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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.557
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2072-6643
Published by MDPI Homepage  [249 journals]
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 554: Dietary Habit Modifications in Paediatric
           Patients after One Year of Treatment with the Crohn’s Disease
           Exclusion Diet

    • Authors: Rafael Martín-Masot, Marta Herrador-López, Víctor Manuel Navas-López
      First page: 554
      Abstract: Gut microbiota alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and its modification through specific diets is an emerging line of treatment that is currently being researched. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the dietary habits of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and their long‑term adherence to dietary therapy with the Crohn’s disease exclusion diet (CDED) after one year. To analyse the modification of dietary habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (DM), the KIDMED questionnaire, a food consumption frequency questionnaire, was used. Twenty-four hour recalls at two timepoints, namely prior to the start of the dietary therapy and one year later, were also carried out. The processing degrees of the foods consumed by the patients were analysed at both timepoints using the NOVA classification system. Data from 24 patients (15 boys), with a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.9 years at the start of the dietary therapy, were analysed. All patients showed an improvement in their dietary pattern in the form of a reduction in the intake of ultra-processed foods (UPFs); a higher adherence to the MD; a decrease in the intake of cold meats, seafood, pasta, precooked foods, soft drinks, and pastries; an increase in the intake of eggs, legumes, dairy products, and nuts (p < 0.05); and adequate adherence, even in the long‑term, to foods allowed during the different phases of the dietary regimen. Although more factors have an impact on the course of the disease in these patients, improving their dietary habits is essential.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030554
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 555: Triglyceride–Glucose Index as a
           Potential Indicator of Sarcopenic Obesity in Older People

    • Authors: Bokun Kim, Gwonmin Kim, Yongkook Lee, Keisuke Taniguchi, Tomonori Isobe, Sechang Oh
      First page: 555
      Abstract: Purpose: This population-based cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the triglyceride–glucose index (TyG index) is associated with sarcopenic obesity (SO) and whether it would be a helpful indicator of SO. Methods: A total of 3821 participants aged ≥60 years were selected for the study group, and 4919 participants aged 20–39 years were included as a reference group. The participants were allocated to sarcopenia, obesity, and SO groups depending on if their body mass index (BMI) was ≥25 kg/m2 and their sarcopenia index was ≤1 standard deviation (SD) lower than the mean of the reference group. The sex-specific differences and trends among the participants were analyzed by using the TyG index tertiles, and appropriate cut-off values of the TyG index for SO were calculated. Results: As the TyG index increased, BMI increased, but the sarcopenia index decreased in both sexes. Males and females in the middle and highest tertiles of the TyG index were 1.775 and 3.369, and they were 1.993 and 3.157 times more likely to have SO, respectively. The cut-off values of the TyG index for SO in males and females were ≥8.72 and 8.67, respectively. Conclusion: A high TyG index is positively associated with SO, and the TyG index may be considered a potential indicator of SO.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030555
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 556: Effects of a Dulaglutide plus
           Calorie-Restricted Diet versus a Calorie-Restricted Diet on Visceral Fat
           and Metabolic Profiles in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Yuqin Zhang, Zhihua Qu, Ting Lu, Xiaowen Shao, Meili Cai, Diliqingna Dilimulati, Xinxin Gao, Weiqing Mao, Fan Hu, Lili Su, Qiong Liao, Ting Han, Manna Zhang, Shen Qu
      First page: 556
      Abstract: The effects of dulaglutide and a calorie-restricted diet (CRD) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated whether dulaglutide combined with CRD could further reduce VAT and promote clinical benefits as compared with a CRD regimen alone in overweight or obese PCOS-affected women. Between May 2021 and May 2022, this single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial was conducted. Overall, 243 participants with PCOS were screened, of which 68 overweight or obese individuals were randomly randomized to undergo dulaglutide combined with CRD treatment (n = 35) or CRD treatment alone (n = 33). The duration of intervention was set as the time taken to achieve a 7% weight loss goal from baseline body weight, which was restricted to 6 months. The primary endpoint was the difference in the change in VAT area reduction between the groups. The secondary endpoints contained changes in menstrual frequency, metabolic profiles, hormonal parameters, liver fat, and body composition. As compared with the CRD group, the dulaglutide + CRD group had a considerably shorter median time to achieve 7% weight loss. There was no significant between-group difference in area change of VAT reduction (−0.97 cm2, 95% confidence interval from −14.36 to 12.42, p = 0.884). As compared with CRD alone, dulaglutide + CRD had significant advantages in reducing glycated hemoglobin A1c and postprandial plasma glucose levels. The results of the analyses showed different changes in menstruation frequency, additional metabolic profiles, hormonal markers, liver fat, and body composition between the two groups did not differ significantly. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and loss of appetite were the main adverse events of dulaglutide. These results emphasize the value of dietary intervention as the first line of treatment for PCOS-affected women, while glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist therapy provides an efficient and typically well tolerated adjuvant therapy to aid in reaching weight targets based on dietary therapy in the population of overweight/obese PCOS-affected women.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030556
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 557: Grazing Prevalence and Associations with
           Eating and General Psychopathology, Body Mass Index, and Quality of Life
           in a Middle-Income Country

    • Authors: Dean Spirou, Andreea I. Heriseanu, Rosely Sichieri, Phillipa Hay, Carlos E. Moraes, Jose C. Appolinario
      First page: 557
      Abstract: Research from high-income countries has shown that grazing is a common but problematic eating pattern, particularly when associated with a sense of loss of control. However, it is unclear whether these patterns hold globally. Thus, the goal of this study was to extend previous research by examining the prevalence and clinical correlates of compulsive grazing (CG) and non-compulsive grazing (NCG) in a middle-income country. Participants (N = 2297) comprised adult residents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Recruitment of this population-based household survey occurred from September 2019 to February 2020. The short inventory of grazing was used to operationalise grazing subtypes. Chi-square analyses, logistic regression, and univariate tests were conducted using the complex samples procedure. The point prevalence of regular CG was 10.2% (n = 239) and was consistent with high-income countries, while NCG was 29.8% (n = 679) and was less frequent than reported in high-income countries. Additionally, similar to high-income countries, CG was associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of eating disorders, eating disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and a lower physical and mental health-related quality of life, than no grazing and NCG. Overall, this study demonstrated that grazing patterns in high-income countries extend to middle-income countries.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030557
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 558: Relative Enhancement in Gadoxetate
           Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI as an Imaging Biomarker in the Diagnosis of
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Pediatric Obesity

    • Authors: Azadeh Hojreh, Julia Lischka, Dietmar Tamandl, Dariga Ramazanova, Amra Mulabdic, Susanne Greber-Platzer, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Relative enhancement (RE) in gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI is a reliable, non-invasive method for the evaluation and differentiation between simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in adults. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of RE in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in unenhanced liver MRI and ultrasound (US) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) screening in pediatric obesity. Seventy-four liver US and MRIs from 68 pediatric patients (13.07 ± 2.95 years) with obesity (BMI > BMI-for-age + 2SD) were reviewed with regard to imaging biomarkers (liver size, volume, echogenicity, HFF, and RE in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRIs, and spleen size), blood biomarkers, and BMI. The agreement between the steatosis grade, according to HFF in MRI and the echogenicity in US, was moderate. Alanine aminotransferase correlated better with the imaging biomarkers in MRI than with those in US. BMI correlated better with liver size and volume on MRI than in US. In patients with RE <1, blood biomarkers correlated better with RE than those in the whole sample, with a significant association between gamma-glutamyltransferase and RE (p = 0.033). In conclusion, the relative enhancement and hepatic fat fraction can be considered as non-invasive tools for the screening and follow-up of NAFLD in pediatric obesity, superior to echogenicity on ultrasound.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030558
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 559: The Influence of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on the
           Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and Clinical Practice in Pediatric

    • Authors: Marco Crocco, Angela Calvi, Francesca Canzoneri, Federica Malerba, Noemi Zampatti, Andrea Chiaro, Serena Arrigo, Paolo Gandullia, Stefania Proietti, Stefano Bonassi
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) has a high prevalence but remains largely underdiagnosed. Although extensive studies have confirmed that children with CD do not have an increased risk of severe COVID-19, public health regulations associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may have exacerbated this problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the number of new-onset CD cases. Additionally, the role of SARS-CoV-2 in autoimmune diseases and its influence on clinical practice in pediatric gastroenterology were briefly reviewed. We described the data from the hospital electronic registry of new-onset CD, during the COVID-19 pandemic and 2 years before. A total of 423 children were diagnosed with CD between March 2018 and February 2022: 228 in the 2-year pre-COVID-19 period and 195 during the pandemic. The number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was 14.5% lower than in the previous years. The quarterly comparison of CD diagnoses showed a reduction in all quarters. A reduction in diagnoses during the lockdown and in the following months was evident and not compensated thereafter. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the diagnosis of CD in children. Further studies are necessary to improve the system of biopsy-sparing diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of the diagnostic delay. Special attention should be given to the implementation of telemedicine services.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030559
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 560: Added Sugar Consumption in Spanish Children
           (7–12 y) and Nutrient Density of Foods Contributing to Such
           Consumption: An Observational Study

    • Authors: Marta Palma-Morales, María Dolores Mesa-García, Jesús R. Huertas
      First page: 560
      Abstract: Background: Diets rich in free sugars are associated with an increased risk of obesity. The aim of the present study is to estimate the intake of added sugars in the population of Spanish children and analyze the quality of the foods that contribute to this intake. Methods: An observational study was conducted to collect self-reported information on weekly food consumption in 1775 Spanish children (7–12 years). Nutrient contents were obtained from different databases. Two nutritional density indices were constructed taking into account all nutrients provided and compared with two previously described indices. Results: The average consumption of added sugars in Spanish children was 55.7 ± 1.0 g/day. The products that most contributed to added sugar intake were biscuits (13.3%), cocoa powder (11.1%), sweetened yogurts (9.9%), and dairy desserts (8.6%). Among these, dairy products had considerable nutritional value. Parents’ perception of nutritional value was not aligned with the actual nutritional value. Conclusion: The consumption of added sugars was higher than recommended. Public awareness efforts should focus on: (1) the reduction of consumption of low-nutritional quality products containing high amounts of added sugars; (2) the industrial reformulation of most consumed products to reduce sugar content and increase valuable nutrients; and (3) nutritional education.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030560
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 561: Validation of the Arabic Version of
           Diabetes Eating Problem Survey–Revised (DEPS-R) among Adolescents
           with Type 1 Diabetes

    • Authors: Abdulrahman Hummadi, Saeed Yafei, Mohammed Badedi, Raed Abutaleb, Hussain Darraj, Ali Jaber Alhagawy, Abdullah Khawaji, Yahia Solan, Turki Alzughbi, Mohammed Hakami, Sattam Jaddoh, Abdulrraheem Daghriri, Mamdouh Khardali
      First page: 561
      Abstract: Disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been studied globally in different age groups. However, there is no validated diabetes-specific questionnaire in the Arabic language for the screening of DEBs. This study aimed to translate the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey–Revised scale (DEPS-R) into the Arabic language and study its psychometric properties in adolescents with T1D. We adopted the forward–backward procedure to translate the DEPS-R questionnaire into Arabic. The validation study enrolled 258 Saudi adolescents with T1D aged 12–18 years who completed the Arabic DEPS-R questionnaire and the EAT-26. The Arabic DEPS-R showed good construct validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). The factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure of DEPS-R which explains 54.4 % of the variance. In total, 30.6% of the participants are at high risk for DEBs (DEPS-R score ≥ 20). The psychometric properties of the Arabic DEPS-R are satisfactory, consistent with the original scale and translations in other languages. These results support the validity of the Arabic DEPS-R for assessment of DEBs in the T1D Arabic population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030561
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 562: Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty
           Acid Intakes, Determinants and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population:
           Findings from the ANIBES Study

    • Authors: Marina Redruello-Requejo, María de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Ana M. Puga, Ana Montero-Bravo, Mar Ruperto, Paula Rodríguez-Alonso, Teresa Partearroyo, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
      First page: 562
      Abstract: The multiple roles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in growth and general health are well documented. However, available intake data for the Spanish population are limited and lack gender and age considerations. Therefore, our goal was to assess dietary intake adequacy of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, their determinants and their major food sources among the Spanish population. Due to their influence on various beneficial functions attributed to omega-3 PUFA, combined intake adequacy with folic acid (FA), vitamin B₁₂ and choline was also assessed. Intake data were obtained from the ANIBES cross-sectional study on a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years; n = 2009), where dietary intake was analysed with a three-day dietary record. Median intake of total omega-3 PUFA stood at 0.81 g/day (0.56–1.19 g/day), with α-linolenic acid (ALA) at 0.61 g/day (0.45–0.85 g/day), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at 0.03 g/day (0.01–0.12 g/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 0.06 g/day (0.0–0.20 g/day). Accordingly, 65% of the Spanish population showed insufficient intakes for total omega-3 PUFA; 87% for ALA, and 83% for combined EPA and DHA. Inadequate intakes were significantly higher in children, adolescents, and younger women of childbearing age (18–30 years). In contrast, inadequacy due to excessive intakes was almost negligible. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, total intake was 10.1 g/day (7.0–14.0 g/day), 10.0 g/day (6.9–13.9 g/day) for linoleic acid (LA) and 0.08 g/day (0.05–0.13 g/day) for arachidonic acid (AA). Non-compliance due to either insufficient or excessive intakes of LA stood at around 5% of the sample, with the elderly showing significantly higher degrees of inadequacy due to insufficient intakes (10%; p ≤ 0.05). Median omega-6 to omega-3 ratio was 12:1, and significantly higher in men compared to women (p ≤ 0.05); in children, adolescents and adults compared to the elderly (p ≤ 0.05); and in younger women of childbearing age compared to the older group (31–45 years) (p ≤ 0.001). Oils and fats and meat and meat products were the main dietary sources for the essential fatty acids LA and ALA, respectively. Meat and meat products were as well the main providers of AA, while fish and shellfish were almost exclusively the only sources of EPA and DHA. However, main food sources identified showed important differences across age groups. Finally, the total combined degree of inadequacy observed for omega-3 PUFA, FA, vitamin B₁₂ and choline reached 21.3% of the ANIBES population. The observed degree of inadequacy of omega-3 PUFA intakes among the Spanish population makes it urgent to increase its consumption and to consider the need for supplementation. This should also be the main strategy for the optimization of the omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as the adequacy observed for omega-6 intakes is relatively acceptable. Additional improvement of the dietary intake of FA, vitamin B12 and choline could contribute to the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030562
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 563: Microbiota Effect on Trimethylamine N-Oxide
           Production: From Cancer to Fitness—A Practical Preventing
           Recommendation and Therapies

    • Authors: Edoardo Tacconi, Giuseppe Palma, Davide De Biase, Antonio Luciano, Massimiliano Barbieri, Filomena de Nigris, Francesca Bruzzese
      First page: 563
      Abstract: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a microbial metabolite derived from nutrients, such as choline, L-carnitine, ergothioneine and betaine. Recently, it has come under the spotlight for its close interactions with gut microbiota and implications for gastrointestinal cancers, cardiovascular disease, and systemic inflammation. The culprits in the origin of these pathologies may be food sources, in particular, high fat meat, offal, egg yolk, whole dairy products, and fatty fish, but intercalated between these food sources and the production of pro-inflammatory TMAO, the composition of gut microbiota plays an important role in modulating this process. The aim of this review is to explain how the gut microbiota interacts with the conversion of specific compounds into TMA and its oxidation to TMAO. We will first cover the correlation between TMAO and various pathologies such as dysbiosis, then focus on cardiovascular disease, with a particular emphasis on pro-atherogenic factors, and then on systemic inflammation and gastrointestinal cancers. Finally, we will discuss primary prevention and therapies that are or may become possible. Possible treatments include modulation of the gut microbiota species with diets, physical activity and supplements, and administration of drugs, such as metformin and aspirin.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030563
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 564: Virgin Coconut Oil: A Dietary Intervention
           for Dyslipidaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Andina Setyawati, Moh Syafar Sangkala, Silvia Malasari, Nuurhidayat Jafar, Elly L Sjattar, Syahrul Syahrul, Haerani Rasyid
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Hyperlipidaemia is causally related to coronary artery diseases (CAD) and peripheral artery diseases (PAD) in people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). An in vivo study confirmed that virgin coconut oil (VCO) could maintain levels of lipids in the blood as effectively as conventional therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of VCO on the lipid profiles and ankle–brachial index (ABI) of patients with DM. In this experimental study with pre- and post-test design and a control group, the participants were selected purposively. The ABI was evaluated on the first visit. Baseline lipid profile readings were taken. Each participant took 1.2 mL/kgBW of VCO daily and divided it into three doses. After 30 days of taking VCO, laboratory examinations and ABI were repeated, and adverse events were evaluated. The dependent t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05 showed a significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.002), a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (p = 0.031), a significant decrease in energy intake (p = 0.046) and cholesterol intake (p = 0.023) at the endpoint in the VCO group. In conclusion, this therapy is beneficial for maintaining lipid profile when combined with dietary therapy. Future studies should investigate the duration and dosage of VCO on patients to maintain lipid-linked protein.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030564
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 565: Cocoa Flavanol Supplementation and the
           Effect on Insulin Resistance in Females Who Are Overweight or Obese: A
           Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Simpson, Buddhike Mendis, Mandy Dunlop, Hagen Schroeter, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Ian A. Macdonald
      First page: 565
      Abstract: There is interest in the impact that dietary interventions can have on preventing the transition from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes, including a suggestion that the bioactive components of cocoa may enhance fasting insulin sensitivity. However, a role for cocoa flavanols (CF) in reducing insulin resistance in the insulin-stimulated state, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unresolved. This study investigated whether CF consumption improved whole-body insulin-mediated glucose uptake (‘M’) in females with overweight/obesity, using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Thirty-two premenopausal females (19–49 years; 27–35 kg·m−2) with elevated HOMA-IR (HOMA-IR >1.5) supplemented their habitual diet with two servings/day of a high-flavanol cocoa drink (HFC; 609 mg CF/serving; n = 16) or low-flavanol cocoa drink (LFC; 13 mg CF/serving; n = 16) for 4 weeks. Assessment of HOMA-IR and ‘M’ during a 3-h, 60 mIU insulin·m−2·min−1 euglycemic clamp was performed before and after the intervention. Data are the mean (SD). Changes to HOMA-IR (HFC −0.003 (0.57); LFC −0.0402 (0.86)) and ‘M’ (HFC 0.99 (7.62); LFC –1.32 (4.88) µmol·kg−1·min−1) after the intervention were not different between groups. Four weeks’ consumption of ~1.2 g CF/day did not improve indices of fasting insulin sensitivity or insulin-mediated glucose uptake. A recommendation for dietary supplementation with cocoa flavanols to improve glycemic control is therefore not established.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030565
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 566: Supplementation of Mother’s Own Milk
           with Preterm Donor Human Milk: Impact on Protein Intake and Growth in Very
           Low Birth Weight Infants—A Randomized Controlled Study

    • Authors: Giannoula Gialeli, Anastasia Kapetanaki, Ourania Panagopoulou, Panagiota Vourna, Athanasios Michos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Liosis, Tania Siahanidou
      First page: 566
      Abstract: This randomized study investigates whether feeding very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with mother’s own milk (MOM) supplemented with either preterm (PDM) or term donor milk (TDM), when MOM is insufficient, has a positive impact on infants’ protein intake and growth. A hundred and twenty VLBW infants were randomized into two groups. Group A (43 infants) received MOM supplemented with PDM, whereas Group B (77 infants) was fed with MOM supplemented with TDM, for the first three weeks of life (donor milk period). Breast milk fortifier was added when milk feeds exceeded 50 mL/Kg/day. After the donor milk period, both groups were fed with formula when MOM was not available or the milk bank was unable to provide TDM. Protein intake was higher in Group A than in Group B at initiation of milk fortification (p = 0.006), as well as during the 3-week donor milk period (p = 0.023) and throughout hospitalization (p = 0.014). Moreover, Group A presented higher Δz-score for body weight (p = 0.019) and head circumference (p = 0.001) from birth to the end of donor milk period, and higher mean body weight at discharge (p = 0.047) compared to Group B. In conclusion, when donor milk is required, PDM positively impacts protein intake and growth in VLBW infants (NCT05675397).
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030566
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 567: Human Milk-Derived Levels of let-7g-5p May
           Serve as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Low Milk Supply in
           Breastfeeding Women

    • Authors: Steven D. Hicks, Desirae Chandran, Alexandra Confair, Anna Ward, Shannon L. Kelleher
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Low milk supply (LMS) is associated with early breastfeeding cessation; however, the biological underpinnings in the mammary gland are not understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally downregulate gene expression, and we hypothesized the profile of miRNAs secreted into milk reflects lactation performance. Longitudinal changes in milk miRNAs were measured using RNAseq in women with LMS (n = 47) and adequate milk supply (AMS; n = 123). Relationships between milk miRNAs, milk supply, breastfeeding outcomes, and infant weight gain were assessed, and interactions between milk miRNAs, maternal diet, smoking status, and BMI were determined. Women with LMS had lower milk volume (p = 0.003), were more likely to have ceased breast feeding by 24 wks (p = 0.0003) and had infants with a lower mean weight-for-length z-score (p = 0.013). Milk production was significantly associated with milk levels of miR-16-5p (R = −0.14, adj p = 0.044), miR-22-3p (R = 0.13, adj p = 0.044), and let-7g-5p (R = 0.12, adj p = 0.046). Early milk levels of let-7g-5p were significantly higher in mothers with LMS (adj p = 0.0025), displayed an interaction between lactation stage and milk supply (p < 0.001), and were negatively related to fruit intake (p = 0.015). Putative targets of let-7g-5p include genes important to hormone signaling, RNA regulation, ion transport, and the extracellular matrix, and down-regulation of two targets (PRLR and IGF2BP1/IMP1) was confirmed in mammary cells overexpressing let-7g-5p in vitro. Our data provide evidence that milk-derived miRNAs reflect lactation performance in women and warrant further investigation to assess their utility for predicting LMS risk and early breastfeeding cessation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030567
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 568: Molecular Mechanism of Fucoidan
           Nanoparticles as Protector on Endothelial Cell Dysfunction in Diabetic
           Rats’ Aortas

    • Authors: Giftania Wardani, Jusak Nugraha, Rochmah Kurnijasanti, Mohammad Rais Mustafa , Sri Agus Sudjarwo
      First page: 568
      Abstract: Antioxidants have an important role in protecting against diabetes complications such as vascular endothelial cell damage. Fucoidan has strong antioxidant properties, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of fucoidan nanoparticles through the pathway of antioxidant activity against streptozotocin-induced diabetic aortic endothelial cell dysfunction in rats. Fucoidan nanoparticles are made utilizing high-energy ball milling. This research consists of five groups, namely: control rats, rats were administered aquadest; diabetic rats, rats were administered streptozotocin (STZ); fucoidan nanoparticle rats, rats were administered STZ and fucoidan nanoparticles. Aortic tissue was collected for the evaluation of ROS (reactive oxygen species), Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Nitric Oxide (NO), cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP), relaxation response of acetylcholine (Ach), and the diameter of the aorta. The size distribution of the fucoidan nanoparticles was 267.2 ± 42.8 nm. Administration of fucoidan nanoparticles decreased the levels of ROS and MDA, and increased the levels of SOD, levels of GPx, Nrf2 expression, NO levels, cGMP expression, the relaxation response of Ach, and lumen diameter of the aorta, which are significantly different when compared with diabetic rats, p < 0.05. In this study, we concluded that the mechanism pathway of fucoidan nanoparticles prevents aortic endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetic rats through antioxidant activity by reducing ROS and MDA and incrementing SOD levels, GPx levels, and Nrf2 expression. All of these can lead to an elevated relaxation response effect of Ach and an increase in the lumen diameter of the aorta, which indicates a protective effect of fucoidan nanoparticles on aortic endothelial cells.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030568
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 569: Mixed Nuts as Healthy Snacks: Effect on
           Tryptophan Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    • Authors: Jieping Yang, Rupo Lee, Zachary Schulz, Albert Hsu, Jonathan Pai, Scarlet Yang, Susanne M. Henning, Jianjun Huang, Jonathan P. Jacobs, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
      First page: 569
      Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the consumption of mixed tree nuts (MTNs) during caloric restriction decreased cardiovascular risk factors and increased satiety. Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism has been indicated as a factor in cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effect of MTNs on Trp metabolism and the link to cardiovascular risk markers. Plasma and stool were collected from 95 overweight individuals who consumed either MTNs (or pretzels) daily as part of a hypocaloric weight loss diet for 12 weeks followed by an isocaloric weight maintenance program for an additional 12 weeks. Plasma and fecal samples were evaluated for Trp metabolites by LC–MS and for gut microbiota by 16S rRNA sequencing. Trp–kynurenine metabolism was reduced only in the MTNs group during weight loss (baseline vs. week 12). Changes in Trp–serotonin (week 24) and Trp–indole (week 12) metabolism from baseline were increased in the MTNs group compared to the pretzel group. Intergroup analysis between MTN and pretzel groups does not identify significant microbial changes as indicated by alpha diversity and beta diversity. Changes in the relative abundance of genus Paludicola during intervention are statistically different between the MTNs and pretzel group with p < 0.001 (q = 0.07). Our findings suggest that consumption of MTNs affects Trp host and microbial metabolism in overweight and obese subjects.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030569
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 570: Influence of Maternal Metabolic Status and
           Diet during the Perinatal Period on the Metabolic Programming by Leptin
           Ingested during the Suckling Period in Rats

    • Authors: Pedro Castillo, Catalina Amadora Pomar, Andreu Palou, Mariona Palou, Catalina Picó
      First page: 570
      Abstract: We aimed to analyze the long-term metabolic effects of leptin supplementation at physiological doses during suckling in the offspring of diet-induced obese rats, together with the potential benefits of improving maternal diet during lactation. Thus, the offspring of: dams fed standard-diet (SD) (CON-dams), dams fed western-diet (WD) before and during gestation and lactation (WD-dams), and dams fed as WD-dams but moved to SD during lactation (REV-dams) were supplemented throughout suckling with leptin or vehicle, and fed SD or WD from weaning to four months. Under SD, leptin treatment significantly improved metabolic profile and body fat accumulation, with stronger effects in the male offspring of CON-dams and REV-dams. Under WD, the offspring of WD-dams presented metabolic alterations that were not evident in the offspring of REV-dams. Moreover, leptin supplementation improved glucose homeostasis in the male offspring of REV-dams. Conversely, leptin supplementation in females born to WD-dams and fed WD from weaning resulted in impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic lipid content. These results highlight the importance of a balanced maternal diet during the perinatal period, especially lactation, for the subsequent metabolic health of the offspring and for the beneficial effects of leptin supplementation during suckling, more evident in the male offspring.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030570
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 571: Association of Urinary Lead and Cadmium
           Levels, and Serum Lipids with Subclinical Arteriosclerosis: Evidence from

    • Authors: Chien-Yu Lin, Sandy Huey-Jen Hsu, Ching-Way Chen, Chikang Wang, Fung-Chang Sung, Ta-Chen Su
      First page: 571
      Abstract: Background: Exposure to lead and cadmium has been linked to changes in lipid metabolism and the development of arteriosclerosis, but the role of lipoprotein profiles in this relationship is not well understood, including the potential role of novel lipid biomarkers. Methods: In this study, we enrolled 736 young Taiwanese subjects aged 12 to 30 years to assess the correlation between urine levels of lead and cadmium, lipoprotein profiles, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Results: Higher levels of lead and cadmium were significantly associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), small dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C), LDL-triglyceride (LDL-TG), and CIMT. Participants with higher levels of lead and cadmium had the highest mean values of CIMT, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, and LDL-TG. In a structural equation model, lead had a direct and indirect association with CIMT through LDL-C and sdLDL-C, whereas cadmium had a direct association with CIMT and an indirect association through LDL-C. Conclusion: Our results suggest higher levels of lead and cadmium are associated with abnormal lipid profiles and increased CIMT. These heavy metals could have additive effects on lipids and CIMT, and the relationship between them may be mediated by lipoprotein levels. Further research is needed to determine the causal relationship.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030571
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 572: Urinary Risk Profile, Impact of Diet, and
           Risk of Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis in Idiopathic Uric Acid Stone Disease

    • Authors: Roswitha Siener, Patricia Löhr, Albrecht Hesse
      First page: 572
      Abstract: The role of diet in the pathogenesis of uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis is incompletely understood. This study investigated the effect of dietary intervention on the risk of UA stone formation under standardized conditions. Twenty patients with idiopathic UA stone disease were included in the study. Dietary intake and 24 h urinary parameters were collected on the usual diet of the patients and a standardized balanced mixed diet. Although urinary UA excretion did not change, the relative supersaturation of UA decreased significantly by 47% under the balanced diet primarily due to the significant increase in urine volume and pH. Urinary pH was below 5.8 in 85% of patients under the usual diet, and in 60% of patients under the balanced diet. The supersaturation of calcium oxalate declined significantly under the balanced diet due to the significant decrease in urinary calcium and oxalate excretion and the increase in urine volume. Dietary intervention is a key component in the management of UA nephrolithiasis. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion should also be monitored in patients with pure UA calculi to reduce the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Lower urinary pH in UA stone patients can only be partially explained by diet.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030572
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 573: Dietary Diversity, Household Food
           Insecurity and Stunting Among Children Aged 12 to 59 Months in

    • Authors: Goudja Gassara, Qian Lin, Jing Deng, Yaxi Zhang, Jieqiong Wei, Jihua Chen
      First page: 573
      Abstract: Background: Household food insecurity is increasingly recognized as a global health problem, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to contextualize the associations between household food insecurity, dietary diversity and stunting in N’Djamena. Methods: This study is a community-based cross-sectional study, and the SMART (Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions) methodology was used to calculate the sample size. A total of 881 households were selected for the survey. A 24-h recall evaluated the dietary diversity score (DDS), the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) made it possible to assess household food insecurity (HFI), and stunting among children aged 12 to 59 months was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Logistic regression was constructed to determine the association between household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and stunting. The study was conducted from January to March 2022. Results: The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 16.6%, and that of stunting was 25.3%. The mean DDS was 6.5 ± 1.6. Severe food insecurity (OR 2.505, CI: 1.670–3.756) was significantly associated with stunting. The association between DDS and stunting was not significant. Conclusions: This study’s prevalence of household food insecurity and stunting was very high. Household food insecurity and household size were significantly associated with stunting.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030573
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 574: Usability Testing an mHealth Program with
           Tailored Motivational Messages for Early Adolescents

    • Authors: Carolyn A. Lin, Kayla L. Vosburgh, Deya Roy, Valerie B. Duffy
      First page: 574
      Abstract: Obesity among children is a rising concern throughout the world. In the U.S., rates of childhood obesity are the highest among children from diverse and economically disadvantaged households. Obesity in adolescence increases the risk of negative physical and psychological health consequences. Mobile-app-based health interventions have been found to be an effective tool to encourage children to adopt a healthier living style. A novel mobile app prototype was developed for early adolescents to communicate with and engage them interactively about healthy eating and active living. To test the app’s usability, students from a U.S. middle school, with a majority of children from low-income families, were recruited to use the app and report their feedback. The usability testing results confirmed that the app was equally well received by participants of different genders, normal weight versus overweight/obesity, and amounts of screen time. Study participants also provided overwhelming positive feedback for the embedded and tailored motivational messages that encourage healthy eating and active living. The conceptualization of the app prototype was guided by the self-determination theory, social cognitive theory, and priming theory, in addition to incorporating evidence-based obesity prevention principles. This prototype, hence, provides a valid platform for building theory-based behavioral interventions.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030574
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 575: Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Garcinol
           Extracted from Garcinia dulcis via Modulating NF-κB Signaling

    • Authors: Pathanin Chantree, Pongsakorn Martviset, Nattaya Thongsepee, Kant Sangpairoj, Phornphan Sornchuer
      First page: 575
      Abstract: Garcinia is a significant medicinal plant with many beneficial phytoconstituents, including garcinol. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of garcinol isolated from Garcinia dulcis fruit in LPS-activated THP-1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that the low concentration of garcinol did not alter cell viability. Furthermore, co-incubation of garcinol with LPS inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and pro-inflammatory mediators, including iNOS and COX-2 at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Garcinol also decreased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, PGE2, and NO. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects involved an alteration in the NF-κB signaling pathway. Downregulation of pIKKα/β, pIκBα, and pNF-κB was observed, hence reducing the translocation of pNF-κB from the cytosol into the nucleus, which subsequently decreased the production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Therefore, garcinol isolated from Garcinia dulcis is a potential candidate as an anti-inflammatory agent for inflammation-related disease treatment.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030575
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 576: Prognostic Significance of Severe Vitamin D
           Deficiency in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    • Authors: Maryam Ebadi, Elora Rider, Catherine Tsai, Sarah Wang, Ellina Lytvyak, Andrew Mason, Aldo J. Montano-Loza
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with adverse events in various liver diseases. The present study aimed to recognize the association between severe vitamin D deficiency and disease progression, hepatobiliary malignancies, liver-related mortality, and the need for liver transplantation in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Patients with a diagnosis of PSC (n = 354), followed by the autoimmune liver disease clinic at the University of Alberta, were included. Patients with vitamin D levels < 25 nmol/L were defined as severely deficient. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using the Cox proportional hazards regression models. The mean vitamin D level was 59 ± 2 nmol/L, and 63 patients (18%) had a severe vitamin D deficiency. Patients with a severe vitamin D deficiency were 2.5 times more likely to experience hepatobiliary malignancies (HR 2.55, 95% CI, 1.02–6.40, p = 0.046). A severe vitamin D deficiency at diagnosis (HR 1.82, 95% CI, 1.05–3.15, p = 0.03) and persistent deficiencies over time (HR 2.26, 95% CI, 1.17–4.37, p = 0.02) were independently associated with a higher risk of poor clinical liver outcomes. A severe vitamin D deficiency at diagnosis and persistent deficiency at longitudinal assessments were associated with liver-related mortality or the need for liver transplantation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030576
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 577: Ellagic Acid and Its Metabolites as Potent
           and Selective Allosteric Inhibitors of Liver Pyruvate Kinase

    • Authors: Umberto Maria Battisti, Chunixa Gao, Fady Akladios, Woonghee Kim, Hong Yang, Cemil Bayram, Ismail Bolat, Metin Kiliclioglu, Nursena Yuksel, Ozlem Ozdemir Tozlu, Cheng Zhang, Jihad Sebhaoui, Shazia Iqbal, Saeed Shoaie, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Serkan Yildirim, Hasan Turkez, Mathias Uhlen, Jan Boren, Adil Mardinoglu, Morten Grøtli
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Liver pyruvate kinase (PKL) has recently emerged as a new target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and inhibitors of this enzyme could represent a new therapeutic option. However, this breakthrough is complicated by selectivity issues since pyruvate kinase exists in four different isoforms. In this work, we report that ellagic acid (EA) and its derivatives, present in numerous fruits and vegetables, can inhibit PKL potently and selectively. Several polyphenolic analogues of EA were synthesized and tested to identify the chemical features responsible for the desired activity. Molecular modelling studies suggested that this inhibition is related to the stabilization of the PKL inactive state. This unique inhibition mechanism could potentially herald the development of new therapeutics for NAFLD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030577
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 578: 24,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D and Vitamin D
           Metabolite Ratio as Biomarkers of Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Authors: Seunghye Lee, Hyejin Chung, Sehyun Jung, Hanee Jang, Seho Chang, Hyunjung Kim, Minchul Cho
      First page: 578
      Abstract: The appropriate management of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism is essential to prevent metabolic bone disorder (MBD) and cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, the 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2D] and vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), i.e., the ratio of 24,25(OH)2D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], have emerged as biomarkers of vitamin D level. We analyzed the usefulness of vitamin D biomarkers for the evaluation of MBD in patients with CKD. We analyzed blood and urine samples from 208 outpatients with CKD stage G2–G5. 25(OH)D showed a poor correlation with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Conversely, the 24,25(OH)2D level and VMR were significantly correlated with eGFR and the intact parathyroid hormone level. In conclusion, 24,25(OH)2D and VMR have the potential to be vitamin D biomarkers for the detection of MBD in CKD patients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030578
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 579: Dietary Exposures and Interventions in
           Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Evidence and Emerging Concepts

    • Authors: John Gubatan, Chiraag V. Kulkarni, Sarah Melissa Talamantes, Michelle Temby, Touran Fardeen, Sidhartha R. Sinha
      First page: 579
      Abstract: Diet is intimately linked to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and has potent effects on intestinal immune homeostasis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the GI tract. The therapeutic implications of diet in patients with IBD have received significant attention in recent years. In this review, we provide a contemporary and comprehensive overview of dietary exposures and interventions in IBD. Epidemiological studies suggest that ultra-processed foods, food additives, and emulsifiers are associated with a higher incidence of IBD. Exclusion and elimination diets are associated with improved symptoms in patients with IBD, but no effects on objective markers of inflammation. Specific dietary interventions (e.g., Mediterranean, specific carbohydrate, high fiber, ketogenic, anti-inflammatory diets) have been shown to reduce symptoms, improve inflammatory biomarkers, and quality of life metrics to varying degrees, but these studies are limited by study design, underpowering, heterogeneity, and confounding. To date, there is no robust evidence that any dietary intervention alone may replace standard therapies in patients with IBD. However, diet may play an adjunct role to induce or maintain clinical remission with standard IBD therapies. The results of novel dietary trials in IBD such as personalized fiber, intermittent fasting, and time-restricted diets are eagerly awaited.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030579
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 580: Improvement of Dietary Habits among German
           Medical Students by Attending a Nationwide Online Lecture Series on
           Nutrition and Planetary Health (“Eat This!”)

    • Authors: Anna Helbach, Moritz Dumm, Katharina Moll, Tim Böttrich, Can Gero Leineweber, Wiebke Mueller, Jan Matthes, Maria Cristina Polidori
      First page: 580
      Abstract: Nutrition is a major influential factor in optimizing human health and environmental sustainability. Medical students often do not follow national dietary guideline recommendations. Raising awareness of a healthy lifestyle is important as physicians with healthy lifestyle behaviors are more likely to counsel on nutrition. Our study aims to evaluate a Germany-wide online lecture series on nutritional medicine, “Eat This!”. Before and after the course, 520 medical students who participated and 64 who did not participate in the course (comparison group) filled out an online survey. To assess the students’ dietary habits, a validated FFQ was used. According to this questionnaire, only 31% of the lecture participants consumed enough fruits and 24% consumed enough vegetables, while almost half of the students exceeded the recommended maximum amount of crisps and sweets. After attending the lecture series, guideline adherence with respect to fruits and vegetables showed a significant increase, as did awareness of healthy nutrition and percentage of students with low-risk lifestyle habits. Our results show that low-threshold approaches, such as “Eat This!”, can positively influence the dietary behaviors and lifestyle habits of medical students. This can help future doctors fulfill their role in the fight against the global burden of non-communicable diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030580
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 581: Matcha Tea Powder’s
           Antidepressant-like Effect through the Activation of the Dopaminergic
           System in Mice is Dependent on Social Isolation Stress

    • Authors: Yuki Kurauchi, Yuki Ohta, Keigo Matsuda, Wakana Sanematsu, Hari Prasad Devkota, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
      First page: 581
      Abstract: Matcha tea powder is believed to have various physiological benefits; however, its detailed mechanism of action has been poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the mental state of mice, due to social isolation stress, affects the antidepressant-like effect of Matcha tea powder by using the tail suspension test. Oral administration of Matcha tea powder reduced the duration of immobility in the stress-susceptible C57BL/6J strain, but not in BALB/c strain. In C57BL/6J mice, SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor blocker, prevented Matcha tea powder from exerting its antidepressant-like effect. Matcha tea powder also increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) region and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) region in C57BL/6J mice, but not in BALB/c mice. In contrast, Matcha tea powder did not change the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) region. Notably, C57BL/6J mice with a shorter immobility time had a higher number of c-Fos-positive cells in the PFC, NAc, and VTA regions. However, no such correlation was observed in the stress-tolerant BALB/c mice. These results suggest that Matcha tea powder exerts an antidepressant-like effect through the activation of the dopaminergic system including the PFC-NAc-VTA circuit and that mental states are important factors affecting the physiological benefits of Matcha tea powder.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030581
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 582: Synergistic Effect of Rhodiola rosea and
           Caffeine Supplementation on the Improvement of Muscle Strength and
           Muscular Endurance: A Pilot Study for Rats, Resistance Exercise-Untrained
           and -Trained Volunteers

    • Authors: Chang Liu, Haotian Zhao, Yi Yan, Weijun Yang, Songyue Chen, Ge Song, Xuehan Li, Yujia Gu, Hezhang Yun, Yi Li
      First page: 582
      Abstract: Multi-level studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea (RHO) and Caffeine (CAF) have the potential to be nutritional supplements to enhance physical performance in resistance exercise-untrained and -trained subjects. This study examined the synergistic effects of RHO (262.7 mg/kg for rats and 2.4 g for volunteers) and CAF (19.7 mg/kg for rats and 3 mg/kg for volunteers) supplementation on improving physical performance in rats, resistance exercise-untrained volunteers and resistance exercise-trained volunteers. Rats and volunteers were randomly grouped into placebo, CAF, RHO and CAF+RHO and administered accordingly with the nutrients during the training procedure, and pre- and post-measures were collected. We found that RHO+CAF was effective in improving forelimb grip strength (13.75%), erythropoietin (23.85%), dopamine (12.65%) and oxygen consumption rate (9.29%) in the rat model. Furthermore, the current results also indicated that the combination of RHO+CAF significantly increased the bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM) (16.59%), deep squat 1RM (15.75%), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) (14.72%) and maximum repetitions of 60% 1RM bench press (22.15%) in resistance exercise-untrained volunteers. Additionally, despite the excellent base level of the resistance exercise-trained volunteers, their deep squat 1RM and MVIC increased substantially through the synergistic effect of RHO and CAF. In conclusion, combined supplementation of RHO+CAF is more beneficial in improving the resistance exercise performance for both resistance exercise-untrained and -trained volunteers. The present results provide practical evidence that the synergies of RHO and CAF could serve as potential supplementary for individuals, especially resistance exercise-trained subjects, to ameliorate their physical performances effectively and safely.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030582
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 583: Long-Term Cola Intake Does Not Cause
           Evident Pathological Alterations in the Femoral Bone Microstructure: An
           Animal Study in Adult Mice

    • Authors: Veronika Kovacova, Radoslav Omelka, Vladimira Mondockova, Piotr Londzin, Jozef Conka, Veronika Meliskova, Joanna Folwarczna, Peter Celec, Monika Martiniakova
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Short-term animal experiments and association studies in humans have shown that cola intake may have a detrimental impact on bone mineral density (BMD); however, other bone parameters have not been investigated. This study examined the effects of long-term cola consumption on the femoral bone microstructure using adult mice (n = 32) as an animal model, which were divided into water and cola groups depending on whether they received water or cola along with a standard rodent diet for 6 months. Micro-computed tomography revealed that cola intake did not significantly affect all measured parameters characterizing trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture, as well as cortical microarchitecture and geometry in both sexes, although a slight deterioration of these parameters was noted. Cola consumption also resulted in a slightly, statistically insignificant worsening of bone mechanical properties. In contrast to female mice, males receiving cola had a lower area of primary osteons’ vascular canals. Nevertheless, long-term cola intake did not cause evident pathological alterations in the femur of adult mice, possibly due to a balanced diet and no restriction of physical activity. Therefore, the adverse effects of cola consumption on BMD, the only bone parameter studied so far, may be caused by other risk and lifestyle factors.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030583
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 584: Subclinical Vitamin C Plasma Levels
           Associated with Increased Risk of CAD Diagnosis via Inflammation: Results
           from the NHANES 2003–2006 Surveys

    • Authors: Jennifer M. Crook, Saun-Joo L. Yoon, Oliver Grundmann, Ann Horgas, Versie Johnson-Mallard
      First page: 584
      Abstract: Vitamin C remains an important, yet frequently unassessed, component of a healthy immune system though it may prove useful in alleviating the chronic inflammatory processes underlying chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent research identified a sizeable proportion of the United States population with insufficient vitamin C plasma levels and significant associations to both acute and chronic inflammation. This cross-sectional study used the 2003–2006 NHANES surveys data to extrapolate associations between plasma vitamin C levels (deficiency, hypovitaminosis, inadequate, adequate, and saturating) and CAD through inflammation (C-reactive protein and red cell distribution width). Increased reports of CAD diagnosis were identified in participants with vitamin C deficiency (OR: 2.31, CI: 1.49–3.58) and inadequate plasma levels (OR: 1.39, CI: 1.03–1.87). No significant correlation was identified between any other plasma vitamin C quintiles and CAD. When inflammation was controlled, previous associations in the deficient level of plasma vitamin C were no longer significant in association with CAD and participants with inadequate plasma vitamin C showed a reduced association to CAD diagnoses (OR: 0.33, CI: 0.13-0.86). Most chronic inflammation and vitamin C plasma statuses do not demonstrate specific signs or symptoms until the deficient level of vitamin C and/or disease. Thus, increased surveillance of both, and healthy nutritional habits remain crucial modifiable risk factors for disease prevention.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030584
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 585: Serum Fatty Acids Are Associated with a
           Higher Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    • Authors: Sebastian Andone, Lénárd Farczádi, Silvia Imre, Zoltan Bajko, Anca Moțățăianu, Smaranda Maier, Laura Bărcuțean, Rodica Bălașa
      First page: 585
      Abstract: Stroke prevention, a significant public-health concern, begins with recognizing and addressing risk factors. Interventions targeted at modifiable risk factors can effectively prevent ischemic stroke, while Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to improve stroke outcomes. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between ischemic-stroke risk factors and fatty acids using a prospective observational study with 274 patients. We collected clinical data on risk factors and measured fatty-acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We found that several risk factors, including age, sex, smoking, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, and previous stroke history, had a direct relationship with fatty acids. Of these, smoking had the most significant impact, negatively impacting levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid. Conversely, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation positively correlated with fatty acids, particularly in female patients and those with recurrent strokes. Age was found to directly correlate with other risk factors and variations in fatty-acid ratios. The stroke rate was higher in males than females before the age of 70, but this trend reversed. Our findings suggest that better management of risk factors, particularly modifiable lifestyle factors, could improve fatty-acid profiles and the balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 in patients with ischemic stroke.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030585
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 586: Endogenous n-3 PUFAs Improve Non-alcoholic
           Fatty Liver Disease through FFAR4-Mediated Gut–Liver Crosstalk

    • Authors: Xuan Jiang, Qin Yang, Hongyan Qu, Yongquan Chen, Shenglong Zhu
      First page: 586
      Abstract: The gut–liver axis plays a key role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Due to the complexity and incomplete understanding of the cross-talk between the gut and liver, effective therapeutic targets are largely unknown. Free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) may bridge the cross-talk between the gut and liver. FFAR4 has received considerable attention due to its important role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of FFAR4 in this cross talk in NAFLD remains unclear. In this study, mice with high endogenous n-3 PUFAs but FFAR4 deficiency were generated by crossbreeding Fat-1 and FFAR4 knockout mice. FFAR4 deficiency blocked the protective effects of high endogenous n-3 PUFAs on intestinal barrier dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. In addition, FFAR4 deficiency decreased gut microbiota diversity and enriched Rikenella, Anaerotruncus, and Enterococcus, and reduced Dubosiella, Ruminococcaceae UCG-010, Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Coriobacteriaceae UCG-002, Faecalibaculum, Ruminococcaceae UCG-009, and Akkermansia. Notably, FFAR4 deficiency co-regulated pantothenic acid and CoA biosynthesis, β-alanine metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism pathways in the gut and liver, potentially associated with the aggravation of NAFLD. Together, the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on the gut and liver were mediated by FFAR4, providing insights on the role of FFAR4 in the treatment of NAFLD through the gut–liver axis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030586
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 587: Abnormal Maternal Body Mass Index and
           Customized Fetal Weight Charts: Improving the Identification of Small for
           Gestational Age Fetuses and Newborns

    • Authors: Nieves Luisa González González, Enrique González Dávila, Agustina González Martín, Marina Armas, Laura Tascón, Alba Farras, Teresa Higueras, Manel Mendoza, Elena Carreras, María Goya
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Background: Obesity and thinness are serious diseases, but cases with abnormal maternal weight have not been excluded from the calculations in the construction of customized fetal growth curves (CCs). Method: To determine if the new CCs, built excluding mothers with an abnormal weight, are better than standard CCs at identifying SGA. A total of 16,122 neonates were identified as SGA, LGA, or AGA, using the two models. Logistic regression and analysis of covariance were used to calculate the OR and CI for adverse outcomes by group. Gestational age was considered as a covariable. Results: The SGA rates by the new CCs and by the standard CCs were 11.8% and 9.7%, respectively. The SGA rate only by the new CCs was 18% and the SGA rate only by the standard CCs was 0.01%. Compared to AGA by both models, SGA by the new CCs had increased rates of cesarean section, (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.19, 1.96)), prematurity (OR 2.84 (95% CI 2.09, 3.85)), NICU admission (OR 5.41 (95% CI 3.47, 8.43), and adverse outcomes (OR 1.76 (95% CI 1.06, 2.60). The strength of these associations decreased with gestational age. Conclusion: The use of the new CCs allowed for a more accurate identification of SGA at risk of adverse perinatal outcomes as compared to the standard CCs.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030587
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 588: Evaluation of the Pragmatic Implementation
           of a Digital Health Intervention Promoting Healthy Nutrition, Physical
           Activity, and Gestational Weight Gain for Women Entering Pregnancy at a
           High Body Mass Index

    • Authors: Shelley A. Wilkinson, Brianna Fjeldsoe, Jane C. Willcox
      First page: 588
      Abstract: txt4two is a multi-modality intervention promoting healthy pregnancy nutrition, physical activity (PA), and gestational weight gain (GWG), which had been previously evaluated in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). This study aimed to evaluate a pragmatic implementation of an adapted version of txt4two in a public tertiary hospital. Using a consecutive cohort design, txt4two was delivered to women with a pre-pregnancy BMI > 25 kg/m2, between 10 + 0 to 17 + 6 weeks. Control and intervention cohorts (n = 150) were planned, with surveys and weight measures at baseline and 36 weeks. The txt4two cohort received a dietetic goal-setting appointment and program (SMS, website, and videos). The navigation of disparate hospital systems and the COVID-19 pandemic saw adaptation and adoption take two years. The intervention cohort (n = 35; 43% full data) demonstrated significant differences (mean (SD)), compared to the control cohort (n = 97; 45% full data) in vegetable intake (+0.9 (1.2) versus +0.1 (0.7), p = 0.03), fiber-diet quality index (+0.6 (0.8) versus 0.1 (0.5), p = 0.012), and total diet quality index (+0.7 (1.1) versus +0.2 (±0.6), p = 0.008), but not for PA or GWG. Most (85.7%) intervention participants found txt4two extremely or moderately useful, and 92.9% would recommend it. Embedding the program in a non-RCT context raised implementation challenges. Understanding the facilitators and barriers to adaptation and adoption will strengthen the evidence for the refinement of implementation plans.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030588
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 589: Evidence-Based Lifestyle Guidelines and
           Self-Management Strategies Utilized by Women with Polycystic Ovary

    • Authors: Stephanie Cowan, Angela Grassi, Lynn Monahan Monahan Couch, Yvonne Jeanes, Siew Lim, Stephanie Pirotta, Jeff Harris, Caroline McGirr, Lisa Moran
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder, affecting 13% of reproductive-aged women. While lifestyle management is the first-line treatment for improving complications, women experience challenges with implementation. This cross-sectional study aims to identify the types and sources of dietary and physical activity (PA) interventions implemented by women with PCOS and understand how they use self-management strategies to support lifestyle change. An online questionnaire was disseminated via a consumer-based PCOS website (May 2015–2016). Women (n = 1167) were aged 18–45 years and primarily born within the United States (70%). A quarter or less of women (diet 25%, PA 14%) sought lifestyle advice from health professionals (medical clinicians or dietitians) compared to over half (diet 59%, PA 67%) using alternative sources, namely from online platforms. While only 33% and 16% of women reported following formal dietary or PA guidelines, respectively, 57% had implemented a ‘special diet’ to manage their condition, many of which were inconsistent with evidence-based practice in PCOS. Participants also displayed a low level of engagement with important self-management behaviors, including goal setting and positive self-talk. These findings suggest that online information may promote inaccurate and ineffective lifestyle advice and emphasize the need to increase engagement with qualified health professionals.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030589
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 590: The Effect of Hydrolyzed and Fermented
           Arabinoxylan-OligoSaccharides (AXOS) Intake on the Middle-Term Gut
           Microbiome Modulation and Its Metabolic Answer

    • Authors: Andrea Polo, Marta Acin Albiac, Alessio Da Da Ros, Vimac Nolla Ardèvol, Olga Nikoloudaki, Fabienne Verté, Raffaella Di Di Cagno, Marco Gobbetti
      First page: 590
      Abstract: Although fermentation and hydrolyzation are well-known processes to improve the bioavailability of nutrients and enable the fortification with dietary fibers, the effect of such pre-treatments on the prebiotic features of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) had not been explored. The middle-term in vitro simulation through the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) demonstrated that the feeding with different formulations (namely oat bran, rye bran and wheat bran) containing hydrolyzed AXOS fermented by lactic acid bacteria significantly increased the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by colon microbiota, with hydrolyzed and fermented rye bran displaying the highest effect. After two weeks from the interruption of intake, SCFA concentrations significantly decreased but remained still significantly higher compared to the original condition. The microbiome was also affected, with a significant abundance increase in Lactobacillaceae taxon after feeding with all fermented and hydrolyzed formulates. Hydrolyzed and fermented rye bran showed the highest changes. The fungal community, even if it had a lower variety compared to bacteria, was also modulated after feeding with AXOS formulations, with an increase in Candida relative abundance and a decrease in Issatchenkia. On the contrary, the intake of non-hydrolyzed and non-fermented wheat bran did not produce relevant changes of relative abundances. After two weeks from intake interruption (wash out period) such changes were mitigated, and the gut microbiome modulated again to a final structure that was more like the original condition. This finding suggests that hydrolyzed AXOS fermented by lactic acid bacteria could have a more powerful prebiotic effect compared to non-hydrolyzed and non-fermented wheat bran, shaping the colon microbiome and its metabolic answer. However, the intake should be continuous to assure persistent effects. Opening a window into the ecological evolutions and plausible underlying mechanisms, the findings reinforce the perspective to explore more in depth the use of hydrolyzed and fermented AXOS as additional ingredient for bread fortification.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030590
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 591: Targeting Iron Metabolism and Ferroptosis
           as Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Authors: Yufei Chen, Xueting Li, Siyuan Wang, Ran Miao, Jiuchang Zhong
      First page: 591
      Abstract: Iron functions as an essential micronutrient and participates in normal physiological and biochemical processes in the cardiovascular system. Ferroptosis is a novel type of iron-dependent cell death driven by iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, characterized by depletion of glutathione and suppression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Dysregulation of iron metabolism and ferroptosis have been implicated in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Iron chelators deferoxamine and dexrazoxane, and lipophilic antioxidants ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 have been revealed to abolish ferroptosis and suppress lipid peroxidation in atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and other CVDs. Notably, inhibition of ferroptosis by ferrostatin-1 has been demonstrated to alleviate cardiac impairments, fibrosis and pathological remodeling during hypertension by potentiating GPX4 signaling. Administration of deferoxamine improved myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Several novel small molecules may be effective in the treatment of ferroptosis-mediated CVDs. In this article, we summarize the regulatory roles and underlying mechanisms of iron metabolism dysregulation and ferroptosis in the occurrence and development of CVDs. Targeting iron metabolism and ferroptosis are potential therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and other CVDs.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030591
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 592: Cardioprotective Potential of Berries of
           Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.), Their Components and Food Products

    • Authors: Beata Olas
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) berries, originally a component of traditional herbal medicine in China, Korea, and other east Asian countries, are also valuable agents in modern phototherapy. S. chinensis berry preparations, including extracts and their chemical components, demonstrate anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, among others. These valuable properties, and their therapeutic potential, are conditioned by the unique chemical composition of S. chinensis berries, particularly their lignan content. About 40 of these compounds, mainly dibenzocyclooctane type, were isolated from S. chinensis. The most important bioactive lignans are schisandrin (also denoted as schizandrin or schisandrol A), schisandrin B, schisantherin A, schisantherin B, schisanhenol, deoxyschisandrin, and gomisin A. The present work reviews newly-available literature concerning the cardioprotective potential of S. chinensis berries and their individual components. It places special emphasis on the cardioprotective properties of the selected lignans related to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030592
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 593: The One-Hundred-Year Anniversary of the
           Discovery of the Sunshine Vitamin, D3: Historical, Personal Experience and
           Evidence-Based Perspectives

    • Authors: Michael F. Holick
      First page: 593
      Abstract: The discovery of a fat-soluble nutrient that had antirachitic activity and no vitamin A activity by McCollum has had far reaching health benefits for children and adults. He named this nutrient vitamin D. The goal of this review and personal experiences is to give the reader a broad perspective almost from the beginning of time for how vitamin D evolved to became intimately involved in the evolution of land vertebrates. It was the deficiency of sunlight causing the devastating skeletal disease known as English disease and rickets that provided the first insight as to the relationship of sunlight and the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. The initial appreciation that vitamin D could be obtained from ultraviolet exposure of ergosterol in yeast to produce vitamin D2 resulted in the fortification of foods with vitamin D2 and the eradication of rickets. Vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 (represented as D) are equally effective in humans. They undergo sequential metabolism to produce the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. It is now also recognized that essentially every tissue and cell in the body not only has a vitamin D receptor but can produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This could explain why vitamin D deficiency has now been related to many acute and chronic illnesses, including COVID-19.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030593
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 594: Lactose and Galactose Content in Spanish
           Cheeses: Usefulness in the Dietary Treatment of Patients with

    • Authors: Isidro Vitoria, Fuensanta Melendreras, Antonio Vázquez-Palazón, Dolores Rausell, Patricia Correcher, Domingo González-Lamuño, Mónica García-Peris
      First page: 594
      Abstract: In galactosaemia, a strict galactose-free diet is necessary to prevent or resolve acute symptoms in infants. However, because the body produces up to 10 times more galactose than is found in a galactose-restricted diet, excessively restrictive diets should be avoided in children and adults to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Since cheese is a nutritional source of the calcium necessary for bone health, the latest international guidelines on the management of classical galactosaemia (2017) allow the consumption of cured cheeses with less than 25 mg of galactose/100 g and recommend that each country verifies the adequacy of the cheeses, since most mature cheeses do not always have a lower galactose content. In total, 32 cheese samples were purchased (19 Spanish and 13 international cheeses), and their lactose and galactose contents were analysed using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). Five Spanish cheeses contained less than 25 mg of galactose/100 g: García Baquero semi-cured cheese; Hacendado, Gran Reserva and Mahón cured cheeses; and García Baquero Reserva 12-month cured cheese. In addition, eight international cheeses were confirmed as suitable: Comté, Gouda, Gruyere, Maasdam, Parmigiano, Edam, Emmental, and some samples of Cheddar. In addition to the well-known low-galactose Swiss and Dutch cheeses, according to the current results, five Spanish cheeses can be safely consumed. The greater availability of types of cheese favours better bone health in patients with galactosaemia.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030594
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 595: Low Free Triiodothyronine as a More
           Sensitive Predictor of Survival than Total Testosterone among Dialysis Men

    • Authors: Ksymena Leśniak, Aleksandra Rymarz, Maria Sobol, Stanisław Niemczyk
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Background: Some endocrine disorders, previously considered benign, may be related to a poorer prognosis for patients with renal failure. Both low serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and low total testosterone (TT) concentrations have been considered as predictors of death in dialysis patients, but the results of studies are inconsistent. In our study, we evaluated the relationships of the serum thyroid hormone levels and the total testosterone levels with survival in male dialysis patients. Methods: Forty-eight male dialysis patients, 31 on hemodialysis (HD) and 17 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), aged 61.4 ± 10.0, 59.2 ± 12.2 years, respectively, were included in the study. Serum thyroid hormones and total testosterone were measured. Results: During the 12-month follow-up, nine all-cause deaths were recorded. The concentrations of fT3 were significantly lower in those who died than in the survivors (p = 0.001). We did not observe any statistically considerable differences between the group of men who died and the rest of the participants in terms of the total serum testosterone concentration (p = 0.350). Total testosterone positively correlated with fT3 (r = 0.463, p = 0.009) in the HD group. Conclusions: In the group of male dialysis patients, the serum concentration of fT3 had a better prognostic value in terms of survival than the total testosterone. A linear relationship between the fT3 levels and testosterone levels in men undergoing hemodialysis may confirm the hypothesis that some of the hormonal changes observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have a common cause.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030595
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 596: Effects of Nut Consumption on Blood Lipids
           and Lipoproteins: A Comprehensive Literature Update

    • Authors: Guasch-Ferré, Tessier, Petersen, Sapp, Tapsell, Salas-Salvadó, Ros, Kris-Etherton
      First page: 596
      Abstract: In the present review, we provide a comprehensive narrative overview of the current knowledge on the effects of total and specific types of nut consumption (excluding nut oil) on blood lipids and lipoproteins. We identified a total of 19 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were available in PubMed from the inception date to November 2022. A consistent beneficial effect of most nuts, namely total nuts and tree nuts, including walnuts, almonds, cashews, peanuts, and pistachios, has been reported across meta-analyses in decreasing total cholesterol (mean difference, MD, −0.09 to −0.28 mmol/L), LDL-cholesterol (MD, −0.09 to −0.26 mmol/L), and triglycerides (MD, −0.05 to −0.17 mmol/L). However, no effects on HDL-cholesterol have been uncovered. Preliminary evidence indicates that adding nuts into the regular diet reduces blood levels of apolipoprotein B and improves HDL function. There is also evidence that nuts dose-dependently improve lipids and lipoproteins. Sex, age, or nut processing are not effect modifiers, while a lower BMI and higher baseline lipid concentrations enhance blood lipid/lipoprotein responses. While research is still emerging, the evidence thus far indicates that nut-enriched diets are associated with a reduced number of total LDL particles and small, dense LDL particles. In conclusion, evidence from clinical trials has shown that the consumption of total and specific nuts improves blood lipid profiles by multiple mechanisms. Future directions in this field should include more lipoprotein particle, apolipoprotein B, and HDL function studies.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030596
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 597: Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change Program
           on Insulin Resistance in Yaquis Indigenous Populations in Sonora, Mexico:

    • Authors: Alejandro Arturo Castro-Juarez, Araceli Serna-Gutiérrez, Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo, Ana Cristina Gallegos-Aguilar, Norma Alicia Dórame-López, Abraham Valenzuela-Sánchez, Diana Marcela Valenzuela-Guzmán, Rolando Giovanni Díaz-Zavala, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Julián Esparza-Romero
      First page: 597
      Abstract: To evaluate the effectiveness of the healthy lifestyle promotion program for Yaquis (PREVISY) on insulin resistance in the short- and medium-term periods in adults who are overweight/obese and have an increased risk for diabetes. Using a translational research design, an intervention program was implemented in a sample of 93 Yaqui adult subjects. The effectiveness of PREVISY was evaluated by comparing the levels of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Triglycerides-Glucose Index (TyG index) at 6 and 12 months using a paired t-test. Results: In the subjects who completed the program, a decrease in the HOMA-IR index (∆ = −0.91 and ∆ = −1.29, p ≤ 0.05) and the TyG index (∆ = −0.24 y ∆ = −0.20, p ≤ 0.05) was observed in the short- and medium-term period, respectively. Subjects with body weight loss ≥ 10% showed decreased levels of HOMA-IR (∆ = −3.32 and ∆ = −4.89, p ≤ 0.05) and the TyG index (∆ = −0.80 and ∆ = −0.60, p ≤ 0.05) at 6 and 12 months, respectively. A stronger benefit of the program was found in subjects with obesity (vs. overweight) and with high and very high risk of diabetes (vs. moderate risk) in IR markers (p ≤ 0.05). The PREVISY program demonstrated its effectiveness in the improvement of some markers of insulin resistance in Yaqui adults at risk of diabetes.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030597
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 598: Osteocytic Sclerostin Expression as an
           Indicator of Altered Bone Turnover

    • Authors: Yentl Huybrechts, Pieter Evenepoel, Mathias Haarhaus, Etienne Cavalier, Geert Dams, Wim Van Hul, Patrick C. D’Haese, Anja Verhulst
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a complex and serious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major global health problem caused by loss of renal function. Currently, the gold standard to accurately diagnose ROD is based on quantitative histomorphometric analysis of trabecular bone. Although this analysis encompasses the evaluation of osteoblast and osteoclast number/activity, tfigurehe interest in osteocytes remains almost nihil. Nevertheless, this cell type is evidenced to perform a key role in bone turnover, particularly through its production of various bone proteins, such as sclerostin. In this study, we aim to investigate, in the context of ROD, to which extent an association exists between bone turnover and the abundance of osteocytes and osteocytic sclerostin expression in both the trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Additionally, the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone sclerostin expression was examined in parathyroidectomized rats. Our results indicate that PTH exerts a direct inhibitory function on sclerostin, which in turn negatively affects bone turnover and mineralization. Moreover, this study emphasizes the functional differences between cortical and trabecular bone, as the number of (sclerostin-positive) osteocytes is dependent on the respective bone compartment. Finally, we evaluated the potential of sclerostin as a marker for CKD and found that the diagnostic performance of circulating sclerostin is limited and that changes in skeletal sclerostin expression occur more rapidly and more pronounced. The inclusion of osteocytic sclerostin expression and cortical bone analysis could be relevant when performing bone histomorphometric analysis for diagnostic purposes and to unravel pathological mechanisms of bone disease.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030598
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 599: Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration
           on a 5-kilometer Running Time-Trial Performance in the Heat in
           Recreationally Active Individuals

    • Authors: Antoine Jolicoeur Desroches, Catherine Naulleau, Thomas A. Deshayes, Hugo Parent-Roberge, Timothée Pancrate, Eric D. B. Goulet
      First page: 599
      Abstract: Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is a major determinant of 5-km running time-trial (TT) performance. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) could improve V˙O2max in recreationally active persons through an optimal increase in plasma volume. Moreover, ingestion of a large bolus of cold fluid before exercise could decrease thermal stress during exercise, potentially contributing to improved performance. We determined the effect of GIH on 5-km running TT performance in 10 recreationally active individuals (age: 24 ± 4 years; V˙O2max: 48 ± 3 mL/kg/min). Using a randomized and counterbalanced protocol, participants underwent two, 120-min hydration protocols where they ingested a 1) 30 mL/kg fat-free mass (FFM) of cold water (~4 °C) with an artificial sweetener + 1.4 g glycerol/kg FFM over the first 60 min (GIH) or 2) 7.5 mL/kg FFM of cold water with an artificial sweetener over the first 20 min (EUH). Following GIH and EUH, participants underwent a 5-km running TT at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. After 120 min, GIH was associated with significantly greater fluid retention (846 ± 415 mL) and plasma volume changes (10.1 ± 8.4%) than EUH, but gastrointestinal (GI) temperature did not differ. During exercise, 5-km running TT performance (GIH: 22.95 ± 2.62; EUH: 22.52 ± 2.74 min), as well as heart rate, GI temperature and perceived exertion did not significantly differ between conditions. This study demonstrates that the additional body water and plasma volume gains provided by GIH do not improve 5-km running TT performance in the heat in recreationally active individuals.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030599
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 600: Relationship of Glucose, C-peptide, Leptin,
           and BDNF in Maternal and Umbilical Vein Blood in Type-1 Diabetes

    • Authors: Josip Delmis, Slavko Oreskovic, Vesna Elvedji Elvedji Gasparovic, Mirta Starcevic, Mislav Herman, Nada Dessardo, Vito Starcevic, Marina Ivanisevic
      First page: 600
      Abstract: The study aimed to determine the relationship between glucose, C-peptide, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and leptin between mother and fetus and neonatal weight. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort study, we included 66 women with type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). According to the z-score for neonatal weight, patients were divided into healthy-weight neonates (n = 42) and overweight neonates (n = 24). The maternal blood samples were taken during pregnancy and cesarean section when the umbilical vein blood sample was also withdrawn. The maternal vein sera were analyzed for fasting glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, BDNF, TSH, FT3, and FT4. The umbilical vein sera were analyzed for glucose, C-peptide, leptin, TSH, thyroid-stimulating protein (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and BDNF concentration. The neonatologist measured the skinfold thickness on the third day of neonatal life. Results: A strong correlation was confirmed between maternal and umbilical vein glucose concentration and maternal glucose and C-peptide in umbilical vein blood. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of BDNF in the umbilical vein and glucose in maternal blood. A strong correlation was seen between BMI and maternal blood leptin concentration, neonatal fat body mass, and umbilical vein blood leptin concentration. Higher BMI elevated BDNF, and TSH increase the odds for overweight neonates in the first trimester of pregnancy. Maternal higher leptin concentration in the first trimester decrease the odds of overweight neonates. Conclusions: Maternal glucose concentrations affect the fetus’s glucose, C-peptide, and BDNF concentrations. Leptin levels increase in maternal blood due to increased body mass index, and in the neonate, fat body mass is responsible for increased leptin concentrations.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030600
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 601: Effects of Glucomannan Supplementation on
           Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Zhanzhi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xiaomei Tao, Yuying Wang, Benqiang Rao, Hanping Shi
      First page: 601
      Abstract: The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects of glucomannan are widely known, and it is a potential effective treatment for type II diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glucomannan supplementation on blood-lipid-related indicators, blood-glucose-related indicators, blood pressure (BP), and body weight (BW) in patients suffering from type II diabetes. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, the comprehensive biomedical research database (Embase), Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for literature on glucomannan and type II diabetes. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible (n = 440 participants) to be included in our analysis. Glucomannan not only reduced the total cholesterol (TC) (MD −0.38 [95% CI: −0.61, −0.15], p = 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (MD −0.35 [95% CI: −0.52, −0.17], p < 0.0001) compared with the control group, but also reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD −1.08 [95% CI: −1.65, −0.50], p = 0.0002), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (P2hBG) (MD −1.92 [95% CI: −3.19, −0.65], p = 0.003), fasting insulin (FINS) (MD −1.59 [95% CI: −2.69, −0.50], p = 0.004), and serum fructosamine (SFRA) levels (SMD −1.19 [95% CI: −1.74, −0.64], p < 0.0001). Our analysis indicates that glucomannan is an effective nutritional intervention for type II diabetes.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030601
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 602: Lifestyle Intervention Randomized
           Controlled Trial for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD-Life): Study

    • Authors: Alexandra P. M. de Koning-Backus, Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong, Jeroen G. J. van Rooij, AMD-Life Team AMD-Life Team, André G. Uitterlinden, Trudy G. Voortman, Magda A. Meester-Smoor, Caroline C. W. Klaver
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a strong genetic basis, but environmental factors such as smoking and a healthy diet can decrease the genetic fate by up to 50%. Current guidelines for clinical management include recommendations for a healthy lifestyle and antioxidant supplementation. However, many ophthalmologists do not inform their patients of this AMD-beneficial lifestyle. An important reason is the lack of trust that transition of lifestyle will be feasible in persons of advanced age and lack of methodology to measure lifestyle or its biological effects. To address these issues, we set up the lifestyle intervention study AMD-Life. It aims to investigate whether personalized risk-profiling (including genetic testing) and/or additional coaching can motivate patients to change their lifestyle. It also explores which biomarkers best reflect lifestyle change beneficial for AMD. The first year is a three-arm, self-contained open-label randomized clinical trial. A total of 150 AMD patients aged 55–85 years were randomized into three arms: (A) merely standard recommendations; (B) A conditions plus personalized risk profiling based on genetics and lifestyle, (C) B conditions plus coaching. The second year tests sustainability of lifestyle changes without active intervention. AMD-Life can provide further insight into the relevance of these interventions for the clinical management of AMD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030602
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 603: Dietary Factors and Endometrial Cancer
           Risk: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    • Authors: Xuemin Wang, Dylan M. Glubb, Tracy A. O’Mara
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Given the strong association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk, dietary factors may play an important role in the development of this cancer. However, observational studies of micro- and macronutrients and their role in endometrial cancer risk have been inconsistent. Clarifying these relationships are important to develop nutritional recommendations for cancer prevention. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the effects of circulating levels of 15 micronutrients (vitamin A (retinol), folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, β-carotene, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc) as well as corrected relative macronutrient intake (protein, carbohydrate, sugar and fat) on risks of endometrial cancer and its subtypes (endometrioid and non-endometrioid histologies). Genetically predicted vitamin C levels were found to be strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk. There was some evidence that genetically predicted relative intake of macronutrients (carbohydrate, sugar and fat) affects endometrial cancer risk. No other significant association were observed. Conclusions: In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin C and macronutrients influence endometrial cancer risk but further investigation is required.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030603
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 604: Association of Healthy Lifestyles with
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study in Chinese
           Government Employees

    • Authors: Zhen Ling, Chengcheng Zhang, Jun He, Feiyun Ouyang, Dan Qiu, Ling Li, Yilu Li, Xuping Li, Yanying Duan, Dan Luo, Shuiyuan Xiao, Minxue Shen
      First page: 604
      Abstract: Background: Evidence indicates that certain healthy lifestyle factors are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the effect of combined healthy lifestyle factors. Objective: To assess the association of combined healthy lifestyle factors with the incidence of NAFLD. Methods: This cohort study was conducted in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. The healthy lifestyles factors studied were not being a current smoker, having a healthy diet, engaging in physical activity, having a normal body mass index (BMI) and engaging in non-sedentary behavior. NAFLD was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasonography. Logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the associations being studied. Results: Of the 5411 participants, 1280 participants had NAFLD, with a prevalence of 23.7% at baseline. The incidence of NAFLD among participants without NAFLD at baseline was found to be 7.2% over a mean follow-up of 1.1 years. Compared with participants with 0–1 low-risk factors, the OR of NAFLD was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29–0.82, p = 0.008) for those with at least 4 low-risk factors. Similar associations were observed in subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: This study suggests that a combined healthy lifestyle pattern may considerably decrease the risk of NAFLD in Chinese government employees.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030604
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 605: Low Obesity-Related Indices Are Associated
           with a Low Baseline Calcaneus Ultrasound T-Score, and a Rapid Decline in
           T-Score in a Large Taiwanese Population Follow-Up Study

    • Authors: Li-Han Chen, Yi-Hsueh Liu, Szu-Chia Chen, Ho-Ming Su
      First page: 605
      Abstract: Osteoporosis results in reduced bone strength and an elevated risk of fractures. Both overweight and underweight have been associated with osteoporosis; however, few studies have examined associations between osteoporosis and indices related to obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations of obesity-related indices, including body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body roundness index (BRI), body adiposity index (BAI), abdominal volume index (AVI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and visceral adiposity index (VAI), with baseline and change in calcaneus ultrasound T-score between baseline and follow-up (ΔT-score). T-score was measured using ultrasound. A total of 26,983 subjects were enrolled (mean age 51.2 ± 10.4 years). Multivariable analysis showed significant associations between low BMI (per 1 kg/m2; β, 0.065), WHR (per 1%; β, 0.012), WHtR (per 1%; β, 0.024), BRI (per 1; β, 0.079), BAI (per 1; β, 0.032), AVI (per 1; β, 0.049), and LAP (per 1; β, 0.005) with low baseline T-scores (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, there were significant associations between low BMI (per 1 kg/m2; β, 0.005; p = 0.036), BAI (per 1; β, 0.010; p < 0.001), and VAI (per 1; β, 0.017; p = 0.002) with low ΔT-scores. A low baseline T-score was significantly associated with low values of LAP, AVI, BAI, BMI, BRI, WHR, and WHtR but not VAI. In addition, low BMI, BAI, and VAI were significantly associated with low ΔT-scores, representing a rapidly decreasing T-score. Consequently, avoiding being underweight may help prevent osteoporosis in the Taiwanese population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030605
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 606: Medicines for Obesity: Appraisal of
           Clinical Studies with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development,
           and Evaluation Tool

    • Authors: Eleni A. Karavia, Panagiota C. Giannopoulou, Vassiliki Konstantinopoulou, Katerina Athanasopoulou, Theodosios D. Filippatos, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Kyriakos E. Kypreos
      First page: 606
      Abstract: We evaluated the quality of evidence from phase III/IV clinical trials of drugs against obesity using the principles of Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. Our systematic review evaluates the quality of clinical evidence from existing clinical trials and not the pharmacological efficacy of anti-obesity therapies. A literature search using select keywords in separate was performed in PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for phase III/IV clinical trials during the last ten years. Our findings indicate that the quality of existing clinical evidence from anti-obesity trials generally ranges from low to moderate. Most trials suffered from publication bias. Less frequently, trials suffered from the risk of bias mainly due to lack of blindness in the treatment. Our work indicates that additional higher-quality clinical trials are needed to gain more confidence in the estimate of the effect of currently used anti-obesity medicines, to allow more informed clinical decisions, thus reducing the risk of implementing potentially ineffective or even harmful therapeutic strategies.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030606
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 607: Inflammatory Response: A Crucial Way for
           Gut Microbes to Regulate Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Authors: Wen Wang, Luo-Jiang Zhu, Yue-Qi Leng, Yu-Wan Wang, Te Shi, Wei-Zhong Wang, Jia-Cen Sun
      First page: 607
      Abstract: Gut microbiota is the largest and most complex microflora in the human body, which plays a crucial role in human health and disease. Over the past 20 years, the bidirectional communication between gut microbiota and extra-intestinal organs has been extensively studied. A better comprehension of the alternative mechanisms for physiological and pathophysiological processes could pave the way for health. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common diseases that seriously threatens human health. Although previous studies have shown that cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure, hypertension, and coronary atherosclerosis, are closely related to gut microbiota, limited understanding of the complex pathogenesis leads to poor effectiveness of clinical treatment. Dysregulation of inflammation always accounts for the damaged gastrointestinal function and deranged interaction with the cardiovascular system. This review focuses on the characteristics of gut microbiota in CVD and the significance of inflammation regulation during the whole process. In addition, strategies to prevent and treat CVD through proper regulation of gut microbiota and its metabolites are also discussed.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030607
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 608: Congruence between Physical Activity
           Patterns and Dietary Patterns Inferred from Analysis of Sex Differences in
           Lifestyle Behaviors of Late Adolescents from Poland: Cophylogenetic

    • Authors: Jarosław Domaradzki
      First page: 608
      Abstract: Global trends toward physical inactivity and the replacement of healthy dietary behaviors with unhealthy food consumption, particularly in late adolescence, were commonly observed. Thus, the aim of this work was twofold: (1) to examine congruence between PAPs and DPs by identifying sex differences in healthy and unhealthy behaviors and (2) to assess the explanation behind why certain participants were classified into clusters using BMI and fat mass covariates. Late adolescents (19–21 years of age, n = 107) were selected to study. PAPs and DPs were assessed with questionnaires (IPAQ, QEB) and body height, weight, and fat mass percentage were self-reported (the accuracy and reliability of self-reported data were empirically verified). A cophylogenetic approach with several clustering procedures (heatmaps and tanglegrams) was the way to solve the stated problems. Results showed that students achieved the minimal level of physical activity, lower than students from other regions in Poland, Czech Republic, or Germany. There was congruence between PAPs and DPs in some males’ and females’ behaviors. Significant similarities in sex patterns of behaviors were revealed (Mantel tests–PAPs: r = 0.70, p < 0.001; DPs: r = 0.84, p < 0.001). Similarities in PAPs were related to transportation cycling and school/work activities behaviors. Non-healthy triads in dietary behaviors were found: fast-food, sweetened beverages, and alcoholic drinks in the first, and sweets, fried meals, and yellow cheese in the second. One healthy diad was revealed: vegetables and fruits. Only females’ dietary behaviors were reflected in body mass index (F = 3.19, p = 0.049), percentage of body fat (F = 3.87, p = 0.027), and fat mass index (F = 3.83, p = 0.028). The usefulness of the cophenetic approach in patterns study was verified. Sex similarities and specific disparities could help preparing targeted tailored intervention programs that improve healthy habits in late adolescents. This is especially important in relation to females, who more strongly reflected dietary behaviors in body composition.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030608
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 609: Implication of Vegetable Oil-Derived

    • Authors: Tetsumori Yamashima
      First page: 609
      Abstract: Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicular structures that mediate degradation and recycling of damaged macromolecules and organelles within the cell. For ensuring the place of degradation within the acidic organelle, the integrity of the lysosomal-limiting membrane is critical in order to not injure the cell. As lysosomes fade away in response to acute intense insults or long-term mild insults, dissolving lysosomes are hardly detected during the phase of cell degeneration. If observed at the right time, however, lysosomal membrane rupture/permeabilization can be detected using an electron microscope. In both the experimental and clinical materials, here the author reviewed electron microphotographs showing disintegrity of the lysosomal-limiting membrane. Regardless of insults, cell types, organs, diseases, or species, leakage of lysosomal content occurred either by the apparent disruption of the lysosomal membrane (rupture) and/or through the ultrastructurally blurred membrane (permeabilization). Since lysosomal rupture occurs in the early phase of necrotic cell death, it is difficult to find vivid lysosomes after the cell death or disease are completed. A lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (hydroxynonenal), is incorporated into the serum by the intake of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oils (exogenous), and/or is generated by the peroxidation of membrane lipids due to the oxidative stress (intrinsic). Exogenous and intrinsic hydroxynonenal may synergically oxidize the representative cell stress protein Hsp70.1, which has dual functions as a ‘chaperone protein’ and ‘lysosomal stabilizer’. Hydroxynonenal-mediated carbonylation of Hsp70.1 facilitates calpain-mediated cleavage to induce lysosomal membrane rupture and the resultant cell death. Currently, vegetable oils such as soybean and canola oils are the most widely consumed cooking oils at home and in restaurants worldwide. Accordingly, high linoleic acid content may be a major health concern, because cells can become damaged by its major end product, hydroxynonenal. By focusing on dynamic changes of the lysosomal membrane integrity at the ultrastructural level, implications of its rupture/permeabilization on cell death/degeneration were discussed as an etiology of lifestyle-related diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030609
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 610: C57bl/6 Mice Show Equivalent Taste
           Preferences toward Ruminant and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids

    • Authors: Farzad Mohammadi, Nicolas Bertrand, Iwona Rudkowska
      First page: 610
      Abstract: Two distinct types of trans fatty acids (TFA) are found in the diet. Industrial TFA such as elaidic acid (EA) have deleterious effects on metabolic risk factors, and oppositely ruminant TFA including trans-palmitoleic acid (TPA) may have beneficial effects. The objective is to evaluate the taste preference between EA, TPA, lecithin or water. In this study, 24 female C57BL/6 mice were microchipped and placed in two separate IntelliCages®. Nano encapsulated TFA or lecithin were added to drinking water in different corners of the cage with normal diet. The study was carried out over 5 weeks, during which mice were exposed to water only (weeks 1 and 3), TFA or lecithin (week 2), and EA or TPA (weeks 4 and 5). Mice weights, corner visits, nose pokes (NP), and lick number were measured each week. The results demonstrated that mice consume more TFA, either EA or TPA, compared with lecithin. In addition, the mice licked more EA compared with TPA in one cage; conversely, in the other cage they licked more TPA compared with EA. However, when TFA positions were swapped, mice had equal licks for EA and TPA. In sum, mice preferred TFA, in equal matter compared with controls; therefore, the results demonstrate the potential for TFA-type substitution in diet.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030610
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 611: A Multi-Ingredient Supplement Protects
           against Obesity and Infertility in Western Diet-Fed Mice

    • Authors: Mats I. Nilsson, Linda May, Liza J. Roik, Matthew R. Fuda, Ashely Luo, Bart P. Hettinga, Adam L. Bujak, Mark A. Tarnopolsky
      First page: 611
      Abstract: The Western diet (WD) predisposes to bodyweight gain and obesity and is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammation, and multisystem disease, even affecting the reproductive organs, fertility, and pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we investigated the effects of multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) with antioxidants, phytonutrients, and vitamins (‘Fertility Enhancer’; FE) on white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and infertility in WD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Five-month-old male (M) and female (F) mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF) or a high fat/sucrose WD (HF) for six weeks, followed by six weeks of LF (3.64 kcal/g), HF (4.56 kcal/g), or HF combined with FE (4.50 kcal/g). A sub-set of animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks, while the remainder were harem-mated in a 1:2 male-to-female ratio, and singly housed during the gestational period. Two-way, factorial ANOVA analysis revealed a main effect of diet on bodyweight (BW), total body fat, % body fat, white adipose tissue mass, and liver lipid content (all p < 0.001), driven by the anti-obesogenic effects of the ‘Fertility Enhancer.’ Similarly, a main effect of diet was found on PGC1-α mRNA levels (p < 0.05) and mitochondrial protein content (p < 0.001) in perigonadal WAT, with PGC1-α induction and higher complex II and complex III expression in FE vs. HF animals. Copulatory plug counts were higher in FE vs. HE couples (30% vs. 6%), resulting in more litters (4 vs. 0) and higher copulatory success (67% vs. 0%). Although the trends of all histology outcomes were suggestive of a benefit from the FE diet, only the number of atretic follicles and testicular mass were significant. Ovarian IL-1β mRNA induction was significantly attenuated in the FE group (p < 0.05 vs. HF) with CASP1 attenuation trending lower (p = 0.09 vs. HF), which is indicative of anti-inflammatory benefits of the ‘Fertility Enhancer.’ We conclude that supplementation with specific phytonutrients, antioxidants, and vitamins may have utility as an adjunctive therapy for weight management, fatty liver disease, and infertility in overweight and obese couples.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030611
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 612: Expert Consensus on Morphofunctional

    • Authors: José Manuel García-Almeida, Cristina García-García, María D. Ballesteros-Pomar, Gabriel Olveira, Juan J. Lopez-Gomez, Virginia Bellido, Irene Bretón Lesmes, Rosa Burgos, Alejandro Sanz-Paris, Pilar Matia-Martin, Francisco Botella Romero, Julia Ocon Breton, Ana Zugasti Murillo, Diego Bellido
      First page: 612
      Abstract: Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) affects approximately a third of hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of morbimortality. However, DRM is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic value of morphofunctional tools and tests for nutritional assessment in clinical practice. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies relating to the morphofunctional assessment of nutritional status and mortality or complications. Evidence was evaluated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) method. Twelve GRADE recommendations were made and divided into seven topics: food intake and nutrient assimilation, anthropometry, biochemical analysis, hand grip strength, phase angle, muscle imaging, and functional status and quality of life. From these recommendations, 37 statements were developed and scored in a two-survey Delphi method by 183 experts. A consensus was reached on accepting 26/37 statements. Surveys had high internal consistency and high inter-rater reliability. In conclusion, evidence-based recommendations were made on the prognostic value of morphofunctional assessment tools and tests to assess malnutrition, most of which were found to be feasible in routine clinical practice, according to expert opinions.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030612
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 613: Standardized Ethanol Extract of Cassia
           mimosoides var. nomame Makino Ameliorates Obesity via Regulation of
           Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced
           Obese Mice

    • Authors: So-Won Heo, Kyung-Sook Chung, Young-Seo Yoon, Soo-Yeon Kim, Hye-Shin Ahn, Yu-Kyong Shin, Sun-Hee Lee, Kyung-Tae Lee
      First page: 613
      Abstract: Obesity is a major cause of conditions such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, posing a threat to public health worldwide. Here, we analyzed the anti-obesity effects of a standardized ethanol extract of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame Makino (EECM) in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with EECM suppressed adipogenesis and lipogenesis via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway by downregulating the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, and fatty acid synthase and upregulating the acetyl-CoA carboxylase. EECM inhibited mitotic clonal expansion during early adipocyte differentiation. Oral administration of EECM for 10 weeks significantly alleviated body weight gain and body fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. EECM mitigated adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in white adipose and liver tissues of HFD-induced obese mice. It regulated the levels of adipogenic hormones including insulin, leptin, and adipokine in the blood plasma. In brown adipose tissue, EECM induced the expression of thermogenic factors such as uncoupling protein-1, PPAR-α, PPARγ co-activator-1α, sirtuin 1, and cytochrome c oxidase IV. EECM restored the gut microbiome composition at the phylum level and alleviated dysbiosis. Therefore, EECM may be used as a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030613
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 614: Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia
           Indicated for Intravenous Iron Treatment in the Korean Population

    • Authors: Rihwa Choi, Gayoung Chun, Mi-Jung Park, Sang Gon Lee, Eun Hee Lee
      First page: 614
      Abstract: We aimed to investigate the number and prevalence of patients indicated for intravenous iron treatment in a large Korean population using criteria based on laboratory test results in an effort to extract indirect information on the need for intravenous iron treatment. Between 1 January 2019 and 31 December 2021, a total of 83,994 Korean patients (30,499 men and 53,495 women) with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 30–61) were evaluated using iron deficiency anemia–associated laboratory tests and serum creatinine tests of estimated glomerular filtration rates. The overall prevalence of anemia (Hb ≤ 11 g/dL) was 16.5%, and the proportion of patients with possible chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 11.4%. The number of patients indicated for reimbursable intravenous iron treatment was higher in women than in men, higher in older patients, and higher in 2021 than in 2019 (all p < 0.001). The prevalence of patients indicated for reimbursable intravenous iron treatment was up to 30.0% in those ≥ 80 years of age in 2019. The results of this study provide basic knowledge about the use of iron deficiency anemia-associated laboratory tests in planning nutritional support programs using an intravenous iron formulation in Korea.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030614
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 615: Infantile Colic and Long-Term Outcomes in
           Childhood: A Narrative Synthesis of the Evidence

    • Authors: Flavia Indrio, Vanessa Nadia Dargenio, Ruggiero Francavilla, Hania Szajewska, Yvan Vandenplas
      First page: 615
      Abstract: About 1 in 4 infants comes forward with prolonged crying, agitation, or infant colic (IC) during the first three months of life and is referred for medical evaluation. The pathogenesis remains poorly understood, as do its implications for future health. The aim of this narrative review was to critically examine and discuss the available literature on long-term consequences of excessive crying and/or colic. Most studies display an association between IC and the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) years later, probably related to the presence of common etiopathogenetic factors (environmental, dietary, intestinal dysmotility, visceral hypersensitivity). Although allergic disease in first-degree relatives may be a risk factor for IC, the latter does not appear to be a risk factor for subsequent atopic disease in the individual. Overall, there seems to be a relationship between IC and subsequent headaches, of the migraine type. Similarly, behavioral problems in children with a history of IC appear to be associated with higher parental stress scores. However, the current evidence is based on associations, and currently, a causal relationship between excessive crying and IC and long-term consequences remains not documented.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030615
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 616: The Potential of Condiments, Seasonings,
           and Bouillon Cubes to Deliver Essential Micronutrients in Asia: Scenario
           Analyses of Iodine and Iron Fortification

    • Authors: Ans Eilander, Marieke R. Verbakel, Mariska Dötsch-Klerk
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent in Asia. Fortification of cooking aids, such as condiments (fish and soy sauces), seasonings, and bouillon cubes, may be an additional strategy to improve micronutrient intake. The current study evaluated the potential impact of iodine and iron fortification of cooking aids on micronutrient intake in Asian countries. A systematic literature search was performed to collect consumption data from different countries in Asia. Data from 18 studies in nine Asian countries were included. Scenario analyses were performed using different fortification levels based on regulations and literature. Mean intake of cooking aids ranged from 3.2–15.9 g/day for condiments and 0.4–11.7 g/day for seasonings and bouillon cubes. When replacing salt with iodized salt (30 µg of iodine/g of salt), iodine intake would increase by 13–119 µg/day for soy and fish sauces (9–80% of the Nutrient Reference Value (NRV)), and 5–83 µg/day for bouillon cubes and seasonings (4–56% of the NRV). Fortification with iron 0.5 mg/g food product for condiments or 1 mg/g food product for bouillon cubes and seasonings improved iron intake for soy and fish sauces by 1.6–8.0 mg/day (11–57% of the NRV), and for bouillon cubes and seasonings by 0.4–5.6 mg/day (3–40% of the NRV). These results indicate that, depending on the consumption pattern, fortification of cooking aids can be a suitable strategy to increase intake of micronutrients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030616
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 617: Microplastics: A Real Global Threat for
           Environment and Food Safety: A State of the Art Review

    • Authors: Khaled Ziani, Corina-Bianca Ioniță-Mîndrican, Magdalena Mititelu, Sorinel Marius Neacșu, Carolina Negrei, Elena Moroșan, Doina Drăgănescu, Olivia-Teodora Preda
      First page: 617
      Abstract: Microplastics are small plastic particles that come from the degradation of plastics, ubiquitous in nature and therefore affect both wildlife and humans. They have been detected in many marine species, but also in drinking water and in numerous foods, such as salt, honey and marine organisms. Exposure to microplastics can also occur through inhaled air. Data from animal studies have shown that once absorbed, plastic micro- and nanoparticles can distribute to the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, thymus, reproductive organs, kidneys and even the brain (crosses the blood–brain barrier). In addition, microplastics are transport operators of persistent organic pollutants or heavy metals from invertebrate organisms to other higher trophic levels. After ingestion, the additives and monomers in their composition can interfere with important biological processes in the human body and can cause disruption of the endocrine, immune system; can have a negative impact on mobility, reproduction and development; and can cause carcinogenesis. The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected not only human health and national economies but also the environment, due to the large volume of waste in the form of discarded personal protective equipment. The remarkable increase in global use of face masks, which mainly contain polypropylene, and poor waste management have led to worsening microplastic pollution, and the long-term consequences can be extremely devastating if urgent action is not taken.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030617
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 618: S-(-)-Oleocanthal Ex Vivo Modulatory
           Effects on Gut Microbiota

    • Authors: Mohammed H. Qusa, Khaldoun S. Abdelwahed, Ronald A. Hill, Khalid A. El El Sayed
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Compelling evidence points to the critical role of bioactive extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenolics and gut microbiota (GM) interplay, but reliable models for studying the consequences thereof remain to be developed. Herein, we report an optimized ex vivo fecal anaerobic fermentation model to study the modulation of GM by the most bioactive EVOO phenolic S-(−)-oleocanthal (OC), and impacts therefrom, focusing on OC biotransformation in the gut. This model will also be applicable for characterization of GM interactions with other EVOO phenolics, and moreover, for a broadly diverse range of bioactive natural products. The fecal fermentation media and time, and mouse type and gender, were the major factors varied and optimized to provide better understanding of GM-OC interplay. A novel resin entrapment technique (solid-phase extraction) served to selectively entrap OC metabolites, degradation products, and any remaining fraction of OC while excluding interfering complex fecal medium constituents. The effects of OC on GM compositions were investigated via shallow shotgun DNA sequencing. Robust metabolome analyses identified GM bacterial species selectively altered (population numbers/fraction) by OC. Finally, the topmost OC-affected gut bacterial species of the studied mice were compared with those known to be extant in humans and distributions of these bacteria at different human body sites. OC intake caused significant quantitative and qualitative changes to mice GM, which was also comparable with human GM. Results clearly highlight the potential positive health outcomes of OC as a prospective nutraceutical.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030618
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 619: Effect of Targeted vs. Standard
           Fortification of Breast Milk on Growth and Development of Preterm Infants
           (≤32 Weeks): Results from an Interrupted Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Joanna Seliga-Siwecka, Justyna Fiałkowska, Anna Chmielewska
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Human milk is recommended for very low birth weight infants. Their nutritional needs are high, and the fortification of human milk is a standard procedure to optimize growth. Targeted fortification accounts for the variability in human milk composition. It has been a promising alternative to standard fixed-dose fortification, potentially improving short-term growth. In this trial, preterm infants (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) were randomized to receive human milk after standard fortification (HMF, Nutricia) or tailored fortification with modular components of proteins (Bebilon Bialko, Nutricia), carbohydrates (Polycal, Nutricia), and lipids (Calogen, Nutricia). The intervention started when preterms reached 80 mL/kg/day enteral feeds. Of the target number of 220 newborns, 39 were randomized. The trial was interrupted due to serious intolerance in five cases. There was no significant difference in velocity of weight gain during the supplementation period (primary outcome) in the tailored vs. standard fortification group: 27.01 ± 10.19 g/d vs. 25.84 ± 13.45 g/d, p = 0.0776. Length and head circumference were not significantly different between the groups. We found the feasibility of targeted fortification to be limited in neonatal intensive care unit practice. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT:03775785.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030619
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 620: Neurobehavioral Mechanisms of Sodium

    • Authors: Neil E. Rowland
      First page: 620
      Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to first present physiological and ecological aspects of the unique motivational state of sodium appetite, then to focus on systemic physiology and brain mechanisms. I describe how laboratory protocols have been developed to allow the study of sodium appetite under controlled conditions, and focus on two such conditions specifically. The first of these is the presentation a sodium-deficient diet (SDD) for at least one week, and the second is accelerated sodium loss using SDD for 1–2 days coupled with the diuretic furosemide. The modality of consumption is also considered, ranging from a free intake of high concentration of sodium solution, to sodium-rich food or gels, and to operant protocols. I describe the pivotal role of angiotensin and aldosterone in these appetites and discuss whether the intakes or appetite are matched to the physiological need state. Several brain systems have been identified, most recently and microscopically using molecular biological methods. These include clusters in both the hindbrain and the forebrain. Satiation of sodium appetite is often studied using concentrated sodium solutions, but these can be consumed in apparent excess, and I suggest that future studies of satiation might emulate natural conditions in which excess consumption does not occur, using either SDD only as a stimulus, offering a sodium-rich food for the assessment of appetite, or a simple operant task.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030620
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 621: The Role of Diet in Tinnitus Onset: A
           Hospital-Based Case-Control Study from Italy

    • Authors: Carlotta Micaela Jarach, Alessandra Lugo, Werner Garavello, Piet A. van den Brandt, Anna Odone, Christopher R. Cederroth, Cristina Bosetti, Silvano Gallus
      First page: 621
      Abstract: Knowledge on the role of diet in tinnitus onset is mostly based on few cross-sectional studies. In 2016–2019 we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in northern Italy on 185 incident idiopathic tinnitus cases and 198 controls, providing data on dietary habits through a 37-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) for tinnitus risk were derived through unconditional multiple logistic regression models. Moderate-to-high vs. low intake of caffeine (OR, 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24–0.99) and butter (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23–0.93), and high vs. low intake of poultry (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23–0.81), prosciutto (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.85), and legumes (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28–0.92) were inversely associated with tinnitus onset. Other food items, including cereals, red meat, fish, vegetables, and fruit did not show any statistically significant relationship. The variety of food consumed decreased the risk of tinnitus (OR for at least 20 vs. less than 16 different food items, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24–0.90). Our findings highlight the importance of diet in tinnitus onset and confirm a potential inverse association of protein-rich food and caffeine on the incidence of tinnitus. Confirmation of our findings in longitudinal studies is necessary before proving any diet recommendations for tinnitus prevention.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030621
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 622: Investigating the Relationship between Home
           Parenteral Support and Needs-Based Quality of Life in Patients with
           Chronic Intestinal Failure: A National Multi-Centre Longitudinal Cohort

    • Authors: Debra Jones, Simon Lal, Chloe French, Anne Marie Sowerbutts, Matthew Gittins, Simon Gabe, Diane Brundrett, Alison Culkin, Chris Calvert, Beth Thompson, Sheldon C. Cooper, Jane Fletcher, Clare Donnellan, Alastair Forbes, Ching Lam, Shellie Radford, Christopher G. Mountford, Daniel Rogers, Rebecca Muggridge, Lisa Sharkey, Penny Neild, Carolyn Wheatley, Philip Stevens, Sorrel Burden
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Home parenteral support (HPS) is an essential but potentially burdensome treatment that can affect quality of life (QoL). The aims of this longitudinal study were to understand whether any changes in HPS over time were associated with QoL. The Parenteral Nutrition Impact Questionnaire (PNIQ) was used, and data were collected on HPS prescribed at three time points. Data were analysed using multi-level mixed regression models presented as effect size and were adjusted for confounders. Study recruited 572 participants from 15 sites. Of these, 201 and 145 completed surveys at second and third time-points, respectively. PNIQ score was out of 20 with a higher score indicating poorer QoL. Any reduction in HPS infusions per week was associated with an improved PNIQ score of −1.10 (95% CI −2.17, −0.02) unadjusted and −1.34 (95% CI −2.45, −0.24) adjusted. Per day change to the number of infusions per week was associated with a change in the PNIQ score of 0.32 (95% CI −0.15, 0.80) unadjusted and 0.34 (95% CI −0.17, 0.85) adjusted. This is the largest national study to demonstrate improvements in QoL associated with HPS reduction over time using an HPS-specific and patient-centric tool, adding unique data for use of therapies in intestinal failure.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030622
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 623: The Current State of Knowledge about the
           Biological Activity of Different Parts of Capers

    • Authors: Beata Olas
      First page: 623
      Abstract: The caper, from the Latin capra, meaning goat, is the common name for the salt-fermented floral buds of the perennial shrubs of the Capparis genus (Capparacea family). This genus is represented by about 250 species, including the very popular C. spinosa L. While the whole plant is edible, the aromatic floral buds are most widely consumed, being collected by hand prior to blooming, dried in the sun and pickled. Capers are usually served marinated in vinegar, brine or oil. They have a significant potential as dietary supplements due to their low calorie content and richness in bioactive phytochemicals. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that C. spinosa have various nutritional and biological properties, including antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds. The present paper reviews the current literature concerning the biological properties of the fruits, buds, seeds, roots and leaves of C. spinosa, including their toxicity.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030623
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 624: Multidimensional Health Impact of
           Multicomponent Exercise and Sustainable Healthy Diet Interventions in the
           Elderly (MED-E): Study Protocol

    • Authors: Joana Sampaio, Joana Carvalho, Andreia Pizarro, Joana Pinto, André Moreira, Patrícia Padrão, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Pedro Moreira, Renata Barros
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Data concerning the combined effect of diet and exercise interventions on overall health in the elderly are scarce. The MED-E project’s primary aim is to assess the effect of the different 3-month sustainable healthy diet (SHD) and multicomponent training (MT) interventions on several health outcomes in the elderly. A quasi-experimental study assigned older adults into four groups: (1) SHD, (2) MT, (3) SHD + MT, or (4) control group (CG). The SHD intervention included a weekly offer of a mixed food supply and individual and group nutritional sessions on the principles of an SHD. The MT groups were submitted to 50-min exercise sessions three times a week. The primary outcomes were blood biomarkers and metabolic profile alterations that were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, data on dietary intake and nutritional adequacy, physical fitness, body composition and anthropometry, cognitive function, quality of life, and geographical data were assessed at the same time points. The MED-E project’s study protocol and future results will add to knowledge about the importance and beneficial contribution of combined SHD and MT interventions on healthy ageing policies.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030624
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 625: Protocatechuic Acid Prevents Some of the
           Memory-Related Behavioural and Neurotransmitter Changes in a
           Pyrithiamine-Induced Thiamine Deficiency Model of Wernicke–Korsakoff
           Syndrome in Rats

    • Authors: Kinga Krzysztoforska, Agnieszka Piechal, Ewa Wojnar, Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Jan Krzysztoforski, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
      First page: 625
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg on the development of unfavourable changes in cognitive processes in a pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) model of the Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) in rats. The effects of PCA were assessed at the behavioural and biochemical levels. Behavioural analysis was conducted using the Foot Fault test (FF), Bar test, Open Field test, Novel Object Recognition test (NOR), Hole–Board test and Morris Water Maze test (MWM). Biochemical analysis consisting of determination of concentration and turnover of neurotransmitters in selected structures of the rat CNS was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. PTD caused catalepsy (Bar test) and significantly impaired motor functions, leading to increased ladder crossing time and multiplied errors due to foot misplacement (FF). Rats with experimentally induced WKS showed impaired consolidation and recall of spatial reference memory in the MWM test, while episodic memory related to object recognition in the NOR was unimpaired. Compared to the control group, rats with WKS showed reduced serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex and changes in dopamine and/or norepinephrine metabolites in the prefrontal cortex, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. PTD was also found to affect alanine, serine, glutamate, and threonine levels in certain areas of the rat brain. PCA alleviated PTD-induced cataleptic symptoms in rats, also improving their performance in the Foot Fault test. In the MWM, PCA at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. improved memory consolidation and the ability to retrieve acquired information in rats, thereby preventing unfavourable changes caused by PTD. PCA at both tested doses was also shown to have a beneficial effect on normalising PTD-disrupted alanine and glutamate concentrations in the medulla oblongata. These findings demonstrate that certain cognitive deficits in spatial memory and abnormalities in neurotransmitter levels persist in rats that have experienced an acute episode of PTD, despite restoration of thiamine supply and long-term recovery. PCA supplementation largely had a preventive effect on the development of these deficits, to some extent also normalising neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030625
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 626: Psychometric Examination of the Body,
           Eating, and Exercise Comparison Orientation Measure (BEECOM) among Spanish
           Adolescents and Young Adults

    • Authors: Adrian Paterna, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Alvaro Sicilia
      First page: 626
      Abstract: The Body, Eating, and Exercise Comparison Orientation Measure (BEECOM) has been frequently used within the context of research on eating disorders (ED). Although both long (BEECOM-L) and short (BEECOM-S) versions of the instrument exist, their psychometric properties have not yet been concurrently investigated across different populations in terms of age and gender. The present study aimed to compare the psychometric properties of both the BEECOM-L and the BEECOM-S among Spanish male and female non-clinical adolescents and young adults. Data from 4 samples including 1213 middle school and college students enrolled in 10 education centers from southern Spain (age ranging from 12 to 35 years, Mage = 17.796, SDage = 4.796, 53% females) were analyzed using factorial, correlation, and regression analysis techniques. Results provided evidence that support the reliability, measurement invariance according to age and gender, and convergent/incremental validity for the scores from both the BEECOM-L and BEECOM-S. Concerning factorial validity, marginally acceptable and adequate goodness-of-fit indices were obtained for the BEECOM-L and BEECOM-S, respectively. The BEECOM-S proves to be a psychometrically sound instrument with potential value for assessing social comparisons focused on body, eating, and exercise in non-clinical adolescents and young adults from Spain.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030626
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 627: Gluten-Free Diet and Metabolic Syndrome:
           Could Be a Not Benevolent Encounter'

    • Authors: Giuseppe Defeudis, Maria Chiara Massari, Giovanni Terrana, Lucia Coppola, Nicola Napoli, Silvia Migliaccio
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Celiac disease is a rising disorder and is becoming frequently diagnosed in recent years. To date, the only available treatment is the gluten-free diet (GFD). The role of gluten on components of metabolic syndrome and on related inflammatory response is still unclear due to controversial results. In recent years, scientific focus on this topic has been growing up, in particular regarding the role of the GFD on glycometabolic parameters and diabetes. In addition, studies on the remaining components showed discordant results, which was likely due to heterogeneous and large celiac disease populations and to the lack of prospective studies. Furthermore, knowledge about the role of the GFD on inflammatory cytokines and the relationship among vitamin D and celiac disease, metabolic syndrome (MS) and GFD is needed. In this narrative review, we provided evidence regarding the role of the GFD on glycometabolic parameters, cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure and inflammatory cascade, also evaluating the role of vitamin D, trying to summarize whether this nutritional pattern may be a value-added for subjects with dysmetabolic conditions. Finally, due to the limited findings and very low-certainty evidence, predominantly based on observational studies, the real effects of a GFD on different components of MS, however, are unclear; nevertheless, an improvement in HDL levels has been reported, although data on glycemic levels are discordant.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030627
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 628: The Role of a Colon-in-Continuity in Short
           Bowel Syndrome

    • Authors: Astrid Verbiest, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Francisca Joly, Tim Vanuytsel
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare gastrointestinal condition that is defined as having less than 200 cm of remaining small intestine. SBS results from extensive surgical resection and is associated with a high risk for intestinal failure (IF) with a need for parenteral support (PS). Depending on the region of intestinal resection, three different main anatomy types can be distinguished from each other. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the role of the colon in the setting of SBS-IF with a colon-in-continuity (SBS-IF-CiC), e.g., by enhancing the degree of intestinal adaptation, energy salvage, and the role of the microbiota. In addition, the effect of the disease-modifying treatment with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogs in SBS-IF-CiC and how it differs from patients without a colon will be discussed. Overall, the findings explained in this review highlight the importance of preservation of the colon in SBS-IF.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030628
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 629: The Chain-Mediating Effect of Obesity,
           Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Dietary Quality and
           Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    • Authors: Shuai Zhang, Limei E, Zhonghai Lu, Yingying Yu, Xuebin Yang, Yao Chen, Xiubo Jiang
      First page: 629
      Abstract: In order to explore the relationship between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the mediating role of obesity and depressive symptoms, we used the data from the 2011–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for further study. A total of 12,644 participants were included in the study. The HEI was derived using NHANES personal food data and USDA Food Pattern Equivalence Database (FPED) dietary data. The risk of cardiovascular disease was determined using the Framingham Heart Study’s multifactorial calculation tool. The weighted multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the association between the HEI-2015 and CVD, and the generalized structural equation was used to explore the mediating effects of obesity and depression, respectively and jointly. Higher HEI-2015 scores were associated with a lower risk of CVD compared to lower quartiles. Obesity, depressive symptoms, and their chain effects all played significant mediating roles in the association between the HEI-2015 and CVD, with proportional mediations of 9.03%, 2.23% and 0.25%, respectively. Our results suggest that higher dietary quality is associated with a lower risk of CVD, mediated by obesity, depressive symptoms, and the chain effect of obesity and depressive symptoms.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030629
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 630: Breakfast Size and Prevalence of Metabolic
           Syndrome in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and
           Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish Cohort

    • Authors: Leila Lujan-Barroso, Lucia Iglesias, Raúl Zamora-Ros, Cristina Lasheras, María-José Sánchez, Natalia Cabrera-Castro, Josu Delfrad, Pilar Amiano, Esther Molina-Montes, Sandra Colorado-Yohar, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Ane Dorronsoro, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, María Dolores Chirlaque, Amaia Aizpurua, Antonio Agudo, José Ramón Quirós, Paula Jakszyn
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Background: Recent evidence suggest that energy distribution during the daytimecould be a potential determinant for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To cross-sectionally assess the association between breakfast size and the prevalence of MetS in Spanish adults. Methods: Our study included a subset of 3644 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spain study recontacted between 2017–2018. Information on diet, sociodemographic, lifestyle, sleep quality, and chronotype was collected using standardized questionnaires, while anthropometric and blood pressure data were measured in a face-to-face personal interview by a nurse. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) definition by measuring serum levels of total cholesterol, tryglycerides and glucose. Breakfast size was calculated as: (energy from breakfast/total energy intake) * 2000 kcal. To evaluate the association between breakfast size and MetS prevalence, a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted by potential confounders was used to estimate OR and 95% CI. Results: Prevalence of MetS in our study was 40.7%. The mean breakfast size was 306.6 * 2000 kcal (15% of the total daily energy intake), with 14 (0.4%) participants skipping breakfast. Participants in the highest quartile of breakfast size had a lower MetS prevalence compared to participants in the lowest quartile (ORQ4vsQ1 = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.51–0.76; p-trend < 0.001). No modification of the estimated ORs by sex, breakfast time, and number of eating occasions per day were observed. Conclusion: Our results suggest that higher breakfast size is associated with lower prevalence of MetS in Spanish adults, supporting the importance of a high energy breakfast. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030630
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 631: An Examination of the Practice Approaches
           of Canadian Dietitians Who Counsel Higher-Weight Adults Using a Novel
           Framework: Emerging Data on Non-Weight-Focused Approaches

    • Authors: Kori Lichtfuss, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Jennifer Brady, JoAnne Arcand
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Non-weight-focused approaches (NWFAs) may be used by some clinicians when working with higher-weight clients. In contrast to weight-focused approaches (WFAs), NWFAs de-emphasize or negate weight loss and emphasize overall diet quality and physical activity. The extent to which WFAs, NWFAs, or a combination of both WFAs and NWFAs are used by dietitians is unknown in Canada and globally. This study surveyed Canadian Registered Dietitians (RDs) who counsel higher-weight clients to assess which practice approaches are most commonly used, how they view the importance of weight, and how they define “obesity” for the study population. Five practice approaches were initially defined and used to inform the survey: solely weight-focused; moderately weight-focused; those who fluctuate between weight-focused/weight-inclusive approaches (e.g., used both approaches); weight inclusive and; weight liberated. Participants (n = 383; 94.8% women; 82.2% white) were recruited using social media and professional listservs. Overall, 45.4% of participants used NWFAs, 40.5% fluctuated between weight-focused/moderately weight-focused, and 14.1% used weight-focused approaches (solely weight focused and moderately weight focused). Many participants (63%) agreed that weight loss was not important for higher-weight clients. However, 81% of participants received no formal preparation in NWFAs during their education or training. More research is needed to understand NWFAs and to inform dietetic education in support of efforts to eliminate weight stigma and provide inclusive access to care.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030631
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 632: Effect of Oral Intake of Carrot Juice on
           Cyclooxygenases and Cytokines in Healthy Human Blood Stimulated by

    • Authors: Ulrik Deding, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Issam Al-Najami, Gunnar Baatrup, Boye Lagerbon Jensen, Morten Kobaek-Larsen
      First page: 632
      Abstract: In vitro studies and animal studies have shown that chemical compounds contained in carrots, such as falcarinol and falcarindiol, can prevent inflammation. The present study was designed to test whether the oral intake of carrot juice containing falcarinol and falcarindiol affects the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in human blood. Carrot juice (500 mL) was administered orally to healthy volunteers, and blood samples were drawn before and 1 h after juice intake at the time point when peak concentrations of falcarinol and falcariondiol have been shown in the blood. The blood samples were divided, and one sample was allowed to coagulate for 1 h at room temperature before analyzing the synthesis of thromboxane B2 (TBX2) by the COX1 enzyme using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The other blood samples were stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The ELISA and cytokine multiplex analysis assessed the levels of COX-2-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL) 1α, IL1β, IL6, IL16, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Inflammatory cytokines such as IL1α and IL16 were significantly reduced in the LPS stimulated blood samples with higher concentrations of falcarinol and falcariondiol compared to the control samples taken before the intake of carrot juice. The levels of TBX2, PGE2, IL1β, IL6, and TNFα were not affected by the carrot juice intake blood samples not stimulated with LPS. In conclusion, carrot juice rich in the polyacetylens falcarinol and falcarindiol affects blood leukocytes, priming them to better cope with inflammatory conditions, evident by the reduced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL1α and IL16.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030632
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 633: Does Neighborhood Social Capital
           Longitudinally Affect the Nutritional Status of School-Aged Children'
           Evidence from China

    • Authors: Lijuan Gu, Linsheng Yang, Hairong Li
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Previous research linking social capital to child nutritional status primarily constitutes cross-sectional studies. To investigate whether a longitudinal relationship exists, by conducting fixed-effects analyses with 16,977 repeatedly measured observations of 6193 children from the 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 China Family Panel Studies, this study explored the longitudinal effects of neighborhood participation, bonding trust, and bridging trust on the BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) and BMI categories of school-aged children, differentiating between urban and rural residence. We found an increasing average BAZ, a decreasing prevalence of underweight, an increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity, and a reducing urban/rural gap in nutritional status. The levels of social capital components descended faster in the urban area. Bonding trust was predictive of a lower BAZ, a higher likelihood of being underweight, and a lower likelihood of being overweight/obese. Bridging trust was predictive of a higher BAZ. The longitudinal effects of bonding trust were significant among only the rural children. Our findings indicate that neighborhood social capital may impose causal impacts on the nutritional status of children. To effectively improve child nutritional status, a more empathetic governmental approach that promotes a more supportive distal social environment is needed.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030633
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 634: miRNAs and Alzheimer’s Disease:

    • Authors: Boccardi, Poli, Cecchetti, Bastiani, Scamosci, Febo, Mazzon, Bruscoli, Brancorsini, Mecocci
      First page: 634
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia worldwide and represents one of the leading factors for severe disability in older persons. Although its etiology is not fully known yet, AD may develop due to multiple factors, including inflammation and oxidative stress, conditions where microRNAs (miRNAs) seem to play a pivotal role as a molecular switch. All these aspects may be modulated by nutritional factors. Among them, vitamin E has been widely studied in AD, given the plausibility of its various biological functions in influencing neurodegeneration. From a cohort of old-aged people, we measured eight vitamin E forms (tocopherols and tocotrienols), thirty cytokines/chemokines, and thirteen exosome-extracted miRNAs in plasma of subjects suffering from subjects affected by AD and age-matched healthy controls (HC). The sample population included 80 subjects (40 AD and 40 HC) with a mean age of 77.6 ± 3.8 years, mostly women (45; 56.2%). Of the vitamin E forms, only α-tocopherol differed between groups, with significantly lower levels in AD. Regarding the examined inflammatory molecules, G-CSF, GM-CSF, INF-α2, IL-3, and IL-8 were significantly higher and IL-17 lower in AD than HC. Among all miRNAs examined, AD showed downregulation of miR-9, miR-21, miR29-b, miR-122, and miR-132 compared to controls. MiR-122 positively and significantly correlated with some inflammatory molecules (GM-CSF, INF-α2, IL-1α, IL-8, and MIP-1β) as well as with α-tocopherol even after correction for age and gender. A final binary logistic regression analysis showed that α-tocopherol serum levels were associated with a higher AD probability and partially mediated by miR-122. Our results suggest an interplay between α-tocopherol, inflammatory molecules, and microRNAs in AD, where miR-122 may be a good candidate as modulating factor.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030634
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 635: Dietary Resveratrol Butyrate Monoester
           Supplement Improves Hypertension and Kidney Dysfunction in a Young Rat
           Chronic Kidney Disease Model

    • Authors: You-Lin Tain, Chi-I Chang, Chih-Yao Hou, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Sufan Lin, Chien-Ning Hsu
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a public health problem. Certain dietary supplements can assist in the prevention of CKD progression. In this regard, resveratrol is a polyphenol and has a potential therapeutic role in alleviating CKD. We previously utilized butyrate in order to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol via esterification and generated a resveratrol butyrate monoester (RBM). In this study, the hypothesis that RBM supplementation is able to protect against kidney dysfunction and hypertension was tested by using an adenine-induced CKD model. For this purpose, three-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) were equally categorized into: group 1—CN (sham control); group 2—CKD (adenine-fed rats); group 3—REV (CKD rats treated with 50 mg/L resveratrol); group 4—MEL (CKD rats treated with 25 mg/L RBM); and group 5—MEH (CKD rats treated with 50 mg/L RBM). At the end of a 12-week period, the rats were then euthanized. The adenine-fed rats displayed hypertension and kidney dysfunction, which were attenuated by dietary supplementation with RBM. The CKD-induced hypertension coincided with: decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability; augmented renal protein expression of a (pro)renin receptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor; and increased oxidative stress damage. Additionally, RBM and resveratrol supplementation shaped distinct gut microbiota profiles in the adenine-treated CKD rats. The positive effect of high-dose RBM was shown together with an increased abundance of the genera Duncaniella, Ligilactobacillus, and Monoglobus, as well as a decrease in Eubacterium and Schaedierella. Importantly, the mechanism of action of the RBM supplementation may be related to the restoration of NO, rebalancing of the RAS, a reduction in oxidative stress, and alterations to the gut microbiota. Moreover, RBM supplementation shows promise for the purposes of improving CKD outcomes and hypertension. As such, further translation to human studies is warranted.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030635
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 636: The Genetic Background Is Shaping Cecal
           Enlargement in the Absence of Intestinal Microbiota

    • Authors: Silvia Bolsega, Anna Smoczek, Chen Meng, Karin Kleigrewe, Tim Scheele, Sebastian Meller, Silke Glage, Holger A. Volk, André Bleich, Marijana Basic
      First page: 636
      Abstract: Germ-free (GF) rodents have become a valuable tool for studying the role of intestinal microbes on the host physiology. The major characteristic of GF rodents is an enlarged cecum. The accumulation of mucopolysaccharides, digestion enzymes and water in the intestinal lumen drives this phenotype. Microbial colonization normalizes the cecum size in ex-GF animals. However, whether strain genetics influences the cecal enlargement is unknown. Here we investigated the impact of mouse genetic background on the cecal size in five GF strains frequently used in biomedical research. The cecal weight of GF mice on B6 background (B6J and B6N) represented up to 20% of total body weight. GF NMRI and BALBc mice showed an intermediate phenotype of 5–10%, and those on the C3H background of up to 5%. Reduced cecal size in GF C3H mice correlated with decreased water content, increased expression of water transporters, and reduced production of acidic mucins, but was independent of the level of digestive enzymes in the lumen. In contrast, GF B6J mice with greatly enlarged cecum showed increased water content and a distinct metabolic profile characterized by altered amino acid and bile acid metabolism, and increased acidic mucin production. Together, our results show that genetic background influences the cecal enlargement by regulating the water transport, production of acidic mucins, and metabolic profiles.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030636
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 637: Canadians Adults Fail Their Dietary Quality
           Examination Twice

    • Authors: Gerard Ngueta, Caty Blanchette, Myrto Mondor, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Michel Lucas
      First page: 637
      Abstract: For many years, dietary quality among Canadians has been assessed using an index that gives criticized scores and does not allow for comparison with Americans. In Canadians aged ≥19 years, we aimed to (1) determine the dietary quality by using a more widely used evidence-based index that has shown associations with health outcomes, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (aHEI-2010); (2) assess changes in aHEI-2010 score and its components between 2004 and 2015; and (3) identify factors associated with aHEI-2010 score. We relied on the Canadian Community Health Survey 2004 (n = 35,107) and 2015 (n = 20,487). We used adjusted linear models with a time effect to compare the total aHEI-2010 score and its components. The overall aHEI-2010 score increased from 36.5 (95%CI: 36.2–36.8) in 2004 to 39.0 (95%CI: 38.5–39.4) in 2015 (p < 0.0001). Participants with less than a high school diploma showed the lowest score and no improvement from 2004 to 2015 (34.8 vs. 35.3, p = 0.4864). In each period, higher scores were noted among immigrants than non-immigrants (38.3 vs. 35.9 in 2004, p < 0.0001; 40.5 vs. 38.5 in 2015 p < 0.0001), and lower scores were observed in current smokers (33.4 vs. 37.1 in 2004, p < 0.0001; 34.5 vs. 39.9 in 2015, p < 0.0001). The use of the aHEI-2010 tool suggests a lower score among Canadians than the previous index, more comparable to the score among Americans.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030637
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 638: Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trends of
           Dietary Niacin Intake in Chinese Residents ≥5 Years of Age between 1991
           and 2018

    • Authors: Li Li, Jing Sun, Huijun Wang, Yifei Ouyang, Jiguo Zhang, Tiantong Li, Yanli Wei, Weiyi Gong, Xuefei Zhou, Bing Zhang
      First page: 638
      Abstract: Limited knowledge exists on trends in niacin consumption and the prevalence of inadequate intakes in China. Understanding trends and the spatial distribution of the prevalence of inadequate niacin intake is crucial to identifying high-risk areas and sub-populations. The dietary intakes of niacin between 1991 and 2018 were analyzed using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. The estimated average requirement cut point was applied to estimate inadequacy. The geographic information system’s ordinary kriging method was used to estimate the spatial distribution of the prevalence of inadequate niacin intakes. However, between 1991 and 2018, the prevalence of inadequate niacin intake increased from 13.00% to 28.40% in females and from 17.75% to 29.46% in males. Additionally, the geographically significant clusters of high and low prevalence were identified and remained stable over almost three decades. The high prevalence of insufficient niacin intake was more pronounced in Henan and Shandong over 27 years. Further, effective and tailored nutrition interventions are required to address inadequate niacin intake in China.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030638
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 639: Association between the
           Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Authors: Qunyan Xiang, Hui Xu, Junkun Zhan, Shuzhen Lu, Shuang Li, Yanjiao Wang, Yi Wang, Jieyu He, Yuqing Ni, Linsen Li, Yiyang Liu, Youshuo Liu
      First page: 639
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which might be related to insulin resistance (IR). We aimed to explore the association between the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a reliable indicator of IR, and VDD in patients with T2DM. Methods: There were 1034 participants with T2DM enrolled in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. The TyG index was calculated as ln (fasting triglyceride (TG, mg/dL) × fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)/2). VDD was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level < 50 nmol/L. Results: Correlation analysis showed a negative association between the TyG index and 25(OH)D level. After adjustments for clinical and laboratory parameters, it was revealed that when taking the Q1 quartile of TyG index as a reference, an increasing trend of VDD prevalence was presented in the other three groups divided by TyG index quartiles, where the OR (95% CI) was 1.708 (1.132–2.576) for Q2, 2.041 (1.315–3.169) for Q3, and 2.543 (1.520–4.253) for Q4 (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with higher TyG index were more likely to have an increased risk of VDD in T2DM population, which may be related to IR.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030639
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 640: New Advances in Metabolic Syndrome, from
           Prevention to Treatment: The Role of Diet and Food

    • Authors: Ambroselli, Masciulli, Romano, Catanzaro, Besharat, Massari, Ferretti, Migliaccio, Izzo, Ritieni, Grosso, Formichi, Dotta, Frigerio, Barbiera, Giusti, Ingallina, Mannina
      First page: 640
      Abstract: The definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has undergone several changes over the years due to the difficulty in establishing universal criteria for it. Underlying the disorders related to MetS is almost invariably a pro-inflammatory state related to altered glucose metabolism, which could lead to elevated cardiovascular risk. Indeed, the complications closely related to MetS are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). It has been observed that the predisposition to metabolic syndrome is modulated by complex interactions between human microbiota, genetic factors, and diet. This review provides a summary of the last decade of literature related to three principal aspects of MetS: (i) the syndrome’s definition and classification, pathophysiology, and treatment approaches; (ii) prediction and diagnosis underlying the biomarkers identified by means of advanced methodologies (NMR, LC/GC-MS, and LC, LC-MS); and (iii) the role of foods and food components in prevention and/or treatment of MetS, demonstrating a possible role of specific foods intake in the development of MetS.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030640
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 641: Prognostic Utility of Nutritional Risk
           Index in Patients with Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    • Authors: Zan Jiao, Chengcai Liang, Guangfeng Luo, Mengmeng Liu, Ke Jiang, Ankui Yang, Yao Liang
      First page: 641
      Abstract: Background: The nutritional risk index (NRI) is an excellent indicator of nutritional status and a significant prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the relationship between NRI and the prognosis of head and neck soft tissue sarcoma (HNSTS) patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NRI in patients with HNSTS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with HNSTS between 1990 and 2021. In order to determine the optimal cut-off value of NRI, the Maximally selected log-rank statistic was performed. We evaluated the effect of NRI on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Then, OS and PFS nomograms based on NRI were constructed. Results: In total, 436 HNSTS patients were included in this study. The optimal cut-off value of NRI was 99.34. Patients with low-NRI showed significantly worse OS and PFS than patients with high-NRI, respectively (5-year OS rate of 43.0 vs. 70.8%, 5-year PFS rate of 29.0 vs. 45.0%, all p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, distant metastasis, deep tumor depth, tumor grade, and NRI were prognostic factors for both PFS and OS, and treatment modality was associated with OS but not PFS. The concordance indexes (C-indexes) of OS and PFS nomograms were 0.794 (95% CI, 0.759–0.829) and 0.663 (95% CI, 0.626–0.700), respectively, which also performed well in the validation set. Conclusions: NRI is an independent predictor of OS and PFS in HNSTS patients. The validated nomograms based on NRI provide useful predictions of OS and PFS for patients with HNSTS.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030641
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 642: Saturated Fatty Acids Consumed in Smoothies
           Increase Glucose and Metabolic Load Index in Young Adults Compared to
           Polyunsaturated Omega-3-Fatty Acids

    • Authors: Stephanie P. Kurti, Breanna L. Wisseman, Jeremy D. Akers, Elizabeth S. Edwards
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Introduction: Chronic diets high in saturated fat (SF) and omega-6-fatty acids (O6FAs) elevate fasting triglycerides (TRGs) and glucose (GLU). Postprandial TRGs, GLU, and Metabolic Load Index (MLI) are better predictors of disease risk compared to fasting levels alone. Conversely, diets high in omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) may be cardioprotective. Unfortunately, many existing postprandial studies are not standardized to body weight and given in an amount individuals would typically consume in their daily lives; the MLI is not calculated, and varying types of fat content are not examined. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SF, O3FAs, or O6FAs altered postprandial TRGs, GLU, and MLI from a standardized mixed meal. Methods: Fifteen individuals (6 M and 9 F) visited the laboratory three times, separated by at least 48 h, to consume HFM smoothies with varying FA composition (SF, high O6FAs, and high O3FAs). The smoothies were standardized to 12 kcal/kg body weight, 63% total fat, and 0.72 g/kg sugar. TRGs and GLU were collected at baseline and at 2 h and 4 h postprandially; the MLI was calculated by summing the TRG and GLU responses at each time point. Results: There was a significant increase in TRGs across time points (p < 0.001). For TRGs, there was a trend toward a significant interaction between smoothie type and time (p = 0.06) due to the increase in TRGs in the SF compared to the O3FA smoothie. There was an increase in postprandial GLU that varied across smoothie types (p = 0.036). Taken together, the MLI was elevated in the SF smoothie compared to the O3FAs at 2 h (p = 0.041). Conclusion: A SF smoothie in the morning elevated the metabolic load compared to an O3FA smoothie. Mechanisms of action in the competing clearance of TRGs and GLU warrant further investigation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030642
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 643: Pathogen-Specific Benefits of Probiotic and
           Synbiotic Use in Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: An Updated Review of the

    • Authors: Maria Oana Săsăran, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Heidrun Adumitrăchioaiei, Lorena Elena Meliț
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Probiotics represent viable microorganisms which are found within the normal gut microbiota, that exert strain-specific benefits in the management of several gastrointestinal disorders in children, including acute gastroenteritis. This review aims to evaluate the pathogen-specific role of probiotic supplementation in childhood diarrhea. A search of scientific databases was conducted to identify studies which investigated efficacy of probiotics and synbiotics in influencing outcome of acute gastroenteritis of known etiology. We identified 32 studies, most of which analyzed impact of probiotic supplementation in rotavirus gastroenteritis, while a very limited number of these conducted a separate analysis on bacterial diarrhea. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus), L. reuteri and S. boulardii still remain the most researched strains, with a proven role in decreasing diarrhea and hospitalization duration, especially in the setting of rotavirus infection. Combined products containing at least one of the aforementioned strains also performed similarly and might also influence rotavirus fecal shedding. Rotavirus immunization status has also been proposed as a significant influencing factor of probiotic use impact. The paucity of research focusing on bacterial etiologies, as well as of clinical trials conducted within ambulatory care units leaves room for further research on the matter, which needs to include larger cohort studies.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030643
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 644: Dietary Responses of Dementia-Related Genes
           Encoding Metabolic Enzymes

    • Authors: Laurence D Parnell, Rozana Magadmi, Sloane Zwanger, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Chao-Qiang Lai, José M Ordovás
      First page: 644
      Abstract: The age-related loss of the cognitive function is a growing concern for global populations. Many factors that determine cognitive resilience or dementia also have metabolic functions. However, this duality is not universally appreciated when the action of that factor occurs in tissues external to the brain. Thus, we examined a set of genes involved in dementia, i.e., those related to vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and the human metabolism for activity in 12 metabolically active tissues. Mining the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data showed that most of these metabolism–dementia (MD) genes (62 of 93, 67%) exhibit a higher median expression in any of the metabolically active tissues than in the brain. After identifying that several MD genes served as blood-based biomarkers of longevity in other studies, we examined the impact of the intake of food, nutrients, and other dietary factors on the expression of MD genes in whole blood in the Framingham Offspring Study (n = 2134). We observed positive correlations between flavonoids and HMOX1, taurine and UQCRC1, broccoli and SLC10A2, and myricetin and SLC9A8 (p < 2.09 × 10−4). In contrast, dairy protein, palmitic acid, and pie were negatively correlated, respectively, with the expression of IGF1R, CSF1R, and SLC9A8, among others (p < 2.92 × 10−4). The results of this investigation underscore the potential contributions of metabolic enzyme activity in non-brain tissues to the risk of dementia. Specific epidemiological or intervention studies could be designed using specific foods and nutrients or even dietary patterns focused on these foods and nutrients that influence the expression of some MD genes to verify the findings presented here.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030644
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 645: Prevalence of Ideal Cardiovascular Health
           Metrics among Young Asian Adults over 5 Years of Follow-Up

    • Authors: Pu-Jun Fang, Ping-Hsuan Kuo, Wei-Liang Chen, Tung-Wei Kao, Li-Wei Wu, Hui-Fang Yang, Tao-Chun Peng
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Background: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a lack of cohort studies on CVH metrics among young Asian adults. The aims of this study were to describe early changes in CVH among young Asian adults and to investigate the association between CVH metrics and sociodemographic variables. Methods: A total of 10,000 young adults (aged 21–30 years) were recruited between 2000 and 2016. There were two CVH measurements taken from these participants over the study period. One measurement was taken at the beginning, and the other was taken five years later. Subgroup analysis of the changes in CVH metrics was divided by education level and marital status. Results: The mean age of the participants was 26.8 years. The initial prevalence of ideal CVH metrics was 52.3% and 86.8% and decreased to 43.8% and 81.2% after five years for males and females, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, males with less than a university education had a smaller ideal CVH metric decrease (6.2%) than males with more than a university education (8.9%), while females with more than a university education had a smaller ideal CVH metric decrease (5.4%) than females with less than a university education (7.3%). Married males had a smaller ideal CVH metric decrease (6.1%) than single males (9.1%), while single females had a smaller ideal CVH metric decrease (5.3%) than married females (6.2%). Conclusions: The prevalence of ideal CVH metrics among young adults gradually decreased as age increased. Higher educational attainment and unmarried status were associated with a greater prevalence of ideal CVH metrics regardless of sex, but early CVH changes differed by sex, education level, and marital status. The prevalence of CVH changes found early among young adults can be used to monitor CVH changes quickly. Effective health promotion programs are needed to maintain CVH metrics among young adults.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030645
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 646: Assessment of Food Intake Assisted by
           Photography in Older People Living in a Nursing Home: Maintenance over
           Time and Performance for Diagnosis of Malnutrition

    • Authors: Anne Billeret, Chloé Rousseau, Rémy Thirion, Béatrice Baillard-Cosme, Kevin Charras, Dominique Somme, Ronan Thibault
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Malnutrition is related to poor outcomes. Food intake semi-quantitative assessment is helpful for malnutrition screening. Aims: to assess maintenance over one month of one-day semi-quantitative assessment of food intake (primary aim) and its performance in diagnosing malnutrition (secondary aim) in older people living in a nursing home. Food portions consumed at lunch and dinner were measured during 20 days by the Simple Evaluation of Food Intake (SEFI)® assisted by photography (SEFI®-AP) in 70 residents. Nutritional status was assessed in each patient during the first week of food intake monitoring according to Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria. Food intake was decreased, i.e., SEFI®-AP < 7, in 39% (n = 27/73) of patients. According to the methods, 36 to 48% (n = 25 to 33/73) of patients had malnutrition, and 6 to 37% (n = 4 to 25/73) sarcopenia. According to a generalized linear model on ranks with repeated measures, the SEFI®-AP medians of lunch (p = 0.11) and means of lunch and dinner (p = 0.15) did not vary over time. Day 3 SEFI®-AP anticipated decreased food intake from days 4 to 20, with a sensitivity of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI), 62–94), a specificity of 30% [95%CI, 17–44] and positive and negative predictive values of 41% [95%CI, 28–55] and 68% [95%CI, 48–89]. The performance of SEFI®-AP for diagnosis of malnutrition using calf circumference <31 cm as a phenotypic criterion was correct: area under the curve = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.59–0.83]. SEFI®-AP sensitivity was better if ≤9.5 than <7, and inversely for specificity. The food intake of older people living in nursing homes is stable over one month. One-day SEFI®-AP correctly anticipates food intake during the following month and predicts diagnosis of malnutrition. Any decrease in food intake should lead to suspect malnutrition.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030646
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 647: Associations between Conventional and
           Emerging Indicators of Dietary Carbohydrate Quality and New-Onset Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Adults

    • Authors: Zhixin Cui, Man Wu, Ke Liu, Yin Wang, Tong Kang, Shuangli Meng, Huicui Meng
      First page: 647
      Abstract: Dietary glycemic index (GI), carbohydrate to fiber ratio (CF) and carbohydrate quality index (CQI) are conventional and emerging indicators for carbohydrate quality. We aimed to investigate the associations between these indicators and new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk among Chinese adults. This prospective cohort study included 14,590 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey without cardiometabolic diseases at baseline. The associations between dietary GI, CF and CQI and T2DM risk were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and dose–response relationships were explored using restricted cubic spline and threshold analysis. After a mean follow-up duration of 10 years, a total of 1053 new-onset T2DM cases occurred. There were U-shaped associations between dietary GI and CF and T2DM risk (both P-nonlinear < 0.0001), and T2DM risk was lowest when dietary GI was 72.85 (71.40, 74.05) and CF was 20.55 (17.92, 21.91), respectively (both P-log likelihood ratio < 0.0001). Inverse associations between CQI and T2DM risk specifically existed in participants < 60 y or attended middle school or above (both P-trend < 0.05). These findings indicated that moderate dietary GI and CF range and a higher dietary CQI score may be suggested for T2DM prevention in Chinese adults.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030647
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 648: The Connection between Non-Alcoholic
           Fatty-Liver Disease, Dietary Behavior, and Food Literacy in German Working

    • Authors: Simon Blaschke, Nele Schad, Melina Schnitzius, Klaus Pelster, Filip Mess
      First page: 648
      Abstract: (1) Background: German working adults are particularly at risk of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), which is connected to increased cardiovascular and overall morbidity and mortality. Dietary behavior (DB) and health knowledge are crucial factors in the conceptual NAFLD model, which can directly influence this disease. These two factors largely align with the concept of food literacy (FL), which deals with proficiency in food-related skills and knowledge to promote healthy DB and prevent NAFLD. However, the potential of FL for NAFLD prevention remains unknown, because FL has not been tested in connection with DB and NAFLD. Therefore, the current study examined the direct and indirect connections between FL, DB, and NAFLD in a mediation model. (2) Methods: A total of 372 working adults (38% female) participated in a cross-sectional study by completing self-report questionnaires on FL and DB. In addition, an independent physician assessed the fatty-liver index (FLI) as an indicator of NAFLD in an occupational health checkup. (3) Results: The mediation model revealed that FL had a direct moderate connection with DB (β = 0.25, p < 0.01), but no direct connection with the FLI (β = −0.05, p = 0.36). However, DB showed a small to moderate connection with the FLI (β = −0.14, p = 0.01), which could indicate the indirect-only mediation of the relationship between FL and NAFLD via DB. (4) Conclusion: These results confirm the value of DB for the prevention of NAFLD. In addition, FL might be a vital component for improving DB and thereby function as a resource in the prevention of NAFLD. However, future longitudinal research is needed to substantiate the value of FL with respect to NAFLD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030648
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 649: Combining Phenylalanine and Leucine Levels
           Predicts 30-Day Mortality in Critically Ill Patients Better than
           Traditional Risk Factors with Multicenter Validation

    • Authors: Yi-Liang Tsou, Chao-Hung Wang, Wei-Siang Chen, Huang-Ping Wu, Min-Hui Liu, Hsuan-Ching Lin, Jung-Jung Chang, Meng-Shu Tsai, Tien-Yu Chen, Cheng-I Cheng, Jih-Kai Yeh, I-Chang Hsieh
      First page: 649
      Abstract: In critically ill patients, risk scores are used; however, they do not provide information for nutritional intervention. This study combined the levels of phenylalanine and leucine amino acids (PLA) to improve 30-day mortality prediction in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to see whether PLA could help interpret the nutritional phases of critical illness. We recruited 676 patients with APACHE II scores ≥15 or intubated due to respiratory failure in ICUs, including 537 and 139 patients in the initiation and validation (multicenter) cohorts, respectively. In the initiation cohort, phenylalanine ≥88.5 μM (indicating metabolic disturbance) and leucine <68.9 μM (indicating malnutrition) were associated with higher mortality rate. Based on different levels of phenylalanine and leucine, we developed PLA scores. In different models of multivariable analyses, PLA scores predicted 30-day mortality independent of traditional risk scores (p < 0.001). PLA scores were then classified into low, intermediate, high, and very-high risk categories with observed mortality rates of 9.0%, 23.8%, 45.6%, and 81.8%, respectively. These findings were validated in the multicenter cohort. PLA scores predicted 30-day mortality better than APACHE II and NUTRIC scores and provide a basis for future studies to determine whether PLA-guided nutritional intervention improves the outcomes of patients in ICUs.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030649
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 650: The Low Energy Availability in Females
           Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) as a Useful Tool to Identify Female Triathletes at
           Risk for Menstrual Disorders Related to Low Energy Availability

    • Authors: Joanna Witkoś, Grzegorz Błażejewski, Marcin Gierach
      First page: 650
      Abstract: Background: Nutrition in sport is a priority; it is the basis for maintaining optimal health and a prerequisite for the high performance necessary for competitions. The aim of this study was to assess low energy availability and its possible consequences among female triathletes by using the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q). Methods: The study involved 30 female triathetes. The LEAF-Q was used in the study. An analysis of the body composition was carried out with the seca device mBCA 515 medical Body Composition Analyzer. Results: Of the 30 female triathletes studied, 23.3% had a monthly cycle disorder, defined as an amenorrhea state for more than 90 days. No differences were found in injury rates or training days lost to injury due to menstrual disturbances. Menstruation changes were significantly greater due to increases in exercise intensity, frequency, and duration in the group experiencing menstrual disturbances (85.7 [95% CIs: 42.1–99.6] vs. 8.7 [95% CIs: 1.1–28.0]). The menstrual disorder group had a greater incidence of their periods stopping for more than 3 months than the group without menstrual disturbances. Conclusions: The female triathletes did not show abnormalities in body weight or composition, and these were not related to the incidence of menstrual disturbances. However, 20% of the triathletes either had, at the time of the study, or had had in the past monthly cycle disorders that could indicate an immediate risk of low energy availability. The LEAF-Q identified 10% of the triathletes as at risk (score > 8) of low energy availability and the physiological and performance consequences related to relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S).
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030650
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 651: Family Facilitators of, Barriers to and
           Strategies for Healthy Eating among Chinese Adolescents: Qualitative
           Interviews with Parent–Adolescent Dyads

    • Authors: Kiki S. N. Liu, Julie Y. Chen, Kai-Sing Sun, Joyce P. Y. Tsang, Patrick Ip, Cindy L. K. Lam
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Healthy eating is vital in preventing obesity and long-term non-communicable diseases. This study explores potential family facilitators of, barriers to and strategies for healthy eating among adolescents in Chinese families to guide the development of effective interventions in the future. Parent–adolescent dyads were purposively sampled by age, gender, fruit and vegetable intake and household income. Key family factors were identified by thematic analysis. Fourteen themes under five domains were identified: family health with (1) illness experienced in the family; parental knowledge of (2) dietary recommendations, (3) the preparation of healthy food and (4) healthy food choice; parental attitudes towards (5) the importance of healthy eating and (6) the priority of family health; socioeconomic factors of (7) time concerns and (8) cost concerns; and food parenting practices in (9) nutritional education, (10) role modeling, (11) food provision, (12) child involvement, (13) parental supervision and (14) the cultivation of food preference. Useful strategies included incorporating healthy ingredients in adolescents’ favorite recipes and providing a variety of fruit and vegetables at home. There is a need to empower parents with practical nutrition knowledge, to be more authoritative in food parenting practices, to discuss healthy eating with children and to acquire practical skills related to time- and cost-saving healthy cooking.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030651
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 652: Nutritional Biomarkers as Predictors of
           Dysphonia Severity in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    • Authors: Ji Min Kim, Seung Don Yoo, Eo Jin Park
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Dysphonia and malnutrition are major problems in patients who have suffered an ischemic stroke. Tools to assess dysphonia severity include the dysphonia severity index (DSI) and maximum phonation time (MPT). This study aimed to investigate whether the nutritional biomarkers transferrin, albumin, and prealbumin could be predictors of dysphonia severity. A retrospective analysis was conducted between January 2018 and October 2022. A total of 180 patients who had suffered an ischemic stroke were included. Serum transferrin, albumin, and prealbumin levels were significantly correlated with DSI and MPT levels. In a multiple regression analysis, prealbumin and transferrin were significant predictors of DSI, whereas only prealbumin was a significant predictor of MPT. Serum transferrin, albumin, and prealbumin levels in patients who have suffered an ischemic stroke may correlate with dysphonia severity as assessed using DSI and MPT. These results may provide objective evidence that nutritional biomarkers affect dysphonia severity.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030652
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 15, Pages 653: Investigation of Enterogermina’s
           Protective and Restorative Mechanisms on the Gut Microbiota with PPI,
           Using SHIME Technology

    • Authors: Cindy Duysburgh, Lynn Verstrepen, Mattia Van den Broeck, Zefferino Righetto, Marcos Perez
      First page: 653
      Abstract: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed medications associated with changes in the gut microbiome and dysbiosis when used long-term. Probiotics, such as Enterogermina® (containing four strains of Bacillus clausii) reduce side effects from triple therapy with PPI+antibiotics. We aim to assess the ability of this probiotic in preventing and/or treating the dysbiosis induced by PPI use. Faecal samples from six healthy donors were used to colonise a Triple-Mucosal-Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem® model with added ileal compartment. Changes in the microbial community composition and metabolite production were measured for PPI alone (control), PPI+Enterogermina (preventative), and Enterogermina treatment after PPI (curative). Differences were assessed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. The model was shown to replicate some of the effects of long-term PPI use. There were significant changes in microbial diversity and an increase in butyrate levels in the preventative and curative arms, indicative of a beneficial effect to gut health. Probiotic use countered some of the effects of PPI use: Streptococcus bovis levels increased in the control arm but reduced following probiotic treatment. These results show that probiotic treatment with B. clausii may have beneficial effects on the gut microbiota following PPI treatment.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/nu15030653
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2023)
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