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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Infectious Pepper Mild Mottle Virus and Human Adenoviruses as Viral
           Indices in Sewage and Water Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to compare human adenoviruses (HAdVs) genome and infectivity, polyomaviruses (JC and BK) genome (JCPyVs) and (BKPyVs), Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) genome and infectivity, and infectious bacteriophages as viral indices for sewage and water samples. One hundred and forty-four samples were collected from inlets and outlets of water and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), and WWTPs within Greater Cairo from October 2015 till March 2017. Two methods of viral concentration [Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) precipitation method and adsorption-elution technique followed by organic flocculation method] were compared to determine which of them was the best method to concentrate viruses from sewage and water. Although samples with only one litre volume were concentrated using Al(OH)3 precipitation method and the same samples with larger volumes (5–20 L) were concentrated using the adsorption-elution technique followed by the organic flocculation method, a non-significant difference was observed between the efficiency of the two methods in all types of samples except for the drinking water samples. Based on the qualitative prevalence of studied viruses in water and wastewater samples, the number of genome copies and infectious units in the same samples, resistance to treatment processes in water and wastewater treatment plants, higher frequency of both adenoviruses and PMMoV genomes as candidate viral indices in treated sewage and drinking water was observed. The problem of having a viral genome as indices of viral pollution is that it does not express the recent viral pollution because of the longer survivability of the viral genome than the infectious units in water and wastewater. Both infectious adenovirus and infectious phiX174 bacteriophage virus showed similar efficiencies as indices for viral pollution in drinking water and treated sewage samples. On the other hand, qualitative detection of infectious PMMoV failed to express efficiently the presence/absence of infectious enteric viruses in drinking water samples. Infectious adenoviruses and infectious bacteriophage phiX174 virus may be better candidates than adenoviruses genome, polyomaviruses genome, and PMMoV genome and infectivity as viral indices for water and wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Stability of Hepatitis E Virus After Drying on Different Surfaces

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      Abstract: Abstract The hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is mainly transmitted by consumption of contaminated food produced from infected animals. However, transmission via contaminated surfaces has also to be considered. Here, the genotype 3c strain 47832c was dried on steel, wood, plastics and ceramics, stored at 23 °C or 3 °C for up to 8 weeks and remaining infectivity was titrated on cell culture. During the drying process, only a mean 0.2 log10 decrease of HEV infectivity was observed. At 23 °C, remaining infectious virus was detected until week 4 on most surfaces, but HEV was completely inactivated (> 4 log10 decrease) after 8 weeks. At 3 °C, HEV was detectable up to 8 weeks on most surfaces, with an average 2.3 log10 decrease. HEV showed the highest stability on plastics, which was lower on ceramics and steel, and lowest on wood. The addition of bovine serum albumin mimicking high protein load had only a slight stabilizing effect. In conclusion, HEV shows a high stability against drying and subsequent storage on different surfaces. Strict application of hygienic measures during food production is therefore crucial in order to prevent HEV persistence on surfaces and subsequent cross-contamination.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Detection of Enteric Viruses from Wastewater and River Water in Botswana

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      Abstract: Abstract Waterborne diseases remain a public health concern in developing countries where many lack access to safe water. Water testing mainly uses bacterial indicators to assess water quality, which may not fully indicate the threat from other non-bacterial pathogens like enteric viruses. This study was done to ascertain and establish the viral load, the temporal and spatial distribution of rotavirus A and norovirus (GI and GII) in sewage and river water samples. A total of 45 samples of raw and treated sewage, and surface water, were collected from a sludge activated wastewater treatment plant in Gaborone, and after treatment from the Notwane River, Botswana, over a period of 9 months (February 2016 to October 2016). Viruses were concentrated using polyethylene glycol/NaCl precipitation. Virus detection was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rotavirus A was the most prevalent (84.4% positive samples), followed by Norovirus GI (48.9% positive samples), and Norovirus GII 46.7% positive samples). Detected viral loads went up to 104 genome copies per liter (copies/L) for all the viruses. The enteric viruses were detected in all the study sites with highest detection from site S1 (inlet). There was no significant association between physicochemical parameters and viral loads, except for pH which showed significant relationship with rotavirus and norovirus GII (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first study in Botswana to highlight the occurrence and quantification of the enteric viruses in treated and untreated wastewater, as well as surface water.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Updating a New Semi-nested PCR Primer Pair for the Specific Detection of
           GII Norovirus in Oysters

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      Abstract: Abstract Oysters are major transmission vectors of noroviruses (NoVs) in the environment. Outbreaks of NoVs are often associated with the consumption of NoV-contaminated oysters. Laboratory confirmation of suspected oyster samples is a critical step in the surveillance and control of NoVs. Because of non-specific amplification, false-positive results are frequently obtained by semi-nested RT-PCR with the presently widely used primer set (G2SKF/G2SKR). Here, a novel universal PCR primer set N (NG2OF/NG2OR) specific for genogroup II (GII) NoVs was designed based on all GII NoV sequences available in public databases. Specific products were obtained with the primer set N when the NoV-positive oysters, spiked with each of five representative genotypes of GII NoVs (GII.17, GII.13, GII.4, GII.3, and GII.12), were subjected to analyzing. No products were detected with the primer set N for the NoV-negative oysters, while the primer set C gave various non-specific bands. Twenty-three out of 156 fresh oyster samples were NoV-positive with both the primer set N and the classic primer set, while eight were NoV-positive solely with the primer set N. Compared with the classic primer set, the newly designed primer set N had a higher detection rate and improved specificity for GII NoVs in oyster samples. These results show that the novel PCR primer pair is specific and applicable for the detection of GII NoVs in oysters.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Air Surveillance for Viral Contamination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA at a
           Healthcare Facility

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      Abstract: Abstract The transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 also called COVID-19 disease) in indoor environments are the main area of contention between health systems and scientists. In this context, little has been investigated about the collection of airborne viral shedding. Here, we collected air samples from 24 locations inside the sole COVID-19 patient care center in Zabol, Iran, for screening SARS-CoV-2 RNA from March to May 2021. Locations included the ICU, COVID-19 wards (CWs) rooms, corridors, nearby nurses’ stations, and toilets. We identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in breathing zone of CW, in room air, with the positivity rate of 2.5% at a concentration of 17 × 103 virus genome copies/m3 air. It also investigates the relationship between local climate conditions [i.e., temperature and relative humidity] and COVID-19 transmission with the evolution of daily official data on the number of new cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Current data explained that the difference of temperature and humidity may affect the behavior of virus along with other factors, i.e., population density, individual viral shedding, and infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 (both indoor and outdoor). Our data support the potential SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission indoors suggesting the specific safety assessment of building to improve ventilation solutions besides proper using face masks and extensive public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Integration of RT-LAMP and Microfluidic Technology for Detection of
           SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater as an Advanced Point-of-Care Platform

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      Abstract: Development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system based on integration of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and microfluidic technology is expected to speed up SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics allowing early intervention. In the current work, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RT-LAMP assays were performed on extracted RNA of seven wastewater samples from COVID-19 hotspots. RT‑LAMP assay was also performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction. Current detection of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly by RT-qPCR of ORF (ORF1ab) and N genes so we targeted both to find the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We also performed RT-LAMP with/without RNA extraction inside microfluidic device to target both genes. Positivity rates of RT-qPCR and RT-LAMP performed on extracted RNA were 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. RT-qPCR results revealed that all 7 wastewater samples were positive for N gene (Ct range 37–39), and negative for ORF1ab, suggesting that N gene could be the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. RT-LAMP of N and ORF (ORF1a) genes performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction indicated that all 7 samples remains pink (negative). The color remains pink in all microchannels except microchannels which subjected to RT-LAMP for targeting N region after RNA extraction (yellow color) in 6 out of 7 samples. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 was successfully detected from wastewater samples using RT-LAMP in microfluidic chips. This study brings the novelty involving the use of wastewater samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 without previous virus concentration and with/without RNA extraction. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in the Wastewater and Rivers of Tapachula, a
           Migratory Hub in Southern Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has been monitored by applying different strategies, including SARS-CoV-2 detection with clinical testing or through wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). We used the latter approach to follow SARS-CoV-2 dispersion in Tapachula city, located in Mexico’s tropical southern border region. Tapachula is a dynamic entry point for people seeking asylum in Mexico or traveling to the USA. Clinical testing facilities for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring are limited in the city. A total of eighty water samples were collected from urban and suburban rivers and sewage and a wastewater treatment plant over 4 months in Tapachula. We concentrated viral particles with a PEG-8000-based method, performed RNA extraction, and detected SARS-CoV-2 particles through RT-PCR. We considered the pepper mild mottle virus as a fecal water pollution biomarker and analytical control. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads (N1 and N2 markers) were quantified and correlated with official regional statistics of COVID-19 bed occupancy and confirmed cases (r > 91%). Our results concluded that WBE proved a valuable tool for tracing and tracking the COVID-19 pandemic in tropical countries with similar water temperatures (21–29 °C). Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 through urban and suburban river water sampling would be helpful in places lacking a wastewater treatment plant or water bodies with sewage discharges.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Curcumin and Its Analogs as a Therapeutic Strategy in Infections Caused by
           RNA Genome Viruses

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of natural resources for the prevention and treatment of diseases considered fatal to humanity has evolved. Several medicinal plants have nutritional and pharmacological potential in the prevention and treatment of viral infections, among them, turmeric, which is recognized for its biological properties associated with curcuminoids, mainly represented by curcumin, and found mostly in rhizomes. The purpose of this review was to compile the pharmacological activities of curcumin and its analogs, aiming at stimulating their use as a therapeutic strategy to treat infections caused by RNA genome viruses. We revisited its historical application as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral agent that combined with low toxicity, motivated research against viruses affecting the population for decades. Most findings concentrate particularly on arboviruses, HIV, and the recent SARS-CoV-2. As one of the main conclusions, associating curcuminoids with nanomaterials increases solubility, bioavailability, and antiviral effects, characterized by blocking the entry of the virus into the cell or by inhibiting key enzymes in viral replication and transcription.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09514-3
       
  • Protective Effect of Food Against Inactivation of Human Coronavirus OC43
           by Gastrointestinal Fluids

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      Abstract: Abstract The involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported in multiple studies. Since it has been demonstrated that human intestinal epithelial cells support productive viral replication and that a substantial portion of infected individuals shed the virus in feces, the possibility of fecal–oral and fecal-respiratory modes of transmission have been proposed for SARS-CoV-2. In order to establish viral replication in the intestine, enteric viruses need to retain their infectivity in often low pH gastric fluids, and in intestinal fluids, which contain digestive enzymes and bile salts. In this study, we examined whether human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) can remain infectious in simulated GI fluids that models human fasting-state and fed-state, in the presence or absence of food. We demonstrated that except for fasting-state gastric fluid (pH 1.6), the virus can remain infectious in all other gastrointestinal fluids for 1 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that presence of food could significantly improve viral survival in gastric fluids. Therefore, this study provides evidence that ingestion with food could protect the virus against inactivation by the GI fluids.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09520-5
       
  • Use of a Hydrogen Peroxide Nebulizer for Viral Disinfection of Emergency
           Ambulance and Hospital Waiting Room

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      Abstract: Abstract Disinfection of hospital facilities and ambulances is an important issue for breaking the chain of transmission of viral pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide has provided promising results in laboratory assays. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide nebulizer for the inactivation of surrogate MS2 bacteriophage and murine norovirus (MNV) in a patient waiting room and the fully equipped cabin of a medical ambulance. We observed an average 3 log10 titer reduction in both settings, which represents the destruction of over 106 and 109 infectious particles of MNV and MS2 per cm2, respectively. The potential for viral exposure is high for health workers when disinfecting confined and cluttered spaces, so the use of a hydrogen peroxide mist might offer an affordable and efficient solution to minimize the risk of viral contaminations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09519-y
       
  • Occurrence of Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis a Virus, and Enterovirus in
           Berries in Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract Berries have been implicated as the probable vehicle of infection in multiple outbreaks of norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). These foods often receive minimal or no processing and may be exposed to virus contamination at each stage of production. In an increasingly globalized world, berries have a wide distribution and can give rise to the spread of diseases in distant parts of the world. With the aim of describing the virological quality of the berries cultivated in Argentina, a total of 184 soft fruits of different varieties (strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, pomegranate arils, cassis, and elder) were collected during the periods 2016–2018 and 2020. Viral particles were eluted and concentrated by polyethylene glycol precipitation according to ISO 15216-2:2019 guidelines. Genome detection of norovirus (NoV) genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), HAV, rotavirus, and enterovirus was performed by real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan probes. Positive samples were amplified by conventional RT-PCR and the amplicons were purified and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Neighbor-Joining method based on the evolutionary model Kimura-2-parameters. NoV GII.6 was detected in 1/184 (0.5%) of the soft fruits, corresponding to a raspberry sample obtained during the fall of 2017. No presence of other human enteric viruses was found in the other berries analyzed. The collected data are the first in Argentina in relation to the prevalence of enteric viruses in berries and is useful as reference data for a risk assessment of soft fruits as vehicles of foodborne pathogenic viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09518-z
       
  • Nanomaterial-Augmented Formulation of Disinfectants and Antiseptics in
           Controlling SARS CoV-2

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      Abstract: Abstract The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09517-0
       
  • Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy
           Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents. This study aimed to detect the presence of these viruses in green leafy vegetables (watercress, leek, coriander, and parsley) and strawberry using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were collected from the Egyptian regions of Kalubia, Giza, and Mansoura. Overall HAV average occurrence in fresh strawberry was 48% with a mean concentration of 6.1 × 103 GC/g; Also NoV GI overall average occurrence was 25% with a mean concentration of 9.7 × 102 genome copies (GC)/g, while NoV GII was 40% with a mean concentration of 2.4 × 103 GC/g. For strawberry collected directly from Kalubia farms, neither HAV nor HNoV GI & GII were detected. In green leafy vegetable samples, the occurrence of HAV was 31.2% with a mean concentration of 9.2 × 104 GC/g, while occurrence of NoV GI and NoV GII were 20% and 30% with a mean concentrations of 1.1 × 104 and 2.03 × 103 GC/g, respectively. In conclusion, the importance of a virus surveillance program for soft fruits and fresh vegetables is highlighted by the outcomes of this study. Our findings should help with the management and control of microbial concerns in fresh foods, reducing the danger of consuming contaminated foods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09516-1
       
  • Escherichia coli, Species C Human Adenovirus, and Enterovirus in Water
           Samples Consumed in Rural Areas of Goi├ís, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Rural environments lack basic sanitation services. Facilities for obtaining water and disposing sewage are often under the initiative of each resident, who may not be able to build and maintain them properly. Thus, water for human consumption is subject to fecal contamination and, consequently, the presence of waterborne pathogens, such as enteric viruses. This study evaluated fecal contamination of water samples from individual sources used for domestic water supply on small farms in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected from 78 houses whose water sources were tubular wells, dug wells, springs, and surface waters. Escherichia coli (EC) bacteria, analyzed by the defined chromogenic substrate method, was used as a traditional indicator of fecal contamination. The enteric viruses Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) and Enterovirus (EV), analyzed by qPCR, were tested as complementary indicators of fecal contamination. At least one of these markers was found in 89.7% of the samples. Detection rates were 79.5% for EC, 52.6% for HAdV, and 5.1% for EV. The average concentration for EC was 8.82 × 101 most probable number (MPN) per 100 mL, while for HAdV and EV the concentrations were 7.51 × 105 and 1.89 × 106 genomic copies (GC) per liter, respectively. EC was the most frequent marker in ground and surface water samples. HAdV was detected significantly more frequently in groundwater than in surface water and was more efficient in indicating contamination in tubular wells. There was no association of frequencies or correlation of concentrations between EC and HAdV. HAdV indicated human fecal contamination and performed well as a complementary indicator. The results reveal that a large part of the analyzed population is vulnerable to waterborne diseases caused by enteric pathogens.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09504-x
       
  • The RNA Secondary Structure Analysis Reveals Potential for Emergence of
           Pathogenic Flaviviruses

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      Abstract: Abstract The Flavivirus genus is divided into four groups: Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Tick-borne flaviviruses, no-known vector flaviviruses, and Insect specific flaviviruses. Millions of people are affected worldwide every year due to the flaviviral infections. The 5' UTR of the RNA genome plays a critical role in the biology of flaviviruses. To explore any correlation between the topology of the 5' UTR and pathogenesis, a global scale study of the RNA secondary structure of different groups of flaviviruses has been conducted. We found that most of the pathogenic flaviviruses, irrespective of their mode of transmission, tend to form a Y shaped topology in the Stem loop A of the 5' UTR. Some of the current non-pathogenic flaviviruses were also observed to form Y shaped structure. Based on this study, it has been proposed that the flaviviruses having the Y shaped topology in their 5′ UTR regions may have the potential to become pathogenic.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09502-z
       
  • Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in Indoor Air of Sina and Shahid Beheshti
           Hospitals and Patients' Houses

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      Abstract: Abstract Side by side air sampling was conducted using a PTFE filter membrane as dry sampler and an impinger containing a suitable culture medium as a wet sampler. Most of the samples were collected from two hospitals and few air samples were collected from private houses of non-hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients. The collected air samples were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results indicated that all air samples collected from the hospitals were PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. While two of four air samples collected from the house of non-hospitalized patients were PCR positive. In this study, most of the hospitalized patients had oxygen mask and face mask, and hence this may be a reason for our negative results regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor air of the hospitals, while non-hospitalized patients did not wear oxygen and protective face masks in their houses. Moreover, a very high concentration of particles in the size range of droplet nuclei (< 5 µm) was identified compared to particles in the size range of respiratory droplets (> 5–10 µm) in the areas where patients were hospitalized. It can be concluded that using face mask by patients can prevent the release of viruses into the indoor air, even in hospitals with a high density of patients.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09515-2
       
  • Detection of Norovirus Recombinant GII.2[P16] Strains in Oysters in
           Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract Human norovirus causes sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the predominant strains are genotype GII.4 variants. Recently, a novel GII.17[P17] and a recombinant GII.2[P16] strain have been reported as the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks of norovirus are frequently associated with foodborne illness. In this study, each of 75 oyster samples processed by a proteinase K extraction method and an adsorption-elution method were examined for noroviruses using RT-nested PCR with capsid primers. Thirteen (17.3%) samples processed by either method tested positive for norovirus genogroup II (GII). PCR amplicons were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as GII.2 (n = 6), GII.4 (n = 1), GII.17 (n = 3), and GII.unclassified (n = 3). Norovirus-positive samples were further amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR targeting the polymerase-capsid genes. One nucleotide sequence revealed GII.17[P17] Kawasaki strain. Five nucleotide sequences were identified as belonging to the recombinant GII.2[P16] strains by recombination analysis. The collected oyster samples were quantified for norovirus GII genome copy number by RT-quantitative PCR. Using the proteinase K method, GII was found in 13/75 (17.3%) of samples with a range of 8.83–1.85 × 104 genome copies/g of oyster. One sample (1/75, 1.3%) processed by the adsorption-elution method was positive for GII at 5.00 × 101 genome copies/g. These findings indicate the circulation of a new variant GII.17 Kawasaki strain and the recombinant GII.2[P16] in oyster samples corresponding to the circulating strains reported at a global scale during the same period of time. The detection of the recombinant strains in oysters emphasizes the need for continuing systematic surveillance for control and prevention of norovirus gastroenteritis.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09508-1
       
  • Detection and Sequencing of Multiple Human Norovirus Genotypes from
           Imported Frozen Raspberries Linked to Outbreaks in the Province of Quebec,
           Canada, in 2017

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      Abstract: Abstract Human noroviruses are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several norovirus food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of norovirus RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low and PCR inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies. In 2017, 724 people from various regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada, were infected by noroviruses and the outbreak investigation pointed to frozen raspberries as a putative source. A new magnetic silica bead approach was used for the extraction of viruses from different outbreak samples. The RNA extracts were tested by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and five samples were confirmed positive for norovirus by RT-qPCR amplicon sequencing. A multiplex long-range two-step RT-PCR approach was developed to amplify norovirus ORF2 and ORF3 capsid genes from the positive frozen raspberry RNA extracts and other sequencing strategies were also explored. These capsid genes were sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of multiple genotypes (GI.3, GI.6, and GII.17) and intra-genotype variants in some of the frozen raspberry samples. Variants of genotype GI.3 and GI.6 had 100% homology with sequences from patient samples. Similar strains were also reported in previous outbreaks. Confirmation approaches based on sequencing the norovirus capsid genes using Next-Generation Sequencing can be applied at trace level contaminations and could be useful to assess risk and assist in source tracking.
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09507-8
       
  • Estimation of Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Environments of Live
           Poultry Markets in Changsha, China, 2014 to 2018

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      Abstract: Abstract In routine surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the environments of live poultry markets (LPMs), certain samples were positive for AIVs type A while negative for subtypes (e.g., H5, H7, and H9). However, little attention has been paid to these unsubtyped AIVs samples. To reveal the dynamic distribution and molecular characteristics of AIVs, especially the unsubtyped AIVs, we reported and analyzed 1969 samples collected from the water environments of LPMs in Changsha, China, from January 2014 to November 2018. Our results revealed that 1504 (76.38%) samples were positive for AIV type A. Of these samples, the predominant hemagglutinin (HA) subtype was H9, followed by H5 and H7 (P < 0.05). The positive rate of H5 subtype in water environmental samples exhibited seasonality, which reached a peak in each winter–spring season from January 2014 to March 2017. The positive rates of AIVs (including type A, subtype H9, and mixed subtype H5/H7/H9) in non-central-city regions were higher than that in the central-city regions (P < 0.05). Notably, 161 unsubtyped AIVs samples were detected during the routine surveillance. However, subtyping with the commercial kit further identified eight different HA and seven different neuraminidase subtypes. Analyses unraveled that further subtyped AIVs H1, H6, and H11 had only one basic amino acid (R or K) at the cleavage site and residues Q226 and G228 at the receptor-binding associated sites. Overall, in addition to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes, we should also pay attention to unsubtyped AIVs samples during the routine surveillance for AIVs in the environments of LPMs.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09506-9
       
  • Detection of Rotavirus Strains in Freshwater Clams in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Bivalve molluscan shellfish like clams and oysters, etc., are capable to bioaccumulate surrounding contaminants from waters into their digestive systems and posing serious threats of food poisoning. Detection of rotaviruses (RVs) in shellfish is of particular importance because RVs are prone to genome reassortment resulting in the emergence of new RV variants that may compromise vaccine safety. Herein, we have detected the wild-type RVs and Rotarix/RotaTeq vaccine strains in freshwater clams collected on the riverside, Kawasaki city, from July 2019 to January 2020 and correlated the detected genotypes with that of gastroenteritis cases of nearby clinics to understand the transmission of RVs in the environment. The wild-type RVs were detected in 62 (64.6%) out of 96 freshwater clams in every study month: July, September, November, and January that are considered as off-season for RV infections. The most frequent genotypes were G2 (42.9%), G8 (28.6%), G3 (14.3%), G1 (7.1%), and G10 (7.1%), which remained comparable with genotypic distribution found in the clinical samples over the last few years indicating that these RVs may accumulate in clams since a long time. However, G10 genotype was detected in clam but not in clinical samples suggesting the presence of asymptomatic infection or RVs could be carried out from a long distance. Importantly, vaccine strains, RotaTeq (1%) but not Rotarix (0%), were also detected in a clam. Attention must be paid to monitoring the potential transmission of wild-type and vaccine RV strains in the environment to prevent the emergence of new variants generated from genome reassortment with vaccine strains.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09505-w
       
 
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