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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • SARS-CoV-2 in Human Sewage and River Water from a Remote and Vulnerable
           Area as a Surveillance Tool in Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was monitored in environmental samples from rural and vulnerable areas (a presidio, worker accommodation units, and river waters upstream and downstream of a rural community) from Minas Gerais State region, Southern Brazil, in August 2020. The sampling was performed prior to official declaration of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in those sites. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the presidio and workers accommodation units (3.0 × 104 virus genome copies (GC)/mL and 4.3 × 104 GC/mL of sewage, respectively). While SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the river water upstream of the rural community, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in downstream river waters (1.1 × 102 SARS-CoV-2 GC/mL). The results obtained in this study highlight the utility of SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater and human sewage as a non-invasive early warning tool to support health surveillance in vulnerable and remote areas, particularly in development countries.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Air Surveillance for Viral Contamination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA at a
           Healthcare Facility

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      Abstract: Abstract The transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 also called COVID-19 disease) in indoor environments are the main area of contention between health systems and scientists. In this context, little has been investigated about the collection of airborne viral shedding. Here, we collected air samples from 24 locations inside the sole COVID-19 patient care center in Zabol, Iran, for screening SARS-CoV-2 RNA from March to May 2021. Locations included the ICU, COVID-19 wards (CWs) rooms, corridors, nearby nurses’ stations, and toilets. We identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in breathing zone of CW, in room air, with the positivity rate of 2.5% at a concentration of 17 × 103 virus genome copies/m3 air. It also investigates the relationship between local climate conditions [i.e., temperature and relative humidity] and COVID-19 transmission with the evolution of daily official data on the number of new cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Current data explained that the difference of temperature and humidity may affect the behavior of virus along with other factors, i.e., population density, individual viral shedding, and infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 (both indoor and outdoor). Our data support the potential SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission indoors suggesting the specific safety assessment of building to improve ventilation solutions besides proper using face masks and extensive public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Development and Validation of the Skimmed Milk Pellet Extraction Protocol
           for SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Surveillance

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      Abstract: Abstract Wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 may serve as a useful source of data for public health departments as the virus is shed in the stool of infected individuals. However, for wastewater data to be actionable, wastewater must be collected, concentrated, and analyzed in a timely manner. This manuscript presents modifications on a skimmed milk concentration protocol to reduce processing time, increase the number of samples that can be processed at once, and enable use in resource-limited settings. Wastewater seeded with Human coronavirus OC43 (OC43) was concentrated using a skimmed milk flocculation protocol, and then pellets were directly extracted with the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit. This protocol has a higher average effective volume assayed (6.35 mL) than skimmed milk concentration methods, with and without Vertrel XF™, which involve resuspension of the pellets in PBS extraction prior to nucleic acid extraction (1.28 mL, 1.44 mL, respectively). OC43 was selected as a recovery control organism because both it and SARS-CoV-2 are enveloped respiratory viruses that primarily infect humans resulting in respiratory symptoms. The OC43 percent recovery for the direct extraction protocol (3.4%) is comparable to that of skimmed milk concentration with and without Vertrel XF™ extraction (4.0%, 2.6%, respectively). When comparing SARS-CoV-2 detection using McNemar’s chi-square test, the pellet extraction method is not statistically different from skimmed milk concentration, with and without Vertrel XF™ extraction. This suggests that the method performs equally as well as existing methods. Added benefits include reduced time spent per sample and the ability to process more samples at a single time. Direct extraction of skimmed milk pellets is a viable method for quick turnaround of wastewater data for public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A State-of-the-Art Scoping Review on SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage Focusing on the
           Potential of Wastewater Surveillance for the Monitoring of the COVID-19
           Pandemic

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      Abstract: The outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. Several studies have shown that detecting SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater can be a useful tool to identify new outbreaks, establish outbreak trends, and assess the prevalence of infections. On 06 May 2021, over a year into the pandemic, we conducted a scoping review aiming to summarize research data on SARS-CoV-2 in sewage. Papers dealing with raw sewage collected at wastewater treatment plants, sewer networks, septic tanks, and sludge treatment facilities were included in this review. We also reviewed studies on sewage collected in community settings such as private or municipal hospitals, healthcare facilities, nursing homes, dormitories, campuses, airports, aircraft, and cruise ships. The literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web Science Core Collection. This comprehensive research yielded 1090 results, 66 of which met the inclusion criteria and are discussed in this review. Studies from 26 countries worldwide have investigated the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage of different origin. The percentage of positive samples in sewage ranged from 11.6 to 100%, with viral concentrations ranging from ˂LOD to 4.6 × 108 genome copies/L. This review outlines the evidence currently available on wastewater surveillance: (i) as an early warning system capable of predicting COVID-19 outbreaks days or weeks before clinical cases; (ii) as a tool capable of establishing trends in current outbreaks; (iii) estimating the prevalence of infections; and (iv) studying SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity. In conclusion, as a cost-effective, rapid, and reliable source of information on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in the population, wastewater surveillance can enhance genomic and epidemiological surveillance with independent and complementary data to inform public health decision-making during the ongoing pandemic. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Integration of RT-LAMP and Microfluidic Technology for Detection of
           SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater as an Advanced Point-of-Care Platform

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      Abstract: Development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system based on integration of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and microfluidic technology is expected to speed up SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics allowing early intervention. In the current work, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RT-LAMP assays were performed on extracted RNA of seven wastewater samples from COVID-19 hotspots. RT‑LAMP assay was also performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction. Current detection of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly by RT-qPCR of ORF (ORF1ab) and N genes so we targeted both to find the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We also performed RT-LAMP with/without RNA extraction inside microfluidic device to target both genes. Positivity rates of RT-qPCR and RT-LAMP performed on extracted RNA were 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. RT-qPCR results revealed that all 7 wastewater samples were positive for N gene (Ct range 37–39), and negative for ORF1ab, suggesting that N gene could be the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. RT-LAMP of N and ORF (ORF1a) genes performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction indicated that all 7 samples remains pink (negative). The color remains pink in all microchannels except microchannels which subjected to RT-LAMP for targeting N region after RNA extraction (yellow color) in 6 out of 7 samples. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 was successfully detected from wastewater samples using RT-LAMP in microfluidic chips. This study brings the novelty involving the use of wastewater samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 without previous virus concentration and with/without RNA extraction. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Performance of Manufacturer Cleaning Recommendations Applied to 3D Food
           Ink Capsules for the Control of a Human Norovirus Surrogate

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      Abstract: Abstract With the widespread availability of 3D food printing systems for purchase, users can customize their food in new ways. Manufacturer recommendations for cleaning these machines remain untested with regard to the prevention of foodborne pathogen transmission. This study aimed to determine if manufacturer cleaning recommendations for food ink capsules utilized in 3D food printers are adequate to control human norovirus (HuNoV). A HuNoV surrogate, Tulane virus (TuV; ~ 6 log10 PFU/mL), was inoculated onto the interior surface of stainless steel food ink capsules. Capsules were either unsoiled or soiled with one of the following: butter, protein powder solution, powdered sugar solution, or a mixture containing all three food components. The capsules were allowed to dry and then one of three hygienic protocols was applied: manual washing (MW), a dishwasher speed cycle (DSC), or a dishwasher heavy cycle (DHC). The interaction effect between DSC and pure butter was a significant predictor of log reduction (P = 0.0067), with the pure butter and DSC combination achieving an estimated mean log reduction of 4.83 (95% CI 4.13, 5.59). The DSC was the least effective method of cleaning when compared with MW and the DHC. The 3-way interaction effects between wash type, soil, and capsule position were a significant predictor of log reduction (P = 0.00341). Capsules with butter in the DSC achieved an estimated mean log reduction of 2.81 (95% CI 2.80, 2.83) for the front-most position versus 6.35 (95% CI 6.33, 6.37) for the back-most position. Soil matrix, cleaning protocol, and capsule position all significantly impact capsule cleanability and potential food safety risk. The DHC is recommended for all capsules, and the corners should be avoided when placing capsules into the dishwasher. The current study seeks to provide recommendations for users of additive manufacturing and 3D food printing including consumers, restaurants, industry, and regulatory industries.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
       
  • Bioaccumulation Dynamic by Crassostrea gigas Oysters of Viruses That Are
           Proposed as Surrogates for Enteric Virus Contamination in Environmental
           Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract Oysters are filter-feeders and retain sewage-derived pathogens in their organs or tissues. Since most enteric viruses involved in outbreaks cannot grow in cell culture, studies using viral surrogate models are essential. Some species are proposed as surrogates for enteric viruses in environmental samples, including in bivalve mollusk samples, such as murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and somatic (as φX) or F-specific coliphages (as MS2) bacteriophages. This study evaluated the tissue distribution of viral surrogates for enteric virus contamination after their bioaccumulation by Crassostrea gigas. Oyster tissues were analyzed for the distribution of viral surrogates (MNV-1, φX-174, and MS2) in digestive tissue (DT), gills (GL), and mantle (MT) after 4, 6, and 24 h of experimental bioaccumulation. MNV-1 had higher counts at 6 h in DT (1.2 × 103 PFU/g), followed by GL and MT (9.5 × 102 and 3.8 × 102 PFU/g, respectively). The bacteriophage φX-174 had a higher concentration in the MT at 4 and 6 h (3.0 × 102 PFU/g, in both) and MS2 in the GL after 24 h (2.2 × 102 PFU/g). The bioaccumulation pattern of MNV-1 by oysters was similar to the other enteric viruses (more in DT), while that of phages followed distinct patterns from these. Since the MNV-1 is bioaccumulated by C. gigas and is adapted to grow in cell culture, it is an important tool for bioaccumulation and viral inactivation tests in oysters. Although bacteriophage bioaccumulation was not similar to enteric viruses, they can be indicated for viral bioaccumulation analysis, analyzing MT and GL, since they do not bioaccumulate in DT.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • One-Year Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and Rotavirus in Water Matrices from a
           Hot Spring Area

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      Abstract: Abstract The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still impacting not only on human health but also all economic activities, especially in those related to tourism. In this study, in order to characterize the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in a hot spring park in Uruguay, swimming pools water, wastewater, and surface water from this area were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Wastewater from Salto city located next to the hydrothermal spring area was also evaluated as well as the presence of Rotavirus (RV). Overall, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 13% (13/102) of the analyzed samples. Moreover, this virus was not detected in any of the samples from the swimming pools water and was present in 18% (3/17) of wastewater samples from the hotels area showing the same trend between the titer of SARS-CoV-2 and the number of infected people in Salto city. SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in wastewater samples (32% (11/34)) from Salto city, detecting the first positive sample when 105 persons were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Rotavirus was detected only in 10% (2/24) of the wastewater samples analyzed in months when partial lockdown measures were taken, however, this virus was detected in nearly all wastewater samples analyzed when social distancing measures and partial lockdown were relaxed. Wastewater results confirmed the advantages of using the detection and quantification of viruses in this matrix in order to evaluate the presence of these viruses in the population, highlighting the usefulness of this approach to define and apply social distancing. This study suggests that waters from swimming pools are not a source of infection for SARS-CoV-2, although more studies are needed including infectivity assays in order to confirm this statement.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Microgreen Variety Impacts Leaf Surface Persistence of a Human Norovirus
           Surrogate

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      Abstract: Abstract Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a pathogenic agent that is frequently associated with foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Within microgreen production systems, understanding of virus transmission routes and persistence is limited. To investigate virus persistence on microgreen leaf surfaces, this study mimicked virus contaminations caused during microgreen handling by farm workers or during overhead irrigation with contaminated water. Specifically, approximately 5 log PFU of Tulane virus (TV)—a HuNoV surrogate—was inoculated on sunflower (SF) and pea shoot (PS) microgreen leaves at 7-day age. The virus reduction on SF was significantly higher than PS (p < 0.05). On day 10, total TV reduction for SF and PS were 3.70 ± 0.10 and 2.52 ± 0.30 log PFU/plant, respectively. Under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) observation, the leaf surfaces of SF were visually smoother than PS, while their specific effect on virus persistence were not further characterized. Overall, this study revealed that TV persistence on microgreen leaves was plant variety dependent. In addition, this study provided a preliminary estimation on the risk of HuNoV contamination in a microgreen production system which will aim the future development of prevention and control measures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Comparison of Extraction Methods for the Detection of Tick-Borne
           Encephalitis Virus RNA in Goat Raw Milk and Cream Cheese

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      Abstract: Abstract Infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause meningitis, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in humans. TBEV is an enveloped RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, which is mostly transmitted via tick bites. However, transmission by consumption of virus-contaminated goat raw milk and goat raw milk products has also been described. Only a few methods have been reported for the detection of TBEV in food so far. Here, we compare different virus extraction methods for goat raw milk and goat raw milk cream cheese and subsequent detection of TBEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. Langat virus (LGTV), a naturally attenuated TBEV strain, was used for artificial contamination experiments. Mengovirus and the human coronavirus 229E were compared to assess their suitability to serve as internal process controls. Out of three tested extraction protocols for raw milk, sample centrifugation followed by direct RNA extraction from the aqueous interphase yielded the best results, with a recovery rate (RR) of 31.8 ± 4.9% for LGTV and a detection limit of 6.7 × 103 LGTV genome copies/ml. Out of two methods for cream cheese, treatment of the samples with TRI Reagent® and chloroform prior to RNA extraction showed the best RR of 4.7 ± 1.6% for LGTV and a detection limit of 9.4 × 104 LGTV genome copies/g. RRs of Mengovirus and LGTV were similar for both methods; therefore, Mengovirus is suggested as internal process control virus. The developed methods may be useful for screening or surveillance studies, as well as in outbreak investigations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Water Environments: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis in humans, through foodborne, zoonotic, and waterborne transmission routes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HEV in water matrices. Six categories were defined: untreated and treated wastewater, surface water (river, lake, and seawater), drinking water, groundwater, and other water environments (irrigation water, grey water, reservoir water, flood water, and effluent of pig slaughterhouse). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and Excerpta Medica Database. Study selection and data extraction were performed by at least two independent investigators. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed using the χ2 test on the Cochran Q statistic and H parameter. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42021289116. We included 87 prevalence studies from 58 papers, 66.4% of which performed in Europe. The overall prevalence of HEV in water was 9.8% (95% CI 6.4–13.7). The prevalence was higher in untreated wastewater (15.1%) and lower in treated wastewater (3.8%) and in drinking water (4.7%). In surface water, prevalence was 7.4%, and in groundwater, the percentage of positive samples, from only one study available, was 8.3%. Overall, only 36.8% of the studies reported the genotype of HEV, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) prevalent (168 samples), followed by HEV-1 (148 sample), and HEV-4 (2 samples). High-income countries were the most represented with 59/87 studies (67.8%), while only 3/87 (3.5%) of the studies were performed in low-income countries. The overall prevalence obtained of this study was generally higher in industrialized countries. Risk of bias was low in 14.9% of the studies and moderate in 85.1%. The results of this review showed the occurrence of HEV in different waters environments also in industrialized countries with sanitation and safe water supplies. While HEV transmission to humans through water has been widely demonstrated in developing countries, it is an issue still pending in industrialized countries. Better knowledge on the source of pollution, occurrence, survival in water, and removal by water treatment is needed to unravel this transmission path. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09530-3
       
  • Interactions Between Infectious Foodborne Viruses and Bacterial Biofilms
           Formed on Different Food Contact Surfaces

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      Abstract: Abstract Bacterial biofilms contribute to contamination, spoilage, persistence, and hygiene failure in the food industry, but relatively little is known about the behavior of foodborne viruses evolving in the complex communities that make up biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteric viruses and biofilms on food contact surfaces. Formed biofilms of mono- and multispecies cultures were prepared on glass, stainless steel, and polystyrene coupons and 105 pfu/ml of murine norovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus were added and incubated for 15 min, 90 min, and 24 h. The data obtained clearly demonstrate that the presence of biofilms generally influences the adhesion of enteric viruses to different surfaces. Many significant increases in attachment rates were observed, particularly with rotavirus whose rate of viral infectious particles increased 7000 times in the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on polystyrene after 24 h of incubation and with hepatitis A virus, which seems to have an affinity for the biofilms formed by lactic acid bacteria. Murine norovirus seems to be the least influenced by the presence of biofilms with few significant increases. However, the different factors surrounding this association are unknown and seem to vary according to the viruses, the environmental conditions, and the composition of the biofilm.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09534-z
       
  • Evaluation of Methods and Processes for Robust Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in
           Wastewater

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has accelerated the development of virus concentration and molecular-based virus detection methods, monitoring systems and overall approach to epidemiology. Early into the pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology started to be employed as a tool for tracking the virus transmission dynamics in a given area. The complexity of wastewater coupled with a lack of standardized methods led us to evaluate each step of the analysis individually and see which approach gave the most robust results for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater. In this article, we present a step-by-step, retrospective view on the method development and implementation for the case of a pilot monitoring performed in Slovenia. We specifically address points regarding the thermal stability of the samples during storage, screening for the appropriate sample concentration and RNA extraction procedures and real-time PCR assay selection. Here, we show that the temperature and duration of the storage of the wastewater sample can have a varying impact on the detection depending on the structural form in which the SARS-CoV-2 target is present. We found that concentration and RNA extraction using Centricon filtration units coupled with Qiagen RNA extraction kit or direct RNA capture and extraction using semi-automated kit from Promega give the most optimal results out of the seven methods tested. Lastly, we confirm the use of N1 and N2 assays developed by the CDC (USA) as the best performing assays among four tested in combination with Fast Virus 1-mastermix. Data show a realistic overall process for method implementation as well as provide valuable information in regards to how different approaches in the analysis compare to one another under the specific conditions present in Slovenia during a pilot monitoring running from the beginning of the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09533-0
       
  • Combining Community Wastewater Genomic Surveillance with State Clinical
           Surveillance: A Framework for SARS-CoV-2 Public Health Practice

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop a framework for combining community wastewater surveillance with state clinical surveillance for the confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants within the community and to provide recommendations on how to expand on such research and apply the findings in public health responses. Wastewater samples were collected weekly from 17 geographically resolved locations in Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), from February 10 to December 13, 2021. Genomic surveillance and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) platforms were used to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, and state clinical surveillance was used for confirmation. The study results highlighted an increased epidemiological value of combining community wastewater genomic surveillance and RT-qPCR with conventional case-auditing methods. The spatial scale and temporal frequency of wastewater sampling provided promising sensitivity and specificity for gaining public health screening insights about SARS-CoV-2 emergence, seeding, and spread in communities. Improved national surveillance systems are needed against future pathogens and variants, and wastewater-based genomic surveillance exhibits great potential when coupled with clinical testing. This paper presents evidence that complementary wastewater and clinical testing are cost-effectively enhanced when used in combination, as they provide a strong tool for a joint public health framework. Future pathogens of interest may be examined in either a targeted fashion or using a more global approach where all pathogens are monitored. This study has also provided novel insights developed from evidence-based public health practices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09531-2
       
  • Active Surveillance and Genetic Characterization of Prevalent Velogenic
           Newcastle Disease and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Viruses Among
           Migratory Wild Birds in Southern Egypt During 2015–2018

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      Abstract: Abstract A total of 1007 samples (910 fecal droplets and 97 cloacal swabs) were collected from 14 species of migratory wild birds in most wetlands during 3 successive migration seasons from September to March (2015–2018) in Southern Egypt. The samples were propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and positive allantoic fluids by hemagglutination test were tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence using RT-PCR and specific primers targeting the NDV fusion (F) and AIV matrix genes. Further subtyping of the AIV hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was conducted, and representative isolates were selected and sequenced for full F gene of NDVs and HA and NA genes of the AIV. Overall isolation rate of hemagglutinating viruses was 5.56% (56/1007), from them 5.36% (3/56) AIV, 85.71% (48/56) NDV and 8.93% (5/56) co-infection of NDV and AIV was detected. The sequences analysis of full F genes of 10 NDV isolates revealed that they have multi-basic amino acid motifs 111E/GRRQKR/F117 as velogenic strains with nucleotides and amino acids similarities of 96–100%. In addition, they phylogenetically clustered into groups and subgroups within genotype VII.1.1 and sub-genotype VIIj with a close relation to NDVs isolated from chickens in Egypt. The AIV H5N8 subtype was in clade 2.3.4.4b with a highly pathogenic nature and close relation to Egyptian domesticated H5N8 viruses rather than those from wild birds. The current data showed the contribution of migratory birds to the continuous circulation of virulent NDV and AIV H5N8 among domesticated chickens in Southern Egypt.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09532-1
       
  • Investigation of the Presence of DNA of Highly Pathogenic Human
           Papillomaviruses in Water Bodies of the Lake Baikal Natural Territory

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      Abstract: Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are extremely widespread throughout the world. There are more than 100 types of HPVs, of which at least 14 types represent high oncogenic risk viruses (World Health Organization, 2020). Numerous attempts were made to analyze various water sources in order to (i) reveal the presence of DNA of pathogenic human papillomaviruses in them and (ii) assess the potential risks of occurrence of epidemics caused by HPV. With time, the necessity to solve these important problems stimulated the formation of a new direction in the world medical and environmental investigations. This paper contains the investigation of the presence of DNA of highly dangerous types of human papillomaviruses (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16 and HPV18) in water bodies of the Baikal natural territory, in particular in the water reservoirs in and near the villages of Listvyanka, Bolshiye Koty, Kultuk and the cities of Baikalsk and Slyudyanka. In course of our work, the conditions good for the study of the biological material obtained from water samples by the PCR technique to reveal the presence of DNA of HPV6, HPV11, HPV16 and HPV18 papillomaviruses were chosen. PCR analysis was conducted with the aid of both the already well-known universal primers GP5 + /6 + and the primers developed by our team to be applied to the conservative domains of nucleotide sequences encoding the main capsid protein L1 of human papillomaviruses HPV6, HPV11 (these types of the virus contribute to the occurrence of anogenital condylomatosis and the development of respiratory papillomatosis) and HPV16, HPV16 (these types of virus contribute to the occurrence of cervical cancer). The analyzes conducted by our team have revealed the presence of DNA of the four types of HPVs (6, 11, 16 and 18) in the samples taken from various water sources of the Baikal natural territory.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09529-w
       
  • A 2019 Outbreak Investigation of Hepatitis A Virus Infections in the
           United States Linked to Imported Fresh Blackberries

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents of acute viral hepatitis and causes approximately 1.4 million cases and 90,000 deaths annually despite the existence of an effective vaccine. In 2019, federal, state, and local partners investigated a multi-state outbreak of HAV infections linked to fresh blackberries sourced from multiple suppliers in Michoacán, Mexico. A total of 20 individuals with outbreak-related HAV infection were reported in seven states, including 11 hospitalizations, and no deaths. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Nebraska State and Douglas County Health Departments conducted a traceback investigation for fresh blackberries reportedly purchased by 16 ill persons. These individuals reported purchasing fresh blackberries from 11 points of service from September 16 through 29, 2019 and their clinical isolates assessed through next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were genetically similar. The traceback investigation did not reveal convergence on a common grower or packing house within Mexico, but all of the blackberries were harvested from growers in Michoacán, Mexico. FDA did not detect the pathogen after analyzing fresh blackberry samples from four distributors, one consumer, and from nine importers at the port of entry as a result of increased screening. Challenges included gaps in traceability practices and the inability to recover the pathogen from sample testing, which prohibited investigators from determining the source of the implicated blackberries. This multi-state outbreak illustrated the importance of food safety practices for fresh produce that may contribute to foodborne illness outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09527-y
       
  • Assessment of Surface Disinfection Effectiveness of Decontamination System
           COUNTERFOG® SDR-F05A+ Against Bacteriophage ɸ29

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      Abstract: Abstract The experience of COVID19 pandemic has demonstrated the real concern of biological agents dispersed in the air and surfaces environments. Therefore, the need of a fast and large-scale disinfection method has arisen for prevention of contagion. COUNTERFOG® is an innovative technology developed for large-scale decontamination of air and surfaces. The objective of this study is to assess experimentally the effectiveness of COUNTERFOG® in disinfecting viral-contaminated surfaces. We also aim to measure the necessary time to disinfect said surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with bacteriophage φ29 and disinfected using COUNTERFOG® SDR-F05A+, which uses a sodium hypochlorite solution at different concentrations and for different exposure times. A log reduction over 6 logs of virus titer is obtained in 1 min with 1.2% sodium hypochlorite when the application is direct; while at a radial distance of 5 cm from the point of application the disinfection reaches a reduction of 5.5 logs in 8 min. In the same way, a higher dilution of the sodium hypochlorite concentration (0.7% NaOCl) requires more exposure time (16 min) to obtain the same log reduction (> 6 logs). COUNTERFOG® creates, in a short time and at a distance of 2 m from the point of application, a thin layer of disinfectant that covers the surfaces. The selection of the concentration and exposure time is critical for the efficacy of disinfection. These tests demonstrate that a concentration between 0.7- 1.2% sodium hypochlorite is enough for a fast and efficient ɸ29 phage inactivation. The fact that ɸ29 phage is more resistant to disinfection than SARS-CoV-2 sustains this disinfection procedure.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09526-z
       
  • Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on Cold-Chain Food: Precautions Can Effectively
           Reduce the Risk

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a new era in the world, also in the food safety. Up to now, there is no evidence to suggest that people can infect COVID-19 via food contaminated by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we analyzed the results of regular SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing of considerable cold-chain food practitioners, cold-chain food surfaces, and their internal or external packaging as well as their associated environments, aiming to explore the risk of cold-chain food being contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the probability of people infecting COVID-19 through contaminated cold-chain food in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. This study found that only two batches of cold-chain food were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2, none of the cold-chain food handler were infected due to effective regulatory measures for cold-chain food. Therefore, effective supervision and preventive methods could effectively reduce the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain food.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09521-4
       
  • Infectious Pepper Mild Mottle Virus and Human Adenoviruses as Viral
           Indices in Sewage and Water Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to compare human adenoviruses (HAdVs) genome and infectivity, polyomaviruses (JC and BK) genome (JCPyVs) and (BKPyVs), Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) genome and infectivity, and infectious bacteriophages as viral indices for sewage and water samples. One hundred and forty-four samples were collected from inlets and outlets of water and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), and WWTPs within Greater Cairo from October 2015 till March 2017. Two methods of viral concentration [Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) precipitation method and adsorption-elution technique followed by organic flocculation method] were compared to determine which of them was the best method to concentrate viruses from sewage and water. Although samples with only one litre volume were concentrated using Al(OH)3 precipitation method and the same samples with larger volumes (5–20 L) were concentrated using the adsorption-elution technique followed by the organic flocculation method, a non-significant difference was observed between the efficiency of the two methods in all types of samples except for the drinking water samples. Based on the qualitative prevalence of studied viruses in water and wastewater samples, the number of genome copies and infectious units in the same samples, resistance to treatment processes in water and wastewater treatment plants, higher frequency of both adenoviruses and PMMoV genomes as candidate viral indices in treated sewage and drinking water was observed. The problem of having a viral genome as indices of viral pollution is that it does not express the recent viral pollution because of the longer survivability of the viral genome than the infectious units in water and wastewater. Both infectious adenovirus and infectious phiX174 bacteriophage virus showed similar efficiencies as indices for viral pollution in drinking water and treated sewage samples. On the other hand, qualitative detection of infectious PMMoV failed to express efficiently the presence/absence of infectious enteric viruses in drinking water samples. Infectious adenoviruses and infectious bacteriophage phiX174 virus may be better candidates than adenoviruses genome, polyomaviruses genome, and PMMoV genome and infectivity as viral indices for water and wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09525-0
       
 
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