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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover
Food and Environmental Virology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1867-0334 - ISSN (Online) 1867-0342
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Surface Inactivation of a SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate with Hypochlorous Acid is
           Impacted by Surface Type, Contact Time, Inoculum Matrix, and Concentration
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces is a potential transmission route for COVID-19. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate convenient and inexpensive surface sanitization methods, such as HOCl, against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 surrogate, Phi6 (~ 7 log PFU/mL), was prepared in artificial saliva and tripartite matrices, spot inoculated on coupons of either stainless steel or vinyl, and allowed to dry. The coupons were sprayed with either 500 ppm or 1000 ppm HOCl, and remained on the surface for 0 s (control), 5 s, 30 s, or 60 s. Samples were enumerated via the double agar overlay assay. Statistical analysis was completed in R using a generalized linear model with Quasipoisson error approximations. Time, concentration, surface type, and inoculum matrix were all significant contributors to log reduction at P = 0.05. Significant three-way interactions were observed for 1000 ppm, vinyl, and 60 s (P = 0.03) and 1000 ppm, tripartite, and 60 s (P = 0.0121). A significant two-way interaction between vinyl and 60 s was also observed (P = 0.0168). Overall, increased HOCl concentration and exposure time led to increased Phi6 reduction. Notably, the highest estimated mean log reduction was 3.31 (95% CI 3.14, 3.49) for stainless steel at 60 s and 1000 ppm HOCl in artificial saliva, indicating that this method of sanitization may not adequately reduce enveloped viruses to below infective thresholds.
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
       
  • Temperature Dependent Depuration of Norovirus GII and Tulane Virus from
           Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

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      Abstract: Abstract Raw oysters are considered a culinary delicacy but are frequently the culprit in food-borne norovirus (NoV) infections. As commercial depuration procedures are currently unable to efficiently eliminate NoV from oysters, an optimisation of the process should be considered. This study addresses the ability of elevated water temperatures to enhance the elimination of NoV and Tulane virus (TuV) from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Both viruses were experimentally bioaccumulated in oysters, which were thereafter depurated at 12 °C and 17 °C for 4 weeks. Infectious TuV and viral RNA were monitored weekly for 28 days by TCID50 and (PMAxx-) RT-qPCR, respectively. TuV RNA was more persistent than NoV and decreased by < 0.5 log10 after 14 days, while NoV reductions were already > 1.0 log10 at this time. For RT-qPCR there was no detectable benefit of elevated water temperatures or PMAxx for either virus (p > 0.05). TuV TCID50 decreased steadily, and reductions were significantly different between the two temperatures (p < 0.001). This was most evident on days 14 and 21 when reductions at 17 °C were 1.3–1.7 log10 higher than at 12 °C. After 3 weeks, reductions > 3.0 log10 were observed at 17 °C, while at 12 °C reductions did not exceed 1.9 log10. The length of depuration also had an influence on virus numbers. TuV reductions increased from < 1.0 log10 after seven days to > 4.0 log10 after 4 weeks. This implies that an extension of the depuration period to more than seven days, possibly in combination with elevated water temperatures, may be beneficial for the inactivation and removal of viral pathogens.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
       
  • Rapid Detection of Hepatitis A Virus in Foods Using a Bioluminescent Assay
           in Real-Time (BART) and Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal
           Amplification (RT-LAMP) Technology

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      Abstract: Abstract Foodborne hepatitis A infections have been considered as a major threat for public health worldwide. Increased incidences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been associated with growing global trade of food products. Rapid and sensitive detection of HAV in foods is very essential for investigating the outbreaks. Real-time RT-PCR has been most widely used for the detection of HAV by far. However, the technology relies on fluorescence determination of the amplicon and requires sophisticated, high-cost instruments and trained personnel, limiting its use in low resource settings. In this study, a robust, affordable, and simple assay, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay in combination with a bioluminescence-based determination of amplification in real-time (BART), was developed for the detection of HAV in different food matrices, including green onion, strawberry, mussel, and milk. The efficiencies of a one-step RT-LAMP-BART and a two-step RT-LAMP-BART were investigated for the detection of HAV in different food matrices and was compared with that of real-time RT-PCR. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-BART assay was significantly affected by Mg2+ concentration (P < 0.05), in addition to primer quality. The optimal Mg2+ concentration was 2 mM for one-step RT-LAMP-BART and 4 mM for two-step RT-LAMP-BART. Compared with cartridge-purified primers, HPLC-purified primers could greatly improve the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-BART assay (P < 0.05). For detecting HAV in different food matrices, the performance of two-step RT-LAMP-BART was comparable with that of real-time RT-PCR and was better than that of one-step RT-LAMP-BART. The detection limit of the two-step RT-LAMP-BART for HAV in green onion, strawberry, mussel, and milk was 8.3 × 100 PFU/15 g, 8.3 × 101 PFU/50 g, 8.3 × 100 PFU/5 g, and 8.3 × 100 PFU/40 mL, respectively. The developed RT-LAMP-BART was an effective, simple, sensitive, and robust method for foodborne HAV detection.
      PubDate: 2023-01-14
       
  • Investigation of Human and Animal Viruses in Water Matrices from a Rural
           Area in Southeastern Region of Brazil and Their Potential Use as Microbial
           Source-Tracking Markers

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      Abstract: Abstract This study assessed the sources of contamination of water matrices in a rural area using detection of a host-specific virus (human adenovirus [HAdV], porcine adenovirus [PAdV] and bovine polyomaviruses [BoPyV]) as potential microbial source-tracking tool, and rotavirus A [RVA], given its epidemiological importance in Brazil. From July 2017 to June 2018, 92 samples were collected from eight points (P1-P8) of surface and raw waters in southeastern region of Brazil. Fifty-five (59.8%) were positive for HAdV, 41 (44.5%) for RVA, 10 (10.9%) for PAdV and four (4.3%) for BoPyV. HAdV and RVA were detected at all sites, and over the entire sampling period, PAdV was detected at a porcine breeding area and at Guarda River site, presenting high concentrations up to 2.6 × 109 genome copies per liter [GC/L], and viral concentrations ranging from 9.6 × 101 to 7.1 × 107, while BoPyV (1.5 × 104 GC/L–9.2 × 105 GC/L) was only detected in samples from the bovine breeding areas. The combination of human and animal virus circulation presents a potential impact in the environment due to raw sewage discharge from regional communities, as well as potential hazard to human and animal health.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • Assessing the Removal Efficiency of Murine Norovirus 1, Hepatitis A Virus,
           and Human Coronavirus 229E on Dish Surfaces Through General Wash Program
           of Household Dishwasher

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      Abstract: The performance of dishwashers in removing live viruses is an important informative value in practical applications. Since foodborne viruses are present in contaminated food surfaces and water environments. Insufficient washing of dishes typically makes a carrier of foodborne viruses. Dishwashers have shown excellent performance in removing bacterial pathogens, but very limited reports related to eliminate foodborne viruses on contaminated dish surfaces. Here, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) were experimentally inoculated on the dish surfaces (plate, rice bowl, and soup bowl). Plaque assay, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were conducted to determine their removal efficiency of them through the general wash program of household dishwashers. Using titration assay, MNV-1 and HAV were reduced by 7.44 and 6.57 log10 PFU/dish, and HCoV-229E was reduced by 6.43 log10 TCID50/dish through the general wash program, achieving a ≥ 99.999% reduction, respectively. Additionally, RT-qPCR results revealed that viral RNA of MNV-1 and HCoV-229E reduced 5.02 and 4.54 log10 genome copies/dish; in contrast, HAV was not detected on any dish surfaces. This study confirmed the performance of household dishwashers in removing pathogenic live viruses through the general wash program. However, residual viral RNA was not sufficiently removed. Further studies are needed to determine whether the viral RNA can be sufficiently removed using combination programs in household dishwashers. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
       
  • Surfactant Treatment for Efficient Gene Detection of Enteric Viruses and
           Indicators in Surface Water Concentrated by Ultrafiltration

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      Abstract: Abstract The hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF)-based microbial concentration method is widely applied for monitoring pathogenic viruses and microbial indicators in environmental water samples. However, the HFUF-based method can co-concentrate substances that interfere with downstream molecular processes—nucleic acid extraction, reverse transcription (RT), and PCR. These inhibitory substances are assumed to be hydrophobic and, therefore, expected to be excluded by a simple surfactant treatment before the silica membrane-based RNA extraction process. In this study, the efficacy and limitations of the sodium deoxycholate (SD) treatment were assessed by quantifying a process control and indigenous viruses using 42 surface water samples concentrated with HFUF. With some exceptions, which tended to be seen in samples with high turbidity (> 4.0 NTU), virus recovery by the ultrafiltration method was sufficiently high (> 10%). RNA extraction-RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) efficiency of the process control was insufficient (10%) for 30 of the 42 HFUF concentrates without any pretreatments, but it was markedly improved for 21 of the 30 inhibitory concentrates by the SD treatment. Detection rates of indigenous viruses were also improved and no substantial loss of viral RNA was observed. The SD treatment was particularly effective in mitigating RT-qPCR inhibition, although it was not effective in improving RNA extraction efficiency. The methodology is simple and easily applied. These findings indicate that SD treatment can be a good alternative to sample dilution, which is widely applied to mitigate the effect of RT-qPCR inhibition, and can be compatible with other countermeasures.
      PubDate: 2023-01-02
       
  • SARS-CoV-2 in Human Sewage and River Water from a Remote and Vulnerable
           Area as a Surveillance Tool in Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was monitored in environmental samples from rural and vulnerable areas (a presidio, worker accommodation units, and river waters upstream and downstream of a rural community) from Minas Gerais State region, Southern Brazil, in August 2020. The sampling was performed prior to official declaration of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in those sites. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the presidio and workers accommodation units (3.0 × 104 virus genome copies (GC)/mL and 4.3 × 104 GC/mL of sewage, respectively). While SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the river water upstream of the rural community, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in downstream river waters (1.1 × 102 SARS-CoV-2 GC/mL). The results obtained in this study highlight the utility of SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater and human sewage as a non-invasive early warning tool to support health surveillance in vulnerable and remote areas, particularly in development countries.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Air Surveillance for Viral Contamination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA at a
           Healthcare Facility

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      Abstract: Abstract The transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 also called COVID-19 disease) in indoor environments are the main area of contention between health systems and scientists. In this context, little has been investigated about the collection of airborne viral shedding. Here, we collected air samples from 24 locations inside the sole COVID-19 patient care center in Zabol, Iran, for screening SARS-CoV-2 RNA from March to May 2021. Locations included the ICU, COVID-19 wards (CWs) rooms, corridors, nearby nurses’ stations, and toilets. We identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in breathing zone of CW, in room air, with the positivity rate of 2.5% at a concentration of 17 × 103 virus genome copies/m3 air. It also investigates the relationship between local climate conditions [i.e., temperature and relative humidity] and COVID-19 transmission with the evolution of daily official data on the number of new cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Current data explained that the difference of temperature and humidity may affect the behavior of virus along with other factors, i.e., population density, individual viral shedding, and infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 (both indoor and outdoor). Our data support the potential SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission indoors suggesting the specific safety assessment of building to improve ventilation solutions besides proper using face masks and extensive public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Development and Validation of the Skimmed Milk Pellet Extraction Protocol
           for SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Surveillance

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      Abstract: Abstract Wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 may serve as a useful source of data for public health departments as the virus is shed in the stool of infected individuals. However, for wastewater data to be actionable, wastewater must be collected, concentrated, and analyzed in a timely manner. This manuscript presents modifications on a skimmed milk concentration protocol to reduce processing time, increase the number of samples that can be processed at once, and enable use in resource-limited settings. Wastewater seeded with Human coronavirus OC43 (OC43) was concentrated using a skimmed milk flocculation protocol, and then pellets were directly extracted with the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit. This protocol has a higher average effective volume assayed (6.35 mL) than skimmed milk concentration methods, with and without Vertrel XF™, which involve resuspension of the pellets in PBS extraction prior to nucleic acid extraction (1.28 mL, 1.44 mL, respectively). OC43 was selected as a recovery control organism because both it and SARS-CoV-2 are enveloped respiratory viruses that primarily infect humans resulting in respiratory symptoms. The OC43 percent recovery for the direct extraction protocol (3.4%) is comparable to that of skimmed milk concentration with and without Vertrel XF™ extraction (4.0%, 2.6%, respectively). When comparing SARS-CoV-2 detection using McNemar’s chi-square test, the pellet extraction method is not statistically different from skimmed milk concentration, with and without Vertrel XF™ extraction. This suggests that the method performs equally as well as existing methods. Added benefits include reduced time spent per sample and the ability to process more samples at a single time. Direct extraction of skimmed milk pellets is a viable method for quick turnaround of wastewater data for public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A State-of-the-Art Scoping Review on SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage Focusing on the
           Potential of Wastewater Surveillance for the Monitoring of the COVID-19
           Pandemic

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      Abstract: The outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. Several studies have shown that detecting SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater can be a useful tool to identify new outbreaks, establish outbreak trends, and assess the prevalence of infections. On 06 May 2021, over a year into the pandemic, we conducted a scoping review aiming to summarize research data on SARS-CoV-2 in sewage. Papers dealing with raw sewage collected at wastewater treatment plants, sewer networks, septic tanks, and sludge treatment facilities were included in this review. We also reviewed studies on sewage collected in community settings such as private or municipal hospitals, healthcare facilities, nursing homes, dormitories, campuses, airports, aircraft, and cruise ships. The literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web Science Core Collection. This comprehensive research yielded 1090 results, 66 of which met the inclusion criteria and are discussed in this review. Studies from 26 countries worldwide have investigated the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage of different origin. The percentage of positive samples in sewage ranged from 11.6 to 100%, with viral concentrations ranging from ˂LOD to 4.6 × 108 genome copies/L. This review outlines the evidence currently available on wastewater surveillance: (i) as an early warning system capable of predicting COVID-19 outbreaks days or weeks before clinical cases; (ii) as a tool capable of establishing trends in current outbreaks; (iii) estimating the prevalence of infections; and (iv) studying SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity. In conclusion, as a cost-effective, rapid, and reliable source of information on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in the population, wastewater surveillance can enhance genomic and epidemiological surveillance with independent and complementary data to inform public health decision-making during the ongoing pandemic. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Integration of RT-LAMP and Microfluidic Technology for Detection of
           SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater as an Advanced Point-of-Care Platform

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      Abstract: Development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system based on integration of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and microfluidic technology is expected to speed up SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics allowing early intervention. In the current work, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RT-LAMP assays were performed on extracted RNA of seven wastewater samples from COVID-19 hotspots. RT‑LAMP assay was also performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction. Current detection of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly by RT-qPCR of ORF (ORF1ab) and N genes so we targeted both to find the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We also performed RT-LAMP with/without RNA extraction inside microfluidic device to target both genes. Positivity rates of RT-qPCR and RT-LAMP performed on extracted RNA were 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. RT-qPCR results revealed that all 7 wastewater samples were positive for N gene (Ct range 37–39), and negative for ORF1ab, suggesting that N gene could be the best target gene for SARS-CoV-2 detection. RT-LAMP of N and ORF (ORF1a) genes performed on wastewater samples without RNA extraction indicated that all 7 samples remains pink (negative). The color remains pink in all microchannels except microchannels which subjected to RT-LAMP for targeting N region after RNA extraction (yellow color) in 6 out of 7 samples. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 was successfully detected from wastewater samples using RT-LAMP in microfluidic chips. This study brings the novelty involving the use of wastewater samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 without previous virus concentration and with/without RNA extraction. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Performance of Manufacturer Cleaning Recommendations Applied to 3D Food
           Ink Capsules for the Control of a Human Norovirus Surrogate

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      Abstract: Abstract With the widespread availability of 3D food printing systems for purchase, users can customize their food in new ways. Manufacturer recommendations for cleaning these machines remain untested with regard to the prevention of foodborne pathogen transmission. This study aimed to determine if manufacturer cleaning recommendations for food ink capsules utilized in 3D food printers are adequate to control human norovirus (HuNoV). A HuNoV surrogate, Tulane virus (TuV; ~ 6 log10 PFU/mL), was inoculated onto the interior surface of stainless steel food ink capsules. Capsules were either unsoiled or soiled with one of the following: butter, protein powder solution, powdered sugar solution, or a mixture containing all three food components. The capsules were allowed to dry and then one of three hygienic protocols was applied: manual washing (MW), a dishwasher speed cycle (DSC), or a dishwasher heavy cycle (DHC). The interaction effect between DSC and pure butter was a significant predictor of log reduction (P = 0.0067), with the pure butter and DSC combination achieving an estimated mean log reduction of 4.83 (95% CI 4.13, 5.59). The DSC was the least effective method of cleaning when compared with MW and the DHC. The 3-way interaction effects between wash type, soil, and capsule position were a significant predictor of log reduction (P = 0.00341). Capsules with butter in the DSC achieved an estimated mean log reduction of 2.81 (95% CI 2.80, 2.83) for the front-most position versus 6.35 (95% CI 6.33, 6.37) for the back-most position. Soil matrix, cleaning protocol, and capsule position all significantly impact capsule cleanability and potential food safety risk. The DHC is recommended for all capsules, and the corners should be avoided when placing capsules into the dishwasher. The current study seeks to provide recommendations for users of additive manufacturing and 3D food printing including consumers, restaurants, industry, and regulatory industries.
      PubDate: 2022-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09539-8
       
  • Bioaccumulation Dynamic by Crassostrea gigas Oysters of Viruses That Are
           Proposed as Surrogates for Enteric Virus Contamination in Environmental
           Samples

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      Abstract: Abstract Oysters are filter-feeders and retain sewage-derived pathogens in their organs or tissues. Since most enteric viruses involved in outbreaks cannot grow in cell culture, studies using viral surrogate models are essential. Some species are proposed as surrogates for enteric viruses in environmental samples, including in bivalve mollusk samples, such as murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and somatic (as φX) or F-specific coliphages (as MS2) bacteriophages. This study evaluated the tissue distribution of viral surrogates for enteric virus contamination after their bioaccumulation by Crassostrea gigas. Oyster tissues were analyzed for the distribution of viral surrogates (MNV-1, φX-174, and MS2) in digestive tissue (DT), gills (GL), and mantle (MT) after 4, 6, and 24 h of experimental bioaccumulation. MNV-1 had higher counts at 6 h in DT (1.2 × 103 PFU/g), followed by GL and MT (9.5 × 102 and 3.8 × 102 PFU/g, respectively). The bacteriophage φX-174 had a higher concentration in the MT at 4 and 6 h (3.0 × 102 PFU/g, in both) and MS2 in the GL after 24 h (2.2 × 102 PFU/g). The bioaccumulation pattern of MNV-1 by oysters was similar to the other enteric viruses (more in DT), while that of phages followed distinct patterns from these. Since the MNV-1 is bioaccumulated by C. gigas and is adapted to grow in cell culture, it is an important tool for bioaccumulation and viral inactivation tests in oysters. Although bacteriophage bioaccumulation was not similar to enteric viruses, they can be indicated for viral bioaccumulation analysis, analyzing MT and GL, since they do not bioaccumulate in DT.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09538-9
       
  • One-Year Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and Rotavirus in Water Matrices from a
           Hot Spring Area

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      Abstract: Abstract The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still impacting not only on human health but also all economic activities, especially in those related to tourism. In this study, in order to characterize the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in a hot spring park in Uruguay, swimming pools water, wastewater, and surface water from this area were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Wastewater from Salto city located next to the hydrothermal spring area was also evaluated as well as the presence of Rotavirus (RV). Overall, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 13% (13/102) of the analyzed samples. Moreover, this virus was not detected in any of the samples from the swimming pools water and was present in 18% (3/17) of wastewater samples from the hotels area showing the same trend between the titer of SARS-CoV-2 and the number of infected people in Salto city. SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in wastewater samples (32% (11/34)) from Salto city, detecting the first positive sample when 105 persons were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Rotavirus was detected only in 10% (2/24) of the wastewater samples analyzed in months when partial lockdown measures were taken, however, this virus was detected in nearly all wastewater samples analyzed when social distancing measures and partial lockdown were relaxed. Wastewater results confirmed the advantages of using the detection and quantification of viruses in this matrix in order to evaluate the presence of these viruses in the population, highlighting the usefulness of this approach to define and apply social distancing. This study suggests that waters from swimming pools are not a source of infection for SARS-CoV-2, although more studies are needed including infectivity assays in order to confirm this statement.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09537-w
       
  • Microgreen Variety Impacts Leaf Surface Persistence of a Human Norovirus
           Surrogate

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      Abstract: Abstract Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a pathogenic agent that is frequently associated with foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Within microgreen production systems, understanding of virus transmission routes and persistence is limited. To investigate virus persistence on microgreen leaf surfaces, this study mimicked virus contaminations caused during microgreen handling by farm workers or during overhead irrigation with contaminated water. Specifically, approximately 5 log PFU of Tulane virus (TV)—a HuNoV surrogate—was inoculated on sunflower (SF) and pea shoot (PS) microgreen leaves at 7-day age. The virus reduction on SF was significantly higher than PS (p < 0.05). On day 10, total TV reduction for SF and PS were 3.70 ± 0.10 and 2.52 ± 0.30 log PFU/plant, respectively. Under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) observation, the leaf surfaces of SF were visually smoother than PS, while their specific effect on virus persistence were not further characterized. Overall, this study revealed that TV persistence on microgreen leaves was plant variety dependent. In addition, this study provided a preliminary estimation on the risk of HuNoV contamination in a microgreen production system which will aim the future development of prevention and control measures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09536-x
       
  • Comparison of Extraction Methods for the Detection of Tick-Borne
           Encephalitis Virus RNA in Goat Raw Milk and Cream Cheese

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      Abstract: Abstract Infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause meningitis, meningoencephalitis and myelitis in humans. TBEV is an enveloped RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, which is mostly transmitted via tick bites. However, transmission by consumption of virus-contaminated goat raw milk and goat raw milk products has also been described. Only a few methods have been reported for the detection of TBEV in food so far. Here, we compare different virus extraction methods for goat raw milk and goat raw milk cream cheese and subsequent detection of TBEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. Langat virus (LGTV), a naturally attenuated TBEV strain, was used for artificial contamination experiments. Mengovirus and the human coronavirus 229E were compared to assess their suitability to serve as internal process controls. Out of three tested extraction protocols for raw milk, sample centrifugation followed by direct RNA extraction from the aqueous interphase yielded the best results, with a recovery rate (RR) of 31.8 ± 4.9% for LGTV and a detection limit of 6.7 × 103 LGTV genome copies/ml. Out of two methods for cream cheese, treatment of the samples with TRI Reagent® and chloroform prior to RNA extraction showed the best RR of 4.7 ± 1.6% for LGTV and a detection limit of 9.4 × 104 LGTV genome copies/g. RRs of Mengovirus and LGTV were similar for both methods; therefore, Mengovirus is suggested as internal process control virus. The developed methods may be useful for screening or surveillance studies, as well as in outbreak investigations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09535-y
       
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Water Environments: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis in humans, through foodborne, zoonotic, and waterborne transmission routes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HEV in water matrices. Six categories were defined: untreated and treated wastewater, surface water (river, lake, and seawater), drinking water, groundwater, and other water environments (irrigation water, grey water, reservoir water, flood water, and effluent of pig slaughterhouse). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and Excerpta Medica Database. Study selection and data extraction were performed by at least two independent investigators. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed using the χ2 test on the Cochran Q statistic and H parameter. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42021289116. We included 87 prevalence studies from 58 papers, 66.4% of which performed in Europe. The overall prevalence of HEV in water was 9.8% (95% CI 6.4–13.7). The prevalence was higher in untreated wastewater (15.1%) and lower in treated wastewater (3.8%) and in drinking water (4.7%). In surface water, prevalence was 7.4%, and in groundwater, the percentage of positive samples, from only one study available, was 8.3%. Overall, only 36.8% of the studies reported the genotype of HEV, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) prevalent (168 samples), followed by HEV-1 (148 sample), and HEV-4 (2 samples). High-income countries were the most represented with 59/87 studies (67.8%), while only 3/87 (3.5%) of the studies were performed in low-income countries. The overall prevalence obtained of this study was generally higher in industrialized countries. Risk of bias was low in 14.9% of the studies and moderate in 85.1%. The results of this review showed the occurrence of HEV in different waters environments also in industrialized countries with sanitation and safe water supplies. While HEV transmission to humans through water has been widely demonstrated in developing countries, it is an issue still pending in industrialized countries. Better knowledge on the source of pollution, occurrence, survival in water, and removal by water treatment is needed to unravel this transmission path. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09530-3
       
  • Evaluation of Methods and Processes for Robust Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in
           Wastewater

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has accelerated the development of virus concentration and molecular-based virus detection methods, monitoring systems and overall approach to epidemiology. Early into the pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology started to be employed as a tool for tracking the virus transmission dynamics in a given area. The complexity of wastewater coupled with a lack of standardized methods led us to evaluate each step of the analysis individually and see which approach gave the most robust results for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater. In this article, we present a step-by-step, retrospective view on the method development and implementation for the case of a pilot monitoring performed in Slovenia. We specifically address points regarding the thermal stability of the samples during storage, screening for the appropriate sample concentration and RNA extraction procedures and real-time PCR assay selection. Here, we show that the temperature and duration of the storage of the wastewater sample can have a varying impact on the detection depending on the structural form in which the SARS-CoV-2 target is present. We found that concentration and RNA extraction using Centricon filtration units coupled with Qiagen RNA extraction kit or direct RNA capture and extraction using semi-automated kit from Promega give the most optimal results out of the seven methods tested. Lastly, we confirm the use of N1 and N2 assays developed by the CDC (USA) as the best performing assays among four tested in combination with Fast Virus 1-mastermix. Data show a realistic overall process for method implementation as well as provide valuable information in regards to how different approaches in the analysis compare to one another under the specific conditions present in Slovenia during a pilot monitoring running from the beginning of the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09533-0
       
  • Combining Community Wastewater Genomic Surveillance with State Clinical
           Surveillance: A Framework for SARS-CoV-2 Public Health Practice

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop a framework for combining community wastewater surveillance with state clinical surveillance for the confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants within the community and to provide recommendations on how to expand on such research and apply the findings in public health responses. Wastewater samples were collected weekly from 17 geographically resolved locations in Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky (USA), from February 10 to December 13, 2021. Genomic surveillance and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) platforms were used to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, and state clinical surveillance was used for confirmation. The study results highlighted an increased epidemiological value of combining community wastewater genomic surveillance and RT-qPCR with conventional case-auditing methods. The spatial scale and temporal frequency of wastewater sampling provided promising sensitivity and specificity for gaining public health screening insights about SARS-CoV-2 emergence, seeding, and spread in communities. Improved national surveillance systems are needed against future pathogens and variants, and wastewater-based genomic surveillance exhibits great potential when coupled with clinical testing. This paper presents evidence that complementary wastewater and clinical testing are cost-effectively enhanced when used in combination, as they provide a strong tool for a joint public health framework. Future pathogens of interest may be examined in either a targeted fashion or using a more global approach where all pathogens are monitored. This study has also provided novel insights developed from evidence-based public health practices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09531-2
       
  • Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on Cold-Chain Food: Precautions Can Effectively
           Reduce the Risk

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a new era in the world, also in the food safety. Up to now, there is no evidence to suggest that people can infect COVID-19 via food contaminated by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we analyzed the results of regular SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing of considerable cold-chain food practitioners, cold-chain food surfaces, and their internal or external packaging as well as their associated environments, aiming to explore the risk of cold-chain food being contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and the probability of people infecting COVID-19 through contaminated cold-chain food in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. This study found that only two batches of cold-chain food were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2, none of the cold-chain food handler were infected due to effective regulatory measures for cold-chain food. Therefore, effective supervision and preventive methods could effectively reduce the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain food.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12560-022-09521-4
       
 
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