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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.898
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0921-9668 - ISSN (Online) 1573-9104
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Spray-drying Microencapsulation of an Extract from Tilia tomentosa Moench
           Flowers: Physicochemical Characterization and in Vitro Intestinal Activity
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Silver linden (Tilia tomentosa Moench, TtM) flowers possess several health-promoting properties, especially at the neurological level, such as intestinal relaxation activity associated with specific flavonols, particularly quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. However, such molecules are susceptible to degradation upon different triggers like heat, light and extreme pH values. To overcome the scarce stability of TtM flowers bioactive molecules and make them suitable for developing functional food and supplements, we applied microencapsulation. Spray-drying microencapsulation of TtM flowers extract was performed using three starch-derived wall materials: maltodextrin 12 DE (MD12) and 19 DE (MD19), and OSA-modified starch (OSA-S). The stability of total phenols, flavanols, and antioxidant capacity was monitored for 70 days under accelerated stress conditions (40 °C/70% RH) by HPLC and spectrophotometric methods, and the intestinal contractile activity was tested in a murine model. In comparison to MD12 and MD19, OSA-S stood out for the higher encapsulation efficiency of quercetin and kaempferol glycosides (+ 36–47% compared to MD12 and + 18–24% compared to MD19) and stability thereof (half-life on average + 30% compared to MD12 and + 51% compared to MD19). The intestinal contractile activity of OAS-S powders resulted comparable to the original extract, indicating that flavonols were biologically active and accessible. Our results underly the potential advantages of OSA-S encapsulated formulation as a functional ingredient for the development of nutraceutical products.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
       
  • Lepidium meyenii Walp (red maca) Supplementation Prevents
           Acrylamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Toxicity in Rats:
           Phytochemical Composition by UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS

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      Abstract: Abstract Lepidium meyenii Walp (red maca) is a high Andean plant cultivated since the Incas and has innumerable therapeutic properties. The study aims to identify its phytochemical composition using UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS, and evaluate its effects on acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. The lyophilized aqueous extract of red maca (LAqE-RM) was orally administered in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver, as well as hepatic levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Administration of acrylamide for 2 and 4 weeks significantly increased (p < 0.001) MDA levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver. However, LAqE-RM prevented (p < 0.001) an increase in MDA levels in all tissues studied. Likewise, the groups treated with LAqE-RM presented significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of ALT and AST compared to the control. Treatment with LAqE-RM ameliorated the acrylamide-induced oxidative stress by reducing MDA levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver and by lowering liver levels of ALT and AST in a dose-dependent manner. Twenty-five secondary metabolites were identified and characterized from LAqE-RM based on UHPLC mass spectrophotometry. These include carbolines, alkamides, fatty acids, and macamides, which are probably involved in their antioxidant protective role.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Allergenic Content of New Alimentary Pasta Made of Lentils Compared with
           Lentil Seeds and Analysis of the Impact of Boiling Processing

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      Abstract: Abstract There is growing interest in legumes such as lentil as healthy ingredients in gluten-free products. In that respect, foods based on lentils, like alimentary pasta, have been produced and successfully commercialized in recent years. Lentils are also known for inducing severe allergic reactions; however, it is currently unknown if novel alimentary pasta based on lentil retains the same allergenic potential as lentil seeds. In this study, the allergenic content of alimentary lentil pasta compared with lentil seeds was analyzed by immunoassays using sera from patients with allergic sensitization to lentil or with specific antibodies that recognize major lentil allergens. The effect of boiling processing was also analyzed. Results showed that alimentary lentil pasta has a significant allergenic content close to the general allergenic content observed for lentil seeds. Both alimentary lentil pasta and lentil seeds were similarly affected by boiling, with an important transfer of allergens from the food to the boiling water. This study shows that alimentary pasta made of lentils has a significant allergenic potential and highlights the necessity to analyze the allergenic content of new foods and novel ingredients introduced in traditional food products.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Heated Leaf Extract of Coriandrum sativum L. Protects Nigral Dopaminergic
           Degeneration in Rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), which is an annual herb of the Apiaceae family, has been traditionally used as a remedy. Here we tested whether heated extract of coriander leaf protects nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). After injection of 6-OHDA into the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), dopaminergic degeneration, which was determined by tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining, was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn2+ chelator, suggesting that extracellular Zn2+ influx is involved in neurodegeneration. Both intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation determined by ZnAF-2 fluorescence and dopaminergic degeneration in the SNpc induced by 6-OHDA were rescued by co-injection of 0.25% coriander extract, which also reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the SNpc determined by aminophenyl fluorescein fluorescence. The present study suggests that coriander leaf extract protects nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation. It is likely that the nutraceutical property of coriander leaf extract contributes to the protection via reducing ROS production.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • A Prospective Non-Randomized Open-Label Comparative Study of The Effects
           of Matcha Tea on Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Pilot Observational
           Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Matcha tea has been used as an adjunct in weight loss programs. The weight loss effects of matcha tea were evaluated in a prospective non-randomized open-label comparative study of overweight and obese individuals who followed a specified low-calorie diet (LCD) plan. A total of 40 participants were enrolled and assigned to either matcha tea or control groups. The matcha tea group followed a LCD plan and received matcha tea once daily, whereas the control group followed only the LCD diet plan. The study lasted 12 weeks. The main outcome measures included anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, obesity-related hormone peptides, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers. Thirty-four participants had completed the study. The matcha tea and control groups showed significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, water content, minerals, and fat mass at week 12. The post-treatment body composition and anthropometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. The matcha tea group showed a potential increase in HDL-C, a potential decrease in blood glucose, and a potential increase in HbA1c. Furthermore, the study indicated a potential decrease in insulin and leptin levels, a potential increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, and a potential decreased activity of glutathione peroxidase. IL-10 was increased by matcha tea consumption. The data suggest that matcha tea may have some potential effect on weight loss, along with anti-inflammatory properties. The findings of this study will be used to design a multicenter randomized clinical trial to examine the potential weight loss benefits of matcha tea.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • The Impact of Heat Treatment of Quercetin and Myricetin on their
           Activities to Alleviate the Acrylamide-Induced Cytotoxicity and Barrier
           Loss in IEC-6 Cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Two flavonols quercetin and myricetin were assessed for their in vitro activities to attenuate the acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity and barrier loss in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells and to identify whether heat treatment of the flavonols might cause activity changes. The results showed that the flavonols could alleviate the acrylamide-caused cell injury, resulting in higher cell viability, lower lactate dehydrogenase release, and less formation of reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, the flavonols could antagonize the acrylamide-induced barrier dysfunction via decreasing the paracellular permeability, increasing the transepithelial resistance of cell monolayer, and enhancing the expression of three tight junction proteins namely occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1. The flavonols also could down-regulate the expression of JNK/Src proteins and thus cause lower relative protein ratios of p-JNK/JNK and p-Src/Src, resulting in a suppressed JNK/Src activation. Totally, quercetin was more potent than myricetin to exert these assessed activities, while the heated flavonols obtained lower activity than the unheated ones. It is thus concluded that the flavonols had beneficial activities towards the intestinal epithelial cells with acrylamide exposure by alleviating the acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity and barrier disruption, while heat treatment of the flavonols was unfavorable because it led to a reduced flavonol activity to the cells.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
       
  • Optimization of Phenolic Compounds Extraction of Different Parts of
           Camu-camu Fruit from Different Geographic Regions

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      Abstract: Abstract Phenolic compounds in camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) have received interest due to their health-promoting effects. However, these compounds have been poorly investigated in the different parts of the camu-camu fruit (pulp, peel, and seeds). This study aimed to optimize the solvent composition for extraction of phenolic compounds from pulp, peels, and seeds of camu-camu through a simplex-centroid mixture design. Then, the profile of phenolic compounds in samples of camu-camu pulp, peels, and seeds from different regions in Brazil and South America was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Aqueous ethanol (80%, v/v) yielded the highest extraction for the pulp and peel, while aqueous methanol (50%, v/v) was selected for the seed. Camu-camu parts had p-coumaric acid, catechin, epicatechin, luteolin, rutin, and quercetin, with catechin as the major compound in the pulp, peels, and seeds of all the evaluated samples. The peel showed lower concentrations of these compounds compared with the pulp and the seed; the content of phenolic compounds also differed according to the geographic region. These results broaden the knowledge on phytochemical extraction and composition of camu-camu pulp, peel, and seed and may guide future applications of their extracts in the food industry.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • Bioactive Properties of Bread Formulated with Plant-based Functional
           Ingredients Before Consumption and Possible Links with Health Outcomes
           After Consumption- A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Bread is a commonly consumed staple and could be a viable medium to deliver plant-based ingredients that demonstrate health effects. This review brings together published evidence on the bioactive properties of bread formulated with plant-based ingredients. Health effects associated with the consumption of bread formulated with plant-based functional ingredients was also reviewed. Bioactive properties demonstrated by the functional ingredients fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts and tea incorporated into bread include increased phenolic and polyphenolic content, increased antioxidant activity, and extension of bread shelf-life by impairment of lipid and protein oxidation. Acute health effects reported included appetite suppression, reduced diastolic blood pressure, improvements in glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety effect. These metabolic effects are mainly short lived and not enough for a health claim. Longer term studies or comparison of those who consume and those who do not are needed. The incorporation of plant-based functional ingredients in bread could enhance the health-promoting effects of bread.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • The Edible Plant Crithmum maritimum Shows Nutraceutical Properties by
           Targeting Energy Metabolism in Hepatic Cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract In the past few years, evidence has supported the role of plants as a valuable tool for the development of promising therapeutic support options for many diseases, including cancer. We recently discovered that the edible wild plant Crithmum maritimum L. effectively inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and we provide insights into the biological mechanisms involved. Here, we aimed to characterize the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Crithmum maritimum on the bioenergetic phenotype of HCC cells and if this is associated with the anti-tumour effect we previously described. Results show that Crithmum maritimum significantly increases cellular respiration and reduces lactic fermentation in HCC cells, and that this reduction of the fermentative glycolytic phenotype is linked to inhibition of HCC growth. These data provide new preclinical evidence supporting the role of Crithmum maritimum L. as a nutraceutical option to expand the therapeutic opportunities in the management of HCC.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
       
  • Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Fruit Juices

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      Abstract: Abstract Fruit and fruit juices are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which can protect our organisms from oxidative stress. The phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals may affect the antimicrobial properties of juices. The aim of this study has been to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of selected berry juices and vitamin C-rich fruit juices. The research material was composed of seven juices, including three from berries (elderberry chokeberry, cranberry), three from vitamin C-rich fruit (sea buckthorn, wild rose, Japanese quince) and one exotic juice from noni fruit. Antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin content were determined. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) as well as the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated. The research showed that fruit juices from wild rose, chokeberry and Japanese quince had the highest antioxidant capacity. These juices were characterised by the rich content of polyphenols. Elderberry and chokeberry juices had the highest total anthocyanins. The juices differed in the content of bioactive compounds and specific bactericidal properties against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Fruit juices from cranberry, Japanese quince and sea buckthorn had the highest antimicrobial activity. Wild rose, chokeberry and elderberry juices, despite their high antioxidant properties, showed antimicrobial activity only against Gram-positive strains, except Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds in fruit juices affect the antimicrobial properties juices.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on Lipid Levels: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Several studies have evaluated the lipid-lowering properties of yerba mate, although the results were conflicting. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of yerba mate consumption on lipid levels. A literature search was performed to detect observational and experimental studies that evaluated the association between yerba mate consumption and lipid levels. A quantitative analysis was performed with the subgroup of experimental studies. A meta-regression was performed considering the difference in baseline lipid values between the intervention and control groups as a covariate. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for this systematic review and seven studies (378 patients) were selected for quantitative analysis. In the qualitative analysis, the results were conflicting, both in the observational and in the experimental studies. In quantitative analysis, we found no differences in total cholesterol [mean difference 6.4 (CI 95% -2.2 to 15.0)], LDL-C [mean difference 5.5 (CI 95% − 1.5 to 12.6)], HDL-C [mean difference 0.4 (CI 95% -2.8 to 3.7)] and triglycerides [mean difference 5.7 (CI 95% 0.0 to 11.4)] levels when comparing the yerba mate and control groups. According to meta-regression, differences between baseline levels could influence the findings on total cholesterol and LDL-C but not on HDL-C or triglycerides. In conclusion, this research showed that yerba mate consumption was not associated with a significant change in lipid levels. Since the results are based on small inconclusive studies, more research is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Phaseolus vulgaris L. Leaves Increase Short-Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA)
           Production, Ameliorating Early Metabolic Alterations

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      Abstract: Abstract High-fat/high-fructose diets promote early metabolic disorders in weight and lipid and glucose metabolism. Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and fiber present in plant-based food prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME) bean leaves on early metabolic alterations in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet. After proximate and chemical analysis of FME bean leaves, thirty-six male Wistar rats (ethical approval 06FCN2019 and 77FCN2019) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) standard diet (S) fed with Rodent Laboratory Chow 5001®; 2) standard diet + 10% dry FME bean leaves (SBL); 3) high-fat (lard) and high-fructose diet (H); and 4) high-fat/high-fructose diet + 10% dry FME bean leaves (HBL). The study was carried out for six weeks. Group H exhibited early metabolic alterations compared to Group S: final weight gain (↑15%), abdominal fat accumulation (waist circumference, ↑11%), triglycerides (↑30%), glucose (↑16%), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, ↑32%), and fecal triglycerides (↑284%) and decreased total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, ↓17%). FME bean leave supplementation (HBL) prevented body weight gain (↓12%), abdominal fat accumulation (waist circumference, ↓10%), and early insulin resistance (glucose area under the curve, ↓6%) compared to Group H. The supplementary bean leave diet increased SCFA production (↑54%), most likely mediated by the fiber and polyphenols present in the leaves. Therefore, bean leaves are a low-cost alternative for human nutritional care and prevention of early metabolic alterations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
       
  • Physicochemical and Colon Cancer Cell Inhibitory Properties of
           Theabrownins Prepared by Weak Alkali Oxidation of Tea Polyphenols

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      Abstract: Abstract Existing studies on the biological activity of theabrownins are not based on their free state but on the complexes of theabrownins, polysaccharides, proteins, and flavonoids. In this study, theabrownins (TBs-C) were prepared by weak alkali oxidation of tea polyphenols. The ultraviolet-visible scanning spectrum of TBs-C showed two characteristic absorption peaks at 203 and 270 nm. The zeta potential of the TBs-C aqueous solution was negative, and the values varied from − 6.26 to -19.55 mV with a solution pH of 3–9. Storage conditions of pH 5.0–7.0 and around 25 °C were beneficial for the physical and chemical stability of the TBS-C solution. Cells were treated with series concentrations and examined by MTT, HE staining, PI immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR to investigate the antiproliferative effect of TBs-C on human colon cancer HT-29 cells. The results showed that TBs-C, particularly at 500 µg/mL, inhibited cell growth. TBs-C induced HT-29 cell apoptosis, as confirmed by morphological changes, nucleus propidium iodide staining, and distributions of the cell cycle. The apoptotic mechanism may be due to the intracellular redox imbalance induced by TBs-C.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
       
  • Polyacylated Anthocyanins Derived from Red Radishes Protect Vascular
           Endothelial Cells Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis via the p38 MAPK
           Pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract Palmitic acid (PA), a widely consumed saturated fat, is known to induce the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. This study examined the protective effect of anthocyanin from red radish (ARR), which has been shown to protect the cardiovascular system and is rich in polyacylated pelargonidin (P) glycosides, on PA-treated SV 40 transfected aortic rat endothelial cells (SVAREC). In all, 22 distinct anthocyanins were identified in the ARR via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, the most abundant of which were pelargonidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)diglucoside-5-glucoside (31.60%), pelargonidin-3-(feruloyl)diglucoside-5-(malonyl)glucoside (22.98%), pelargonidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)diglucoside-5-(malonyl)glucoside (8.02%), and pelargonidin-3-(feruloyl)diglucoside-5-glucoside (6.25%). P displayed the highest serum level (93.72%) in the ARR-treated mice, while polyacylated P glucosides were also absorbed intact. Furthermore, ARR treatment effectively increased cellular activity and reduced the ratio of Bcl-2-associated X protein : B cell lymphoma-2, while simultaneously alleviating the excessive production of reactive oxygen species in PA-treated SVAREC. Transcriptome and further verification analyses confirmed that the ARR-inhibiting PA-induced apoptosis of SVAREC was related to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Our results are the first to demonstrate that ARR may be a promising phytochemical in the prevention of PA-induced endothelial dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
       
  • Taurine Treatment Alleviates Intestinal Mucositis Induced by
           5-Fluorouracil in Mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Taurine (Tau), a β-amino acid, exists in red goji fruit (Lycium barbarum L.). It exerts many cellular physiological functions such as anti-inflammation and oxidation resistance. The chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) can cause intestinal mucositis. However, current therapeutic approaches for mucositis have limited efficacy and are associated with various side effects. It is still unknown whether Tau can alleviate intestinal mucositis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of the Tau in a mucositis mouse model and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The intestinal mucositis symptoms were alleviated by the Tau administration as evidenced by decreased body weight loss, histopathological score, oxidative stress, and improved glutathione (GSH). The Tau supplementation strengthened intestinal epithelial tight junction and reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in intestinal mucositis mice. Moreover, the 5FU-induced inflammatory responses were alleviated by Tau treatment via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) and nuclear factor kappa-B/inducible nitric oxide synthase (NF-κB/iNOS) signaling pathway. Tau administration modulated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon of mice. The results indicated that the Tau might be a new dietary strategy for intestinal mucositis caused by 5FU.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
       
  • Inhibition of Three Diabetes-Related Enzymes by Procyanidins from Lotus
           (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Seedpods

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      Abstract: Abstract The inhibitory effects of procyanidins from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpods on the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), were studied and compared with those of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), procyanidin dimer B2 and trimer C1. The results showed that Lotus procyanidin extract (LPE) significantly inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and PTP1B with IC50 values of 5.5, 1.0, and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The inhibition increased with the degree of polymerization and the existence of galloyl or gallocatechin units. Kinetic analysis showed that LPE inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a mixed competitive and noncompetitive mode. Fluorescence quenching revealed that α-glucosidase interacted with LPE or EGCG in an apparent static mode, or the model of “sphere of action”. The apparent static (K) and bimolecular (kq) constants were 4375 M−1 and 4.375 × 1011 M−1 s−1, respectively, for LPE and 1195 M−1 and 1.195 × 1011 M−1 s−1, respectively, for EGCG. Molecular docking analysis provided further information on the interactions of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, EGCG, B2 and C1 with α-glucosidase. It is hypothesized that LPE may bind to multiple sites of the enzyme through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, leading to conformational changes in the enzyme and thus inhibiting its activity. These findings first elucidate the inhibitory effect of LPE on diabetes-related enzymes and highlight the usefulness of LPE as a dietary supplement for the prophylaxis of diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • Antioxidant Activity and Profile of Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbal
           Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Herbs are characterized by a high content of biologically active substances that positively affect human health. Phenolic compounds are one of the main bioactive compounds in these plants with highly beneficial properties (e.g., anti-carcinogenic, cardioprotective, immune system support and antibacterial). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the composition of free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 10 different herbs (bogbean leaves, sage leaves, whole Indian hemp, whole heartsease, whole horsetail, whole blessed thistle, whole thyme, chamomile flower, corn silk and pine buds). Phenolic compounds were analyzed using the HPLC-TOF-MS/MS method, total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents were measured using spectrophotometric methods, while antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The highest content of free TP was found in thyme, while sage was characterized by the highest range of these compounds released from ester and glycosidic derivatives by hydrolysis. In turn, the highest values of TF in non-hydrolyzed extracts were found in Indian hemp. The highest values of TF, including bound phenols were observed in extracts obtained from sage leaves. In the analyzed herbs thirty-three phenolic compounds were found, constituting 16 phenolic acids, 9 flavonoids and eight stilbenes. Moreover, the analyzed compounds appeared in the bound form than in the free form. The antioxidant activity of herb extracts differed significantly across varieties (P < 0.05). The research showed that each tested herb possesses its own fingerprint of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Momordica charantia Extract Confers Protection Against Hypertension
           in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Hypertension is one of the main factors of cardiovascular disease worldwide and is strongly related to the overall mortality. High salt intake is a major risk factors for hypertension. Identifying functional foods that can help prevent mechanistic abnormalities mediating salt-induced hypertension is an issue of considerable nutraceutical and scientific interest. Dietary Momordica charantia may be an alternative approach to avoid salt-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats were used to determine whether Momordica charantia water extracts (ME) exerts anti-hypertensive effects in the present study. ME gavage could significantly prevented the increase of blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of DSS rats. Metabolomics analysis indicated that high-salt diet induced abnormal amino acid metabolism was related to nitric oxide (NO) deficiency, but ME gavage could upregulate the activities of nitric oxide synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, argininosuccinate lyase, argininosuccinate synthase and restore endogenous synthesis of arginine and NO. Meanwhile, renal function was improved after ME gavage. Citrulline, as one of the important component in ME, could attenuate salt-induced hypertension by increasing endogenous synthesis of arginine and NO. Antioxidants in ME, such as phenolic compound, may avoid high-salt induced oxidative stress in DSS rats, which may be another mechanism by which ME prevented blood pressure increase. Thus, the present study indicated that feeding Momordica charantia could avoid high-salt-induced hypertension in DSS rats.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Gypenoside-IV Ameliorate Metabolic Disorder
           and Gut Microbiota in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) is a perennial liana herb of the Cucurbitaceae family which has both nutraceutical and pharmacological functions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the preventative effects of G. pentaphyllum and Gypenoside-IV (GP-IV, a saponin monomer in G. pentaphyllum) on metabolic symptoms in high fat diet induced obese (DIO) mice with gut microbiota dysbiosis. G. pentaphyllum water extract (GPWE, 150 mg/kg•d− 1) and GP-IV (50 mg/kg•d− 1) were orally administered to DIO mice by gavage for 10 weeks. The results showed that both GPWE and GP-IV prevented obesity development by decreasing body weight gain, reducing fat mass/body weight ratio and inhibiting adipocyte hypertrophy. GPWE and GP-IV also improved lipid profile and glucose tolerance effectively. Moreover, GPWE and GP-IV treatments partly restored gut microbiota in DIO mice. Typically, GPWE and GP-IV reduced Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, increased the abundance of certain health-promoting bacteria and reduced the abundance of microbiota that were associated with metabolic disorders. We conclude that GPWE and GP-IV can ameliorate metabolic symptoms possibly via modulating gut microbiota in DIO mice.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Hypolipidemic Effects of Soy Protein and Isoflavones in the Prevention of
           Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease- A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and affects about 25% of the population globally. Obesity and diabetes are the main causes of the disease characterized by excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver. There is currently no direct pharmacological treatments for NAFLD. Dietary intervention and lifestyle modification are the key strategies in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Soy consumption is associated with many health benefits such as decreased incidence of coronary heart disease, type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. The hypolipidemic functions of soy components have been shown in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Dietary soy proteins and associated isoflavones suppressed the formation and accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver and improved NAFLD-associated metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of soy components are mainly through modulation of transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2, and expressions of their target genes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as lipid droplet-promoting protein, fat-specific protein-27. Inclusion of appropriate amounts of soy protein and isoflavones in the diets might be a useful approach to decrease the prevalence of NAFLD and mitigate disease burden.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
 
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