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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access  
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.557
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2072-6643
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2556: Dietary Inflammation Index and Its
           Association with Long-Term All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the
           General US Population by Baseline Glycemic Status

    • Authors: Sheng Yuan, Chenxi Song, Rui Zhang, Jining He, Kefei Dou
      First page: 2556
      Abstract: Dietary inflammatory potential has been proven to be correlated with the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, the evidence regarding the impact of dietary inflammatory patterns on long-term mortality is scarce. This cohort study aims to investigate the dietary inflammatory pattern of the general US individuals by baseline glycemic status and to estimate its association with long-term mortality. A total of 20,762 general American adults with different glycemic statuses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. We extracted 24-h dietary information, and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was calculated. The outcomes were defined as 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Compared with the normoglycemia group, individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes had higher DII scores (overall weighted p < 0.001). Compared with low DII scores, participants with high DII scores were at a higher risk of long-term all-cause mortality (HR: 1.597, 95% CI: 1.370, 1.861; p < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 2.036, 95% CI: 1.458, 2.844; p < 0.001). The results were stable after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, the prognostic value of DII for long-term all-cause mortality existed only in diabetic individuals but not in the normoglycemia or prediabetes group (p for interaction = 0.006). In conclusion, compared to the normoglycemia or prediabetes groups, participants with diabetes had a higher DII score, which indicates a greater pro-inflammatory potential. Diabetic individuals with higher DII scores were at a higher risk of long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132556
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2557: Physiologic Transdermal Estradiol
           Replacement Mimics Effects of Endogenous Estrogen on Bone Outcomes in
           Hypoestrogenic Girls with Anorexia Nervosa

    • Authors: Vibha Singhal, Supritha Nimmala, Meghan Slattery, Kamryn T. Eddy, Karen K. Miller, Anne Klibanski, Madhusmita Misra
      First page: 2557
      Abstract: Background: While physiologic estrogen replacement results in increases in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in hypoestrogenic adolescent girls and young adult women with AN, data are lacking regarding its impact on measures of volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone geometry, and structure. Methods: 23 young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 27 normal-weight healthy controls (HC) between 14–21 years old were followed for 12 months. AN participants received transdermal 17β-estradiol (continuously) with 10 days of cyclic oral progesterone (100 mg daily) every month for the study duration (AN-E+). DXA was used to measure aBMD and body composition, high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) to assess vBMD, bone geometry and structure at the distal radius and tibia, and microfinite element analysis to estimate strength. Results: Groups did not differ for age. Median baseline BMI z-scores were −1.13 (−1.58, −0.38) in AN-E+ vs. 0.08 (−0.40, 0.84) in HC (p < 0.0001). For most HRpQCT parameters and strength estimates, young women with AN receiving physiologic estrogen replacement demonstrated similar changes over 12 months as did normoestrogenic HC. Additionally, radial cortical tissue mineral density, cortical vBMD, and failure load increased (p = 0.01; p = 0.02; p = 0.004 respectively) over 12 months in AN-E+ compared to HC. Conclusions: With physiologic estrogen replacement, bone accrual improved in AN to approximate changes observed in normoestrogenic controls followed without any intervention, with additional benefits observed for cortical tissue mineral density, cortical vBMD, and failure load at the radius in AN vs. controls. Thus, this strategy for estrogen replacement effectively mimics the effects of endogenous estrogen on bone structure and estimated strength.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132557
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2558: Home Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

    • Authors: Jamie Bering, John K. DiBaise
      First page: 2558
      Abstract: While the history of nutrition support dates to the ancient world, modern home parenteral and enteral nutrition (HPEN) has been available since the 1960s. Home enteral nutrition is primarily for patients in whom there is a reduction in oral intake below the amount needed to maintain nutrition or hydration (i.e., oral failure), whereas home parenteral nutrition is used for patients when oral-enteral nutrition is temporarily or permanently impossible or absorption insufficient to maintain nutrition or hydration (i.e., intestinal failure). The development of home delivery of these therapies has revolutionized the field of clinical nutrition. The use of HPEN appears to be increasing on a global scale, and because of this, it is important for healthcare providers to understand all that HPEN entails to provide safe, efficacious, and cost-effective support to the HPEN patient. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the indications, patient requirements, monitoring, complications, and overall process of managing these therapies at home. Whereas some of the information in this article may be applicable to the pediatric patient, the focus is on the adult population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132558
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2559: Effects of Dietary Fibers on Short-Chain
           Fatty Acids and Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy Adults: A Systematic

    • Authors: Valentina Vinelli, Paola Biscotti, Daniela Martini, Cristian Del Bo’, Mirko Marino, Tomás Meroño, Olga Nikoloudaki, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Silvia Turroni, Valentina Taverniti, Andrea Unión Caballero, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Marisa Porrini, Marco Gobbetti, Maria De Angelis, Patrizia Brigidi, Mariona Pinart, Katharina Nimptsch, Simone Guglielmetti, Patrizia Riso
      First page: 2559
      Abstract: There is an increasing interest in investigating dietary strategies able to modulate the gut microbial ecosystem which, in turn, may play a key role in human health. Dietary fibers (DFs) are widely recognized as molecules with prebiotic effects. The main objective of this systematic review was to: (i) analyze the results available on the impact of DF intervention on short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production; (ii) evaluate the interplay between the type of DF intervention, the gut microbiota composition and its metabolic activities, and any other health associated outcome evaluated in the host. To this aim, initially, a comprehensive database of literature on human intervention studies assessing the effect of confirmed and candidate prebiotics on the microbial ecosystem was developed. Subsequently, studies performed on DFs and analyzing at least the impact on SCFA levels were extracted from the database. A total of 44 studies from 42 manuscripts were selected for the analysis. Among the different types of fiber, inulin was the DF investigated the most (n = 11). Regarding the results obtained on the ability of fiber to modulate total SCFAs, seven studies reported a significant increase, while no significant changes were reported in five studies, depending on the analytical methodology used. A total of 26 studies did not show significant differences in individual SCFAs, while the others reported significant differences for one or more SCFAs. The effect of DF interventions on the SCFA profile seemed to be strictly dependent on the dose and the type and structure of DFs. Overall, these results underline that, although affecting microbiota composition and derived metabolites, DFs do not produce univocal significant increase in SCFA levels in apparently healthy adults. In this regard, several factors (i.e., related to the study protocols and analytical methods) have been identified that could have affected the results obtained in the studies evaluated. Future studies are needed to better elucidate the relationship between DFs and gut microbiota in terms of SCFA production and impact on health-related markers.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132559
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2560: Artificial Gastrointestinal Models for
           Nutraceuticals Research—Achievements and Challenges: A Practical

    • Authors: Anna Gościniak, Piotr Eder, Jarosław Walkowiak, Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
      First page: 2560
      Abstract: Imitating the human digestive system as closely as possible is the goal of modern science. The main reason is to find an alternative to expensive, risky and time-consuming clinical trials. Of particular interest are models that simulate the gut microbiome. This paper aims to characterize the human gut microbiome, highlight the importance of its contribution to disease, and present in vitro models that allow studying the microbiome outside the human body but under near-natural conditions. A review of studies using models SHIME, SIMGI, TIM-2, ECSIM, EnteroMix, and PolyfermS will provide an overview of the options available and the choice of a model that suits the researcher’s expectations with advantages and disadvantages.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132560
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2561: Vitamin D and Risk of Obesity-Related
           Cancers: Results from the SUN (‘Seguimiento Universidad de
           Navarra’) Project

    • Authors: Rodrigo Sánchez-Bayona, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Cesar I. Fernández-Lázaro, Maite Bastyr, Ainhoa Madariaga, Juan J. Pons, Miguel A. Martínez-González, Estefanía Toledo
      First page: 2561
      Abstract: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of several types of cancer, grouped as obesity-related cancers (ORC). Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in obese subjects, and it has been suggested to play a role in the association between obesity and cancer risk. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake and the subsequent risk of ORC in a prospective Spanish cohort of university graduates. The SUN Project, initiated in 1999, is a prospective dynamic multipurpose cohort. Participants answered a 556-item lifestyle baseline questionnaire that included a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We performed Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of ORC according to quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin D intake (diet and supplements). We included 18,017 participants (mean age = 38 years, SD = 12 years), with a median follow-up of 12 years. Among 206,783 person-years of follow-up, we identified 225 cases of ORC. We found no significant associations between vitamin D intake and ORC risk after adjusting for potential confounders: HRQ2vsQ1 = 1.19 (95% CI 0.81–1.75), HRQ3vsQ1 = 1.20 (95% CI 0.81–1.78), and HRQ4vsQ1 = 1.02 (95% CI 0.69–1.51). Dietary and supplemented vitamin D do not seem to be associated with ORC prevention in the middle-aged Spanish population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132561
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2562: Effects of Blueberry Consumption on
           Cardiovascular Health in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Over Randomised
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Yueyue Wang, Jose Lara Gallegos, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, John K. Lodge
      First page: 2562
      Abstract: Blueberries are rich in polyphenols, and their effect on cardiovascular health, including risk factors for endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, has been investigated in interventional studies. However, the difference between blueberry treatments in varied forms for their cardiovascular-protective effect remains poorly understood. The current study assessed the effects of whole blueberry and freeze-dried blueberry powder compared to a control on cardiovascular health in young adults. A cross-over randomised controlled trial (RCT) was implemented with 1 week of treatment for three treatment groups, each followed by 1 week of wash out period. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), plasma cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol) and triglyceride levels (TAG), and glucose and nitrite (NO2-) concentrations were compared following fresh blueberry, freeze-dried blueberry powder, and control treatments. Thirty-seven participants with a mean age of 25.86 ± 6.81 completed the study. No significant difference was observed among fresh blueberry, blueberry powder, and the control arm. Plasma NO2- levels were improved by 68.66% and 4.34% separately following whole blueberry and blueberry powder supplementations compared to the baseline, whereas the control supplementation reported a decrease (−9.10%), although it was not statistically significant. There were no other effects shown for SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG, or glucose. No difference was shown between whole blueberry and freeze-dried blueberry powder consumption for improving cardiovascular health.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132562
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2563: Effect of Novel Gastro-Duodenal Flow
           Restrictor on Relative Weight Loss and Glucose Levels in a Porcine Model:
           A Pilot Randomized Study

    • Authors: Gunn Huh, Jinhee Kwon, So Hee Kim, Ha Jong Lim, Se Hee Min, Do Hyun Park
      First page: 2563
      Abstract: Endoscopic bariatric and metabolic therapies are promising for obesity. We developed a novel gastro-duodenal flow restrictor (G-DFR) device for relative weight loss and lowering of glucose level and evaluated its safety and efficacy in a porcine model. The G-DFR comprised self-expandable gastro-duodenal partially covered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) metal stent distally attached to a PTFE skirt. Eleven juvenile pigs were randomized into the evaluation of migration (n = 3), mid-term efficacy (n = 5), and control (n = 3) groups. Five pigs showed G-DFR migration at 2, 4, 7, and 10 weeks after placement in the migration and mid-term efficacy group. Compared to the control group, the mid-term efficacy group showed up to 55.4% relative weight loss in 12 weeks. Compared to the case group, the control group showed higher mean ghrelin hormone level from 6 to 12 weeks. Glucose level was significantly lower in the efficacy group than in the control group after 6 weeks. Serum alanine transferase levels and histological collagen deposition were lower in the liver of the case group than in the control group. Although it did not demonstrate consistent performance with respect to migration, a well-positioned G-DFR in the pyloroduodenal portion may lead to relative weight loss, lowering of glucose levels, and improved hepatic parameters.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132563
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2564: A Short-Term Sucrose Diet Impacts Cell
           Proliferation of Neural Precursors in the Adult Hypothalamus

    • Authors: Antonia Recabal, Sergio López, Magdiel Salgado, Alejandra Palma, Ana M. Obregón, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Juan C. Sáez, María Á. García-Robles
      First page: 2564
      Abstract: Radial glia-like cells in the hypothalamus and dorsal vagal complex are neural precursors (NPs) located near subventricular organs: median eminence and area postrema, respectively. Their strategic position can detect blood-borne nutrients, hormones, and mitogenic signals. Hypothalamic NPs increase their proliferation with a mechanism that involves hemichannel (HC) activity. NPs can originate new neurons in response to a short-term high-fat diet as a compensatory mechanism. The effects of high carbohydrate Western diets on adult neurogenesis are unknown. Although sugars are usually consumed as sucrose, more free fructose is now incorporated into food items. Here, we studied the proliferation of both types of NPs in Sprague Dawley rats exposed to a short-term high sucrose diet (HSD) and a control diet. In tanycyte cultures, we evaluated the effects of glucose and fructose and a mix of both hexoses on HC activity. In rats fed an HSD, we observed an increase in the proliferative state of both precursors. Glucose, either in the presence or absence of fructose, but not fructose alone, induced in vitro HC activity. These results should broaden the understanding of the nutrient monitoring capacity of NPs in reacting to changes in feeding behavior, specifically to high sugar western diets.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132564
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2565: Early Introduction of Allergenic Foods and
           the Prevention of Food Allergy

    • Authors: Brit Trogen, Samantha Jacobs, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
      First page: 2565
      Abstract: The increasing prevalence of food allergies is a growing public health problem. For children considered high risk of developing food allergy (particularly due to the presence of other food allergies or severe eczema), the evidence for the early introduction of allergenic foods, and in particular peanut and egg, is robust. In such cases, the consensus is clear that not only should such foods not be delayed, but that they should be introduced at approximately 4 to 6 months of age in order to minimize the risk of food allergy development. The early introduction of allergenic foods appears to be an effective strategy for minimizing the public health burden of food allergy, though further studies on the generalizability of this approach in low-risk populations is needed.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132565
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2566: Association between Dietary Patterns
           Reflecting C-Reactive Protein and Metabolic Syndrome in the Chinese

    • Authors: Huan Yu, Qiaorui Wen, Jun Lv, Dianjianyi Sun, Yuan Ma, Sailimai Man, Jianchun Yin, Mingkun Tong, Bo Wang, Canqing Yu, Liming Li
      First page: 2566
      Abstract: It is unclear how the dietary patterns reflecting C-reactive protein (CRP) affect metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Chinese population. To examine the effect of the dietary pattern reflecting CRP with MetS, a cross-sectional study was based on the health checkup data from the Beijing MJ Health Screening Centers between 2008 and 2018. The CRP-related dietary pattern was derived from 17 food groups using reduced-rank regression. Participants were divided into five groups according to the quintiles of dietary pattern score. Multivariate logistic regression was then applied to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the quintiles of diet pattern score related to MetS and its four components. Of the 90,130 participants included in this study, 11,209 had MetS. A CRP-related dietary pattern was derived, characterized by a higher consumption of staple food, fresh meat, processed products, and sugar-sweetened beverages but a lower intake of honey and jam, fruits, and dairy products. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile (Q1), participants in the higher quintiles were associated with increased risks of MetS in a dose–response manner after adjustment for potential confounders (P for linear trend < 0.001), the ORs for Q2 to Q5 were 1.10 (95%CI: 1.02–1.19), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05–1.22), 1.23 (95%CI: 1.15–1.33), and 1.49 (95%CI:1.38–1.61), respectively. Moreover, the effects were stronger among individuals aged 50 years or older. A CRP-related dietary pattern was associated with the risk of MetS. It provides new insights that dietary intervention to achieve a lower inflammatory level could potentially prevent MetS.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132566
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2567: Isoflavone Protects the Renal Tissue of
           Diabetic Ovariectomized Rats via PPAR-γ

    • Authors: Adriana Aparecida Ferraz Carbonel, Rafael André da Silva, Luiz Philipe de Souza Ferreira, Renata Ramos Vieira, Ricardo dos Santos Simões, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva Sasso, Manuel de Jesus Simões, José Maria Soares Junior, Patrícia Daniele Azevedo Lima, Fernanda Teixeira Borges
      First page: 2567
      Abstract: Diabetes associated with post-menopause is related to a worse condition of kidney disease. Taking into consideration that this disorder may be regulated by estrogenic mediators, we evaluated the renal protective effect of isoflavone. We investigated the role of the PPARγ in the pathogenesis of the disease. For this study, we used diabetic female rats in a postmenopausal model through ovariectomy. The animals were treated with isoflavone or 17β-estradiol. A dosage was administered to bring on blood glycemia, and through immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of PPARγ in the endometrium and renal tissue. We analyzed the immunoreactivity of renal injury molecule KIM-1 and the collagen and glycogen densities in the kidney. Through bioinformatics analysis, we observed PPARγ and COL1A1 gene expression under the influence of different glucose doses. In particular, we observed that isoflavone and 17β-estradiol regulate blood glycemia. Renal injury was inhibited by isoflavone, observed by a reduction in KIM-1, along with glycogen accumulation. These benefits of isoflavone may be associated with PPARγ overexpression in the kidneys and endometrium of diabetic ovariectomized rats.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132567
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2568: Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and
           Mental Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational

    • Authors: Melissa M. Lane, Elizabeth Gamage, Nikolaj Travica, Thusharika Dissanayaka, Deborah N. Ashtree, Sarah Gauci, Mojtaba Lotfaliany, Adrienne O’Neil, Felice N. Jacka, Wolfgang Marx
      First page: 2568
      Abstract: Since previous meta-analyses, which were limited only to depression and by a small number of studies available for inclusion at the time of publication, several additional studies have been published assessing the link between ultra-processed food consumption and depression as well as other mental disorders. We aimed to build on previously conducted reviews to synthesise and meta-analyse the contemporary evidence base and clarify the associations between the consumption of ultra-processed food and mental disorders. A total of 17 observational studies were included (n = 385,541); 15 cross-sectional and 2 prospective. Greater ultra-processed food consumption was cross-sectionally associated with increased odds of depressive and anxiety symptoms, both when these outcomes were assessed together (common mental disorder symptoms odds ratio: 1.53, 95%CI 1.43 to 1.63) as well as separately (depressive symptoms odds ratio: 1.44, 95%CI 1.14 to 1.82; and, anxiety symptoms odds ratio: 1.48, 95%CI 1.37 to 1.59). Furthermore, a meta-analysis of prospective studies demonstrated that greater ultra-processed food intake was associated with increased risk of subsequent depression (hazard ratio: 1.22, 95%CI 1.16 to 1.28). While we found evidence for associations between ultra-processed food consumption and adverse mental health, further rigorously designed prospective and experimental studies are needed to better understand causal pathways.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132568
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2569: The Effects of Time-Restricted Eating on
           Metabolism and Gut Microbiota: A Real-Life Study

    • Authors: Ilario Ferrocino, Marianna Pelleagrini, Chiara D’Eusebio, Ilaria Goitre, Valentina Ponzo, Maurizio Fadda, Rosalba Rosato, Giulio Mengozzi, Guglielmo Beccuti, Fabio Dario Merlo, Farnaz Rahimi, Isabella Comazzi, Luca Cocolin, Ezio Ghigo, Simona Bo
      First page: 2569
      Abstract: The metabolic benefits of time-restricted eating (TRE) in humans are statistically significant but not clinically relevant. Few data are available about the effects of TRE on the gut microbiota. We compared the effects of a TRE regimen (<12 h feeding; n = 25) with a time-unrestricted (TUE) regimen (>12 h feeding; n = 24), on the clinical and dietary variables and gut-microbiota composition in patients with obesity, who were subjected for 12 weeks to the same caloric restriction. Median weight loss was 4.0 kg and 2.2 kg in the TRE and TUE groups, respectively, with a between-group borderline difference (p = 0.049). No significant between-group difference was found in other dietary, anthropometric, or laboratory variables. There were no substantial between-group differences in alpha and beta diversity or gut-microbiota composition. The TRE group showed a significant increase in the frequency of Lachnospiraceae, Parasutterella, and Romboutsia at the study’s end. A TRE regimen induced small changes both in metabolic/dietary variables and in the gut-microbiota composition, with respect to the TUE. The microbial changes we have found were of uncertain clinical significance.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132569
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2570: The Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated
           with Iodine Deficiency in Canadian Adults

    • Authors: Stellena Mathiaparanam, Adriana Nori de Macedo, Andrew Mente, Paul Poirier, Scott A. Lear, Andreas Wielgosz, Koon K. Teo, Salim Yusuf, Philip Britz-Mckibbin
      First page: 2570
      Abstract: Iodine is a trace micronutrient that is critical for normal thyroid function and human health. Inadequate dietary intake is associated with cognitive impairment, infertility, growth retardation and iodine deficiency disorders in affected populations. Herein, we examined the prevalence of iodine deficiency in adults (median age of 61 years) based on the analysis of 24 h urine samples collected from 800 participants in four clinical sites across Canada in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. Urinary iodide together with thiocyanate and nitrate were measured using a validated capillary electrophoresis assay. Protective/risk factors associated with iodine deficiency were identified using a binary logistic regression model, whereas daily urinary iodine concentration (24 h UIC, μg/L) and urinary iodine excretion (24 h UIE, mg/day) were compared using complementary statistical methods with covariate adjustments. Overall, our Canadian adult cohort had adequate iodine status as reflected by a median UIC of 111 mg/L with 11.9% of the population <50 mg/L categorized as having moderate to severe iodine deficiency. Iodine adequacy was also evident with a median 24 h UIE of 226 mg/day as a more robust metric of iodine status with an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 7.1% (< 95 mg/day) and a tolerable upper level (UL) of 1.8% (≥1100 mg/day) based on Canadian dietary reference intake values. Participants taking iodine supplements (OR = 0.18; p = 6.35 × 10−5), had greater 24 h urine volume (OR = 0.69; p = 4.07 × 10−4), excreted higher daily urinary sodium (OR = 0.71; p = 3.03 × 10−5), and/or were prescribed thyroxine (OR = 0.33; p = 1.20 × 10−2) had lower risk for iodine deficiency. Self-reported intake of dairy products was most strongly associated with iodine status (r = 0.24; p = 2.38 × 10−9) after excluding for iodine supplementation and T4 use. Participants residing in Quebec City (OR = 2.58; p = 1.74 × 10−4) and Vancouver (OR = 2.54; p = 3.57 × 10−4) were more susceptible to iodine deficiency than Hamilton or Ottawa. Also, greater exposure to abundant iodine uptake inhibitors from tobacco smoking and intake of specific goitrogenic foods corresponded to elevated urinary thiocyanate and nitrate, which were found for residents from Quebec City as compared to other clinical sites. Recent public health policies that advocate for salt restriction and lower dairy intake may inadvertently reduce iodine nutrition of Canadians, and further exacerbate regional variations in iodine deficiency risk.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132570
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2571: Food Environments and Their Influence on
           Food Choices: A Case Study in Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya

    • Authors: Shauna M. Downs, Elizabeth L. Fox, Vincent Mutuku, Zacharia Muindi, Tasneem Fatima, Irena Pavlovic, Sana Husain, Minna Sabbahi, Simon Kimenju, Selena Ahmed
      First page: 2571
      Abstract: The food environments that people have access to shape their food choices. The purpose of this study was to use mixed methods to characterize the external food environment in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya and to examine the individual factors that influence the way in which women interact with those environments to make food choices. We used a combination of food environment assessments (vendor mapping, collection of food prices, food quality assessments) and five focus group discussions with women (n = 26) in four villages within two informal settlements in Nairobi (Mukuru and Kibera) to better understand the drivers of food choice. We found a large number (n = 1163) of vendors selling a variety of food within the settlements. The highest number of vendors were selling fruits and/or vegetables; however, there was limited diversity of fruits available. Animal-source foods were considered relatively expensive as compared to plant-based foods, including prepared fried snacks. We found that the way women interacted with their food environments was influenced by individual factors such as income, time, convenience, and preferences. Our findings suggest that interventions targeting both the external food environment as well as individual factors such as income will be necessary to support healthy diets among low-income populations living in informal settlements in Kenya.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132571
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2572: The Impact of the Different Stages of
           COVID-19, Time of the Week and Exercise Frequency on Mental Distress in
           Men and Women

    • Authors: Lina Begdache, Anseh Danesharasteh, Zeynep Ertem
      First page: 2572
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic produced life disturbances and loss of routine which affected diet and sleep quality as well as physical exercise frequency. Interestingly, mental distress was higher even in those who exercised. The purpose of this study was to assess exercise frequency in relation to different levels of mental distress severity in men and women while accounting for working days and weekends. A de-identified secondary data set was analyzed. Regression analyses produced models of the different stages of COVID-19 in relation to physical exercise frequency and mental distress levels. Margin analysis generated predictive models that could be used prophylactically to customize physical exercise frequencies in men and women to reduce their risk of mental distress during future pandemics. Mental distress during the lockdown and after ease of restrictions was associated with different physical exercise frequencies, with a noticeable difference between men and women. During a pandemic, sedentary men are more likely to be mentally distressed during working days. Nevertheless, moderately active, but not very active women, may be less distressed during pandemic weekends. These findings may provide a framework to optimize mental health during different stages of a pandemic by customizing physical exercise frequencies based on gender and time of the week.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132572
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2573: Experiences and Perspectives of
           Individuals with Cystic Fibrosis and Their Families Related to Food

    • Authors: Montserrat A. Corbera-Hincapie, Samar E. Atteih, Olivia M. Stransky, Daniel J. Weiner, Iris M. Yann, Traci M. Kazmerski
      First page: 2573
      Abstract: Food insecurity (FI) rates among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are significantly higher than in the general US population. This study explored the experiences and perceptions of adults and parents of children with CF surrounding FI. We recruited parents of children with CF ages 0–18 years and adults with CF ages 18 years and older from a large, accredited U.S. CF care center and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Community Voice to participate in a qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews to explore experiences and preferences related to food insecurity. Two coders independently reviewed each transcript to apply the codebook and identify any emerging codes using an ongoing, iterative process to identify central themes. We interviewed 20 participants (six adults with CF and 14 parents of children with CF) and identified five major themes: (1) FI in CF is influenced by a variety of factors, ranging from nutritional demands to competing financial barriers; (2) FI impacts CF health outcomes; (3) Open patient-provider communication around FI is vital; (4) FI screening and discussions should be normalized in CF care; (5) Comprehensive FI resources are vital. FI is an important topic that should routinely be addressed with the CF care team to destigmatize and encourage individuals to be more forthcoming about their FI status. Results from this study will inform future larger investigations on the impact of FI on CF health and aid in the design and planning of targeted interventions and advocacy efforts.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14132573
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2474: Simultaneous Mass Spectrometry-Based
           Apolipoprotein Profiling and Apolipoprotein E Phenotyping in Patients with
           ASCVD and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    • Authors: Ilijana Begcevic Brkovic, Benedikt Zöhrer, Markus Scholz, Madlen Reinicke, Julia Dittrich, Surab Kamalsada, Ronny Baber, Frank Beutner, Andrej Teren, Christoph Engel, Kerstin Wirkner, Holger Thiele, Markus Löffler, Steffi G. Riedel-Heller, Uta Ceglarek
      First page: 2474
      Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) occurs on the majority of plasma lipoproteins and plays a major role in the lipid metabolism in the periphery and in the central nervous system. ApoE is a polymorphic protein with three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4, derived from respective alleles ε2, ε3 and ε4. The aim of this study was to develop a sample pretreatment protocol combined with rapid mass spectrometry (MS)-based assay for simultaneous apolipoprotein profiling and apoE phenotype identification. This assay was validated in 481 samples from patients with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and applied to study association with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the LIFE Adult study, including overall 690 study subjects. Simultaneous quantification of 8–12 major apolipoproteins including apoA-I, apoB-100 and apoE could be performed within 6.5 min. Phenotyping determined with the developed MS assay had good agreement with the genotyping by real-time fluorescence PCR (97.5%). ApoE2 isoform was associated with the highest total apoE concentration compared to apoE3 and apoE4 (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of diabetic atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients, apoE2 isoform was related to higher apoC-I levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3, p < 0.05), while in the subgroup of ASCVD patients under statin therapy apoE2 was related to lower apoB-100 levels (apoE2 vs. apoE3/apoE4, p < 0.05). A significant difference in apoE concentration observed between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and controls was confirmed for each apoE phenotype. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the successful implementation of an MS-based apoE phenotyping assay, which can be used to assess phenotype effects on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122474
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2475: Metabolic Impact of MKP-2 Upregulation in
           Obesity Promotes Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Savanie Fernando, Jacob Sellers, Shauri Smith, Sarayu Bhogoju, Sadie Junkins, Morgan Welch, Orion Willoughby, Nabin Ghimire, Cassandra Secunda, Marina Barmanova, Sean C. Kumer, Kisuk Min, Ahmed Lawan
      First page: 2475
      Abstract: The mechanisms connecting obesity with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases remain incompletely understood. The function of MAPK phosphatase-2 (MKP-2), a type 1 dual-specific phosphatase (DUSP) in whole-body metabolism, and how this contributes to the development of diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and insulin resistance is largely unknown. We investigated the physiological contribution of MKP-2 in whole-body metabolism and whether MKP-2 is altered in obesity and human fatty liver disease using MKP-2 knockout mice models and human liver tissue derived from fatty liver disease patients. We demonstrate that, for the first time, MKP-2 expression was upregulated in liver tissue in humans with obesity and fatty liver disease and in insulin-responsive tissues in mice with obesity. MKP-2-deficient mice have enhanced p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK activities in insulin-responsive tissues compared with wild-type mice. MKP-2 deficiency in mice protects against diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis and was accompanied by improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Mkp-2−/− mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity owing to reduced food intake and associated lower respiratory exchange ratio. This was associated with enhanced circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) levels in Mkp-2−/− mice. PTEN, a negative regulator of Akt, was downregulated in livers of Mkp-2−/− mice, resulting in enhanced Akt activity consistent with increased insulin sensitivity. These studies identify a novel role for MKP-2 in the regulation of systemic metabolism and pathophysiology of obesity-induced insulin resistance and fatty liver disease.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122475
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2476: Hydroxybenzoic Acids as
           Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Calorimetric and Docking Simulation

    • Authors: Grażyna Budryn, Iwona Majak, Joanna Grzelczyk, Dominik Szwajgier, Alejandro Rodríguez-Martínez, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez
      First page: 2476
      Abstract: One of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is low acetylcholine level due to high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. For this reason, AChE inhibitors are used in the treatment of AD, the prolonged use of which may cause a cholinergic crisis. There is a need to search for safe natural AChE inhibitors. The study analyzed 16 hydroxybenzoic acids using calorimetry and docking simulation as AChE inhibitors. All tested compounds were shown to inhibit the hydrolysis of ACh. The best properties were shown by methyl syringinate, which acted as competitive inhibitor at a catalytic site. The tested compounds also interacted with the anionic or peripheral binding site known to block β-amyloid plaques formation. The activity of the tested hydroxybenzoic acids IC50 ranged from 5.50 to 34.19 µmol/µmol of AChE, and the binding constant Ka from 20.53 to 253.16 L/mol, which proves their reversible, non-toxic effect, and activity at physiological concentrations.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122476
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2477: Cruciferous Vegetable Intake and Bulky DNA
           Damage within Non-Smokers and Former Smokers in the Gen-Air Study (EPIC

    • Authors: Marco Peluso, Armelle Munnia, Valentina Russo, Andrea Galli, Valeria Pala, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Matthias B. Schulze, Elisabete Weiderpass, Rosario Tumino, Calogero Saieva, Amiano Exezarreta Pilar, Dagfinn Aune, Alicia K. Heath, Elom Aglago, Antonio Agudo, Salvatore Panico, Kristina Elin Nielsen Petersen, Anne Tjønneland, Lluís Cirera, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Verena Katzke, Rudolf Kaaks, Fulvio Ricceri, Lorenzo Milani, Paolo Vineis, Carlotta Sacerdote
      First page: 2477
      Abstract: Epidemiologic studies have indicated that cruciferous vegetables can influence the cancer risk; therefore, we examined with a cross-sectional approach the correlation between the frequent consumption of the total cruciferous vegetables and the formation of bulky DNA damage, a biomarker of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk, in the Gen-Air study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. DNA damage measurements were performed in the peripheral blood of 696 of those apparently healthy without cancer controls, including 379 never-smokers and 317 former smokers from seven European countries by the 32P-postlabeling assay. In the Gen-Air controls, the median intake of cruciferous vegetables was 6.16 (IQR 1.16–13.66) g/day, ranging from 0.37 (IQR 0–6.00) g/day in Spain to 11.34 (IQR 6.02–16.07) g/day in the UK. Based on this information, participants were grouped into: (a) high consumers (>20 g/day), (b) medium consumers (3–20 g/day) and (c) low consumers (<3.0 g/day). Overall, low cruciferous vegetable intake was correlated with a greater frequency of bulky DNA lesions, including benzo(a)pyrene, lactone and quinone-adducts and bulky oxidative lesions, in the adjusted models. Conversely, a high versus low intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a reduction in DNA damage (up to a 23% change, p = 0.032); this was particularly evident in former smokers (up to a 40% change, p = 0.008). The Generalized Linear Regression models indicated an overall Mean Ratio between the high and the low consumers of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.97). The current study suggests that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower level of bulky DNA adducts and supports the potential for cancer prevention strategies through dietary habit changes aimed at increasing the consumption of cruciferous vegetables.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122477
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2478: The Role of a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet
           on Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Prepubertal Mice

    • Authors: Joanna Maria Pieczyńska, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Paweł Antoni Kołodziejski, Anna Łukomska, Joanna Bajerska
      First page: 2478
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose (HF/HFr) diet on metabolic/endocrine dysregulations associated with letrozole (LET)-induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in prepubertal female mice. Thirty-two prepubertal C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight and implanted with LET or a placebo, with simultaneous administration of an HF/HFr/standard diet for five weeks. After sacrifice, the liver and blood were collected for selected biochemical analyses. The ovaries were taken for histopathological examination. The LET+HF/HFr group gained significantly more weight than the LET-treated mice. Both the LET+HF/HFr and the placebo-treated mice on the HF/HFr diet developed polycystic ovaries. Moreover the LET+HF/HFr group had significantly elevated testosterone levels, worsened lipid profile and indices of insulin sensitivity. In turn, the HF/HFr diet alone led to similar changes in the LET-treated group, except for the indices of insulin sensitivity. Hepatic steatosis also occurred in both HF/HFr groups. The LET-treated group did not develop endocrine or metabolic abnormalities, but polycystic ovaries were seen. Since the HF/HFr diet can cause substantial metabolic and reproductive dysregulation in both LET-treated and placebo mice, food items rich in simple sugar—particularly fructose—and saturated fat, which have the potential to lead to PCOS progression, should be eliminated from the diet of young females.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122478
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2479: Bifidobacterium adolescentis Is Effective
           in Relieving Type 2 Diabetes and May Be Related to Its Dominant Core
           Genome and Gut Microbiota Modulation Capacity

    • Authors: Xin Qian, Qian Si, Guopeng Lin, Minmin Zhu, Jingyu Lu, Hao Zhang, Gang Wang, Wei Chen
      First page: 2479
      Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally. Probiotics have been shown to be an effective intervention for diabetes. This study focused on the relieving effects and possible mechanisms of 16 strains of two dominant Bifidobacterium species (B. bifidum and B. adolescentis, which exist in the human gut at different life stages) on type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results indicated that more B. adolescentis strains appeared to be superior in alleviating T2D symptoms than B. bifidum strains. This effect was closely related to the ability of B. adolescentis to restore the homeostasis of the gut microbiota, increase the abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing flora, and alleviate inflammation in mice with T2D. In addition, compared with B. bifidum, B. adolescentis had a higher number of core genes, and these genes were more evolutionarily stable, including unique environmental tolerance, carbon and nitrogen utilization genes, and a blood sugar regulation gene, glgP. This may be one of the reasons why B. adolescentis is more likely to colonize in the adult gut and show a superior ability to relieve T2D. This study provides insights into future studies aimed at investigating probiotics for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122479
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2480: Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Kinetics after
           Single Intake of Beetroot Juice in Adult Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis
           and in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled,
           Crossover Study

    • Authors: Agustina Heredia-Martinez, Guillermo Rosa-Diez, Jorge R. Ferraris, Anna-Karin Sohlenius-Sternbeck, Carina Nihlen, Annika Olsson, Jon O. Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Mattias Carlström, Rafael T. Krmar
      First page: 2480
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to maintaining normal cardiovascular and renal function. NO is generally formed enzymatically by NO synthase in the vascular endothelium. NO bioactivity can also be attributed to dietary intake of inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in our diet, especially in green leafy vegetables and beets. Ingested nitrate is reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria and further to NO systemically. Previous studies have shown that dialysis, by means of removing nitrate and nitrite from the body, can reduce NO bioactivity. Hence, dietary intervention approaches aimed to boost the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway may be of benefit in dialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics of plasma nitrate and nitrite after a single intake of nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (BJ) in adult hemodialysis (HD) patients and in healthy volunteers (HV). Eight HD patients and seven HV participated in this single center, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Each participant received a sequential single administration of active BJ (70 mL 400 mg nitrate) and placebo BJ (70 mL 0 mg nitrate) in a random order separated by a washout period of seven days. For the kinetic analysis, blood samples were collected at different time-points before and up to 44 h after BJ intake. Compared with placebo, active BJ significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite levels both in HD patients and HV. The area under the curve and the maximal concentration of plasma nitrate, but not of nitrite, were significantly higher in HD patients as compared with HV. In both groups, active BJ ingestion did not affect blood pressure or plasma potassium levels. Both BJs were well tolerated in all participants with no adverse events reported. Our data provide useful information in planning dietary nitrate supplementation efficacy studies in patients with reduced NO bioactivity.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122480
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2481: Hesperidin Bioavailability Is Increased by
           the Presence of 2S-Diastereoisomer and Micronization—A Randomized,
           Crossover and Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Anna Crescenti, Antoni Caimari, Juan María Alcaide-Hidalgo, Roger Mariné-Casadó, Rosa M. Valls, Judit Companys, Patricia Salamanca, Lorena Calderón-Pérez, Laura Pla-Pagà, Anna Pedret, Antoni Delpino-Rius, Pol Herrero, Iris Samarra, Lluís Arola, Rosa Solà, Josep M. Del Bas
      First page: 2481
      Abstract: Hesperidin is a flavanone abundantly found in citrus fruits for which health beneficial effects have been reported. However, hesperidin shows a low bioavailability among individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the micronization process and 2R- and 2S-hesperidin diastereoisomers ratio on hesperidin bioavailability. In a first phase, thirty healthy individuals consumed 500 mL of orange juice with 345 mg of hesperidin, and the levels of hesperidin metabolites excreted in urine were determined. In the second phase, fifteen individuals with intermediate hesperidin metabolite levels excreted in urine were randomized in a crossover, postprandial and double-blind intervention study. Participants consumed 500 mg of the hesperidin-supplemented Hesperidin epimeric mixture (HEM), the micronized Hesperidin epimeric mixture (MHEM) and micronized 2S-Hesperidin (M2SH) in each study visit with 1 week of washout. Hesperidin metabolites and catabolites were determined in blood and urine obtained at different timepoints over a 24 h period. The bioavailability—relative urinary hesperidin excretion (% of hesperidin ingested)—of M2SH (70 ± 14%) formed mainly by 2S-diastereoisomer was significantly higher than the bioavailability of the MHEM (55 ± 15%) and HEM (43 ± 8.0%), which consisted of a mixture of both hesperidin diastereoisomers. Relative urinary excretion of hesperidin metabolites for MHEM (9.2 ± 1.6%) was significantly higher compared to the HEM (5.2 ± 0.81%) and M2SH (3.6 ± 1.0%). In conclusion, the bioavailability of 2S-hesperidin extract was higher compared to the standard mixture of 2S-/2R-hesperidin extract due to a greater formation of hesperidin catabolites. Furthermore, the micronization process increased hesperidin bioavailability.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122481
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2482: Effectiveness and Safety of Probiotics for
           Patients with Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Xue Shang, Fen-Fen E, Kang-Le Guo, Yan-Fei Li, Hong-Lin Zhao, Yan Wang, Nan Chen, Tao Nian, Chao-Qun Yang, Ke-Hu Yang, Xiu-Xia Li
      First page: 2482
      Abstract: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of probiotics in the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), we searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotic care versus placebos for patients with IBS-C in five comprehensive databases (March 2022). The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. RevMan 5.3 was used to perform a meta-analysis on stool consistency, abdominal pain, bloating, quality of life (QoL), fecal Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus counts, and adverse events. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. Ten RCTs involving 757 patients were included. Only three studies were rated as having a low risk of bias. The meta-analysis results show that, compared to the placebo, probiotics significantly improved stool consistency (MD = 0.72, 95% CI (0.18, 1.26), p < 0.05, low quality) and increased the number of fecal Bifidobacteria (MD = 1.75, 95% CI (1.51, 2.00), p < 0.05, low quality) and Lactobacillus (MD = 1.69, 95% CI (1.48, 1.89), p < 0.05, low quality), while no significant differences were found in abdominal pain scores, bloating scores, QoL scores, or the incidence of adverse events (p > 0.05). The low-to-very low certainty evidence suggests that probiotics might improve the stool consistency of patients with IBS-C and increase the number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in feces with good safety. However, more high-quality studies with large samples are needed to verify the findings.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122482
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2483: A Pilot Study on Donor Human Milk
           Microbiota: A Comparison with Preterm Human Milk Microbiota and the Effect
           of Pasteurization

    • Authors: Isadora Beghetti, Monica Barone, Luigia De Fazio, Eleonora Laderchi, Elena Biagi, Silvia Turroni, Patrizia Brigidi, Andrea Pession, Luigi Corvaglia, Arianna Aceti
      First page: 2483
      Abstract: Human milk (HM) is the best feeding option for preterm infants; however, when mother’s own milk (MOM) is not available, pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) is the best alternative. In this study, we profiled DHM microbiota (19 samples) using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and compared its compositional features with the MOM microbiota (14 samples) from mothers who delivered prematurely (PT-MOM). As a secondary study aim, we assessed the specific effect of pasteurization on the characteristics of the DHM microbiota. DHM showed significantly higher alpha diversity and significant segregation from PT-MOM. Compositionally, the PT-MOM microbiota had a significantly higher proportion of Staphylococcus than DHM, with Streptococcus tending to be and Pseudomonas being significantly overrepresented in DHM compared with the PT-MOM samples. Furthermore, pasteurization affected the HM microbiota structure, with a trend towards greater biodiversity and some compositional differences following pasteurization. This pilot study provided further evidence on the HM microbial ecosystem, demonstrating that the DHM microbiota differs from the PT-MOM microbiota, possibly due to inherent differences between HM donors and mothers delivering prematurely, and that pasteurization per se impacts the HM microbiota. Knowledge about HM microbiota needs to be acquired by investigating the effect of DHM processing to develop strategies aimed at improving DHM quality while guaranteeing its microbiological safety.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122483
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2484: Effects of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601
           and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 on Overweight and the Gut Microbiota in
           Humans: Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Sung-Joon Mo, Kippeum Lee, Hyoung-Ju Hong, Dong-Ki Hong, Seung-Hee Jung, Soo-Dong Park, Jae-Jung Shim, Jung-Lyoul Lee
      First page: 2484
      Abstract: Obesity and overweight are closely related to diet, and the gut microbiota play an important role in body weight and human health. The aim of this study was to explore how Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 supplementation alleviate obesity by modulating the human gut microbiome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 72 individuals with overweight. Over a 12-week period, probiotic groups consumed 1 × 1010 colony-forming units of HY7601 and KY1032, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without probiotics. After treatment, the probiotic group displayed a reduction in body weight (p < 0.001), visceral fat mass (p < 0.025), and waist circumference (p < 0.007), and an increase in adiponectin (p < 0.046), compared with the placebo group. Additionally, HY7601 and KY1032 supplementation modulated bacterial gut microbiota characteristics and beta diversity by increasing Bifidobacteriaceae and Akkermansiaceae and decreasing Prevotellaceae and Selenomonadaceae. In summary, HY7601 and KY1032 probiotics exert anti-obesity effects by regulating the gut microbiota; hence, they have therapeutic potential for preventing or alleviating obesity and living with overweight.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122484
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2485: Dietary Glycemic Load and Plasma
           Amyloid-β Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Mélissa Gentreau, Michel Raymond, Cécilia Samieri, Virginie Chuy, Catherine Féart, Claire Berticat, Sylvaine Artero
      First page: 2485
      Abstract: Previous studies have highlighted links between a high-glycemic-load (GL) diet and Alzheimer’s disease in apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) carriers. However, the impact of high-GL diet on plasma amyloid-β (Aβ), an Alzheimer’s disease hallmark that can be detected decades before clinical symptomatology, is unknown. This study examined the association between plasma Aβ peptides (Aβ40, Aβ42 concentration and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio) and GL. The influence of the GL of four meal types (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner) was also determined. From the prospective Three-City study, 377 participants with plasma Aβ measurements, and who completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire, were selected. The association between plasma Aβ and GL was tested using an adjusted linear regression model. Lunch GL was associated with a lower plasma Aβ42 concentration (β = −2.2 [CI = −4.27, −0.12], p = 0.038) and lower Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio (β = −0.009 [CI = −0.0172, −0.0007], p = 0.034) in the model adjusted for center, age, sex, education level, APOE4 status, energy intake, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, and Mediterranean-like diet. No significant association was found with the GL of the other meal types. These results suggest that dietary GL may independently modulate the plasma Aβ of the APOE4 status. The mechanism underlying diet, metabolic response, and Aβ peptide regulation must be elucidated.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122485
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2486: The Effect of Weaning with Adult Food
           Typical of the Mediterranean Diet on Taste Development and Eating Habits
           of Children: A Randomized Trial

    • Authors: Raffaella de Franchis, Luigi Bozza, Pasquale Canale, Maria Chiacchio, Paolo Cortese, Antonio D’Avino, Maria De Giovanni, Mirella Dello Iacovo, Antonietta D’Onofrio, Aniello Federico, Nicoletta Gasparini, Felicia Iaccarino, Giuseppe Romano, Raffaella Spadaro, Mariangela Tedesco, Giuseppe Vitiello, Angelo Antignani, Salvatore Auricchio, Vincenzo Valentino, Francesca De Filippis, Danilo Ercolini, Dario Bruzzese
      First page: 2486
      Abstract: Mediterranean Diet (Med Diet) is one of the healthiest dietary patterns. We aimed to verify the effects of weaning (i.e., the introduction of solid foods in infants previously fed only with milk) using adult foods typical of Med Diet on children eating habits, and on the microbiota composition. A randomized controlled clinical trial on 394 healthy infants randomized in a 1:1 ratio in a Med Diet group weaned with fresh; seasonal and tasty foods of Med Diet and control group predominantly weaned with industrial baby foods. The primary end point was the percentage of children showing a good adherence to Med Diet at 36 months. Secondary end points were mother’s changes in adherence to Med Diet and differences in children gut microbiota. At 36 months, children showing a good adherence to Med Diet were 59.3% in the Med Diet group and 34.3% in the control group (p < 0.001). An increase in adherence to the Med Diet was observed in the mothers of the Med Diet group children (p < 0.001). At 4 years of age children in the Med Diet group had a higher gut microbial diversity and a higher abundance of beneficial taxa. A Mediterranean weaning with adult food may become a strategy for early nutritional education, to develop a healthy microbiota, to prevent inflammatory chronic diseases and to ameliorate eating habits in children and their families.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122486
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2487: Gluten Induces Subtle Histological Changes
           in Duodenal Mucosa of Patients with Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity: A
           Multicentre Study

    • Authors: Kamran Rostami, Arzu Ensari, Michael N. Marsh, Amitabh Srivastava, Vincenzo Villanacci, Antonio Carroccio, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Julio C. Bai, Gabrio Bassotti, Gabriel Becheanu, Phoenix Bell, Camillo Di Bella, Anna Maria Bozzola, Moris Cadei, Giovanni Casella, Carlo Catassi, Carolina Ciacci, Delia Gabriela Apostol Ciobanu, Simon S. Cross, Mihai Danciu, Prasenjit Das, Rachele Del Sordo, Michael Drage, Luca Elli, Alessio Fasano, Ada Maria Florena, Nicola Fusco, James J. Going, Stefano Guandalini, Catherine E. Hagen, David T. S. Hayman, Sauid Ishaq, Hilary Jericho, Melanie Johncilla, Matt Johnson, Katri Kaukinen, Adam Levene, Sarah Liptrot, Laura Lu, Govind K. Makharia, Sherly Mathews, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Roxana Maxim, Khun La Win Myint, Hamid Mohaghegh-Shalmani, Afshin Moradi, Chris J. J. Mulder, Ronnie Ray, Chiara Ricci, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Anna Sapone, David S. Sanders, Juha Taavela, Umberto Volta, Marjorie Walker, Mohammad Derakhshan
      First page: 2487
      Abstract: Background: Histological changes induced by gluten in the duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the structural and inflammatory features of NCGS compared to controls and coeliac disease (CeD) with milder enteropathy (Marsh I-II). Methods: Well-oriented biopsies of 262 control cases with normal gastroscopy and histologic findings, 261 CeD, and 175 NCGS biopsies from 9 contributing countries were examined. Villus height (VH, in μm), crypt depth (CrD, in μm), villus-to-crypt ratios (VCR), IELs (intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes), and other relevant histological, serologic, and demographic parameters were quantified. Results: The median VH in NCGS was significantly shorter (600, IQR: 400–705) than controls (900, IQR: 667–1112) (p < 0.001). NCGS patients with Marsh I-II had similar VH and VCR to CeD [465 µm (IQR: 390–620) vs. 427 µm (IQR: 348–569, p = 0·176)]. The VCR in NCGS with Marsh 0 was lower than controls (p < 0.001). The median IEL in NCGS with Marsh 0 was higher than controls (23.0 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001). To distinguish Marsh 0 NCGS from controls, an IEL cut-off of 14 showed 79% sensitivity and 55% specificity. IEL densities in Marsh I-II NCGS and CeD groups were similar. Conclusion: NCGS duodenal mucosa exhibits distinctive changes consistent with an intestinal response to luminal antigens, even at the Marsh 0 stage of villus architecture.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122487
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2488: Clinical and Metabolomic Effects of
           Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici in
           Fructose Intolerant Patients

    • Authors: Piero Portincasa, Giuseppe Celano, Nadia Serale, Paola Vitellio, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Alexandra Chira, Liliana David, Dan L. Dumitrascu, Maria De Angelis
      First page: 2488
      Abstract: Fructose intolerance (FI) is a widespread non-genetic condition in which the incomplete absorption of fructose leads to gastro-intestinal disorders. The crucial role of microbial dysbiosis on the onset of these intolerance symptoms together with their persistence under free fructose diets are driving the scientific community towards the use of probiotics as a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of FI in a cohort composed of Romanian adults with Functional Grastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) and the effectiveness of treatment based on the probiotic formulation EQBIOTA® (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CECT 7484 and 7485 and Pediococcus acidilactici CECT 7483). We evaluated the impact of a 30-day treatment both on FI subjects and healthy volunteers. The gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal volatile metabolome were evaluated. A statistically significant improvement of symptoms (i.e., bloating, and abdominal pain) was reported in FI patient after treatment. On the other hand, at the baseline, the content of volatile metabolites was heterogeneously distributed between the two study arms, whereas the treatment led differences to decrease. From our analysis, how some metabolomics compounds were correlated with the improvement and worsening of clinical symptoms clearly emerged. Preliminary observations suggested how the improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms could be induced by the increase of anti-inflammatory and protective substrates. A deeper investigation in a larger patient cohort subjected to a prolonged treatment would allow a more comprehensive evaluation of the probiotic treatment effects.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122488
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2489: Investigation of the Associations between
           Diet Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Swedish

    • Authors: Callum Regan, Hedda Walltott, Karin Kjellenberg, Gisela Nyberg, Björg Helgadóttir
      First page: 2489
      Abstract: Most adolescents do not consume a high-quality diet, while self-reported mental health problems within this group are increasing. This study aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and health-related quality of life, and to explore the differences in diet quality and health-related quality of life between gender and parental education status. In this cross-sectional study, a detailed web-based recall method was implemented to determine dietary intake, which was analysed using the newly developed Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015 (SHEIA15) and the Riksmaten Adolescents Diet Diversity Score (RADDS), to determine diet quality. The KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life, and parental education was self-reported through questionnaires. Parental education was divided into two groups: ≤12 years or >12 years. The study included 1139 adolescents from grade 7 (13–14 years old), 51% were girls. The results showed that girls had higher scores for healthy eating and diet diversity but lower scores for health-related quality of life. A positive association was found between diet diversity and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.072, p = 0.001), between vegetable/fruit consumption and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.071, p = 0.002), and between healthy eating and diet diversity (Adj R2 = 0.214, p < 0.001). No association was found between healthy eating and health-related quality of life for all participants. The mean scores for healthy eating and diet diversity were significantly higher in the higher education parental group. In conclusion, higher diet diversity and increased fruit and vegetable consumption could be a strategy to improve health-related quality of life among adolescents. There is a need to promote better diet quality, especially in households of low parental education. In addition, there is a further need to investigate the potential benefits of improved diet quality on mental health and overall well-being.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122489
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2490: Dietary Nitrate Intake Is Associated with
           Decreased Incidence of Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Rotterdam Study

    • Authors: Joëlle E. Vergroesen, Tosca O. E. de Crom, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Caroline C. W. Klaver, Trudy Voortman, Wishal D. Ramdas
      First page: 2490
      Abstract: Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and in the pathophysiology of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). However, prospective studies investigating the association between dietary nitrate intake, a source of nitric oxide, and incident (i)OAG risk are limited. We aimed to determine the association between dietary nitrate intake and iOAG, and to evaluate the association between dietary nitrate intake and IOP. From 1991 onwards, participants were followed each five years for iOAG in the Rotterdam Study. A total of 173 participants developed iOAG during follow-up. Cases and controls were matched on age (mean ± standard deviation: 65.7 ± 6.9) and sex (%female: 53.2) in a case:control ratio of 1:5. After adjustment for potential confounders, total dietary nitrate intake was associated with a lower iOAG risk (odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91–0.98) for each 10 mg/day higher intake). Both nitrate intake from vegetables (OR (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91–0.98) for each 10 mg/day higher intake) and nitrate intake from non-vegetable food sources (OR (95% CI): 0.63 (0.41–0.96) for each 10 mg/day higher intake) were associated with a lower iOAG risk. Dietary nitrate intake was not associated with IOP. In conclusion, dietary nitrate intake was associated with a reduced risk of iOAG. IOP-independent mechanisms may underlie the association with OAG.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122490
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2491: Preoperative Phase Angle as a Risk
           Indicator in Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective Observational Study

    • Authors: Sylvia Ryz, Larissa Nixdorf, Jürgen Puchinger, Andrea Lassnigg, Dominik Wiedemann, Martin H. Bernardi
      First page: 2491
      Abstract: Background: The phase angle (PhA) can be used for prognostic assessments in critically ill patients. This study describes the perioperative course of PhA and associated risk indicators in a cohort of elective cardiac surgical patients. Methods: The PhA was measured in 168 patients once daily until postoperative day (POD) seven. Patients were split into two groups depending on their median preoperative PhA and analyzed for several clinical outcomes; logistic regression models were used. Results: The PhA decreased from preoperative (6.1° ± 1.9°) to a nadir on POD 2 (3.5° ± 2.5°, mean difference −2.6° (95% CI, −3.0°; −2.1°; p < 0.0001)). Patients with lower preoperative PhA were older (71.0 ± 9.1 vs. 60.9 ± 12.0 years; p < 0.0001) and frailer (3.1 ± 1.3 vs. 2.3 ± 1.1; p < 0.0001), needed more fluids (8388 ± 3168 vs. 7417 ± 2459 mL, p = 0.0287), and stayed longer in the ICU (3.7 ± 4.5 vs. 2.6 ± 3.8 days, p = 0.0182). Preoperative PhA was independently influenced by frailty (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.61; 0.98; p = 0.0344) and cardiac function (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.07; 3.19; p = 0.028), whereas the postoperative PhA decline was independently influenced by higher fluid balances (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75; 0.99; p = 0.0371) and longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98; 0.99; p = 0.0344). Conclusion: Perioperative PhA measurement is an easy-to-use bedside method that may critically influence risk evaluation for the outcome of cardiac surgery patients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122491
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2492: Dietary Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
           Induces Satiation by Enhancing the Postprandial Activation of Vagal
           Afferent Nerves

    • Authors: Utano Nakamura, Taichi Nohmi, Riho Sagane, Jun Hai, Kento Ohbayashi, Maiko Miyazaki, Atsushi Yamatsu, Mujo Kim, Yusaku Iwasaki
      First page: 2492
      Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in the mammalian brain as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and in foods. It is widely used as a supplement that regulates brain function through stress-reducing and sleep-enhancing effects. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, as it is reportedly unable to cross the blood–brain barrier. Here, we explored whether a single peroral administration of GABA affects feeding behavior as an evaluation of brain function and the involvement of vagal afferent nerves. Peroral GABA at 20 and 200 mg/kg immediately before refeeding suppressed short-term food intake without aversive behaviors in mice. However, GABA administration 30 min before refeeding demonstrated no effects. A rise in circulating GABA concentrations by the peroral administration of 200 mg/kg GABA was similar to that by the intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg GABA, which did not alter feeding. The feeding suppression by peroral GABA was blunted by the denervation of vagal afferents. Unexpectedly, peroral GABA alone did not alter vagal afferent activities histologically. The coadministration of a liquid diet and GABA potentiated the postprandial activation of vagal afferents, thereby enhancing postprandial satiation. In conclusion, dietary GABA activates vagal afferents in collaboration with meals or meal-evoked factors and regulates brain function including feeding behavior.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122492
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2493: Very Low Alcohol Consumption Is Associated
           with Lower Prevalence of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in
           Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Authors: Silvia Ferri, Bernardo Stefanini, Lorenzo Mulazzani, Margherita Alvisi, Francesco Tovoli, Simona Leoni, Luca Muratori, Tommaso Lotti, Alessandro Granito, Luigi Bolondi, Fabio Piscaglia
      First page: 2493
      Abstract: The role of moderate alcohol consumption in the evolution of NAFLD is still debated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of current and lifelong alcohol consumption in patients with NAFLD. From 2015 to 2020, we enrolled 276 consecutive patients fulfilling criteria of NAFLD (alcohol consumption up to 140 g/week for women and 210 g/week for men). According to their current alcohol intake per week, patients were divided in: abstainers, very low consumers (C1: <70 g/week) and moderate consumers (C2). We created a new tool, called LACU (Lifetime Alcohol Consuming Unit) to estimate the alcohol exposure across lifetime: 1 LACU was defined as 7 alcohol units per week for 1 drinking year. Patients were divided into lifelong abstainers and consumers and the latter furtherly divided into quartiles: Q1-Q4. Stratification according to alcohol intake, both current and cumulative as estimated by LACU, showed that very low consumers (C1 and Q1-Q3) displayed lower frequency of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared to abstainers and moderate consumers (C2 and Q4). We can speculate that up to one glass of wine daily in the context of a Mediterranean diet may be a long-term useful approach in selected NAFLD patients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122493
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2494: Investigation of Alcohol-Drinking Levels
           in the Swiss Population: Differences in Diet and Associations with
           Sociodemographic, Lifestyle and Anthropometric Factors

    • Authors: Dasom Bae, Anna Wróbel, Ivo Kaelin, Giulia Pestoni, Sabine Rohrmann, Janice Sych
      First page: 2494
      Abstract: Alcohol-drinking levels in Switzerland were investigated to identify dietary differences and explore the relationship between drinking levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors using the National Nutrition Survey menuCH (n = 2057, 18–75 years). After two 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs), participants were categorized into four subgroups: abstainers (both self-declared alcohol avoidance and no alcohol reported); no alcohol reported; moderate drinkers (women/men < 12 g/<24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively); and heavy drinkers (women/men > 12 g/>24 g mean daily alcohol, respectively). Differences in diet between these groups were described by comparing daily total energy and non-alcohol energy intake, macronutrient energy contribution, food group intake, and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index excluding alcohol). The sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors that determine alcohol-drinking levels were investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Abstainers reported the lowest daily energy intake (total and non-alcohol), heavy drinkers had the highest total energy intake and the lowest diet quality, and moderate drinkers had the highest non-alcohol energy intake. Sex, age, language region, body mass index, household size, smoking status, self-reported health status and following a diet were significantly associated with different alcohol-drinking subgroups. Results could facilitate interventions that target subgroups who exceed safe alcohol-drinking levels and lead unfavorable lifestyles.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122494
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2495: Changes in Phospholipid Composition of the
           Human Cerebellum and Motor Cortex during Normal Ageing

    • Authors: Sarah E. Hancock, Michael G. Friedrich, Todd W. Mitchell, Roger J. W. Truscott, Paul L. Else
      First page: 2495
      Abstract: (1) Background: Changes in phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, i.e., PC, PE and PS) composition with age in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the human cerebellum and motor cortex were examined and compared to previous analyses of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. (2) Methods: Nano-electrospray ionization on a hybrid triple quadrupole–linear ion trap mass spectrometer was used to analyse the brain regions of subjects aged 18–104 years. (3) Results: With age, the cerebellum showed many changes in the major phospholipids (>10% of the phospholipid class). In both membrane types, these included increases in PE 18:0_22:6 and PS 18:0_22:6, decreases in PE 18:0_20:4 and PS 18:0_18:1 and an increase in PC 16:0_16:0 (microsomal membrane only). In addition, twenty-one minor phospholipids also changed. In the motor cortex, only ten minor phospholipids changed with age. With age, the acyl composition of the membranes in the cerebellum increased in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) and decreased in the arachidonic (20:4) and adrenic (22:4) acids. A comparison of phospholipid changes in the cerebellum, motor cortex and other brain areas is provided. (4) Conclusions: The cerebellum is exceptional in the large number of major phospholipids that undergo changes (with consequential changes in acyl composition) with age, whereas the motor cortex is highly resistant to change.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122495
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2496: Active Compounds in Fruits and
           Inflammation in the Body

    • Authors: Magdalena Majdan, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak
      First page: 2496
      Abstract: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, asthma, and cancer. An appropriate diet and the active compounds contained in it can affect various stages of the inflammatory process and significantly affect the course of inflammatory diseases. Recent reports indicate that polyphenolic acids, vitamins, minerals, and other components of fruits may exhibit activity stimulating an anti-inflammatory response, which may be of importance in maintaining health and reducing the risk of disease. The article presents the latest data on the chemical composition of fruits and the health benefits arising from their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of fruits determines their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122496
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2497: The Hydration Status of Adult Patients
           with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and the Effect of Thickened Fluid Therapy on
           Fluid Intake and Hydration: Results of Two Parallel Systematic and Scoping

    • Authors: Paula Viñas, Mireia Bolivar-Prados, Noemi Tomsen, Alicia Costa, Sergio Marin, Stephanie A. Riera, Núria Barcons, Pere Clavé
      First page: 2497
      Abstract: Background: The effect of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and thickened fluid (TF) therapy on hydration status has not been well defined in the literature. We aimed to assess the hydration status in patients with OD and the effect TF therapy has on it. Methods: Two literature reviews following PRISMA methodology (each one including a systematic and a scoping review) were performed: (R1) hydration status in adult patients with OD; (R2) effect of TF therapy on fluid intake and dehydration. Narrative and descriptive methods summarized both reviews. Quality assessment was assessed by Joanna Briggs Institute tools and GRADE. Results: (R1) Five out of twenty-two studies using analytical parameters or bioimpedance showed poorer hydration status among OD and 19–100% prevalence of dehydration; (R2) two high quality studies (total of 724 participants) showed positive effects of TF on hydration status. Among the articles included, nine out of ten studies that evaluated fluid intake reported a reduced TF intake below basal water requirements. Conclusions: Dehydration is a highly prevalent complication in OD. There is scientific evidence on the positive effect of TF therapy on the hydration status of patients with OD. However, strict monitoring of fluid volume intake is essential due to the low consumption of TF in these patients.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122497
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2498: The Role of Nutritional Factors in the
           Modulation of the Composition of the Gut Microbiota in People with
           Autoimmune Diabetes

    • Authors: Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Ewa Tomaszewska, Janine Donaldson, Karolina Jachimowicz
      First page: 2498
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disease marked by oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the presence of autoantibodies. The gut microbiota has been shown to be involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as strengthening immunity, thus its’ possible involvement in the pathogenesis of T1DM has been highlighted. The goal of the present study is to analyze information on the relationship between the structure of the intestinal microbiome and the occurrence of T1DM. The modification of the intestinal microbiota can increase the proportion of SCFA-producing bacteria, which could in turn be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of T1DM. The increased daily intake of soluble and non-soluble fibers, as well as the inclusion of pro-biotics, prebiotics, herbs, spices, and teas that are sources of phytobiotics, in the diet, could be important in improving the composition and activity of the microbiota and thus in the prevention of metabolic disorders. Understanding how the microbiota interacts with immune cells to create immune tolerance could enable the development of new therapeutic strategies for T1DM and improve the quality of life of people with T1DM.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122498
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2499: Hospital Intervention to Reduce Overweight
           with Educational Reinforcement after Discharge: A Multicenter Randomized
           Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Carmen Herrera-Espiñeira, María del Carmen Martínez-Cirre, Manuel López-Morales, Antonia Lozano-Sánchez, Antonia Rodríguez-Ruíz, Laura Esther Salmerón-López, María Isabel Gómez-Crespo, Manuela Expósito-Ruíz
      First page: 2499
      Abstract: Introduction: Obesity and overweight affect more than one-third of the world’s population and pose a major public health problem. Objective: To evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on dietary habits and physical exercise in patients with overweight admitted to departments of internal medicine, comprising a pre-discharge educational session with follow-up and reinforcement by telephone at 3, 6, and, 12 months post-discharge. Outcome variables were weight, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and death. Method: A randomized experimental study with a control group was performed in hospitalized non-diabetic adults aged ≥18 years with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 Kg/m2. Results and conclusions: The final sample included 273 patients. At three months post-discharge, the intervention group had lower SBP and DPB and improved dietary habits (assessed using the Pardo Questionnaire) and VAS-assessed HRQOL in comparison to the control group but a worse EQ-5Q-5L-assessed HRQOL. There were no between-group differences in hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, or mortality at any time point. Both groups evidenced a progressive improvement over the three follow-up periods in weight, SBP, and dietary habits but a worsening of EQ-5D-5L-value-assessed HRQOL. Discussion: The intervention group showed greater improvements over the short term, but between-group differences disappeared at 6 and 12 months. Weight loss and improvements in key outcomes were observed in both groups over the follow-up period. Further research is warranted to determine whether a minimum intervention with an educational leaflet, follow-up phone calls, and questionnaires on overweight-related healthy habits, as in the present control group, may be an equally effective strategy without specific individual educational input.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122499
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2500: Serum Phytosterols Are Not Associated with
           Inflammatory Markers in Two Cross-Sectional, Swiss Population-Based
           Studies (The CoLaus PsyCoLaus Study)

    • Authors: Laura Stanasila, Pedro Marques-Vidal
      First page: 2500
      Abstract: Background: The association between inflammation and dietary sterols remains poorly assessed at the population level. Aims: To assess the possible association between serum levels of various phytosterols (PS) and inflammatory markers. Methods: Serum levels of six PS (campesterol, campestanol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, sitostanol, brassicasterol), four cholesterol synthesis markers (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol, dihydroxylanosterol) and one cholesterol absorption marker (cholestanol) were measured together with levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in two cross-sectional surveys of a population-based, prospective study. Results: CRP levels were negatively associated with levels of cholestanol and of sterols of plant origin, although some associations were not statistically significant. CRP levels were positively associated with cholesterol synthesis markers in the first but not in the second follow-up. IL-6 levels were negatively associated with cholestanol in both follow-ups. No associations between IL-6 levels and PS were found in the first follow-up, while significant negative associations with campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol, sitostanol and campesterol:TC ratio were found in the second follow-up. TNF-α levels were negatively associated with cholestanol in both follow-ups. These associations did not withstand adjusting for sex, age, BMI and statin administration. Conclusions: In a population-based study, PS serum levels were not significantly associated with inflammatory markers.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122500
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2501: The Effects of an Intensive Rehabilitation
           Program on the Nutritional and Functional Status of Post-COVID-19
           Pneumonia Patients

    • Authors: Diogo Sousa-Catita, Catarina Godinho, Paulo Mascarenhas, Filipa Quaresma, Jorge Fonseca
      First page: 2501
      Abstract: Most hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients are older adults and/or have nutrition-related issues. Many are bedridden in intensive care units (ICU), a well-documented cause of malnutrition, muscle wasting, and functional impairment. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of an intensive rehabilitation program over the nutritional/functional status of patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. Post-COVID-19 pneumonia patients underwent a 30-day intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation program including a personalized nutritional intervention designed to achieve a minimum intake of 30 kcal/kg/day and 1 g protein/kg/day. The nutritional and functional status was assessed in each patient at three different moments. Each assessment included Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), Mid Arm Muscle Circumference (MAMC), Tricipital Skinfold (TSF), Hand Grip Strength (HGS), and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®). The study included 118 patients, with ages in the range 41–90 years old. BMI increased linearly over time (0.642 units, F-test = 26.458, p < 0.001). MUAC (0.322 units, F-test = 0.515, p = 0.474) and MAMC status (F-test = 1.089, p = 0.299) improved slightly, whereas TSF decreased (F-test = 1.885, p = 0.172), but all these arm anthropometry trends did not show significant variations, while HGS (4.131 units, F-test = 82.540, p < 0.001) and MNA® (1.483 units, F-test = 217.726, p < 0.001) reported a meaningful improvement. Post-COVID-19 pneumonia patients presented malnutrition and functional impairment. An interdisciplinary rehabilitation program, including personalized nutritional intervention, was effective for post-hospital COVID-19 pneumonia nutritional/functional rehabilitation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122501
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2502: Maternal AA/EPA Ratio and Triglycerides as
           Potential Biomarkers of Patients at Major Risk for Pharmacological Therapy
           in Gestational Diabetes

    • Authors: Chiara Maria Soldavini, Gabriele Piuri, Gabriele Rossi, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Linda Benzoni, Valeria Maggi, Giulia Privitera, Angela Spadafranca, Angela Maria Rizzo, Enrico Ferrazzi
      First page: 2502
      Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is characterized by glycemic and lipid metabolism alterations in an environment of low-grade inflammation. Our trial aimed to assess the effect of nutraceutical supplements (omega-3 fatty acids, anthocyanins, and alpha-cyclodextrins) in GD patients and evaluate the role of anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters as biomarkers to identify subjects who require pharmacological hypoglycemic treatment during gestation. Pregnant women with GD at 24–28 weeks of gestation were enrolled in a double-blind trial and randomized to receive either nutraceutical supplements or a placebo for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in blood and urine measurements of metabolic, inflammatory, and antioxidant parameters. In the whole cohort, pre-pregnancy BMI and anthropometric measurements were significantly different in patients who required pharmacological intervention. These patients showed higher triglycerides, CRP, and insulin levels and gave birth to newborns with significantly higher weights. Subjects with a greater AA/EPA ratio had higher PAF levels and gave birth four days earlier. In conclusion, one-to-one nutritional coaching and poor compliance with nutraceutical supplementation might have outweighed the impact of this intervention. However, triglyceride concentration and the AA/EPA ratio seems to be a biomarker for higher inflammatory levels and GD candidates for pharmacological treatment. An adequate assumption of omega-3 in women with GD, either by a controlled diet or by nutraceutical supplementation, reduces the need for pharmacological therapy.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122502
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2503: Sources of Variation in Food-Related
           Metabolites during Pregnancy

    • Authors: Talha Rafiq, Sandi M. Azab, Sonia S. Anand, Lehana Thabane, Meera Shanmuganathan, Katherine M. Morrison, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Jennifer C. Stearns, Koon K. Teo, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Russell J. de Souza
      First page: 2503
      Abstract: The extent to which variation in food-related metabolites are attributable to non-dietary factors remains unclear, which may explain inconsistent food-metabolite associations observed in population studies. This study examined the association between non-dietary factors and the serum concentrations of food-related biomarkers and quantified the amount of variability in metabolite concentrations explained by non-dietary factors. Pregnant women (n = 600) from two Canadian birth cohorts completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and serum metabolites were measured by multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical linear modelling and principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) were used for data analysis. For proline betaine and DHA (mainly exogenous), citrus foods and fish/fish oil intake, respectively, explained the highest proportion of variability relative to non-dietary factors. The unique contribution of dietary factors was similar (15:0, 17:0, hippuric acid, TMAO) or lower (14:0, tryptophan betaine, 3-methylhistidine, carnitine) compared to non-dietary factors (i.e., ethnicity, maternal age, gestational age, pre-pregnancy BMI, physical activity, and smoking) for metabolites that can either be produced endogenously, biotransformed by gut microbiota, and/or derived from multiple food sources. The results emphasize the importance of adjusting for non-dietary factors in future analyses to improve the accuracy and precision of the measures of food intake and their associations with health and disease.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122503
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2504: The Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum
           Is Well Suited as a Food with Positive Effects on the Intestinal
           Microbiota and the Generation of SCFA: Results from a Pre-Clinical Study

    • Authors: Lena Stiefvatter, Ulrike Neumann, Andreas Rings, Konstantin Frick, Ulrike Schmid-Staiger, Stephan C. Bischoff
      First page: 2504
      Abstract: Microalgae such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) are a sustainable source of nutrients, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fucoxanthin (Fx), and chrysolaminarin (Chrl), the concentrations of which can vary depending on the culture conditions. We generated three types of diets containing either an EPA- and Fx-rich (EPA/Fx) or Chrl-rich microalgae (with 5, 15, or 25% added to the diet) or an isocaloric control diet (CD). These diets were evaluated over 14 days in young C57BL/6J mice for safety and bioavailability, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbiome analysis. Both microalgae diets increased body weight gain dose-dependently compared to the CD. Microalgae-derived EPA was well absorbed, resulting in increased liver and fat tissue levels and a decrease in the n-6:n-3 ratio in liver tissue. Both microalgae diets increased the production of selected SCFA and decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteriodota ratio, whereas the Chrl-rich diet led to an increase in Akkermansia. Doses of up to 4621 mg Chrl, 920 mg EPA, and 231 mg Fx per kg body weight daily were tolerated without adverse effects. This pre-clinical study shows that PT is suitable for mouse feed, with positive effects on microbiota composition and SCFA production, suggesting beneficial effects on gut health.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122504
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2505: Impact of the Structural Modifications of
           Potato Protein in the Digestibility Process under Semi-Dynamic Simulated
           Human Gastrointestinal In Vitro System

    • Authors: Luis Jiménez-Munoz, Emmanouil D. Tsochatzis, Milena Corredig
      First page: 2505
      Abstract: The raising consumer demand for plant-derived proteins has led to an increased production of alternative protein ingredients with varying processing histories. In this study, we used a commercially available potato protein ingredient with a nutritionally valuable amino acid profile and high technological functionality to evaluate if the digestibility of a suspension with the same composition is affected by differences in the structure. Four isocaloric (4% protein, w/w) matrices (suspension, gel, foam and heat-set foam) were prepared and their gastrointestinal fate was followed utilizing a semi-dynamic in vitro digestion model. The microstructure was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, protein breakdown was tested by electrophoresis and free amino acids after intestinal digestion was estimated using liquid chromatography/triple-quadruple-mass spectrometry (LC-TQMS). The heat-treated samples showed a higher degree of hydrolysis and lower trypsin inhibitory activity than the non-heat-treated samples. An in vitro digestible indispensable amino acid score was calculated based on experimental data, showing a value of 0.9 based on sulfur amino acids/valine as the limiting amino acids. The heated samples also showed a slower gastric emptying rate. The study highlights the effect of the food matrix on the distribution of the peptides created during various stages of gastric emptying.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122505
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2506: Consumption of Yoghurt and Other Dairy
           Products and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Iran: The IROPICAN Study

    • Authors: Giulia Collatuzzo, Monireh Sadat Seyyedsalehi, Abbas Rezaeianzadeh, Maryam Marzban, Hamideh Rashidian, Maryam Hadji, Farin Kamangar, Arash Etemadi, Eero Pukkala, Kazem Zendehdel, Paolo Boffetta
      First page: 2506
      Abstract: Background: There is evidence of an inverse association between yoghurt intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed at investigating the association between the intake of yoghurt and other dairy foods consumed in Iran and CRC risk. Methods: Our analysis included 4070 subjects within the IROPICAN (Iran Study of Opium and Cancer) study. Detailed information was collected by the use of validated questionnaires. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between the intake of total dairy products, and, separately, of yoghurt, milk, cheese, kashk, dough, cream, ice cream, and other milk products, and CRC using unconditional logistic regression analyses. The intake was categorized in tertiles. Results: Overall, we analyzed 865 cases and 3205 controls. Total dairy products intake was not associated with CRC. The OR for one tertile increase (OR_T) in yoghurt intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.87–1.08) for CRC and 0.66 (95% CI 0.52–0.84) for proximal colon cancer. Cream intake was associated with CRC (OR_T3 = 1.33, 95% CI 1.08–1.64), colon (OR_T3 = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.81), and proximal cancer (OR_T3 = 1.29, 95% CI 1.04–1.61). The OR of distal colon cancer for ice cream intake was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.82). Other dairy products were not associated with CRC risk.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122506
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2507: Diet Is a Stronger Covariate Than Exercise
           in Determining Gut Microbial Richness and Diversity

    • Authors: Eon-Joo Yun, Saba Imdad, Junho Jang, Jinhan Park, Byunghun So, Jin-Hee Kim, Chounghun Kang
      First page: 2507
      Abstract: Obesity is a common metabolic disorder caused by a sedentary lifestyle, and a high-fat and a high-glucose diet in the form of fast foods. High-fat diet-induced obesity is a major cause of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, whereas exercise and physical activity can ameliorate these disorders. Moreover, exercise and the gut microbiota are known to be interconnected, since exercise can increase the gut microbial diversity and contribute to the beneficial health effects. In this context, we analyzed the effect of diet and exercise on the gut microbiota of mice, by next-generation sequencing of the bacterial V4 region of 16S rRNA. Briefly, mice were divided into four groups: chow-diet (CD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet + exercise (HFX), and exercise-only (EX). The mice underwent treadmill exercise and diet intervention for 8 weeks, followed by the collection of their feces and DNA extraction for sequencing. The data were analyzed using the QIIME 2 bioinformatics platform and R software to assess their gut microbial composition, richness, and diversity. The Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio was found to be decreased manifold in the HFD and HFX groups compared to the CD and EX groups. The gut microbial richness was comparatively lower in the HFD and HFX groups and higher in the CD and EX groups (ACE, Chao1, and observed OTUs). However, the Shannon alpha diversity index was higher in the HFD and HFX groups than in the CD and EX groups. The beta diversity based on Jaccard, Bray–Curtis, and weighted UniFrac distance metrics was significant among the groups, as measured by PERMANOVA. Paraprevotella, Desulfovibrio, and Lactococcus were the differentially abundant/present genera based on the intervention groups and in addition to these three bacteria, Butyricimonas and Desulfovibrio C21c20 were differentially abundant/present based on diet. Hence, diet significantly contributed to the majority of the changes in the gut microbiota.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122507
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2508: Maternal High-Fat Diet Aggravates Allergic
           Asthma in Offspring via Modulating CD4+ T-Cell Differentiation

    • Authors: Hui Lin, Yiran Zhao, Yajie Zhu, Cheng Li, Wei Xu, Xi Chen, Hefeng Huang, Li Jin
      First page: 2508
      Abstract: Maternal improper nutrition has been reported to trigger respiratory disorders in offspring. Here, we characterized the effects of high-fat environment in the fetal period on mice and human cord blood CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and investigated their roles in susceptibility to asthma. Mice born to mothers that consumed a high-fat diet (HFD) throughout the gestation period were sensitized by ovalbumin to establish an experimental asthma model. To further extrapolate to humans, we collected cord blood from neonates of hypercholesterolemic (HC) mothers (n = 18) and control mothers (n = 20). In mice, aggravated airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation revealed that maternal high-fat diet could lead to exacerbated allergic asthma in adult offspring. It was partially due to augmented activation and proliferation of CD4+ T-cells, where upregulated klf2 mRNA levels may be potentially involved. Notably, naïve HFD CD4+ T-cells had enhanced TH2-based immune response both in vivo and in vitro, resulting from DNA hypomethylation of the Il-4 promoter region. Moreover, in human, TH2 cytokines transcripts were enhanced in CD4+ T-cells of the HC group, which was associated with an increased risk of developing allergic diseases at 3 years old. Together, our study indicated that early life improper nutrition-triggered epigenetic changes in T-cells may contribute to long-lasting alterations in allergic diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122508
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2509: Effects of Calorie Restricted Diet on
           Oxidative/Antioxidative Status Biomarkers and Serum Fibroblast Growth
           Factor 21 Levels in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A
           Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Asghari, Rezaei, Rafraf, Taghizadeh, Asghari-Jafarabadi, Ebadi
      First page: 2509
      Abstract: Oxidative stress plays a fundamental role in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a calorie-restricted (CR) diet on oxidative/anti-oxidative status in patients with NAFLD and the potential mediating role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) in this regard. This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out on sixty patients with NAFLD aged 20 to 60 years with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 25 to 35 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned to either the CR diet group (received a prescribed low-calorie diet for twelve weeks, n = 30) or the control group (n = 30). Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and physical activity data were collected for all participants at baseline and at the end of the trial. Significant reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed in the CR diet group compared to the control group (all p< 0.05). Liver steatosis grade, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and FGF-21, as well as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities did not show significant changes in the CR group when compared to the controls at the end of the study (p > 0.05). CR diet with moderate weight loss has some favorable effects on NAFLD but was not able to modify oxidative/anti-oxidative status in these patients. Future studies are warranted to target the effects of long-term interventions with a greater weight loss in this patient population.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122509
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2510: Effect of Dewaxed Coffee on

    • Authors: Barbara Polese, Luana Izzo, Nicola Mancino, Marcella Pesce, Sara Rurgo, Maria Cristina Tricarico, Sonia Lombardi, Barbara De Conno, Giovanni Sarnelli, Alberto Ritieni
      First page: 2510
      Abstract: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is multifactorial pathogenesis characterized by the abnormal reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. Symptoms are worse after the ingestion of certain foods, such as coffee. Hence, a randomized pilot study conducted on 40 Italian subjects was assessed to verify the effect of standard (SC) and dewaxed coffee (DC) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. The assessment of patient diaries highlighted a significant percentage reduction of symptoms frequency when consuming DC and a significant increase in both heartburn-free and regurgitation-free days. Consequentially, patients had a significant increase of antacid-free days during the DC assumption. Moreover, the polyphenolic profile of coffee pods was ascertained through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were the most abundant investigated compounds with a concentration level ranging between 7.316 (DC) and 6.721 mg/g (SC). Apart from CGAs, caffeine was quantified at a concentration level of 5.691 mg/g and 11.091 for DC and SC, respectively. While still preliminary, data obtained from the present pilot study provide promising evidence for the efficacy of DC consumption in patients with GERD. Therefore, this treatment might represent a feasible way to make coffee more digestible and better tolerated.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122510
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2511: Consumption of Dietary Fiber with
           Different Physicochemical Properties during Late Pregnancy Alters the Gut
           Microbiota and Relieves Constipation in Sow Model

    • Authors: Dongdong Lu, Yu Pi, Hao Ye, Yujun Wu, Yu Bai, Shuai Lian, Dandan Han, Dongjiao Ni, Xinhua Zou, Jinbiao Zhao, Shuai Zhang, Bas Kemp, Nicoline Soede, Junjun Wang
      First page: 2511
      Abstract: Constipation is a common problem in sows and women during late pregnancy. Dietary fiber has potential in the regulation of intestinal microbiota, thereby promoting intestinal motility and reducing constipation. However, the effects of fibers with different physicochemical properties on intestinal microbe and constipation during late pregnancy have not been fully explored. In this study, a total of 80 sows were randomly allocated to control and one of three dietary fiber treatments from day 85 of gestation to delivery: LIG (lignocellulose), PRS (resistant starch), and KON (konjaku flour). Results showed that the defecation frequency and fecal consistency scores were highest in PRS. PRS and KON significantly increased the level of gut motility regulatory factors, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), motilin (MTL), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in serum. Moreover, PRS and KON promoted the IL-10 level and reduced the TNF-α level in serum. Furthermore, maternal PRS and KON supplementation significantly reduced the number of stillborn piglets. Microbial sequencing analysis showed that PRS and KON increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides and decreased the abundance of endotoxin-producing bacteria Desulfovibrio and Oscillibacter in feces. Moreover, the relative abundance of Turicibacter and the fecal butyrate concentration in PRS were the highest. Correlation analysis further revealed that the defecation frequency and serum 5-HT were positively correlated with Turicibacter and butyrate. In conclusion, PRS is the best fiber source for promoting gut motility, which was associated with increased levels of 5-HT under specific bacteria Turicibacter and butyrate stimulation, thereby relieving constipation. Our findings provide a reference for dietary fiber selection to improve intestinal motility in late pregnant mothers.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122511
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2512: A Systematic Review of the Influence of
           Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Leaky Gut Syndrome in Athletes:
           Diagnostic Biomarkers and Future Directions

    • Authors: Hanna Dziewiecka, Harpal S. Buttar, Anna Kasperska, Joanna Ostapiuk-Karolczuk, Małgorzata Domagalska, Justyna Cichoń, Anna Skarpańska-Stejnborn
      First page: 2512
      Abstract: Background: Bovine colostrum (BC) contains a myriad of bioactive molecules that are renowned for possessing unique medicinal benefits in children and adults, and BC supplements are considered safe and cost-effective options to manage/prevent the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and gut-related problems in athletes. In this review, we will try to answer the question: How will BC supplementation ameliorate gut permeability problems among athletes' Methods: Literature searches were performed using PRISMA guidance to identify studies assessing the influence of BC supplements on gut permeability. Studies were selected using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO, and a total number of 60 articles were retrieved by using appropriate keywords. Results: Nine studies were selected that met the eligibility criteria for this review. The data analysis revealed that vigorous exercise profoundly increases intestinal permeability, and BC supplementation helps to reverse gut permeability in athletes. Conclusion: BC supplementation may be highly beneficial in improving gut permeability in athletes. However, well-designed, placebo-controlled, and randomized studies are needed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy and to determine the optimal dose schedules of BC supplementation in high-performance athletes.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122512
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2513: Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk Reveals
           Nutritional and Immune Benefits in the Colostrum from Mothers with

    • Authors: Juanjuan Guo, Minjie Tan, Jing Zhu, Ye Tian, Huanyu Liu, Fan Luo, Jianbin Wang, Yanyi Huang, Yuanzhen Zhang, Yuexin Yang, Guanbo Wang
      First page: 2513
      Abstract: Despite the well-known benefits of breastfeeding and the World Health Organization’s breastfeeding recommendations for COVID-19 infected mothers, whether these mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed is under debate due to concern about the risk of virus transmission and lack of evidence of breastmilk’s protective effects against the virus. Here, we provide a molecular basis for the breastfeeding recommendation through mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics and glycosylation analysis of immune-related proteins in both colostrum and mature breastmilk collected from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors. The total protein amounts in the COVID-19 colostrum group were significantly higher than in the control group. While casein proteins in COVID-19 colostrum exhibited significantly lower abundances, immune-related proteins, especially whey proteins with antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2, were upregulated. These proteins were detected with unique site-specific glycan structures and improved glycosylation diversity that are beneficial for recognizing epitopes and blocking viral entry. Such adaptive differences in milk from COVID-19 mothers tended to fade in mature milk from the same mothers one month postpartum. These results suggest that feeding infants colostrum from COVID-19 mothers confers both nutritional and immune benefits, and provide molecular-level insights that aid breastmilk feeding decisions in cases of active infection.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122513
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2514: Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity
           as Healthy Lifestyles for Human Health

    • Authors: Daniela Bonofiglio
      First page: 2514
      Abstract: Health status is influenced by several factors, such as proper dietary pattern and regular physical activity (PA), which are crucial elements of lifestyle in terms of the prevention and treatment of metabolic and chronic diseases in all stages of life and particularly during childhood and adolescence [...]
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122514
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2515: Impact of Dietary Fructose and High Salt
           Diet: Are Preclinical Studies Relevant to Asian Societies'

    • Authors: Ban Hock Khor, Dragana Komnenov, Noreen F. Rossi
      First page: 2515
      Abstract: Fructose consumption, especially in food additives and sugar-sweetened beverages, has gained increasing attention due to its potential association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The relationship between fructose and a high-salt diet, leading to hypertension and other deleterious cardiovascular parameters, has also become more evident, especially in preclinical studies. However, these studies have been modeled primarily on Western diets. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the dietary habits of individuals from China, Japan, and Korea, in light of the existing preclinical studies, to assess the potential relevance of existing data to East Asian societies. This review is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to highlight the similarities and differences that should be considered in future preclinical, clinical, and epidemiologic studies regarding the impact of dietary fructose and salt on blood pressure and cardiovascular health worldwide.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122515
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2516: Wheat Biscuits Enriched with Plant-Based
           Protein Contribute to Weight Loss and Beneficial Metabolic Effects in
           Subjects with Overweight/Obesity

    • Authors: Panagiota Binou, Amalia E. Yanni, Klio Kartsioti, Aikaterini Barmpagianni, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Vaios T. Karathanos, Alexander Kokkinos
      First page: 2516
      Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the impact of daily consumption of a snack fortified with plant proteins with high content in amino acids with appetite regulating properties (BCAAs and L-arginine), as part of a dietary intervention, on weight loss. Seventy adults without diabetes (26 male, 44 female) and with overweight/obesity participated in a 12-week restricted dietary intervention and were randomized to either a control or an intervention group, consuming daily 70 g of conventional wheat biscuits (CB) or an isocaloric amount of wheat biscuits enriched with plant proteins (PB) originating from legumes and seeds, respectively. Anthropometric characteristics were measured and venous blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Decreases in body weight, body fat mass and waist circumference were observed in both groups. Participants in the intervention group experienced greater weight loss (7.6 ± 2.7 vs. 6.2 ± 2.7%, p = 0.025) and marginally significant larger decrease in body fat mass (4.9 ± 2.2 vs. 3.9 ± 2.4 kg, p = 0.059). A moderate reduction in IL-1β levels (p = 0.081), a significantly higher decrease in TNF-α levels (p < 0.001) and a marginally significant greater leptin decrease (p = 0.066) in subjects of the PB group were noticed. Greater reductions in caloric and carbohydrate intake and a trend towards a higher decrease in fat intake were also observed in participants of this group. Incorporation of plant-based proteins with high content in amino acids with appetite-regulating properties in wheat biscuits may contribute to greater weight loss and improvement of metabolic parameters in subjects who are overweight or obese. Protein enrichment of snacks offers a beneficial qualitative manipulation that could be successfully incorporated in a diet plan.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122516
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2517: Effects of Childhood Nutrition Education
           from School and Family on Eating Habits of Japanese Adults

    • Authors: Mizuki Kuwahara, Wonsub Eum
      First page: 2517
      Abstract: Since the Basic Law of Shokuiku (nutrition education) was established in 2005, the Japanese government has been promoting nutrition education among children to encourage better eating habits. This study analyzes the 2019 survey data on people’s attitudes towards nutrition education, in order to elucidate the relationship between the results of nutrition education, attitude towards nutrition education and proper eating habits, and the experience of nutrition education. The results reveal that people who received nutrition education at elementary school and middle school tend to have a more positive attitude towards nutrition education. In addition, family conversation on foods during elementary school years has a positive effect on nutritionally balanced eating behavior.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122517
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2518: Hypercalcemia in Pregnancy Due to CYP24A1
           Mutations: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Stefan Pilz, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Pawel Pludowski, Sieglinde Zelzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Spyridon N. Karras, Waldemar Misiorowski, Armin Zittermann, Winfried März, Christian Trummer
      First page: 2518
      Abstract: Pathogenic mutations of CYP24A1 lead to an impaired catabolism of vitamin D metabolites and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia with low parathyroid hormone concentrations. Diagnosis is based on a reduced 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D ratio and confirmed by genetic analyses. Pregnancy is associated with an upregulation of the active vitamin D hormone calcitriol and may thus particularly trigger hypercalcemia in affected patients. We present a case report and a narrative review of pregnant women with CYP24A1 mutations (13 women with 29 pregnancies) outlining the laboratory and clinical characteristics during pregnancy and postpartum and the applied treatment approaches. In general, pregnancy triggered hypercalcemia in the affected women and obstetric complications were frequently reported. Conclusions on drugs to treat hypercalcemia during pregnancy are extremely limited and do not show clear evidence of efficacy. Strictly avoiding vitamin D supplementation seems to be effective in preventing or reducing the degree of hypercalcemia. Our case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with hypercalcemia in the 24th gestational week delivered a healthy baby and hypercalcemia resolved while breastfeeding. Pathogenic mutations of CYP24A1 mutations are rare but should be considered in the context of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122518
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2519: An Exploration of How Solar Radiation
           Affects the Seasonal Variation of Human Mortality Rates and the Seasonal
           Variation in Some Other Common Disorders

    • Authors: William B. Grant, Barbara J. Boucher
      First page: 2519
      Abstract: Many diseases have large seasonal variations in which winter overall mortality rates are about 25% higher than in summer in mid-latitude countries, with cardiovascular diseases and respiratory infections and conditions accounting for most of the variation. Cancers, by contrast, do not usually have pronounced seasonal variations in incidence or mortality rates. This narrative review examines the epidemiological evidence for seasonal variations in blood pressure, cardiovascular disease rates and respiratory viral infections in relation to atmospheric temperature and humidity, and solar UV exposure through vitamin D production and increased blood concentrations of nitric oxide. However, additional mechanisms most likely exist by which solar radiation reduces the risk of seasonally varying diseases. Some studies have been reported with respect to temperature without considering solar UV doses, although studies regarding solar UV doses, such as for respiratory infections, often consider whether temperature can affect the findings. More research is indicated to evaluate the relative effects of temperature and sun exposure on the seasonality of mortality rates for several diseases. Since solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses decrease to vanishingly small values at higher latitudes in winter, the use of safe UVB lamps for indoor use in winter may warrant consideration.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122519
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2520: Where Do We Stand in the Behavioral
           Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease' The Western Dietary
           Pattern and Microbiota—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak, Oliwia Zakerska-Banaszak, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Liliana Łykowska-Szuber, Aleksandra Szymczak-Tomczak, Agnieszka Zawada, Anna Maria Rychter, Alicja Ewa Ratajczak, Kinga Skoracka, Dorota Skrzypczak, Emilia Marcinkowska, Ryszard Słomski, Agnieszka Dobrowolska
      First page: 2520
      Abstract: Despite the increasing knowledge with regard to IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), the etiology of these conditions is still not fully understood. Apart from immunological, environmental and nutritional factors, which have already been well documented, it is worthwhile to look at the possible impact of genetic factors, as well as the composition of the microbiota in patients suffering from IBD. New technologies in biochemistry allow to obtain information that can add to the current state of knowledge in IBD etiology.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122520
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2521: The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake in
           Three Meals with All-Cause and Disease-Specific Mortality among Adults:
           The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2014

    • Authors: Jiayue Qi, Jian Gao, Yuntao Zhang, Wanying Hou, Tianshu Han, Changhao Sun
      First page: 2521
      Abstract: The timing of food intake can significantly alter the body’s metabolism of nutrient intake and affect the occurrence of chronic diseases. However, whether and how the intake time of dietary fiber could influence mortality risks is largely unknown. This study aims to reveal the association between total dietary fiber intake and fiber intake at different times with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates. A total of 31,164 adults who enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2014 are included in this study. Dietary fiber intake was measured using 2-day, 24 h dietary recall. The main exposures in this study were the intake of dietary fiber at breakfast, lunch, and dinner via regression analysis of the residual method. The main outcomes were the all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality rates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the survival relationship between dietary fiber intake at different times and mortality rates. Among the 31,164 adults, 2915 deaths, including 631 deaths due to cancer and 836 deaths due to CVD, were documented. Firstly, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of total dietary fiber intake, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.686, 95% CI: 0.589–0.799, p for trend <0.001) and cancer (HR = 0.606, 95% CI: 0.446–0.824, p for trend = 0.015) mortality risks. Secondly, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake at dinner, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.796, 95% CI: 0.668–0.949, p for trend = 0.009) and cancer (HR = 0.564, 95% CI: 0.388–0.822, p for trend = 0.005) mortality risks. Furthermore, equivalently replacing each standard deviation of dietary fiber consumed at breakfast with that at dinner was associated with lower cancer mortality risks (HR = 0.846, 95% CI: 0.747–0.958). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, in the NHANES (2003–2014) cohort, to reduce all-cause and cancer mortality risks, the optimal dietary fiber intake time is in the evening.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122521
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2522: Long-Term Dietary Patterns Are Reflected
           in the Plasma Inflammatory Proteome of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel

    • Authors: Arno R. Bourgonje, Laura A. Bolte, Lianne L. C. Vranckx, Lieke M. Spekhorst, Ranko Gacesa, Shixian Hu, Hendrik M. van Dullemen, Marijn C. Visschedijk, Eleonora A. M. Festen, Janneke N. Samsom, Gerard Dijkstra, Rinse K. Weersma, Marjo J. E. Campmans-Kuijpers
      First page: 2522
      Abstract: Diet plays an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)). However, little is known about the extent to which different diets reflect inflammation in IBD beyond measures such as faecal calprotectin or C-reactive protein. In this study, we aimed to unravel associations between dietary patterns and circulating inflammatory proteins in patients with IBD. Plasma concentrations of 73 different inflammation-related proteins were measured in 454 patients with IBD by proximity extension assay (PEA) technology. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) were used to assess habitual diet. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to extract data-driven dietary patterns. To identify associations between dietary patterns and plasma proteins, we used general linear models adjusting for age, sex, BMI, plasma storage time, smoking, surgical history and medication use. Stratified analyses were performed for IBD type, disease activity and protein intake. A high-sugar diet was strongly inversely associated with fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) independent of IBD type, disease activity, surgical history and deviance from recommended protein intake (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Conversely, a Mediterranean-style pattern was associated with higher FGF-19 levels (FDR < 0.05). A pattern characterised by high alcohol and coffee intake was positively associated with CCL11 (eotaxin-1) levels and with lower levels of IL-12B (FDR < 0.05). All results were replicated in CD, whereas only the association with FGF-19 was significant in UC. Our study suggests that dietary habits influence distinct circulating inflammatory proteins implicated in IBD and supports the pro- and anti-inflammatory role of diet. Longitudinal measurements of inflammatory markers, also postprandial, are needed to further elucidate the diet–inflammation relationship.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122522
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2523: The Untapped Potential of Ginsenosides and
           American Ginseng Berry in Promoting Mental Health via the Gut–Brain

    • Authors: Tristan St-Laurent, Riadh Hammami
      First page: 2523
      Abstract: Despite the popularity of the ginseng (Panax) root in health research and on the market, the ginseng berry’s potential remains relatively unexplored. Implementing ginseng berry cultivations and designing berry-derived products could improve the accessibility to mental health-promoting nutraceuticals. Indeed, the berry could have a higher concentration of neuroprotective and antidepressant compounds than the root, which has already been the subject of research demonstrating its efficacy in the context of neuroprotection and mental health. In this review, data on the berry’s application in supporting mental health via the gut–brain axis is compiled and discussed.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122523
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2524: Short-Chain Fatty Acids Modulate
           Permeability, Motility and Gene Expression in the Porcine Fetal Jejunum Ex

    • Authors: Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli, Simone Koger, Suchitra Sharma, Arife Sener-Aydemir, Ursula Ruczizka, Heinrich Kreutzmann, Andrea Ladinig
      First page: 2524
      Abstract: Postnatally, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are important energetic and signaling agents, being involved in host nutrition, gut imprinting and immune and barrier function. Whether SCFA exert similar effects during the late fetal phase has been insufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the fetal jejunum senses SCFA and whether SCFA modify the muscle tension and epithelial permeability and related signaling in jejunal tissue from the porcine fetus in late gestation. Exposure of fetal jejunal tissue to a mix of SCFA (70 µmol/mL) in an organ bath for 20 min lowered the muscle tension. Moreover, SCFA decreased the transepithelial conductance while increasing the short-circuit current in the Ussing chamber, indicating reduced permeability and increased SCFA absorption. Gene expression in the tissues harvested from the Ussing chamber after 30 min indicated downregulation of the expression of receptors (i.e., FFAR2 and TLR2), MCT1 and tight-junction and adherens proteins, which may be a negative feedback response to the applied high SCFA concentration compared with the micromolar concentration detected in fetal gastric fluid. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the fetal jejunum senses SCFA, which trigger electrophysiological, muscle contraction and related gene transcription responses. Hence, SCFA may play a role in prenatal gut nutrition and imprinting.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122524
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2525: Body Composition-Specific Asthma
           Phenotypes: Clinical Implications

    • Authors: Xin Zhang, Ke Deng, Yulai Yuan, Lei Liu, Shuwen Zhang, Changyong Wang, Gang Wang, Hongping Zhang, Lei Wang, Gaiping Cheng, Lisa G. Wood, Gang Wang
      First page: 2525
      Abstract: Background: Previous studies have indicated the limitations of body mass index for defining disease phenotypes. The description of asthma phenotypes based on body composition (BC) has not been largely reported. Objective: To identify and characterize phenotypes based on BC parameters in patients with asthma. Methods: A study with two prospective observational cohorts analyzing adult patients with stable asthma (n = 541 for training and n = 179 for validation) was conducted. A body composition analysis was performed for the included patients. A cluster analysis was conducted by applying a 2-step process with stepwise discriminant analysis. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between identified phenotypes and asthma exacerbations (AEs). The same algorithm for cluster analysis in the independent validation set was used to perform an external validation. Results: Three clusters had significantly different characteristics associated with asthma outcomes. An external validation identified the similarity of the participants in training and the validation set. In the training set, cluster Training (T) 1 (29.4%) was “patients with undernutrition”, cluster T2 (18.9%) was “intermediate level of nutrition with psychological dysfunction”, and cluster T3 (51.8%) was “patients with good nutrition”. Cluster T3 had a decreased risk of moderate-to-severe and severe AEs in the following year compared with the other two clusters. The most important BC-specific factors contributing to being accurately assigned to one of these three clusters were skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area. Conclusion: We defined three distinct clusters of asthma patients, which had distinct clinical features and asthma outcomes. Our data reinforced the importance of evaluating BC to determining nutritional status in clinical practice.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122525
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2526: Impact of Zinc Transport Mechanisms on
           Embryonic and Brain Development

    • Authors: Jeremy Willekens, Loren W. Runnels
      First page: 2526
      Abstract: The trace element zinc (Zn) binds to over ten percent of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Zn flexible chemistry allows it to regulate the activity of hundreds of enzymes and influence scores of metabolic processes in cells throughout the body. Deficiency of Zn in humans has a profound effect on development and in adults later in life, particularly in the brain, where Zn deficiency is linked to several neurological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the importance of Zn during development through a description of the outcomes of both genetic and early dietary Zn deficiency, focusing on the pathological consequences on the whole body and brain. The epidemiology and the symptomology of Zn deficiency in humans will be described, including the most studied inherited Zn deficiency disease, Acrodermatitis enteropathica. In addition, we will give an overview of the different forms and animal models of Zn deficiency, as well as the 24 Zn transporters, distributed into two families: the ZIPs and the ZnTs, which control the balance of Zn throughout the body. Lastly, we will describe the TRPM7 ion channel, which was recently shown to contribute to intestinal Zn absorption and has its own significant impact on early embryonic development.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122526
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2527: Long Term Physical Activity Improves
           Quality of Life Perception, Healthy Nutrition, and Daily Life Management
           in Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Giovanni Fiorilli, Andrea Buonsenso, Marco Centorbi, Giuseppe Calcagno, Enzo Iuliano, Antonella Angiolillo, Santina Ciccotelli, Alessandra di Cagno, Alfonso Di Costanzo
      First page: 2527
      Abstract: Physical activity (PA) is a key element in the management of successful aging. The aim of this paper was to show the effects of PA on the quality of life perception, nutritional status, and daily life management of 178 older adults (aged 63.87 ± 8.17) randomly assigned to an Experimental Group (EG), which performed moderate-to-high intensity aerobic and strengthening training, and a Control Group (CG) which performed low-impact PA, assessed after 6, 12, and 24 months. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were used for the study. In the SF-36 assessment, EG showed a good quality of life perception maintained after 24 months, while CG showed a worsening in the same period (p = 0.018). The EG reported a significant better nutritional status as compared to pre-intervention assessment (p = 0.003) and to CG (p < 0.001). Regarding the PASE, the EG showed a higher level of weekly activities than the CG after 24 months (p = 0.011), while the CG showed a worsening after 12 months (p = 0.008). The prolonged engagement in moderate-to high-intensity PA allowed the maintenance of a good quality of life perception, a good level of nutritional status, and daily life activities.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122527
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2528: Faecal Microbiota Transplantation and
           Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Authors: Ji Bian, Ann Liebert, Brian Bicknell, Xin-Ming Chen, Chunling Huang, Carol A. Pollock
      First page: 2528
      Abstract: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted increasing attention as an intervention in many clinical conditions, including autoimmune, enteroendocrine, gastroenterological, and neurological diseases. For years, FMT has been an effective second-line treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with beneficial outcomes. FMT is also promising in improving bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that this microbiota-based intervention may influence the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) via modifying a dysregulated gut–kidney axis. Despite the high morbidity and mortality due to CKD, there are limited options for treatment until end-stage kidney disease occurs, which results in death, dialysis, or kidney transplantation. This imposes a significant financial and health burden on the individual, their families and careers, and the health system. Recent studies have suggested that strategies to reverse gut dysbiosis using FMT are a promising therapy in CKD. This review summarises the preclinical and clinical evidence and postulates the potential therapeutic effect of FMT in the management of CKD.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122528
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2529: Arabinoxylan-Based Microcapsules Being
           Loaded with Bee Products as Bioactive Food Components Are Able to Modulate
           the Cell Migration and Inflammatory Response—In Vitro Study

    • Authors: Gabriela Kowalska, Justyna Rosicka-Kaczmarek, Karolina Miśkiewicz, Małgorzata Zakłos-Szyda, Sascha Rohn, Clemens Kanzler, Magdalena Wiktorska, Jolanta Niewiarowska
      First page: 2529
      Abstract: The aim of the research was to use bioactive heteropolysaccharides isolated from rye bran to obtain innovative systems for the controlled release of bioactive compounds. The core of the obtained encapsulates was honey and royal jelly. It was shown for the first time that preparations effectively ameliorated inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, decreasing the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). The in vitro digestion process revealed that bee products’ encapsulates were stronger oxidative stress reducers and had sustained ability to reduction in inflammation state mediators. The lack of inhibitory effect on migration rate of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) endothelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH-3T3), both cell models involved in wound healing process, additionally identified these preparations as agents potentially used in the management of inflammatory response. In the process of a simulated digestion in vitro, the innovative microcapsules showed 85% higher biostability and two to ten times better bioavailability, compared to natural bee products.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122529
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2530: Ferulic Acid Prevents Nonalcoholic Fatty
           Liver Disease by Promoting Fatty Acid Oxidation and Energy Expenditure in
           C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    • Authors: Zhixin Luo, Mengqian Li, Qiong Yang, Yuhong Zhang, Fang Liu, Lan Gong, Lin Han, Min Wang
      First page: 2530
      Abstract: There is a consensus that ferulic acid (FA), the most prominent phenolic acid in whole grains, displays a protective effect in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), though its underlying mechanism not fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of FA on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice and its potential mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were divided into the control diet (CON) group, the HFD group, and the treatment (HFD+FA) group, fed with an HFD and FA (100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Oil Red O staining were used to evaluate liver tissue pathological changes and lipid accumulation respectively. It was demonstrated that FA supplementation prevented HFD-induced NAFLD, which was evidenced by the decreased accumulation of lipid and hepatic steatosis in the HFD+FA group. Specifically, FA supplementation decreased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) content by 33.5% (p < 0.01). Metabolic cage studies reveal that FA-treated mice have elevated energy expenditure by 11.5% during dark phases. Mechanistically, FA treatment increases the expression of rate-limiting enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body biosynthesis CPT1A, ACOX1 and HMGCS2, which are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPARα) targets in liver. In conclusion, FA could effectively prevent HFD-induced NAFLD possibly by activating PPARα to increase energy expenditure and decrease the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122530
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2531: Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Food Pantry
           Use and Barriers in Massachusetts during the First Year of the COVID-19

    • Authors: James P. Marriott, Lauren Fiechtner, Nick W. Birk, Daniel Taitelbaum, Angela Odoms-Young, Norbert L. Wilson, Lauren A. Clay, Rachel M. Zack
      First page: 2531
      Abstract: This study sought to describe racial disparities in food insecurity, food pantry use, and barriers to and experiences with food pantries during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We surveyed 2928 adults in Massachusetts regarding food access in the year before and during the first year of the pandemic. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models assessed racial differences in barriers to and experiences with pantry use during the pandemic. Black and Latino adults experienced the highest prevalence of food insecurity and pantry use. Additionally, Black and Latino adults reported more barriers to, but less stigma around, pantry use compared to White adults. Latino adults were less likely to know about pantry hours/locations and encounter staff who spoke their language. Black and Latino adults were also more likely to find pantry hours/locations inconvenient and have difficulty with transportation. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased food insecurity, and food access inequities persisted. Programmatic policies to improve pantry access in communities of color could include increasing the hours/days that pantries are open, increasing bilingual staff, providing transportation or delivery, and creating multilingual public awareness campaigns on how to locate pantries.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122531
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2532: Management of Central Venous Catheters in
           Children and Adults on Home Parenteral Nutrition: A French Survey of
           Current Practice

    • Authors: Julien Gotchac, Florian Poullenot, Dominique Guimber, Emmanuelle Ecochard-Dugelay, Stéphane Schneider, Noël Peretti, Lore Billiauws, Corinne Borderon, Anne Breton, Emilie Chaillou Legault, Cécile Chambrier, Aurélie Comte, Marie-Edith Coste, Djamal Djeddi, Béatrice Dubern, Claire Dupont, Lucile Espeso, Philippe Fayemendy, Nicolas Flori, Ginette Fotsing, Swellen Gastineau, Olivier Goulet, Emeline Guiot, Adam Jirka, Jeanne Languepin, Sabrina Layec, Didier Quilliot, Laurent Rebouissoux, David Seguy, Isabelle Talon, Anne Turquet, Marjolaine Vallee, Stéphanie Willot, Thierry Lamireau, Raphael Enaud
      First page: 2532
      Abstract: Although central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis (CRT) is a severe complication of home parenteral nutrition (HPN), the amount and quality of data in the diagnosis and management of CRT remain low. We aimed to describe current practices regarding CVC management in French adult and pediatric HPN centers, with a focus on CVC obstruction and CRT. Current practices regarding CVC management in patients on HPN were collected by an online-based cross-sectional survey sent to expert physicians of French HPN centers. We compared these practices to published guidelines and searched for differences between pediatric and adult HPN centers’ practices. Finally, we examined the heterogeneity of practices in both pediatric and adult HPN centers. The survey was completed by 34 centers, including 21 pediatric and 13 adult centers. We found a considerable heterogeneity, especially in the responses of pediatric centers. On some points, the centers’ responses differed from the current guidelines. We also found significant differences between practices in adult and pediatric centers. We conclude that the management of CVC and CRT in patients on HPN is a serious and complex situation for which there is significant heterogeneity between HPN centers. These findings highlight the need for more well-designed clinical trials in this field.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122532
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2533: Validation of the Italian Version of the
           SARC-F Questionnaire to Assess Sarcopenia in Older Adults

    • Authors: Simone Perna, Clara Gasparri, Cinzia Ferraris, Gaetan Claude Barrile, Alessandro Cavioni, Francesca Mansueto, Zaira Patelli, Gabriella Peroni, Alice Tartara, Marco Zese, Mariangela Rondanelli
      First page: 2533
      Abstract: Background: SARC-F is a simple sarcopenia screening tool. This study aimed to examine the validity of the Italian version of SARC-F. Methods: A total of 97 elderly individuals (37/60 males/females, 65 years and older) who met the study’s selection criteria were included. SARC-F was translated into the Italian language in a culturally responsive manner. The total score was calculated by adding the scores on the five items. The participants were divided into two groups according to the total score (SARC-F < 4 vs. SARC-F ≥ 4), and their associations with various factors (handgrip test, chair stand test, and Skeletal Muscle Index assessed by DXA) have been examined by gender. In addition, the tool’s validity was analyzed by comparing it with different international working group diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Results: The total prevalence of sarcopenia according to the SARC-F was 14.2% and, specifically, 12.8% among men and 14.3% in women. The sensitivity of the SARC-F was (male (M): 11–50% and female (F): 22–36%) medium-low compared with the European, international, and Asian criteria of sarcopenia; however, SARC-F showed a high specificity (M: 77.3–100% and F: 79.5–100%) and a moderate Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of (0.669 (CI95%: 0.358–0.830). The participants in the SARC-F ≥ 4 group had poorer handgrip for EWGSOP2 (p < 0.001) and chair stand (p < 0.001) than the participants in the SARC-F < 4 group. Conclusions: The Italian language version of SARC-F showed high specificity, moderate reliability, and good associations with other predictive tests. The Italian version of SARC-F appears to be a useful screening tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in Italian elderly populations.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122533
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2534: Immune System and Psychological State of
           Pregnant Women during COVID-19 Pandemic: Are Micronutrients Able to
           Support Pregnancy'

    • Authors: Alessio Alesci, Simona Pergolizzi, Angelo Fumia, Anthea Miller, Caterina Cernigliaro, Maria Zaccone, Vanessa Salamone, Enza Mastrantonio, Sebastiano Gangemi, Giovanni Pioggia, Nicola Cicero
      First page: 2534
      Abstract: The immune system is highly dynamic and susceptible to many alterations throughout pregnancy. Since December 2019, a pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has swept the globe. To contain the spread of COVID-19, immediate measures such as quarantine and isolation were implemented. These containment measures have contributed to exacerbate situations of anxiety and stress, especially in pregnant women, who are already particularly anxious about their condition. Alterations in the psychological state of pregnant women are related to alterations in the immune system, which is more vulnerable under stress. COVID-19 could therefore find fertile soil in these individuals and risk more severe forms. Normally a controlled dietary regimen is followed during pregnancy, but the use of particular vitamins and micronutrients can help counteract depressive-anxiety states and stress, can improve the immune system, and provide an additional weapon in the defense against COVID-19 to bring the pregnancy to fruition. This review aims to gather data on the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system and psychological condition of pregnant women and to assess whether some micronutrients can improve their psychophysical symptoms.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122534
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2535: Exploring the Barriers and Motivators to
           Dietary Adherence among Caregivers of Children with Disorders of Amino
           Acid Metabolism (AAMDs): A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Jing Ying Lim, Roslee Rajikan, Noh Amit, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Haslina Abdul Hamid, Huey Yin Leong, Maslina Mohamad, Bi Qi Koh, Aini Musa
      First page: 2535
      Abstract: Dietary intervention is generally accepted as the mainstay of treatment for patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism (AAMDs). However, dietary adherence to a low-protein diet is always reported as a common challenge among these patients. This study explored the perception of barriers and motivators to dietary adherence among caregivers of AAMD patients in Malaysia. Twenty caregivers of children with AAMDs receiving ongoing treatment at the genetic clinic participated in an online focus group discussion from November to December 2021. Findings showed a total of five interrelated main themes identified from focus group discussion (FGD) exploring parents’ experiences related to the management of their child’s daily diet. The barriers to dietary adherence were burden of dietary treatment, diet and dietary behavior, parenting challenges, limited knowledge related to dietary treatment, and challenges in healthcare system delivery. Key factors facilitating good dietary adherence include good knowledge of dietary treatment, parental coping strategies, social coping, and dietary behavior. In conclusion, despite the existence of several barriers to the implementation of dietary treatment, caregivers managed to use a wide range of coping strategies to overcome some, if not all, of the challenges. The important next step is to develop, in conjunction with multidisciplinary healthcare professionals, feasible implementation strategies that could address these barriers and at the same time improve the quality of life of caregivers.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122535
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2536: Intermittent Fasting: Potential Utility in
           the Treatment of Chronic Pain across the Clinical Spectrum

    • Authors: Jesse P. Caron, Margaret Ann Kreher, Angela M. Mickle, Stanley Wu, Rene Przkora, Irene M. Estores, Kimberly T. Sibille
      First page: 2536
      Abstract: Dietary behavior can have a consequential and wide-ranging influence on human health. Intermittent fasting, which involves intermittent restriction in energy intake, has been shown to have beneficial cellular, physiological, and system-wide effects in animal and human studies. Despite the potential utility in preventing, slowing, and reversing disease processes, the clinical application of intermittent fasting remains limited. The health benefits associated with the simple implementation of a 12 to 16 h fast suggest a promising role in the treatment of chronic pain. A literature review was completed to characterize the physiologic benefits of intermittent fasting and to relate the evidence to the mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Research on different fasting regimens is outlined and an overview of research demonstrating the benefits of intermittent fasting across diverse health conditions is provided. Data on the physiologic effects of intermittent fasting are summarized. The physiology of different pain states is reviewed and the possible implications for intermittent fasting in the treatment of chronic pain through non-invasive management, prehabilitation, and rehabilitation following injury and invasive procedures are presented. Evidence indicates the potential utility of intermittent fasting in the comprehensive management of chronic pain and warrants further investigation.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122536
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2537: Early and Strong Leptin Reduction Is
           Predictive for Long-Term Weight Loss during High-Protein, Low-Glycaemic
           Meal Replacement—A Subanalysis of the Randomised-Controlled ACOORH

    • Authors: Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling, Winfried Banzer, Klaus Michael Braumann, Martin Halle, Nina Schaller, David McCarthy, Hans Georg Predel, Isabelle Schenkenberger, Susanne Tan, Hermann Toplak, Stephan Martin, Aloys Berg, ACOORH Study Group ACOORH Study Group
      First page: 2537
      Abstract: Lifestyle interventions including meal replacement are suitable for prevention and treatment of obesity and type-2-diabetes. Since leptin is involved in weight regulation, we hypothesised that a meal replacement-based lifestyle intervention would reduce leptin levels more effectively than lifestyle intervention alone. In the international, multicentre, randomised-controlled ACOORH-trial (Almased-Concept-against-Overweight-and-Obesity-and-Related- Health-Risk), overweight or obese participants with metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 463) were randomised into two groups and received telemonitoring devices and nutritional advice. The intervention group additionally used a protein-rich, low-glycaemic meal replacement. Data were collected at baseline, after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. All datasets providing leptin data (n = 427) were included in this predefined subanalysis. Serum leptin levels significantly correlated with sex, body mass index, weight, and fat mass at baseline (p < 0.0001). Stronger leptin reduction has been observed in the intervention compared to the control group with the lowest levels after 1 month of intervention (estimated treatment difference −3.4 µg/L [1.4; 5.4] for females; −2.2 µg/L [1.2; 3.3] for males; p < 0.001 each) and was predictive for stronger reduction of body weight and fat mass (p < 0.001 each) over 12 months. Strongest weight loss was observed after 6 months (−5.9 ± 5.1 kg in females of the intervention group vs. −2.9 ± 4.9 kg in the control group (p < 0.0001); −6.8 ± 5.3 kg vs. −4.1 ± 4.4 kg (p = 0.003) in males) and in those participants with combined leptin and insulin decrease. A meal replacement-based lifestyle intervention effectively reduces leptin which is predictive for long-term weight loss.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122537
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2538: Calcium Supplementation, Risk of
           Cardiovascular Diseases, and Mortality: A Real-World Study of the Korean
           National Health Insurance Service Data

    • Authors: Jae-Min Park, Bora Lee, Young-Sang Kim, Kyung-Won Hong, Yon Chul Park, Dong Hyeok Shin, Yonghwan Kim, Kunhee Han, Kwangyoon Kim, Junghwa Shin, Mina Kim, Bom-Taeck Kim
      First page: 2538
      Abstract: Few studies have investigated the effects of calcium supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with low calcium intake in real-world settings. This study examined the association between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes in the Korean population in a real-world setting. This large retrospective cohort study included patients aged ≥45 years first prescribed calcium supplements in 2010. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited among those who had no prescription for calcium supplements. Longitudinal data were collected on 31 December 2018. Kaplan–Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed. The cumulative incidence of acute myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and death was significantly higher in the calcium supplementation group than in the control group (p < 0.05 by log-rank test). The calcium supplementation group had a significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and death than the control group. Compared to the control group, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in the supplementation group were 1.14 (1.03–1.27), 1.12 (1.05–1.20), and 1.40 (1.32–1.50), respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables. Considering the associated cardiovascular risk, calcium supplementation for osteoporosis treatment should be administered cautiously.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122538
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2539: 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals the
           Intrinsic Interaction of Age, Plasma Signature Metabolites, and Nutrient
           Intake in the Longevity Population in Guangxi, China

    • Authors: He Li, Minhong Ren, Quanyang Li
      First page: 2539
      Abstract: Health and longevity populations have distinct metabolic and nutrient intake profiles. However, the relationship between biomarkers of longevity-related metabolites and dietary nutrient intake profiles, as well as metabolic markers associated with longevity features, have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based plasma metabolomics profiling was conducted in the present study to identify potential metabolites which can be used as specific markers for the evaluation of healthy aging. Plasma samples were obtained from centenarians and nonagenarians from the longevous region, and elderly participants aged 60–89 from the longevous region, as well as a low centenarian ratio region. The results showed that participants from longevous regions exhibited higher plasma levels of citrate, tyrosine, choline, carnitine, and valine, as well as lower contents of VLDL, lactate, alanine, N-acetyl glycoprotein (NAG), trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), α-glucose, β-glucose, and unsaturated lipids. The differential plasma metabolites were associated with an alteration in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis in participants from longevous regions. The signature metabolites were associated with higher dietary fiber intake, as well as lower energy and fat intake. The results of the present study demonstrate key longevity signature metabolites in plasma, and the dietary patterns identified provide a basis for further health and longevity research.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122539
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2540: Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge,
           Attitudes and Practices of Food Service Staff in Bangladeshi Hospitals: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Md. Hasan Al Banna, Md Shafiqul Islam Khan, Humayra Rezyona, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Mohammad Tazrian Abid, Tasnu Ara, Satyajit Kundu, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, John Elvis Hagan; Jr., Md. Abu Tareq, Musammet Rasheda Begum, Mohammad Faizul Tawhid Chowdhury, Thomas Schack
      First page: 2540
      Abstract: Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among hospital food service staff are crucial in the prevention of foodborne disease outbreaks, as hospitalized patients are more vulnerable to potential hazards. This study, therefore, sought to assess the food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of food service staff in Bangladeshi hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 191 food service staff from seven different hospitals in Dhaka and Chattogram from October 2021 to March 2022 using pretested questionnaires. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors associated with the food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. The findings showed moderate knowledge but high levels of attitudes and practices of food safety among hospital food handlers. Food safety knowledge was significantly higher among males, participants from private hospitals and participants working in a hospital that had a food service supervisor and dietitian in charge of food service operations. Moreover, participants from private hospitals and participants working in a hospital that had a food service supervisor and dietitian in charge of food service operations had more positive attitudes and better practices regarding food safety. Hospital management should consider these factors for enhancing food handlers’ knowledge and increase training and supervision on food safety practices to reduce foodborne diseases and outbreaks.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122540
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2541: The Impact of Dietary Counselling on
           Achieving or Maintaining Normal Nutritional Status in Patients with Early
           and Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Undergoing Perioperative Chemotherapy

    • Authors: Magdalena Jodkiewicz, Agnieszka Jagiełło-Gruszfeld, Agnieszka Surwiłło-Snarska, Beata Kotowicz, Małgorzata Fuksiewicz, Maria Małgorzata Kowalska
      First page: 2541
      Abstract: Background: Obesity is an independent prognostic factor and is associated with poorer response to oncological treatment of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with shorter overall survival and shorter time to recurrence. Material and methods: The study included 104 breast cancer patients qualified for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The control group consisted of 40 patients who refused to participate in the study. Consultation before chemotherapy included: author’s diet questionnaire, body composition analysis, nutrition education. After chemotherapy, the effects of the first dietary advice were evaluated. Results: More than half of all women had a BMI above normal before treatment. Analysis of the effects of nutrition education showed a significant improvement in body composition. After education, a slight increase in body weight and a significant decrease in fat mass and fat percentage were observed. In women who did not participate in education, a statistically significantly greater increase in body weight after chemotherapy was noted. Nutrition education of the study group did not prevent adverse changes in lipid profile resulting from chemotherapy. Conclusions: Dietary counselling prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may limit weight gain and may also influence fat mass reduction. Implementation of dietary recommendations does not guarantee maintenance of normal lipid parameters during chemotherapy.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122541
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2542: The Associations of Maternal Hemoglobin
           Concentration in Different Time Points and Its Changes during Pregnancy
           with Birth Weight Outcomes

    • Authors: Zhicheng Peng, Shuting Si, Haoyue Cheng, Haibo Zhou, Peihan Chi, Minjia Mo, Yan Zhuang, Hui Liu, Yunxian Yu
      First page: 2542
      Abstract: Maternal hemoglobin (Hb) is related to nutritional status, which affects neonatal birth weight. However, it is very common for maternal Hb to fluctuate during pregnancy. To evaluate the associations of maternal Hb in different time points and its changes during pregnancy with neonatal birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA)/low birth weight (LBW) and large for gestational age (LGA)/macrosomia, we conducted this study by using data from the Electronic Medical Record System (EMRS) database of Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital in Zhejiang province, China. The pregnancy was divided into five periods: first, early-second, mediate-second, late-second, early-third and late-third trimesters; we further calculated the maternal Hb changes during pregnancy. Overall, the socio-demographic characteristics, health-related information and childbirth-related information of 24,183 mother–infant pairs were obtained. The average Hb concentration during the different periods were 123.95 ± 10.14, 117.95 ± 9.84, 114.31 ± 9.03, 113.26 ± 8.82, 113.29 ± 8.68 and 115.01 ± 8.85 g/L, respectively. Significant dose–response relationships between maternal Hb and birth weight were observed in the first, late-second and later trimesters (p non-linear < 0.05). Maternal Hb < 100 g/L was related to a high risk of LGA/macrosomia in the late-second (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.83) and later trimesters; additionally, high maternal Hb (>140 g/L) increased the risk of SGA/LBW in the first (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.57) and late-third trimesters (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.18). In addition, the increase in maternal Hb from the late-second to late-third trimesters had a positive correlation with SGA/LBW. In conclusion, maternal Hb markedly fluctuated during pregnancy; the negative dose–response association of maternal Hb in the late-second and third trimesters, and Hb change during pregnancy with neonatal birth weight outcomes were observed, respectively. Furthermore, the phenomenon of high Hb in the first trimester and after the late-second trimester and the increase of maternal Hb from the late-second to late-third trimesters more significantly increasing the risk of SGA/LBW should especially be given more attention. Its biological mechanism needs to be further explored.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122542
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2543: Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve MCC1274

    • Authors: Mona Abdelhamid, Chunyu Zhou, Cha-Gyun Jung, Makoto Michikawa
      First page: 2543
      Abstract: Probiotics improve brain function, including memory and cognition, via the microbiome–gut–brain axis. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve MCC1274 (B. breve MCC1274) improves cognitive function in AppNL-G-F mice and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and mitigates Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like pathologies. However, its effects on wild-type (WT) mice have not yet been explored. Thus, the effects of B. breve MCC1274 on AD-like pathologies in two-month-old WT mice were investigated, which were orally administered B. breve MCC1274 for four months. Aβ levels, amyloid precursor protein (APP), APP processing enzymes, phosphorylated tau, synaptic protein levels, glial activity, and cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, and normality was tested using the Shapiro–Wilk test. Oral administration of B. breve MCC1274 in WT mice decreased soluble hippocampal Aβ42 levels by reducing presenilin1 protein levels, and reduced phosphorylated tau levels. It also activated the protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathway, which may be responsible for the reduction in presenilin1 levels and inhibition of tau phosphorylation. B. breve MCC1274 supplementation attenuated microglial activation and elevated synaptic protein levels in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that B. breve MCC1274 may mitigate AD-like pathologies in WT mice by decreasing Aβ42 levels, inhibiting tau phosphorylation, attenuating neuroinflammation, and improving synaptic protein levels.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122543
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2544: Comparison of Quality of Carbohydrate
           Metrics Related to Fasting Insulin, Glycosylated Hemoglobin and HOMA-IR in
           Brazilian Adolescents

    • Authors: Camilla Medeiros Macedo da Rocha, Vanessa Proêza Maciel Gama, Amanda de Moura Souza, Edna Massae Yokoo, Eliseu Verly Junior, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Rosely Sichieri
      First page: 2544
      Abstract: Low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets are effective for glycemic control (GC) associated with a carbohydrate-controlled meal plan. However, whether GI and GL peaks are related to GC is unknown. Objective: To compare the daily GI (DGI)/GL (DGL) and average GI (AvGI)/GL (AvGL) of meals (accounting for peaks) related to GC markers (GCM) in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A representative national school-based (public/private) sample of students without diabetes, 12–17 years of age, was evaluated. Food intake was based on a 24 h recall. The models for complex cluster sampling were adjusted (sex, sexual maturation, age, and physical activity). Results: Of 35,737 students, 74% were from public schools, 60% girls, 17% overweight, and 8% obese. The minimum DGI and DGL were observed at lunch, with higher values at night. Fasting insulin was 1.5 times higher in overweight/obese (OW) girls, and 1.7 times higher in OW boys than in normal-weight (NW) girls. The same trend was observed for the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OW = 2.82 vs. NW = 1.84 in girls; OW = 2.66 vs. NW = 1.54 in boys; p < 0.05). The daily and average metrics were greater for NW adolescents. Glycosylated hemoglobin was not associated with these metrics, except for AvGL. Insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with all metrics in NW adolescents, with greater coefficients associated with AvGL. Among overweight/obese adolescents, only GI metrics were associated (β = 0.23; AvGI and insulin) and appeared to have the best association with GCM. Conclusions: Among NW adolescents, GL is a better measure of carbohydrate quality, but for those with overweight/obesity, carbohydrate consumption is more associated with GC, probably because they eat/report small amounts of carbohydrates.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122544
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2545: Maternal One-Carbon Supplement Reduced the
           Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Offspring

    • Authors: Hui Peng, Huiting Xu, Jie Wu, Jiangyuan Li, Xian Wang, Zhimin Liu, Minjee Kim, Minsun S. Jeon, Ke K. Zhang, Linglin Xie
      First page: 2545
      Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that prevention of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) should start with maternal dietary management. We previously reported disrupted methionine cycle, associated with NAFLD, in male offspring liver due to maternal high-fat (HF) diet, thus we hypothesize that maternal one-carbon supplement may reduce the risk of NAFLD in offspring via the normalizing methionine cycle. To test it, female mice (F0) were exposed to either a maternal normal-fat diet (NF group) a maternal HF diet (HF group), or a maternal methyl donor supplement (H1S or H2S group) during gestation and lactation. The offspring male mice (F1) were exposed to a postweaning HF diet to promote NAFLD. While the HF offspring displayed obesity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis, the H1S and H2S offspring avoided hepatic steatosis. This phenotype was associated with the normalization of the methionine cycle and the restoration of L-carnitine and AMPK activity. Furthermore, maternal HF diet induced epigenetic regulation of important genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation via DNA methylation modifications, which were recovered by maternal one-carbon supplementation. Our study provides evidence that maternal one-carbon supplement can reverse/block the adverse effects of maternal HF diet on promoting offspring NAFLD, suggesting a potential nutritional strategy that is administered to mothers to prevent NAFLD in the offspring.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122545
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2546: Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Lactose
           Differentially Affect Infant Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Barrier In

    • Authors: Jane Mea Natividad, Benoît Marsaux, Clara Lucia Garcia Rodenas, Andreas Rytz, Gies Vandevijver, Massimo Marzorati, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Marta Calatayud, Florence Rochat
      First page: 2546
      Abstract: Background: The infant gut microbiota establishes during a critical window of opportunity when metabolic and immune functions are highly susceptible to environmental changes, such as diet. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for instance are suggested to be beneficial for infant health and gut microbiota. Infant formulas supplemented with the HMOs 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) reduce infant morbidity and medication use and promote beneficial bacteria in the infant gut ecosystem. To further improve infant formula and achieve closer proximity to human milk composition, more complex HMO mixtures could be added. However, we currently lack knowledge about their effects on infants’ gut ecosystems. Method: We assessed the effect of lactose, 2′-FL, 2′-FL + LNnT, and a mixture of six HMOs (HMO6: consisting of 2′-FL, LNnT, difucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose) on infant gut microbiota and intestinal barrier integrity using a combination of in vitro models to mimic the microbial ecosystem (baby M-SHIME®) and the intestinal epithelium (Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture). Results: All the tested products had bifidogenic potential and increased SCFA levels; however, only the HMOs’ fermented media protected against inflammatory intestinal barrier disruption. 2′-FL/LNnT and HMO6 promoted the highest diversification of OTUs within the Bifidobactericeae family, whereas beneficial butyrate-producers were specifically enriched by HMO6. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased complexity in HMO mixture composition may benefit the infant gut ecosystem, promoting different bifidobacterial communities and protecting the gut barrier against pro-inflammatory imbalances.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122546
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2547: Characterization of Buriti (Mauritia
           flexuosa) Pulp Oil and the Effect of Its Supplementation in an In Vivo
           Experimental Model

    • Authors: Gabriela Marcelino, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Arnildo Pott, Wander Fernando de Oliveira Filiú, Anderson R. L. Caires, Flavio S. Michels, Mário R. Maróstica Júnior, Nathalia M. S. Santos, Ângela A. Nunes, Lincoln C. S. Oliveira, Mário R. Cortes, Iriani R. Maldonade, Leandro F. Cavalheiro, Carlos Eduardo Domingues Nazário, Lidiani Figueiredo Santana, Carolina Di Pietro Fernandes, Fábio Juliano Negrão, Mariana Bento Tatara, Bernardo Bacelar de Faria, Marcel Arakaki Asato, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Danielle Bogo, Valter Aragão do Nascimento, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães
      First page: 2547
      Abstract: Mauritia flexuosa (Buriti) pulp oil contains bioactive substances and lipids that are protective against cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. We performed physical and chemical analyses to verify its quality and stability. Buriti oil was stable according to the Rancimat test, presenting an induction period of 6.6 h. We evaluated the effect of supplementation with crude buriti oil and olive oil on metabolic parameters in 108 Swiss mice for 90 days. We investigated six groups: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) 1 and 2 (1000 and 2000 mg/kg), buriti oil (BO) 1 and 2 (1000 and 2000 mg/kg), synergic (S) (BO1 + EVOO1), and control (water dose 1000 mg/kg). The animals were euthanized to examine their blood, livers, and fats. The supplementation did not interfere with food consumption, weight gain, and histological alterations in the liver. Group S showed the strongest relationship with the fractions HDL-c and non-HDL-c, indicating a possible cardioprotective effect. Moreover, we observed significantly higher IL-6 levels in the control, EVOO2, and BO1 groups than in the EVOO1 group. Resistin was also significantly higher for the synergic treatment than for the control. We conclude that BO combined with EVOO could be an excellent food supplement for human consumption.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122547
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2548: The Effects of Eggs in a Plant-Based Diet
           on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Metabolic Syndrome

    • Authors: Minu S. Thomas, Lindsey Huang, Chelsea Garcia, Junichi R. Sakaki, Christopher N. Blesso, Ock K. Chun, Maria Luz Fernandez
      First page: 2548
      Abstract: We recently reported that the inclusion of whole eggs in plant-based diets (PBD) increased plasma choline, lutein, and zeaxanthin in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether this dietary pattern would protect against oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, two common characteristics of MetS. We recruited 24 men and women with MetS, who, after following a PBD for 2 weeks (baseline), were randomly allocated to consume either two whole eggs with 70 g of spinach/day (EGG) or the equivalent amount of egg substitute with spinach (SUB) as breakfast for 4 weeks. After a 3-week washout, they were allocated to the alternate breakfast. We measured biomarkers of oxidation and inflammation at baseline and at the end of each intervention. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, monocyte protein attractant-1, liver enzymes, and C-reactive protein, as well as total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity, and other biomarkers of oxidation were not different at the end of EGG or SUB or when compared to baseline. However, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) during the EGG and baseline compared to SUB. In addition, the increases in dietary lutein and zeaxanthin previously observed had a strong positive correlation with PON-1 activity (r = 0.522, p < 0.01) only during the EGG period, whereas plasma zeaxanthin was negatively correlated with MDA (r = −0.437, p < 0.01). The number of participants with MetS was reduced from 24 during screening to 21, 13, and 17 during the BL, EGG, and SUB periods, respectively, indicating that eggs were more effective in reversing the characteristics of MetS. These data suggest that adding eggs to a PBD does not detrimentally affect inflammation or oxidative stress; on the contrary, eggs seem to provide additional protection against the biomarkers that define MetS.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122548
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2549: Ameliorative Effects of Gut Microbial
           Metabolite Urolithin A on Pancreatic Diseases

    • Authors: Kailin Li, Yao Xiao, Ji Bian, Lin Han, Caian He, Emad El-Omar, Lan Gong, Min Wang
      First page: 2549
      Abstract: Urolithin A (Uro A) is a dietary metabolite of the intestinal microbiota following the ingestion of plant-based food ingredients ellagitannins and ellagic acid in mammals. Accumulating studies have reported its multiple potential health benefits in a broad range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, cognitive impairment, and diabetes. In particular, Uro A is safe via direct oral administration and is non-genotoxic. The pancreas plays a central role in regulating energy consumption and metabolism by secreting digestive enzymes and hormones. Numerous pathophysiological factors, such as inflammation, deficits of mitophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, can negatively affect the pancreas, leading to pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies showed that Uro A activates autophagy and inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pancreas, thus decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the knowledge of Uro A metabolism and biological activity in the gut, as well as the pathological features and mechanisms of common pancreatic diseases. Importantly, we focus on the potential activities of Uro A and the underlying mechanisms in ameliorating various pancreatic diseases via inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways, activating autophagy, maintaining the mitochondrial function, and improving the immune microenvironment. It might present a novel nutritional strategy for the intervention and prevention of pancreatic diseases.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122549
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2550: Fluoride Content of Matcha Tea Depending
           on Leaf Harvest Time and Brewing Conditions

    • Authors: Karolina Jakubczyk, Alicja Ligenza, Izabela Gutowska, Katarzyna Janda-Milczarek
      First page: 2550
      Abstract: Matcha, or powdered green tea (Camellia sinensis) of the Tencha type, is popular all around the world, and its consumption continues to rise. Because of its unique cultivation method, it is rich in phytochemicals and has many health-promoting properties; it contains high concentrations of polyphenols, theanine and chlorophyll. Tea, and by extension matcha, contains numerous minerals, one of which is fluorine. Under physiological conditions, this mineral plays a significant role in hard tissue mineralisation processes. However, even in low concentrations, with prolonged exposure, fluoride can accumulate in the body, leading to a number of harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the fluoride content of the matcha infusions from different harvests, brewed using water at different temperatures (25 °C, 70 °C, 80 °C and 90 °C). The content of fluoride ions was measured by the potentiometric method. The fluoride content ranged from 3.36 to 4.03 mg/L and was dependent on both the leaf harvest time and brewing temperature. The concentration of this mineral in the dry powder ranged from 118.39 to 121.65 mg/kg. Irrespective of the water temperature or harvest time, matcha was found to have a high fluoride content, with particularly high concentrations being noted in the powder itself.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122550
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2551: The Association between Dietary Patterns
           and Pre-Pregnancy BMI with Gestational Weight Gain: The “Born in
           Shenyang” Cohort

    • Authors: Jiajin Hu, Ming Gao, Yanan Ma, Ningyu Wan, Yilin Liu, Borui Liu, Lin Li, Yang Yu, Yang Liu, Bohan Liu, Deliang Wen
      First page: 2551
      Abstract: The reported associations of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy with gestational weight gain are inconsistent, especially among the less studied Asian Chinese populations. In a prospective pre-birth cohort study conducted in northern China, we determined the associations between maternal dietary patterns and the probability of excess gestational weight gain (EGWG) among 1026 pregnant women. We used 3-day food diaries to assess maternal diet and performed principal component analysis to identify dietary patterns. Maternal adherence to a traditional pattern, which was characterized by a higher intake of tubers, vegetables, fruits, red meat, and rice, was associated with a higher probability of EGWG (quartile 3 vs. quartile 1, odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10−2.38). This risk association was more pronounced among women who were overweight/obese before pregnancy (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, OR = 5.17, 95% CI = 1.45–18.46; p for interaction < 0.01). Maternal adherence to a high protein pattern, which was characterized by a higher intake of fried foods, beans and bean products, dairy products, and fruits, was associated with a lower risk of EGWG (quartile 3 vs. quartile 1, OR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.39−0.81). The protective association was more pronounced among non-overweight/obese women (p for interaction < 0.01). These findings may help to develop interventions and better define target populations for EGWG prevention.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122551
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2552: Cuffless and Touchless Measurement of
           Blood Pressure from Ballistocardiogram Based on a Body Weight Scale

    • Authors: Shing-Hong Liu, Bing-Hao Zhang, Wenxi Chen, Chun-Hung Su, Chiun-Li Chin
      First page: 2552
      Abstract: Currently, in terms of reducing the infection risk of the COVID-19 virus spreading all over the world, the development of touchless blood pressure (BP) measurement has potential benefits. The pulse transit time (PTT) has a high relation with BP, which can be measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The ballistocardiogram (BCG) reflects the mechanical vibration (or displacement) caused by the heart contraction/relaxation (or heart beating), which can be measured from multiple degrees of the body. The goal of this study is to develop a cuffless and touchless BP-measurement method based on a commercial weight scale combined with a PPG sensor when measuring body weight. The proposed method was that the PTTBCG-PPGT was extracted from the BCG signal measured by a weight scale, and the PPG signal was measured from the PPG probe placed at the toe. Four PTT models were used to estimate BP. The reference method was the PTTECG-PPGF extracted from the ECG signal and PPG signal measured from the PPG probe placed at the finger. The standard BP was measured by an electronic blood pressure monitor. Twenty subjects were recruited in this study. By the proposed method, the root-mean-square error (ERMS) of estimated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are 6.7 ± 1.60 mmHg and 4.8 ± 1.47 mmHg, respectively. The correlation coefficients, r2, of the proposed model for the SBP and DBP are 0.606 ± 0.142 and 0.284 ± 0.166, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can serve for cuffless and touchless BP measurement.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122552
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2553: Eriodictyol Attenuates H2O2-Induced
           Oxidative Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts through Enhanced Capacity of
           Antioxidant Machinery

    • Authors: Visarut Buranasudja, Chawanphat Muangnoi, Kittipong Sanookpan, Hasseri Halim, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pornchai Rojsitthisak
      First page: 2553
      Abstract: Oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts is strongly correlated with the aging process of the skin. The application of natural compounds that can increase the ability of dermal fibroblasts to counteract oxidative stress is a promising approach to promote skin health and beauty. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid that exerts several pharmacological actions through its antioxidant properties. However, its protective effects on dermal fibroblasts have not yet been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether eriodictyol protects human dermal fibroblasts (BJ fibroblasts) from the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Eriodictyol pretreatment significantly prevented necrotic cell death caused by H2O2 exposure. In addition, the level of 2′,7′-dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein oxidation was decreased, and that of glutathione was maintained, indicating that the beneficial effects of eriodictyol against H2O2 were closely associated with oxidative-stress attenuation. Eriodictyol mediates its antioxidant effects on dermal fibroblasts against H2O2 through (i) the direct neutralization of reactive oxygen species; (ii) the enhancement of the activities of H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, including catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and (iii) the induction of the expressions of catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1 via the activation of the Nrf2 signaling system. These results support the potential application of eriodictyol as an ingredient in skincare products for cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical purposes.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122553
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2554: Relation of Dietary Patterns and
           Nutritional Profile to Hepatic Fibrosis in a Sample of Lebanese
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients

    • Authors: Nicole Fakhoury Sayegh, Gessica N. H. A. Heraoui, Hassan Younes, Lea Nicole Sayegh, Christa Boulos, Raymond Sayegh
      First page: 2554
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver injury worldwide. NAFLD can evolve into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the nutritional profile and dietary patterns of NAFLD Lebanese patients and to report the type of diet-related to the presence of hepatic fibrosis. We hypothesized that the traditional pattern was related to a low risk of fibrosis. This cross-sectional study included 320 eligible Lebanese NAFLD patients. Three dietary patterns were identified: the Traditional diet, the High Fruit diet, and the Westernized diet. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between high adherence to the traditional diet and absence of hepatic fibrosis with a decreased risk of 82%, p = 0.031 after adjusting for its covariables. Fruits were absent from this dietary pattern. Although our results pointed to a possible relationship between fibrosis in NAFLD patients and fruit intake, experimental studies are needed to show whether this is a causal relationship. However, the results obtained in this study may contribute to the planning of dietary interventions and recommendations and enable a better follow-up for NAFLD patients with fibrosis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122554
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
  • Nutrients, Vol. 14, Pages 2555: Inverse Association between Dietary Iron
           Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies of
           the Stop Consortium

    • Authors: Giulia Collatuzzo, Federica Teglia, Claudio Pelucchi, Eva Negri, Charles S. Rabkin, Linda M. Liao, Rashmi Sinha, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Nuno Lunet, Samantha Morais, Nuria Aragonés, Victor Moreno, Jesus Vioque, Manoli Garcia de la Hera, Mary H. Ward, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohammadreza Pakseresht, Raúl Ulises Hernández-Ramírez, Malaquias López-Cervantes, Rossella Bonzi, Michela Dalmartello, Shoichiro Tsugane, Akihisa Hidaka, M. Constanza Camargo, Maria Paula Curado, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Nadia Zubair, Carlo La Vecchia, Shailja Shah, Paolo Boffetta
      First page: 2555
      Abstract: Background: Inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the relationship between dietary iron intake and the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Methods: We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. Total dietary iron intake was derived from food frequency questionnaires combined with national nutritional tables. We derived the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for quartiles of dietary iron through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models. Secondary analyses stratified by sex, smoking status, caloric intake, anatomical subsite and histological type were performed. Results: Among 4658 cases and 12247 controls, dietary iron intake was inversely associated with GC (per quartile OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.93). Results were similar between cardia (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94) and non-cardia GC (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81–0.94), and for diffuse (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69–0.89) and intestinal type (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79–0.98). Iron intake exerted an independent effect from that of smoking and salt intake. Additional adjustment by meat and fruit/vegetable intake did not alter the results. Conclusions: Dietary iron is inversely related to GC, with no difference by subsite or histological type. While the results should be interpreted with caution, they provide evidence against a direct effect of iron in gastric carcinogenesis.
      Citation: Nutrients
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/nu14122555
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 12 (2022)
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