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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Comparison of Extraction Methods for the Detection of Tick-Borne
           Encephalitis Virus RNA in Goat Raw Milk and Cream Cheese

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      Abstract: Abstract Infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause meningitis, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in humans. TBEV is an enveloped RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, which is mostly transmitted via tick bites. However, transmission by consumption of virus-contaminated goat raw milk and goat raw milk products has also been described. Only a few methods have been reported for the detection of TBEV in food so far. Here, we compare different virus extraction methods for goat raw milk and goat raw milk cream cheese and subsequent detection of TBEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. Langat virus (LGTV), a naturally attenuated TBEV strain, was used for artificial contamination experiments. Mengovirus and the human coronavirus 229E were compared to assess their suitability to serve as internal process controls. Out of three tested extraction protocols for raw milk, sample centrifugation followed by direct RNA extraction from the aqueous interphase yielded the best results, with a recovery rate (RR) of 31.8 ± 4.9% for LGTV and a detection limit of 6.7 × 103 LGTV genome copies/ml. Out of two methods for cream cheese, treatment of the samples with TRI Reagent® and chloroform prior to RNA extraction showed the best RR of 4.7 ± 1.6% for LGTV and a detection limit of 9.4 × 104 LGTV genome copies/g. RRs of Mengovirus and LGTV were similar for both methods; therefore, Mengovirus is suggested as internal process control virus. The developed methods may be useful for screening or surveillance studies, as well as in outbreak investigations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Water Environments: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis in humans, through foodborne, zoonotic, and waterborne transmission routes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HEV in water matrices. Six categories were defined: untreated and treated wastewater, surface water (river, lake, and seawater), drinking water, groundwater, and other water environments (irrigation water, grey water, reservoir water, flood water, and effluent of pig slaughterhouse). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and Excerpta Medica Database. Study selection and data extraction were performed by at least two independent investigators. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed using the χ2 test on the Cochran Q statistic and H parameter. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42021289116. We included 87 prevalence studies from 58 papers, 66.4% of which performed in Europe. The overall prevalence of HEV in water was 9.8% (95% CI 6.4–13.7). The prevalence was higher in untreated wastewater (15.1%) and lower in treated wastewater (3.8%) and in drinking water (4.7%). In surface water, prevalence was 7.4%, and in groundwater, the percentage of positive samples, from only one study available, was 8.3%. Overall, only 36.8% of the studies reported the genotype of HEV, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) prevalent (168 samples), followed by HEV-1 (148 sample), and HEV-4 (2 samples). High-income countries were the most represented with 59/87 studies (67.8%), while only 3/87 (3.5%) of the studies were performed in low-income countries. The overall prevalence obtained of this study was generally higher in industrialized countries. Risk of bias was low in 14.9% of the studies and moderate in 85.1%. The results of this review showed the occurrence of HEV in different waters environments also in industrialized countries with sanitation and safe water supplies. While HEV transmission to humans through water has been widely demonstrated in developing countries, it is an issue still pending in industrialized countries. Better knowledge on the source of pollution, occurrence, survival in water, and removal by water treatment is needed to unravel this transmission path. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
       
  • Interactions Between Infectious Foodborne Viruses and Bacterial Biofilms
           Formed on Different Food Contact Surfaces

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      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial biofilms contribute to contamination, spoilage, persistence, and hygiene failure in the food industry, but relatively little is known about the behavior of foodborne viruses evolving in the complex communities that make up biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteric viruses and biofilms on food contact surfaces. Formed biofilms of mono- and multispecies cultures were prepared on glass, stainless steel, and polystyrene coupons and 105 pfu/ml of murine norovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus were added and incubated for 15 min, 90 min, and 24 h. The data obtained clearly demonstrate that the presence of biofilms generally influences the adhesion of enteric viruses to different surfaces. Many significant increases in attachment rates were observed, particularly with rotavirus whose rate of viral infectious particles increased 7000 times in the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on polystyrene after 24 h of incubation and with hepatitis A virus, which seems to have an affinity for the biofilms formed by lactic acid bacteria. Murine norovirus seems to be the least influenced by the presence of biofilms with few significant increases. However, the different factors surrounding this association are unknown and seem to vary according to the viruses, the environmental conditions, and the composition of the biofilm.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
  • Evaluation of Methods and Processes for Robust Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in
           Wastewater

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has accelerated the development of virus concentration and molecular-based virus detection methods, monitoring systems and overall approach to epidemiology. Early into the pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology started to be employed as a tool for tracking the virus transmission dynamics in a given area. The complexity of wastewater coupled with a lack of standardized methods led us to evaluate each step of the analysis individually and see which approach gave the most robust results for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater. In this article, we present a step-by-step, retrospective view on the method development and implementation for the case of a pilot monitoring performed in Slovenia. We specifically address points regarding the thermal stability of the samples during storage, screening for the appropriate sample concentration and RNA extraction procedures and real-time PCR assay selection. Here, we show that the temperature and duration of the storage of the wastewater sample can have a varying impact on the detection depending on the structural form in which the SARS-CoV-2 target is present. We found that concentration and RNA extraction using Centricon filtration units coupled with Qiagen RNA extraction kit or direct RNA capture and extraction using semi-automated kit from Promega give the most optimal results out of the seven methods tested. Lastly, we confirm the use of N1 and N2 assays developed by the CDC (USA) as the best performing assays among four tested in combination with Fast Virus 1-mastermix. Data show a realistic overall process for method implementation as well as provide valuable information in regards to how different approaches in the analysis compare to one another under the specific conditions present in Slovenia during a pilot monitoring running from the beginning of the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
       
  • Combining Community Wastewater Genomic Surveillance with State Clinical
           Surveillance: A Framework for SARS-CoV-2 Public Health Practice

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop a framework for combining community wastewater surveillance with state clinical surveillance for the confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants within the community and to provide recommendations on how to expand on such research and apply the findings in public health responses. Wastewater samples were collected weekly from 17 geographically resolved locations in Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), from February 10 to December 13, 2021. Genomic surveillance and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) platforms were used to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, and state clinical surveillance was used for confirmation. The study results highlighted an increased epidemiological value of combining community wastewater genomic surveillance and RT-qPCR with conventional case-auditing methods. The spatial scale and temporal frequency of wastewater sampling provided promising sensitivity and specificity for gaining public health screening insights about SARS-CoV-2 emergence, seeding, and spread in communities. Improved national surveillance systems are needed against future pathogens and variants, and wastewater-based genomic surveillance exhibits great potential when coupled with clinical testing. This paper presents evidence that complementary wastewater and clinical testing are cost-effectively enhanced when used in combination, as they provide a strong tool for a joint public health framework. Future pathogens of interest may be examined in either a targeted fashion or using a more global approach where all pathogens are monitored. This study has also provided novel insights developed from evidence-based public health practices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
       
  • Active Surveillance and Genetic Characterization of Prevalent Velogenic
           Newcastle Disease and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Viruses Among
           Migratory Wild Birds in Southern Egypt During 2015–2018

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      Abstract: Abstract A total of 1007 samples (910 fecal droplets and 97 cloacal swabs) were collected from 14 species of migratory wild birds in most wetlands during 3 successive migration seasons from September to March (2015–2018) in Southern Egypt. The samples were propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and positive allantoic fluids by hemagglutination test were tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence using RT-PCR and specific primers targeting the NDV fusion (F) and AIV matrix genes. Further subtyping of the AIV hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was conducted, and representative isolates were selected and sequenced for full F gene of NDVs and HA and NA genes of the AIV. Overall isolation rate of hemagglutinating viruses was 5.56% (56/1007), from them 5.36% (3/56) AIV, 85.71% (48/56) NDV and 8.93% (5/56) co-infection of NDV and AIV was detected. The sequences analysis of full F genes of 10 NDV isolates revealed that they have multi-basic amino acid motifs 111E/GRRQKR/F117 as velogenic strains with nucleotides and amino acids similarities of 96–100%. In addition, they phylogenetically clustered into groups and subgroups within genotype VII.1.1 and sub-genotype VIIj with a close relation to NDVs isolated from chickens in Egypt. The AIV H5N8 subtype was in clade 2.3.4.4b with a highly pathogenic nature and close relation to Egyptian domesticated H5N8 viruses rather than those from wild birds. The current data showed the contribution of migratory birds to the continuous circulation of virulent NDV and AIV H5N8 among domesticated chickens in Southern Egypt.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
       
  • Investigation of the Presence of DNA of Highly Pathogenic Human
           Papillomaviruses in Water Bodies of the Lake Baikal Natural Territory

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      Abstract: Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are extremely widespread throughout the world. There are more than 100 types of HPVs, of which at least 14 types represent high oncogenic risk viruses (World Health Organization, 2020). Numerous attempts were made to analyze various water sources in order to (i) reveal the presence of DNA of pathogenic human papillomaviruses in them and (ii) assess the potential risks of occurrence of epidemics caused by HPV. With time, the necessity to solve these important problems stimulated the formation of a new direction in the world medical and environmental investigations. This paper contains the investigation of the presence of DNA of highly dangerous types of human papillomaviruses (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16 and HPV18) in water bodies of the Baikal natural territory, in particular in the water reservoirs in and near the villages of Listvyanka, Bolshiye Koty, Kultuk and the cities of Baikalsk and Slyudyanka. In course of our work, the conditions good for the study of the biological material obtained from water samples by the PCR technique to reveal the presence of DNA of HPV6, HPV11, HPV16 and HPV18 papillomaviruses were chosen. PCR analysis was conducted with the aid of both the already well-known universal primers GP5 + /6 + and the primers developed by our team to be applied to the conservative domains of nucleotide sequences encoding the main capsid protein L1 of human papillomaviruses HPV6, HPV11 (these types of the virus contribute to the occurrence of anogenital condylomatosis and the development of respiratory papillomatosis) and HPV16, HPV16 (these types of virus contribute to the occurrence of cervical cancer). The analyzes conducted by our team have revealed the presence of DNA of the four types of HPVs (6, 11, 16 and 18) in the samples taken from various water sources of the Baikal natural territory.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • A 2019 Outbreak Investigation of Hepatitis A Virus Infections in the
           United States Linked to Imported Fresh Blackberries

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents of acute viral hepatitis and causes approximately 1.4 million cases and 90,000 deaths annually despite the existence of an effective vaccine. In 2019, federal, state, and local partners investigated a multi-state outbreak of HAV infections linked to fresh blackberries sourced from multiple suppliers in Michoacán, Mexico. A total of 20 individuals with outbreak-related HAV infection were reported in seven states, including 11 hospitalizations, and no deaths. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Nebraska State and Douglas County Health Departments conducted a traceback investigation for fresh blackberries reportedly purchased by 16 ill persons. These individuals reported purchasing fresh blackberries from 11 points of service from September 16 through 29, 2019 and their clinical isolates assessed through next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were genetically similar. The traceback investigation did not reveal convergence on a common grower or packing house within Mexico, but all of the blackberries were harvested from growers in Michoacán, Mexico. FDA did not detect the pathogen after analyzing fresh blackberry samples from four distributors, one consumer, and from nine importers at the port of entry as a result of increased screening. Challenges included gaps in traceability practices and the inability to recover the pathogen from sample testing, which prohibited investigators from determining the source of the implicated blackberries. This multi-state outbreak illustrated the importance of food safety practices for fresh produce that may contribute to foodborne illness outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • Assessment of Surface Disinfection Effectiveness of Decontamination System
           COUNTERFOG® SDR-F05A+ Against Bacteriophage ɸ29

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      Abstract: Abstract The experience of COVID19 pandemic has demonstrated the real concern of biological agents dispersed in the air and surfaces environments. Therefore, the need of a fast and large-scale disinfection method has arisen for prevention of contagion. COUNTERFOG® is an innovative technology developed for large-scale decontamination of air and surfaces. The objective of this study is to assess experimentally the effectiveness of COUNTERFOG® in disinfecting viral-contaminated surfaces. We also aim to measure the necessary time to disinfect said surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with bacteriophage φ29 and disinfected using COUNTERFOG® SDR-F05A+, which uses a sodium hypochlorite solution at different concentrations and for different exposure times. A log reduction over 6 logs of virus titer is obtained in 1 min with 1.2% sodium hypochlorite when the application is direct; while at a radial distance of 5 cm from the point of application the disinfection reaches a reduction of 5.5 logs in 8 min. In the same way, a higher dilution of the sodium hypochlorite concentration (0.7% NaOCl) requires more exposure time (16 min) to obtain the same log reduction (> 6 logs). COUNTERFOG® creates, in a short time and at a distance of 2 m from the point of application, a thin layer of disinfectant that covers the surfaces. The selection of the concentration and exposure time is critical for the efficacy of disinfection. These tests demonstrate that a concentration between 0.7- 1.2% sodium hypochlorite is enough for a fast and efficient ɸ29 phage inactivation. The fact that ɸ29 phage is more resistant to disinfection than SARS-CoV-2 sustains this disinfection procedure.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
       
  • Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on Cold-Chain Food: Precautions Can Effectively
           Reduce the Risk

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a new era in the world, also in the food safety. Up to now, there is no evidence to suggest that people can infect COVID-19 via food contaminated by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we analyzed the results of regular SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing of considerable cold-chain food practitioners, cold-chain food surfaces, and their internal or external packaging as well as their associated environments, aiming to explore the risk of cold-chain food being contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the probability of people infecting COVID-19 through contaminated cold-chain food in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. This study found that only two batches of cold-chain food were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2, none of the cold-chain food handler were infected due to effective regulatory measures for cold-chain food. Therefore, effective supervision and preventive methods could effectively reduce the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain food.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09521-4
       
  • Infectious Pepper Mild Mottle Virus and Human Adenoviruses as Viral
           Indices in Sewage and Water Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to compare human adenoviruses (HAdVs) genome and infectivity, polyomaviruses (JC and BK) genome (JCPyVs) and (BKPyVs), Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) genome and infectivity, and infectious bacteriophages as viral indices for sewage and water samples. One hundred and forty-four samples were collected from inlets and outlets of water and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), and WWTPs within Greater Cairo from October 2015 till March 2017. Two methods of viral concentration [Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) precipitation method and adsorption-elution technique followed by organic flocculation method] were compared to determine which of them was the best method to concentrate viruses from sewage and water. Although samples with only one litre volume were concentrated using Al(OH)3 precipitation method and the same samples with larger volumes (5–20 L) were concentrated using the adsorption-elution technique followed by the organic flocculation method, a non-significant difference was observed between the efficiency of the two methods in all types of samples except for the drinking water samples. Based on the qualitative prevalence of studied viruses in water and wastewater samples, the number of genome copies and infectious units in the same samples, resistance to treatment processes in water and wastewater treatment plants, higher frequency of both adenoviruses and PMMoV genomes as candidate viral indices in treated sewage and drinking water was observed. The problem of having a viral genome as indices of viral pollution is that it does not express the recent viral pollution because of the longer survivability of the viral genome than the infectious units in water and wastewater. Both infectious adenovirus and infectious phiX174 bacteriophage virus showed similar efficiencies as indices for viral pollution in drinking water and treated sewage samples. On the other hand, qualitative detection of infectious PMMoV failed to express efficiently the presence/absence of infectious enteric viruses in drinking water samples. Infectious adenoviruses and infectious bacteriophage phiX174 virus may be better candidates than adenoviruses genome, polyomaviruses genome, and PMMoV genome and infectivity as viral indices for water and wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09525-0
       
  • Stability of Hepatitis E Virus After Drying on Different Surfaces

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      Abstract: Abstract The hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is mainly transmitted by consumption of contaminated food produced from infected animals. However, transmission via contaminated surfaces has also to be considered. Here, the genotype 3c strain 47832c was dried on steel, wood, plastics and ceramics, stored at 23 °C or 3 °C for up to 8 weeks and remaining infectivity was titrated on cell culture. During the drying process, only a mean 0.2 log10 decrease of HEV infectivity was observed. At 23 °C, remaining infectious virus was detected until week 4 on most surfaces, but HEV was completely inactivated (> 4 log10 decrease) after 8 weeks. At 3 °C, HEV was detectable up to 8 weeks on most surfaces, with an average 2.3 log10 decrease. HEV showed the highest stability on plastics, which was lower on ceramics and steel, and lowest on wood. The addition of bovine serum albumin mimicking high protein load had only a slight stabilizing effect. In conclusion, HEV shows a high stability against drying and subsequent storage on different surfaces. Strict application of hygienic measures during food production is therefore crucial in order to prevent HEV persistence on surfaces and subsequent cross-contamination.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09510-7
       
  • Detection of Enteric Viruses from Wastewater and River Water in Botswana

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      Abstract: Abstract Waterborne diseases remain a public health concern in developing countries where many lack access to safe water. Water testing mainly uses bacterial indicators to assess water quality, which may not fully indicate the threat from other non-bacterial pathogens like enteric viruses. This study was done to ascertain and establish the viral load, the temporal and spatial distribution of rotavirus A and norovirus (GI and GII) in sewage and river water samples. A total of 45 samples of raw and treated sewage, and surface water, were collected from a sludge activated wastewater treatment plant in Gaborone, and after treatment from the Notwane River, Botswana, over a period of 9 months (February 2016 to October 2016). Viruses were concentrated using polyethylene glycol/NaCl precipitation. Virus detection was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rotavirus A was the most prevalent (84.4% positive samples), followed by Norovirus GI (48.9% positive samples), and Norovirus GII 46.7% positive samples). Detected viral loads went up to 104 genome copies per liter (copies/L) for all the viruses. The enteric viruses were detected in all the study sites with highest detection from site S1 (inlet). There was no significant association between physicochemical parameters and viral loads, except for pH which showed significant relationship with rotavirus and norovirus GII (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first study in Botswana to highlight the occurrence and quantification of the enteric viruses in treated and untreated wastewater, as well as surface water.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09513-4
       
  • Curcumin and Its Analogs as a Therapeutic Strategy in Infections Caused by
           RNA Genome Viruses

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of natural resources for the prevention and treatment of diseases considered fatal to humanity has evolved. Several medicinal plants have nutritional and pharmacological potential in the prevention and treatment of viral infections, among them, turmeric, which is recognized for its biological properties associated with curcuminoids, mainly represented by curcumin, and found mostly in rhizomes. The purpose of this review was to compile the pharmacological activities of curcumin and its analogs, aiming at stimulating their use as a therapeutic strategy to treat infections caused by RNA genome viruses. We revisited its historical application as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral agent that combined with low toxicity, motivated research against viruses affecting the population for decades. Most findings concentrate particularly on arboviruses, HIV, and the recent SARS-CoV-2. As one of the main conclusions, associating curcuminoids with nanomaterials increases solubility, bioavailability, and antiviral effects, characterized by blocking the entry of the virus into the cell or by inhibiting key enzymes in viral replication and transcription.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09514-3
       
  • Protective Effect of Food Against Inactivation of Human Coronavirus OC43
           by Gastrointestinal Fluids

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      Abstract: Abstract The involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported in multiple studies. Since it has been demonstrated that human intestinal epithelial cells support productive viral replication and that a substantial portion of infected individuals shed the virus in feces, the possibility of fecal–oral and fecal-respiratory modes of transmission have been proposed for SARS-CoV-2. In order to establish viral replication in the intestine, enteric viruses need to retain their infectivity in often low pH gastric fluids, and in intestinal fluids, which contain digestive enzymes and bile salts. In this study, we examined whether human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) can remain infectious in simulated GI fluids that models human fasting-state and fed-state, in the presence or absence of food. We demonstrated that except for fasting-state gastric fluid (pH 1.6), the virus can remain infectious in all other gastrointestinal fluids for 1 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that presence of food could significantly improve viral survival in gastric fluids. Therefore, this study provides evidence that ingestion with food could protect the virus against inactivation by the GI fluids.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09520-5
       
  • Use of a Hydrogen Peroxide Nebulizer for Viral Disinfection of Emergency
           Ambulance and Hospital Waiting Room

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      Abstract: Abstract Disinfection of hospital facilities and ambulances is an important issue for breaking the chain of transmission of viral pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide has provided promising results in laboratory assays. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide nebulizer for the inactivation of surrogate MS2 bacteriophage and murine norovirus (MNV) in a patient waiting room and the fully equipped cabin of a medical ambulance. We observed an average 3 log10 titer reduction in both settings, which represents the destruction of over 106 and 109 infectious particles of MNV and MS2 per cm2, respectively. The potential for viral exposure is high for health workers when disinfecting confined and cluttered spaces, so the use of a hydrogen peroxide mist might offer an affordable and efficient solution to minimize the risk of viral contaminations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09519-y
       
  • Occurrence of Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis a Virus, and Enterovirus in
           Berries in Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract Berries have been implicated as the probable vehicle of infection in multiple outbreaks of norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). These foods often receive minimal or no processing and may be exposed to virus contamination at each stage of production. In an increasingly globalized world, berries have a wide distribution and can give rise to the spread of diseases in distant parts of the world. With the aim of describing the virological quality of the berries cultivated in Argentina, a total of 184 soft fruits of different varieties (strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, pomegranate arils, cassis, and elder) were collected during the periods 2016–2018 and 2020. Viral particles were eluted and concentrated by polyethylene glycol precipitation according to ISO 15216-2:2019 guidelines. Genome detection of norovirus (NoV) genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), HAV, rotavirus, and enterovirus was performed by real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan probes. Positive samples were amplified by conventional RT-PCR and the amplicons were purified and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Neighbor-Joining method based on the evolutionary model Kimura-2-parameters. NoV GII.6 was detected in 1/184 (0.5%) of the soft fruits, corresponding to a raspberry sample obtained during the fall of 2017. No presence of other human enteric viruses was found in the other berries analyzed. The collected data are the first in Argentina in relation to the prevalence of enteric viruses in berries and is useful as reference data for a risk assessment of soft fruits as vehicles of foodborne pathogenic viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09518-z
       
  • Nanomaterial-Augmented Formulation of Disinfectants and Antiseptics in
           Controlling SARS CoV-2

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      Abstract: Abstract The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09517-0
       
  • Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy
           Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents. This study aimed to detect the presence of these viruses in green leafy vegetables (watercress, leek, coriander, and parsley) and strawberry using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were collected from the Egyptian regions of Kalubia, Giza, and Mansoura. Overall HAV average occurrence in fresh strawberry was 48% with a mean concentration of 6.1 × 103 GC/g; Also NoV GI overall average occurrence was 25% with a mean concentration of 9.7 × 102 genome copies (GC)/g, while NoV GII was 40% with a mean concentration of 2.4 × 103 GC/g. For strawberry collected directly from Kalubia farms, neither HAV nor HNoV GI & GII were detected. In green leafy vegetable samples, the occurrence of HAV was 31.2% with a mean concentration of 9.2 × 104 GC/g, while occurrence of NoV GI and NoV GII were 20% and 30% with a mean concentrations of 1.1 × 104 and 2.03 × 103 GC/g, respectively. In conclusion, the importance of a virus surveillance program for soft fruits and fresh vegetables is highlighted by the outcomes of this study. Our findings should help with the management and control of microbial concerns in fresh foods, reducing the danger of consuming contaminated foods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09516-1
       
  • Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in Indoor Air of Sina and Shahid Beheshti
           Hospitals and Patients' Houses

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      Abstract: Abstract Side by side air sampling was conducted using a PTFE filter membrane as dry sampler and an impinger containing a suitable culture medium as a wet sampler. Most of the samples were collected from two hospitals and few air samples were collected from private houses of non-hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients. The collected air samples were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results indicated that all air samples collected from the hospitals were PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. While two of four air samples collected from the house of non-hospitalized patients were PCR positive. In this study, most of the hospitalized patients had oxygen mask and face mask, and hence this may be a reason for our negative results regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor air of the hospitals, while non-hospitalized patients did not wear oxygen and protective face masks in their houses. Moreover, a very high concentration of particles in the size range of droplet nuclei (< 5 µm) was identified compared to particles in the size range of respiratory droplets (> 5–10 µm) in the areas where patients were hospitalized. It can be concluded that using face mask by patients can prevent the release of viruses into the indoor air, even in hospitals with a high density of patients.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09515-2
       
 
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