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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access  
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Air Surveillance for Viral Contamination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA at a
           Healthcare Facility

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      Abstract: Abstract The transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 also called COVID-19 disease) in indoor environments are the main area of contention between health systems and scientists. In this context, little has been investigated about the collection of airborne viral shedding. Here, we collected air samples from 24 locations inside the sole COVID-19 patient care center in Zabol, Iran, for screening SARS-CoV-2 RNA from March to May 2021. Locations included the ICU, COVID-19 wards (CWs) rooms, corridors, nearby nurses’ stations, and toilets. We identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in breathing zone of CW, in room air, with the positivity rate of 2.5% at a concentration of 17 × 103 virus genome copies/m3 air. It also investigates the relationship between local climate conditions [i.e., temperature and relative humidity] and COVID-19 transmission with the evolution of daily official data on the number of new cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Current data explained that the difference of temperature and humidity may affect the behavior of virus along with other factors, i.e., population density, individual viral shedding, and infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 (both indoor and outdoor). Our data support the potential SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission indoors suggesting the specific safety assessment of building to improve ventilation solutions besides proper using face masks and extensive public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Integration of RT-LAMP and Microfluidic Technology for Detection of
           SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater as an Advanced Point-of-Care Platform

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      Abstract: Development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system based on integration of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and microfluidic technology is expected to speed up SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics allowing early intervention. In the current work, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RT-LAMP assays were performed on extracted RNA of seven wastewater samples from COVID-19 hotspots. RT‑LAMP assay was also performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction. Current detection of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly by RT-qPCR of ORF (ORF1ab) and N genes so we targeted both to find the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We also performed RT-LAMP with/without RNA extraction inside microfluidic device to target both genes. Positivity rates of RT-qPCR and RT-LAMP performed on extracted RNA were 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. RT-qPCR results revealed that all 7 wastewater samples were positive for N gene (Ct range 37–39), and negative for ORF1ab, suggesting that N gene could be the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. RT-LAMP of N and ORF (ORF1a) genes performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction indicated that all 7 samples remains pink (negative). The color remains pink in all microchannels except microchannels which subjected to RT-LAMP for targeting N region after RNA extraction (yellow color) in 6 out of 7 samples. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 was successfully detected from wastewater samples using RT-LAMP in microfluidic chips. This study brings the novelty involving the use of wastewater samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 without previous virus concentration and with/without RNA extraction. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in the Wastewater and Rivers of Tapachula, a
           Migratory Hub in Southern Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has been monitored by applying different strategies, including SARS-CoV-2 detection with clinical testing or through wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). We used the latter approach to follow SARS-CoV-2 dispersion in Tapachula city, located in Mexico’s tropical southern border region. Tapachula is a dynamic entry point for people seeking asylum in Mexico or traveling to the USA. Clinical testing facilities for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring are limited in the city. A total of eighty water samples were collected from urban and suburban rivers and sewage and a wastewater treatment plant over 4 months in Tapachula. We concentrated viral particles with a PEG-8000-based method, performed RNA extraction, and detected SARS-CoV-2 particles through RT-PCR. We considered the pepper mild mottle virus as a fecal water pollution biomarker and analytical control. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads (N1 and N2 markers) were quantified and correlated with official regional statistics of COVID-19 bed occupancy and confirmed cases (r > 91%). Our results concluded that WBE proved a valuable tool for tracing and tracking the COVID-19 pandemic in tropical countries with similar water temperatures (21–29 °C). Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 through urban and suburban river water sampling would be helpful in places lacking a wastewater treatment plant or water bodies with sewage discharges.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Curcumin and Its Analogs as a Therapeutic Strategy in Infections Caused by
           RNA Genome Viruses

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of natural resources for the prevention and treatment of diseases considered fatal to humanity has evolved. Several medicinal plants have nutritional and pharmacological potential in the prevention and treatment of viral infections, among them, turmeric, which is recognized for its biological properties associated with curcuminoids, mainly represented by curcumin, and found mostly in rhizomes. The purpose of this review was to compile the pharmacological activities of curcumin and its analogs, aiming at stimulating their use as a therapeutic strategy to treat infections caused by RNA genome viruses. We revisited its historical application as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral agent that combined with low toxicity, motivated research against viruses affecting the population for decades. Most findings concentrate particularly on arboviruses, HIV, and the recent SARS-CoV-2. As one of the main conclusions, associating curcuminoids with nanomaterials increases solubility, bioavailability, and antiviral effects, characterized by blocking the entry of the virus into the cell or by inhibiting key enzymes in viral replication and transcription.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Protective Effect of Food Against Inactivation of Human Coronavirus OC43
           by Gastrointestinal Fluids

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      Abstract: Abstract The involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported in multiple studies. Since it has been demonstrated that human intestinal epithelial cells support productive viral replication and that a substantial portion of infected individuals shed the virus in feces, the possibility of fecal–oral and fecal-respiratory modes of transmission have been proposed for SARS-CoV-2. In order to establish viral replication in the intestine, enteric viruses need to retain their infectivity in often low pH gastric fluids, and in intestinal fluids, which contain digestive enzymes and bile salts. In this study, we examined whether human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) can remain infectious in simulated GI fluids that models human fasting-state and fed-state, in the presence or absence of food. We demonstrated that except for fasting-state gastric fluid (pH 1.6), the virus can remain infectious in all other gastrointestinal fluids for 1 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that presence of food could significantly improve viral survival in gastric fluids. Therefore, this study provides evidence that ingestion with food could protect the virus against inactivation by the GI fluids.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
       
  • Use of a Hydrogen Peroxide Nebulizer for Viral Disinfection of Emergency
           Ambulance and Hospital Waiting Room

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      Abstract: Abstract Disinfection of hospital facilities and ambulances is an important issue for breaking the chain of transmission of viral pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide has provided promising results in laboratory assays. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide nebulizer for the inactivation of surrogate MS2 bacteriophage and murine norovirus (MNV) in a patient waiting room and the fully equipped cabin of a medical ambulance. We observed an average 3 log10 titer reduction in both settings, which represents the destruction of over 106 and 109 infectious particles of MNV and MS2 per cm2, respectively. The potential for viral exposure is high for health workers when disinfecting confined and cluttered spaces, so the use of a hydrogen peroxide mist might offer an affordable and efficient solution to minimize the risk of viral contaminations.
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
       
  • Occurrence of Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis a Virus, and Enterovirus in
           Berries in Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract Berries have been implicated as the probable vehicle of infection in multiple outbreaks of norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). These foods often receive minimal or no processing and may be exposed to virus contamination at each stage of production. In an increasingly globalized world, berries have a wide distribution and can give rise to the spread of diseases in distant parts of the world. With the aim of describing the virological quality of the berries cultivated in Argentina, a total of 184 soft fruits of different varieties (strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, pomegranate arils, cassis, and elder) were collected during the periods 2016–2018 and 2020. Viral particles were eluted and concentrated by polyethylene glycol precipitation according to ISO 15216-2:2019 guidelines. Genome detection of norovirus (NoV) genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), HAV, rotavirus, and enterovirus was performed by real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan probes. Positive samples were amplified by conventional RT-PCR and the amplicons were purified and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Neighbor-Joining method based on the evolutionary model Kimura-2-parameters. NoV GII.6 was detected in 1/184 (0.5%) of the soft fruits, corresponding to a raspberry sample obtained during the fall of 2017. No presence of other human enteric viruses was found in the other berries analyzed. The collected data are the first in Argentina in relation to the prevalence of enteric viruses in berries and is useful as reference data for a risk assessment of soft fruits as vehicles of foodborne pathogenic viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
       
  • Nanomaterial-Augmented Formulation of Disinfectants and Antiseptics in
           Controlling SARS CoV-2

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      Abstract: Abstract The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09517-0
       
  • Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy
           Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents. This study aimed to detect the presence of these viruses in green leafy vegetables (watercress, leek, coriander, and parsley) and strawberry using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were collected from the Egyptian regions of Kalubia, Giza, and Mansoura. Overall HAV average occurrence in fresh strawberry was 48% with a mean concentration of 6.1 × 103 GC/g; Also NoV GI overall average occurrence was 25% with a mean concentration of 9.7 × 102 genome copies (GC)/g, while NoV GII was 40% with a mean concentration of 2.4 × 103 GC/g. For strawberry collected directly from Kalubia farms, neither HAV nor HNoV GI & GII were detected. In green leafy vegetable samples, the occurrence of HAV was 31.2% with a mean concentration of 9.2 × 104 GC/g, while occurrence of NoV GI and NoV GII were 20% and 30% with a mean concentrations of 1.1 × 104 and 2.03 × 103 GC/g, respectively. In conclusion, the importance of a virus surveillance program for soft fruits and fresh vegetables is highlighted by the outcomes of this study. Our findings should help with the management and control of microbial concerns in fresh foods, reducing the danger of consuming contaminated foods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09516-1
       
  • Escherichia coli, Species C Human Adenovirus, and Enterovirus in Water
           Samples Consumed in Rural Areas of Goiás, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Rural environments lack basic sanitation services. Facilities for obtaining water and disposing sewage are often under the initiative of each resident, who may not be able to build and maintain them properly. Thus, water for human consumption is subject to fecal contamination and, consequently, the presence of waterborne pathogens, such as enteric viruses. This study evaluated fecal contamination of water samples from individual sources used for domestic water supply on small farms in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected from 78 houses whose water sources were tubular wells, dug wells, springs, and surface waters. Escherichia coli (EC) bacteria, analyzed by the defined chromogenic substrate method, was used as a traditional indicator of fecal contamination. The enteric viruses Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) and Enterovirus (EV), analyzed by qPCR, were tested as complementary indicators of fecal contamination. At least one of these markers was found in 89.7% of the samples. Detection rates were 79.5% for EC, 52.6% for HAdV, and 5.1% for EV. The average concentration for EC was 8.82 × 101 most probable number (MPN) per 100 mL, while for HAdV and EV the concentrations were 7.51 × 105 and 1.89 × 106 genomic copies (GC) per liter, respectively. EC was the most frequent marker in ground and surface water samples. HAdV was detected significantly more frequently in groundwater than in surface water and was more efficient in indicating contamination in tubular wells. There was no association of frequencies or correlation of concentrations between EC and HAdV. HAdV indicated human fecal contamination and performed well as a complementary indicator. The results reveal that a large part of the analyzed population is vulnerable to waterborne diseases caused by enteric pathogens.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09504-x
       
  • The RNA Secondary Structure Analysis Reveals Potential for Emergence of
           Pathogenic Flaviviruses

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      Abstract: Abstract The Flavivirus genus is divided into four groups: Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Tick-borne flaviviruses, no-known vector flaviviruses, and Insect specific flaviviruses. Millions of people are affected worldwide every year due to the flaviviral infections. The 5' UTR of the RNA genome plays a critical role in the biology of flaviviruses. To explore any correlation between the topology of the 5' UTR and pathogenesis, a global scale study of the RNA secondary structure of different groups of flaviviruses has been conducted. We found that most of the pathogenic flaviviruses, irrespective of their mode of transmission, tend to form a Y shaped topology in the Stem loop A of the 5' UTR. Some of the current non-pathogenic flaviviruses were also observed to form Y shaped structure. Based on this study, it has been proposed that the flaviviruses having the Y shaped topology in their 5′ UTR regions may have the potential to become pathogenic.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09502-z
       
  • Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus in Different Food Categories:
           A 6-Year Survey in Italy

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      Abstract: Abstract To observe the prevalence of contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) in different food types, 9242 samples were analyzed over a 6-year period (January 2014–December 2019). Samples were from routine official activities by Competent Authorities (CAs) and Food Business Operators, according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points plans. Analyses were performed in accordance with European and Italian regulations. Food types were obtained from different production areas of Italy, and ranged from mollusks, ready-to-eat (RTE) and packaged vegetables, frozen berries, tap water, fruit and RTE fruit salads, and processed and preserved foods. No risk management plans were set by the authors’ laboratory, because they were still adopted by conferring customers. Analyses were conducted according to ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 (ISO in Part 2: Method for Qualitative Detection. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2013). The data showed that 2.25% (95% CI: 2.0–2.6) of samples were contaminated by at least one virus type, and that the most detected pathogen was NoV GII (89.50% of all positives). Mollusks (filter-feeding animals) were the most contaminated category (92.31% of all positives) not only by NoV or HAV individually, but also by multiple HAV/NoV contaminations consisting of 22.59% of all positives. For NoV, there was a significant correlation between shellfish positivity and season, with the autumn–winter period being the most associated with risk. Conversely, berries, drinking water and RTE vegetables, previously linked to several outbreaks, showed a low rate of contamination. These results from data collection have implications for the improvement of sampling plans for HAV and NoV by Italian CAs, and by food-producing and distribution operators. Moreover, these findings obtained by a standardized qualitative method contribute the collection of data aimed at establishing new microbiological criteria not yet foreseen (but advocated) by current European rules.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09503-y
       
  • Applications of Bacteriophage Cocktails to Reduce Salmonella Contamination
           in Poultry Farms

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      Abstract: Abstract Salmonella contamination is a critical problem in poultry farms, with serious consequences for both animals and food products. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of phage cocktails to reduce Salmonella contamination in poultry farms. Within the scope of the study, Salmonella phages were isolated from chicken stool. After the host range of phages was determined, morphological characterization was performed through transmission electron microscopy analysis. Then, replication parameters and adsorption rates were determined by one-step growth curves. After that, phage cocktail was prepared, and its effectiveness was tested in three environments, which were drinking water, shavings, and plastic surfaces. The results obtained have demonstrated that the phage cocktail can reduce Salmonella count up to 2.80 log10 units in drinking water, up to 2.30 log10 units on shavings, and 2.31 log10 units on plastic surfaces. It has been determined that phage cocktails could be a successful alternative in reducing Salmonella contamination in poultry environment. This work is the first study to investigate the use of phage cocktails for reducing Salmonella contamination in poultry water and on shavings, and it is presumed that the results obtained will contribute to the fight against pathogens by making them applicable to poultry farms.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09501-0
       
  • Acute Hepatitis A Virus Infection in Tobruk, Eastern Libya: Increasing
           Trends After 2017

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      Abstract: Abstract Acute hepatitis A is a self-limited liver inflammation caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The infection is transmitted by direct contact from person to person via fecal–oral routes, or through consuming contaminated food and water. This study aims to estimate the frequency of HAV infection from medical records of Tobruk Medical Center, eastern Libya and its distribution during 6 years. The medical records department of Tobruk Medical Center follows guidelines of the international classification of diseases-10 for coding the diseases. The research estimates the frequency and distribution of HAV infection based on age and sex during the period from January 2015 to December 2020. HAV screening assay was performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays HAV IgM microwell. 245 cases were recorded, 53.5% of cases were males. HAV infection was the most prevalent (92.6%) in age groups of < 5–20 years. A significant rise in the occurrence of HAV infection in the last three years was reported (p < 0.05). More than half of the cases (68%) were reported in 2019 and 2020. No case fatality rate was reported in the present study. There is an increase in the frequency of HAV infection in the last 3 years and the younger age groups (under 20 years old) are more vulnerable to HAV infection. More prevention and control efforts towards this age group should be a top public health priority to avoid the possibility of HAV outbreaks in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09499-5
       
  • Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in Indoor Air of Sina and Shahid Beheshti
           Hospitals and Patients' Houses

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      Abstract: Abstract Side by side air sampling was conducted using a PTFE filter membrane as dry sampler and an impinger containing a suitable culture medium as a wet sampler. Most of the samples were collected from two hospitals and few air samples were collected from private houses of non-hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients. The collected air samples were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results indicated that all air samples collected from the hospitals were PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. While two of four air samples collected from the house of non-hospitalized patients were PCR positive. In this study, most of the hospitalized patients had oxygen mask and face mask, and hence this may be a reason for our negative results regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor air of the hospitals, while non-hospitalized patients did not wear oxygen and protective face masks in their houses. Moreover, a very high concentration of particles in the size range of droplet nuclei (< 5 µm) was identified compared to particles in the size range of respiratory droplets (> 5–10 µm) in the areas where patients were hospitalized. It can be concluded that using face mask by patients can prevent the release of viruses into the indoor air, even in hospitals with a high density of patients.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09515-2
       
  • Effectiveness of Disinfectants Suitable for Inactivating SARS-CoV-2 at
           Cold-Chain Temperature

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      Abstract: Abstract To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain transportation in China, we developed specific cryogenic disinfectants. Carrier tests were performed against SARS-CoV-2 at − 20 °C for the four cryogenic disinfectants developed and qRT-PCR was used to test the virus RNA. Peracetic acid, chlorine disinfectants (two different concentrations), and quaternary ammonium disinfectant with their antifreeze can all inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in 5 min at − 20 °C. However, after 2–3 h of exposure, only chlorine disinfectant could destroy SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The viruses treated with peracetic acid and quaternary disinfectants showed positive Ct values even after 3 h detected with qRT-PCR. The conclusion was that the cold-chain disinfectants we tested could inactivate SARS-CoV-2 quickly and effectively, but only chlorine disinfectants could destroy nucleic acids in 3 h. Our study also illustrated that using qRT-PCR detection of viral nucleic acids to assess disinfection was inappropriate.
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09509-0
       
  • Detection of Norovirus Recombinant GII.2[P16] Strains in Oysters in
           Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract Human norovirus causes sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the predominant strains are genotype GII.4 variants. Recently, a novel GII.17[P17] and a recombinant GII.2[P16] strain have been reported as the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks of norovirus are frequently associated with foodborne illness. In this study, each of 75 oyster samples processed by a proteinase K extraction method and an adsorption-elution method were examined for noroviruses using RT-nested PCR with capsid primers. Thirteen (17.3%) samples processed by either method tested positive for norovirus genogroup II (GII). PCR amplicons were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as GII.2 (n = 6), GII.4 (n = 1), GII.17 (n = 3), and GII.unclassified (n = 3). Norovirus-positive samples were further amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR targeting the polymerase-capsid genes. One nucleotide sequence revealed GII.17[P17] Kawasaki strain. Five nucleotide sequences were identified as belonging to the recombinant GII.2[P16] strains by recombination analysis. The collected oyster samples were quantified for norovirus GII genome copy number by RT-quantitative PCR. Using the proteinase K method, GII was found in 13/75 (17.3%) of samples with a range of 8.83–1.85 × 104 genome copies/g of oyster. One sample (1/75, 1.3%) processed by the adsorption-elution method was positive for GII at 5.00 × 101 genome copies/g. These findings indicate the circulation of a new variant GII.17 Kawasaki strain and the recombinant GII.2[P16] in oyster samples corresponding to the circulating strains reported at a global scale during the same period of time. The detection of the recombinant strains in oysters emphasizes the need for continuing systematic surveillance for control and prevention of norovirus gastroenteritis.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09508-1
       
  • Detection and Sequencing of Multiple Human Norovirus Genotypes from
           Imported Frozen Raspberries Linked to Outbreaks in the Province of Quebec,
           Canada, in 2017

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      Abstract: Abstract Human noroviruses are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several norovirus food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of norovirus RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low and PCR inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies. In 2017, 724 people from various regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada, were infected by noroviruses and the outbreak investigation pointed to frozen raspberries as a putative source. A new magnetic silica bead approach was used for the extraction of viruses from different outbreak samples. The RNA extracts were tested by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and five samples were confirmed positive for norovirus by RT-qPCR amplicon sequencing. A multiplex long-range two-step RT-PCR approach was developed to amplify norovirus ORF2 and ORF3 capsid genes from the positive frozen raspberry RNA extracts and other sequencing strategies were also explored. These capsid genes were sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of multiple genotypes (GI.3, GI.6, and GII.17) and intra-genotype variants in some of the frozen raspberry samples. Variants of genotype GI.3 and GI.6 had 100% homology with sequences from patient samples. Similar strains were also reported in previous outbreaks. Confirmation approaches based on sequencing the norovirus capsid genes using Next-Generation Sequencing can be applied at trace level contaminations and could be useful to assess risk and assist in source tracking.
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09507-8
       
  • Estimation of Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Environments of Live
           Poultry Markets in Changsha, China, 2014 to 2018

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      Abstract: Abstract In routine surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the environments of live poultry markets (LPMs), certain samples were positive for AIVs type A while negative for subtypes (e.g., H5, H7, and H9). However, little attention has been paid to these unsubtyped AIVs samples. To reveal the dynamic distribution and molecular characteristics of AIVs, especially the unsubtyped AIVs, we reported and analyzed 1969 samples collected from the water environments of LPMs in Changsha, China, from January 2014 to November 2018. Our results revealed that 1504 (76.38%) samples were positive for AIV type A. Of these samples, the predominant hemagglutinin (HA) subtype was H9, followed by H5 and H7 (P < 0.05). The positive rate of H5 subtype in water environmental samples exhibited seasonality, which reached a peak in each winter–spring season from January 2014 to March 2017. The positive rates of AIVs (including type A, subtype H9, and mixed subtype H5/H7/H9) in non-central-city regions were higher than that in the central-city regions (P < 0.05). Notably, 161 unsubtyped AIVs samples were detected during the routine surveillance. However, subtyping with the commercial kit further identified eight different HA and seven different neuraminidase subtypes. Analyses unraveled that further subtyped AIVs H1, H6, and H11 had only one basic amino acid (R or K) at the cleavage site and residues Q226 and G228 at the receptor-binding associated sites. Overall, in addition to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes, we should also pay attention to unsubtyped AIVs samples during the routine surveillance for AIVs in the environments of LPMs.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09506-9
       
  • Detection of Rotavirus Strains in Freshwater Clams in Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Bivalve molluscan shellfish like clams and oysters, etc., are capable to bioaccumulate surrounding contaminants from waters into their digestive systems and posing serious threats of food poisoning. Detection of rotaviruses (RVs) in shellfish is of particular importance because RVs are prone to genome reassortment resulting in the emergence of new RV variants that may compromise vaccine safety. Herein, we have detected the wild-type RVs and Rotarix/RotaTeq vaccine strains in freshwater clams collected on the riverside, Kawasaki city, from July 2019 to January 2020 and correlated the detected genotypes with that of gastroenteritis cases of nearby clinics to understand the transmission of RVs in the environment. The wild-type RVs were detected in 62 (64.6%) out of 96 freshwater clams in every study month: July, September, November, and January that are considered as off-season for RV infections. The most frequent genotypes were G2 (42.9%), G8 (28.6%), G3 (14.3%), G1 (7.1%), and G10 (7.1%), which remained comparable with genotypic distribution found in the clinical samples over the last few years indicating that these RVs may accumulate in clams since a long time. However, G10 genotype was detected in clam but not in clinical samples suggesting the presence of asymptomatic infection or RVs could be carried out from a long distance. Importantly, vaccine strains, RotaTeq (1%) but not Rotarix (0%), were also detected in a clam. Attention must be paid to monitoring the potential transmission of wild-type and vaccine RV strains in the environment to prevent the emergence of new variants generated from genome reassortment with vaccine strains.
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-021-09505-w
       
 
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