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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.898
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0921-9668 - ISSN (Online) 1573-9104
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Digestibility of Protein and Iron Availability from Enriched Legume
           Sprouts

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant ferritin is suggested as a good source of iron for human. Usually present in trace amounts, it was induced in legumes seeds by their sprouting in FeSO4 solution. Fortified sprouts were digested in the in vitro model of the human gastrointestinal tract. ~49% of lupine and ~ 45% of soy proteins were extracted into gastric fluid and next ~ 12% and only ~ 1% into intestine fluid from lupine and soybean, respectively. Gastric digestion released mainly ferrous iron (~ 85% from lupine and ~ 95% in soybean sprouts). Complexed iron constituted ~ 43% of total iron in intestine after lupine digestion and ~ 55% after soybean digestion. Intestine digestion doubled the total iron released from lupine sprouts (from ~ 21% up to 38%), while in soybean it increased from ~ 16% up to ~ 23%. Ferritin presence was confirmed by the specific antibodies in digestive fluids, but it is only partially extracted from sprouts during in vitro digestion.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
       
  • Phenolic Compounds from Sour Cherry Pomace: Microencapsulation, in Vitro
           Digestion, and Cell Growth Activities

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this work was the valorisation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pomace as a source of biologically active compounds. To formulate microcapsules, polyphenolic compounds were extracted and encapsulated with maltodextrin as wall material, by freeze-drying. An in vitro digestion study was carried out on obtained encapsulates but also on sour cherry pomace extract and sour cherry pomace freeze-dried powder. The results indicated that encapsulation, as well as freeze-drying, provided a good protective effect on bioactive compounds during digestion. Furthermore, the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities of encapsulates and sour cherry pomace extract were evaluated using breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cell lines, colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell lines, and noncancer cell line. Encapsulates and sour cherry pomace extract showed variable anti-proliferative activity towards all cell lines. Obtained results showed that encapsulation of sour cherry pomace could be useful for improving the stability of polyphenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract. The results highlight the bioactive potential of sour cherry pomace as a nutraceutical resource and the protective effects of microencapsulation on the digestion of bioactive compounds.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
       
  • Chronic Consumption of Trehalose Reduces Lifespan in Drosophila Model

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      Abstract: Abstract Trehalose has been widely used as a kind of food additives. But in recent years, with several new studies of trehalose, some harmful effects had also been found. Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model organism to explore whether trehalose affects the lifespan. The results showed that high concentrations of trehalose could significantly shorten the lifespan of female flies by 12.5%, when compared to controls.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Age-Dependent Prebiotic Effects of Soluble Corn Fiber in M-SHIME® Gut
           Microbial Ecosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Soluble corn fiber (SCF) has demonstrated prebiotic effects in clinical studies. Using an in vitro mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME®) model, the effects of SCF treatment on colonic microbiota composition and metabolic activity and on host-microbiome interactions were evaluated using fecal samples from healthy donors of different ages (baby [≤ 2 years], n = 4; adult [18–45 years], n = 2; elderly [70 years], n = 1). During the 3-week treatment period, M-SHIME® systems were supplemented with SCF daily (baby, 1.5, 3, or 4.5 g/d; adult, 3 or 8.5 g/d; and elderly, 8.5 g/d). M-SHIME® supernatants were evaluated for their effect on the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide. (LPS)-stimulated cells. Additionally, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and microbial community composition were assessed. In the baby and adult models, M-SHIME® supernatants from SCF treated vessels protected Caco-2 membrane integrity from LPS-induced damage. SCF treatment resulted in the expansion of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Bifidobacterial, as well as increased SCFA production in all age groups. SCF tended to have the greatest effect on propionate production. These findings demonstrate the prebiotic potential of SCF in babies, adults, and the elderly and provide insight into the mechanisms behind the observed prebiotic effects.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Functional Proteins from Biovalorization of Peanut Meal: Advances in
           Process Technology and Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract Environmental costs associated with meat production have necessitated researchers and food manufacturers to explore alternative sources of high-quality protein, especially from plant origin. Proteins from peanuts and peanut-by products are high-quality, matching industrial standards and nutritional requirements. This review contributes to recent developments in the production of proteins from peanut and peanut meal. Conventional processing techniques such as hot-pressing kernels, use of solvents in oil removal, and employing harsh acids and alkalis denature the protein and damage its functional properties, limiting its use in food formulations. Controlled hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis between 1 and 10%) using neutral and alkaline proteases can extract proteins and improve peanut proteins’ functional properties, including solubility, emulsification, and foaming activity. Peanut proteins can potentially be incorporated into meat analogues, bread, soups, confectionery, frozen desserts, and cakes. Recently, pretreatment techniques (microwave, ultrasound, high pressure, and atmospheric cold plasma) have been explored to enhance protein extraction and improve protein functionalities. However, most of the literature on physicochemical pretreatment techniques has been limited to the lab scale and has not been analysed at the pilot scale. Peanut-derived peptides also exhibit antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and anti-thrombotic properties. There exists a potential to incorporate these peptides into high-fat foods to retard oxidation. These peptides can also be consumed as dietary supplements for regulating blood pressure. Further research is required to analyse the sensory attributes and shelf lives of these novel products. In addition, animal models or clinical trials need to be conducted to validate these results on a larger scale.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • Optimal Hydrothermal Treatment of Sesame Seeds to Retain Most of the
           Nutrients

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      Abstract: Abstract Sesame oil is an important source of nutrients. Thus, there is a need to develop new technologies, which preserve the integrity of these substances in processed oil. The aim of the study was to outline the optimal hydrothermal treatment of sesame seeds, which would enable preserving its therapeutic properties. White sesame seeds were used as raw materials. They were treated with infrared radiation (900 watts per 1 m2), followed by hydrothermal treatment. Infrared treatment decreased the seed moisture content of 10-16% by 1.5-2.0 times. A range of important compounds was preserved after treatment, such as fatty acids (ranging from 5 to 45%, depending on the type of compound). The following fatty acids were found in the oil composition: linoleic (40-43%), palmitic (7%), stearic (5%), and oleic (43-45%). In addition, vitamin E was found (130 mg per 100 g). The oil can be stored for long periods as it contains trace amounts of water and dissolved oxygen.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
       
  • Assessment of the Bioaccessibility of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Flour and
           Its Use in Cracker Formulation

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, in vitro digestion of polyphenols of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) flour (OF) and the potential use of OF in cracker production were studied. The results showed that 21.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry matter (DM) of total polyphenol (TP), 28.15 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g DM of total flavonoid (TF) and 7709.13 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/100 g DM of antioxidant capacity (AC) were found in OF. The bioaccessibility and content of the OF polyphenols and their AC during in vitro digestion varied depending on the digestion stage. The stability of the OF polyphenols was higher in gastric stage (41.92%) than intestinal one (34.01%). OF was used to replace flour in the cracker formulation at the levels of 5, 10 and 15% (w/w) and increased the TP contents and AC of the crackers compared to the sample without OF (control). The addition of OF to the cracker dough increased the bioaccessibility of the cracker polyphenols. After digestion, bioaccessibilities of enriched crackers (107.90-126.81%) were found higher than that of control sample (93.73%). However, as the level of OF in cracker increased, bioaccessibility of polyphenols decreased. The results generally indicated that oleaster has a good potential for the enrichment of foods.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Quelites Consumed by
           Indigenous Communities in the Municipality of Juquila Vijanos, Sierra
           Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract The indigenous communities of Mexico have a long tradition of consuming quelites. In this research, eight species of quelites that are traditionally consumed by indigenous communities of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico, were characterized: Eryngium foetidum L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Calceolaria mexicana Benth., Andinocleome magnifica (Briq.) Iltis & Cochrane, Cleoserrata speciosa (Raf.) H.H. Iltis, Phytolacca icosandra L., Cestrum nocturnum L. and Solanum nigrescens M.Martens & Galeotti. The ethnobotanical information of these species was recorded and the proximate composition, mineral content, and total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. The antioxidant capacity of the samples was also investigated using ABTS (2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl), and ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) methods. Quelites are available in the dry and rainy season. Quelites were found to have low energy contents while being good sources of fiber, of which A. magnifica possessed the highest concentration (8.61 ± 0.35 g/100 g fresh weight FW). Quelites were also found to provide essential minerals, with the primary contributions being potassium (4097.35 ± 12.28 mg/100 g FW) in C. mexicana, calcium (2418.63 ± 22.91 mg/100 g FW) in S. nigrescens, magnesium (1021.83 ± 10.58 mg/100 g FW) in E. foetidum, among others. C. speciosa and C. mexicana exhibited the highest concentration of phenols and flavonoids, which were found to be associated with higher antioxidant capacity. The quelites analyzed in this study are a potential source of accessible, nutritious, and healthy food, and can potentially help improve food security and health.
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
       
  • Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Serotonin Content in Sea Buckthorn

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      Abstract: Plants growing in unfavorable environments, such as sea buckthorn, can have a high serotonin content. The potential of using different parts of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) as a natural source of serotonin was investigated. The feasibility of extracting serotonin hormone from the non-fruit parts of sea buckthorn is demonstrated. One- and two-year-old woody shoots were the best material for obtaining serotonin-containing raw product. Serotonin content in shoots of different sea buckthorn varieties growing in different regions and its dynamics during the vegetation period were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serotonin is a water-soluble substance prone to microbial degradation, so proper preparation of raw materials plays a very important role in preserving serotonin in plant samples. A method for serotonin extraction using preliminary mechanochemical treatment is presented: it consists in pre-grinding, followed by mechanical treatment of raw materials with 5% adipic acid in a semi-industrial centrifugal mill. The highest degree of serotonin extraction was achieved when using air circulation at a drying temperature of 60–80 °C; serotonin concentration decreased when temperature was further increased. Serotonin content depended on the place and time of harvesting, the method used for drying the branches, and the characteristics of the plant variety. The minimum serotonin concentration (29 mg/g dry basis) was observed during summer; the maximum concentration was observed during winter; the annual changes in concentration can be as significant as 10-fold. The possibility of industrial cultivation and harvesting of different sea buckthorn varieties was also considered. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-12-19
       
  • Crithmum maritimum Improves Sorafenib Sensitivity by Decreasing Lactic
           Acid Fermentation and Inducing a Pro-Hepatocyte Marker Profile in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Edible plants are gaining importance as an integrative therapy for many chronic diseases, including cancer. We first reported that the edible wild plant Crithmum maritimum L. inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by exerting a multitarget action on cellular metabolism and bioenergetic profile. Here, we show that Crithmum maritimum ethyl acetate extract significantly increases the responsiveness of HCC cells to the chemotherapeutic drug sorafenib by reducing lactic acid fermentation and inducing a pro-hepatocyte biomarker profile. Our findings strengthen the role of Crithmum maritimum L. as a valuable nutraceutical tool to support pharmacological therapeutic interventions in HCC.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16
       
  • Effects of Cold Pressed Chia Seed Oil Intake on Hematological and
           Biochemical Biomarkers in Both Normal and Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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      Abstract: Abstract Most of the studies on the beneficial effects of chia have been conducted with its seeds. There is less evidence about the effects of cold pressed chia seeds oil on hypercholesterolemia-induced alterations. Thus, this study investigated the effects of cold pressed chia seed oil supplementation on certain hematological and biochemical biomarkers in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty two male rabbits were assigned to four different groups and fed on: 1) a regular diet (CD), 2) CD supplemented with 10% chia oil, 3) CD supplemented with 1% cholesterol, 4) CD supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% chia oil. After six weeks of dietary interventions, mean arterial blood pressure and visceral fat were measured and blood samples were analyzed for lipid profiles and hematological parameters while erythrocyte membranes and retroperitoneal fat were analyzed for fatty acids composition and biochemical biomarkers. Dietary intervention with chia oil achieved control of the hypercholesterolemia-induced increase of mean arterial blood pressure, neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio, erythrocyte membrane fluidity, and improved erythrocyte morphological alterations. With regard to inflammatory biomarkers, chia oil supplementation reduced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios and arachidonic/linolenic fatty acids ratios both in erythrocytes and fat from normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The increase of linolenic fatty acid into the retroperitoneal fat was about 9 times higher than its respective controls. These results provide support for the potential health benefits of chia oil intake on hypercholesterolemia-associated clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
       
  • Intake of Soymilk-Okara Powder for 12 Weeks Decreases Body Fat and
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Okara is a by-product of soymilk manufacturing and a rich source of protein and dietary fiber. This study investigates whether dietary soymilk-okara powder intake in the long term affects the body composition and gut microbiota flora in healthy Japanese adults. In total, 46 subjects (43 women) were enrolled. All subjects ingested 15 g of soymilk-okara powder every day for 12 weeks. Subjects’ body composition was assessed over four weeks. At baseline and after intervention for 12 weeks, fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota percentages were measured. The body muscle weight significantly increased, and the percentage of body fat significantly decreased at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the intervention. The increase in body muscle after 12 weeks was 0.6 kg (interquartile range:–0.03 to 1.0). The decrease in body fat was –0.9% (interquartile range: -1.6 to -0.2). There was a significant negative correlation between the changes in body fat and body muscle. For the fecal percentages of Coriobacteriaceae, Lactobacillales, Bacteroides, Clostridium cluster IV, and Clostridium cluster XI, there were significant differences between the baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention. Furthermore, there were significant negative correlations between the changes in body fat percentage and fecal acetic acid and propionic acid levels. Therefore, a dietary intake of 15 g of soymilk-okara powder for 12 weeks induced a decrease in body fat, an increase in body muscle, and a change in fecal microbiota flora. Soymilk-okara powder is effective in improving body composition and changing the intestinal microbiota flora in healthy Japanese adults.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Effect of Cooking Method and Enzymatic Treatment on the in vitro
           Digestibility of Cooked and Instant Chestnut Flour

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      Abstract: Abstract Microwave treatment, roasting, boiling, and enzymatic treatment were used to prepare cooked and instant chestnut flour, and the in vitro digestibility were compared. Cooking gelatinized the starch and destroyed the granular and crystal structure, increasing starch digestibility. After enzymatic hydrolysis, starches were degraded by 20~24%, and the reducing sugar content of the instant flours increased by 79~94%. Starch digestibility was reduced after enzymatic hydrolysis, however, the estimated glycemic index (GI) increased to 65.1 ~ 77.7 due to the combined effect of increased reducing sugar and decreased starch hydrolysis in the instant flours. The chestnuts treated by ‘boiling + enzymes’ are still a medium GI food. These findings give guidance for the development of low GI cooked and instant chestnut flour.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity: A Review of Polyphenol Effects on Lipid
           and Glucose Metabolism, Mitochondrial Homeostasis, and Starch
           Digestibility and Absorption

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      Abstract: Abstract Obesity is a major global public health concern, limiting socio-economic development and human productivity. As studies focus on finding sustainable solutions to this challenge, polyphenols have shown promising results and have become a research focus. This is mainly because of associated lower risks of side effects with their use, compared to synthetic pharmaceuticals. In this study, the anti-obesity potentials of dietary polyphenols have been reviewed. Using a narrative approach, the biological activities of polyphenols and their influence on energy metabolism and mechanisms are discussed. Specifically, their roles in insulin-dependent glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and storage in adipocytes, starch digestibility, and regulation of mitophagy and mitogenesis in muscle cells and adipocytes, were considered. After considering the major findings of many related studies, it was confirmed that polyphenols can prevent and ameliorate obesity by fighting insulin resistance (IR) induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and limiting their effects, and by regulating the expression and/or activity of key enzymes along relevant pathways. More human studies are needed to reveal more about the anti-obesity effects of dietary polyphenols and their effective doses in humans.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Ferocactus herrerae Fruits: Nutritional Significance, Phytochemical
           Profiling, and Biological Potentials

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      Abstract: Abstract The current study reports for the first time the nutritional, fruit volatiles, phytochemical, and biological characteristics of Ferocactus herrerae J. G. Ortega fruits. The nutritional analysis revealed that carbohydrate (20.6%) was the most abundant nutrient followed by dietary fibers (11.8%), lipids (0.9%), and proteins (0.8%). It was rich in vitamins, minerals, essential, and non-essential amino acids. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the headspace-extracted volatiles showed that 3-methyl octadecane (35.72 ± 2.38%) was the major constituent detected. Spectrophotometric determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the fruit methanolic extract (ME) showed high total phenolic [9.17 ± 0.87 mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)] and flavonoid [4.99 ± 0.23 mg/g quercetin equivalent (QE)] contents. The ME was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV), which allowed for both qualitative and quantitative estimation of 16 phenolic compounds. Caffeic acid was the major phenolic acid identified [45.03 ± 0.45 mg/100 g dried powdered fruits (DW)] while quercitrin (52.65 ± 0.31 mg/100 g DW), was the major flavonoid detected. In-vitro assessment of the antioxidant capacities of the ME revealed pronounced activity using three comparative methods; 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (132.06 ± 2.1 μM Trolox equivalent (TE) /g), 2,2′-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), (241.1 ± 5.03 uM TE/g), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (258.9 ± 1.75 uM TE/g). Besides, remarkable anti-inflammatory [COX-1 (IC50 = 20.2 ± 1.1 μg/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 = 9.8 ± 0.64 μg/mL)] and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (IC50 = 1.01 ± 0.39 mg/mL) activities were observed. Finally, our results revealed that these fruits could be used effectively as functional foods and nutraceuticals suggesting an increase in their propagation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01007-9
       
  • Wheat-Free and Nutritious Bread and ‘Coricos’ Made with Mesoamerican
           Ancestral Corn, Amaranth, Sweet Potato and Chia

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      Abstract: Abstract People with wheat-related disorders require wheat-free and good quality baked goods. We prepared wheat-free bread and cookies (coricos) with flour blends of corn, amaranth, orange sweet potato and chia. Sweet potato flour or puree and amaranth flour were prepared and their properties evaluated. Blends were optimized for dough hardness and cohesiveness by response surface methodology, with a central composite rotatory design. Bread was prepared with optimal blends plus 1.2% chia mucilage, and alternatively used sweet potato puree. The optimized blend was 57:34:9 (corn:amaranth:sweet potato flours). Coricos were made with the blend instead of only corn as traditionally. Chemical composition, texture profile, fiber, and gluten content of the products were analyzed. The breads’ crust was uniform, crunchy and golden, and the crumb was homogeneous, with 41% specific volume and 60% size of the wheat bread. Coricos presented a darker golden color than those of 100% corn. Protein content was similar (~ 12% d.w.) between the blend and wheat breads, with better chemical score for the blend one. Blend bread and coricos had 2–4% more dietary fiber and higher content of bioactive compounds than their wheat or corn counterparts. Blend bread was comparable to its counterpart in chewiness while coricos were softer. Gluten content was < 20 ppm in blend products; therefore, in addition to nutritional quality, they are safe for people with wheat-related disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01005-x
       
  • Effect of Raw and Roasted Phoenix dactylifera L. Seed Polyphenols Extracts
           on Suppression of Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Date seed is a by-product of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit which is well recognized for its polyphenols content and numerous health-beneficial effects. Due to the increasing interest in natural phytochemicals with antioxidant activities, the present study aimed to extract polyphenols from both raw and roasted date seeds and investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of these two extracts (raw and roasted date seed polyphenols extracts (DSPE) at 25 and 50 µg/mL) using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Our results showed that both raw and roasted DSPE suppressed some angiogenesis features in a dose-dependent manner including cell proliferation, migration, and capillary-like structure formation, of which raw DSPE was more potent inhibitor than roasted DSPE. Reduction in reactive oxygen species, as well as enhancement of superoxide dismutase activity occurred using both raw and roasted date seed polyphenols extracts. However, no changes were observed in advanced oxidation protein products versus control. Taken together, our data indicated that raw and roasted DSPE possess antioxidant activity, which suggested their potential use as a source of polyphenols with anti-angiogenic properties. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for their anti-angiogenic activities.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01003-z
       
  • Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Industrial Hemp Seed Protein
           Isolate Treated by High-Intensity Ultrasound

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      Abstract: Ultrasound is one of the non-thermal, green, and novel technologies used to functionalize plant proteins. We recently determined the optimum conditions of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) treatment for maximum solubility and investigated the functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HSPI) under the optimal conditions. In this study, we analyzed changes in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, physical microstructures, thermal stability, and antioxidant capacity of ultrasound-applied hemp protein isolate (HSPI-HIUS). The free SH group content (+59%) and zeta potential (+25%) increased upon ultrasound treatment. The electrophoretic protein patterns of HSPI showed no significant change after HIUS treatment. The FTIR spectrum revealed the wavenumber shifts in Amid 1 and 2 regions of protein. The denaturation temperature and the ratio of β-structure increased after sonication. Antioxidant properties of hemp seed protein isolates were increased by 38% by ultrasound treatment. The obtained data in this study showed that HIUS treatment would be promising for improving the functional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of HSPI. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01017-7
       
  • Functional Teas from Penthorum chinense Pursh Alleviates Ethanol-Induced
           Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Autophagy Impairment in Zebrafish via
           Modulating the AMPK/p62/Nrf2/mTOR Signaling Axis

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      Abstract: Abstract Penthorum chinense Pursh (PCP), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely used in many clinical liver diseases. Oxidative stress and autophagy impairment play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of PCP in attenuating ethanol-induced liver injury. The liver-specific transgenic zebrafish larvae (lfabp: EGFP) at three days post-fertilization (3 dpf) were treated with different concentrations of PCP (100, 50 and 25 μg/mL) for 48 h, after soaked in a 350 mM ethanol for 32 h. Whole-mount oil red O, H&E staining and biochemical kits were used to detect fatty liver function and fat accumulation, western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence were used to determine proteins expression, and RT-qPCR was used to further verify the related gene expression. PCP restored zebrafish liver function. Additionally, PCP (as dose-dependent) blocked the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alleviated liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage. PCP exerted its hepatoprotective function by downregulating the expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), up-regulating the expression of nucleus factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (transferring to the nucleus), and attenuating systemic oxidative stress. Furthermore, PCP reduced the expression of sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1, p62), Atg13, and Beclin 1, up-regulating autophagy signaling pathway. Taken together, the molecular evidence that PCP protected the ethanol-induced hepatic oxidative stress and autophagy impairment through activating AMPK/p62/Nrf2/mTOR signaling axis.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01010-0
       
  • Teff Grain-Based Functional Food for Prevention of Osteoporosis: Sensory
           Evaluation and Molecular Docking Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder, which is characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. The medical approaches presently followed for the prevention and treatment are associated with several side effects. Thus, it becomes important to design alternatives that are safer, economical, and easy to use. Plants provide us with a beneficial and effective option for such designs. They are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals that can be used to target signalling pathways to prevent the development of disease. For this purpose, we used Ethiopian grain, teff as a preventive strategy for osteoporosis as it has a favourable nutritional profile. In our study, we focussed on the preparation of functional multi-grain flour with Ethiopian grain, teff, and other ingredients that have a positive effect on bone health. A cookie was prepared from the multi mix flour and to analyze its shelf life and acceptance we performed a sensory evaluation where we observed no significant difference in the cookies’ characteristics during the period of study. We also performed Molecular Docking of eight flavonoid polyphenols selected from the nutritional profile of the ingredients to understand their binding affinity, interaction with the target, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), and prophylactic or therapeutic effects in the prevention of osteoporosis. It was found that all 8 flavonoid polyphenols bound with RANKL, at least at one of the crucial binding sites and so can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11130-022-01012-y
       
 
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