk of gastric disease risk in the general population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132662
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2663: Effect of Vitamin C on Tendinopathy
           Recovery: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: David C. Noriega-González, Franchek Drobnic, Alberto Caballero-García, Enrique Roche, Daniel Perez-Valdecantos, Alfredo Córdova
      First page: 2663
      Abstract: Tendinopathies represent 30–50% of all sports injuries. The tendon response is influenced by the load (volume, intensity, and frequency) that the tendon support, resulting in irritability and pain, among others. The main molecular component of tendons is collagen I (60–85%). The rest consist of glycosaminoglycans-proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and other collagen subtypes. This study's aim was to critically evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C supplementation in the treatment of tendinopathies. At the same time, the study aims to determine the optimal conditions (dose and time) for vitamin C supplementation. A structured search was carried out in the SCOPUS, Medline (PubMed), and Web of Science (WOS) databases. The inclusion criteria took into account studies describing optimal tendon recovery when using vitamin C alone or in combination with other compounds. The study design was considered, including randomized, double-blind controlled, and parallel designs in animal models or humans. The main outcome is that vitamin C supplementation is potentially useful as a therapeutic approach for tendinopathy recovery. Vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other products, increases collagen synthesis with a consequent improvement in the patient’s condition. On the other hand, vitamin C deficiency is mainly associated with a decrease in procollagen synthesis and reduced hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues, hindering the tendon repair process.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132663
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2664: Bile Acid-Related Regulation of Mucosal
           Inflammation and Intestinal Motility: From Pathogenesis to Therapeutic
           Application in IBD and Microscopic Colitis

    • Authors: Federica Di Vincenzo, Pierluigi Puca, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Valentina Petito, Letizia Masi, Bianca Bartocci, Marco Murgiano, Margherita De Felice, Lorenzo Petronio, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
      First page: 2664
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and microscopic colitis are chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorders that affect the gastroenterological tract and arise from a complex interaction between the host’s genetic risk factors, environmental factors, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The precise mechanistic pathways interlinking the intestinal mucosa homeostasis, the immunological tolerance, and the gut microbiota are still crucial topics for research. We decided to deeply analyze the role of bile acids in these complex interactions and their metabolism in the modulation of gut microbiota, and thus intestinal mucosa inflammation. Recent metabolomics studies revealed a significant defect in bile acid metabolism in IBD patients, with an increase in primary bile acids and a reduction in secondary bile acids. In this review, we explore the evidence linking bile acid metabolites with the immunological pathways involved in IBD pathogenesis, including apoptosis and inflammasome activation. Furthermore, we summarize the principal etiopathogenetic mechanisms of different types of bile acid-induced diarrhea (BAD) and its main novel diagnostic approaches. Finally, we discuss the role of bile acid in current and possible future state-of-the-art therapeutic strategies for both IBD and BAD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132664
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2665: Dietary Plant Sterols and
           Phytosterol-Enriched Margarines and Their Relationship with Cardiovascular
           Disease among Polish Men and Women: The WOBASZ II Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Anna Maria Witkowska, Anna Waśkiewicz, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko, Alicja Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Wojciech Drygas
      First page: 2665
      Abstract: Dietary cholesterol has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Phytosterols, present in food or phytosterol-enriched products, can reduce cholesterol available for absorption. The present study aimed to investigate the association between habitual intake of total and individual plant sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) or a diet combined with phytosterol-enriched products and CVD in a cross-section of Polish adults, participants of the Multicenter National Health Survey II (WOBASZ II). Among men (n = 2554), median intakes of plant sterols in terciles ranged between 183–456 mg/d and among women (n = 3136), 146–350 mg/d in terciles. The intake of phytosterols, when consumed with food containing phytosterols, including margarine, ranged between 184–459 mg/d for men and 147–352 mg/d for women. Among both men and women, beta-sitosterol intake predominated. Plant sterol intake was lower among both men and women with CVD (p = 0.016) compared to those without CVD. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Diet Index (HDI), was significantly higher in the third tercile of plant sterol intake for both men and women and the entire study group (p < 0.0001). This study suggests that habitual dietary intake of plant sterols may be associated with a lower chance of developing CVD, particularly in men.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132665
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2666: Tea (Camellia sinensis) Ameliorates
           Hyperuricemia via Uric Acid Metabolic Pathways and Gut Microbiota

    • Authors: Dan Wu, Ruohong Chen, Qiuhua Li, Xingfei Lai, Lingli Sun, Zhenbiao Zhang, Shuai Wen, Shili Sun, Fanrong Cao
      First page: 2666
      Abstract: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disease that threatens human health. Tea is a healthy beverage with an abundance of benefits. This study revealed the uric acid-lowering efficacy of six types of tea water extracts (TWEs) on HUA in mice. The results revealed that under the intervention of TWEs, the expression of XDH, a key enzyme that produces uric acid, was significantly downregulated in the liver. TWE treatment significantly upregulated the expression of uric acid secretion transporters ABCG2, OAT1, and OAT3, and downregulated the expression of uric acid reabsorption transporter URAT1 in the kidney. Furthermore, HUA-induced oxidative stress could be alleviated by upregulating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. The intervention of TWEs also significantly upregulated the expression of the intestinal ABCG2 protein. On the other hand, TWE intervention could significantly upregulate the expression of intestinal ABCG2 and alleviate HUA by modulating the gut microbiota. Taken together, tea can comprehensively regulate uric acid metabolism in HUA mice. Interestingly, we found that the degree of fermentation of tea was negatively correlated with the uric acid-lowering effect. The current study indicated that tea consumption may have a mitigating effect on the HUA population and provided a basis for further research on the efficacy of tea on the dosage and mechanism of uric acid-lowering effects in humans.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132666
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2667: An Infancy-Onset 20-Year Dietary
           Counselling Intervention and Gut Microbiota Composition in Adulthood

    • Authors: Anniina Keskitalo, Eveliina Munukka, Anna Aatsinki, Wisam Saleem, Noora Kartiosuo, Leo Lahti, Pentti Huovinen, Laura L. Elo, Sami Pietilä, Suvi P. Rovio, Harri Niinikoski, Jorma Viikari, Tapani Rönnemaa, Hanna Lagström, Antti Jula, Olli Raitakari, Katja Pahkala
      First page: 2667
      Abstract: The randomized controlled Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) has completed a 20-year infancy-onset dietary counselling intervention to reduce exposure to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors via promotion of a heart-healthy diet. The counselling on, e.g., low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and promotion of fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain consumption has affected the dietary characteristics of the intervention participants. By leveraging this unique cohort, we further investigated whether this long-term dietary intervention affected the gut microbiota bacterial profile six years after the intervention ceased. Our sub-study comprised 357 individuals aged 26 years (intervention n = 174, control n = 183), whose gut microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We observed no differences in microbiota profiles between the intervention and control groups. However, out of the 77 detected microbial genera, the Veillonella genus was more abundant in the intervention group compared to the controls (log2 fold-change 1.58, p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple comparison. In addition, an association between the study group and overall gut microbiota profile was found only in males. The subtle differences in gut microbiota abundances observed in this unique intervention setting suggest that long-term dietary counselling reflecting dietary guidelines may be associated with alterations in gut microbiota.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132667
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2668: A Slight Adjustment of the Nutri-Score
           Nutrient Profiling System Could Help to Better Reflect the European
           Dietary Guidelines Regarding Nuts

    • Authors: Véronique Braesco, Emilio Ros, Azmina Govindji, Clélia Bianchi, Lise Becqueriaux, Belinda Quick
      First page: 2668
      Abstract: The consumption of nuts remains low among European populations despite widespread inclusion as a recommended food group across European dietary guidelines. Front-of-Pack nutrition labelling systems are designed to support consumers make healthier choices and to stimulate product improvement, thus representing a pivotal opportunity to reduce the gap between intakes and recommendations. This study examined how the Nutri-Score algorithm treats nuts and nut-containing products and tested whether slight adjustments could better recognise and motivate nut inclusion in foods and diets. The nutritional score (ScN) and corresponding Nutri-Score letter of 68 nuts and nut-containing products were calculated, using the initial algorithm and slight adjustments, where nut weight was doubled (S1), saturated fats (S2) or energy (S3) from nuts were discounted, or saturated fats were replaced by the saturated fats/lipid ratio (S4). The correlation between the nuts’ content and the ScN was moderate for the initial algorithm (R² = 0.34) and S1 (R² = 0.36), but improved for S2, S3 and S4 (R² = 0.54, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively). Four plain nuts, initially labelled as “B” or “C” obtained a Nutri-Score “A” with S2, S3 and S4. Slight adjustments could better align the Nutri-Score with food-based dietary guidelines, reassure consumers on healthfulness of nuts and nut-containing products, whilst incentivising the inclusion of nuts in diverse foods.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132668
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2669: Hydroxycitric Acid Inhibits Chronic
           Myelogenous Leukemia Growth through Activation of AMPK and mTOR Pathway

    • Authors: Verrelli, Dallera, Stendardo, Monzani, Pasqualato, Giorgio, Pallavi
      First page: 2669
      Abstract: Metabolic regulation of cancer cell growth via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is a widely studied strategy for cancer treatment, including leukemias. Recent notions that naturally occurring compounds might have AMPK activity led to the search for nutraceuticals with potential AMPK-stimulating activity. We found that hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural, safe bioactive from the plant Garcinia gummi-gutta (cambogia), has potent AMPK activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562. HCA is a known competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) and is widely used as a weight loss inducer. We found that HCA was able to inhibit the growth of K562 cells in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models. At the mechanistic level, we identified a direct interaction between AMPK and ACLY that seems to be sensitive to HCA treatment. Additionally, HCA treatment resulted in the co-activation of AMPK and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Moreover, we found an enhanced unfolded protein response as observed by activation of the eIF2α/ATF4 pathway that could explain the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and DNA fragmentation upon HCA treatment in K562 cells. Overall, these findings suggest HCA as a nutraceutical approach for the treatment of CMLs.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132669
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
 
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