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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.373
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0029-6651 - ISSN (Online) 1475-2719
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • PNS volume 81 issue 1 Cover and Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122001070
       
  • Nutrition policy: developing scientific recommendations for food-based
           dietary guidelines for older adults living independently in Ireland

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      Authors: Lyons; Oonagh C., Flynn, Mary A. T., Corish, Clare A., Gibney, Eileen R., Kerr, Maeve A., McKenna, Malachi J., McNulty, Helene, McSorley, Emeir M., Nugent, Anne P., O'Brien, Claire, Ward, Mary, Younger, Katherine M., Saul, Ita
      Pages: 49 - 61
      Abstract: Older adults (≥65 years) are the fastest growing population group. Thus, ensuring nutritional well-being of the ‘over-65s’ to optimise health is critically important. Older adults represent a diverse population – some are fit and healthy, others are frail and many live with chronic conditions. Up to 78% of older Irish adults living independently are overweight or obese. The present paper describes how these issues were accommodated into the development of food-based dietary guidelines for older adults living independently in Ireland. Food-based dietary guidelines previously established for the general adult population served as the basis for developing more specific recommendations appropriate for older adults. Published international reports were used to update nutrient intake goals for older adults, and available Irish data on dietary intakes and nutritional status biomarkers were explored from a population-based study (the National Adult Nutrition Survey; NANS) and two longitudinal cohorts: the Trinity-Ulster and Department of Agriculture (TUDA) and the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) studies. Nutrients of public health concern were identified for further examination. While most nutrient intake goals were similar to those for the general adult population, other aspects were identified where nutritional concerns of ageing require more specific food-based dietary guidelines. These include, a more protein-dense diet using high-quality protein foods to preserve muscle mass; weight maintenance in overweight or obese older adults with no health issues and, where weight-loss is required, that lean tissue is preserved; the promotion of fortified foods, particularly as a bioavailable source of B vitamins and the need for vitamin D supplementation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122001008
       
  • Dysregulation of hepatic metabolism with obesity: factors influencing
           glucose and lipid metabolism

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      Authors: Nagarajan; S. R., Cross, E., Sanna, F., Hodson, L.
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: The liver is a key metabolic organ that undertakes a multitude of physiological processes over the course of a day, including intrahepatic lipid and glucose metabolism which plays a key role in the regulation of systemic lipid and glucose concentrations. It serves as an intermediary organ between exogenous (dietary) and endogenous energy supply to extrahepatic organs. Thus, perturbations in hepatic metabolism can impact widely on metabolic disease risk. For example, the accumulation of intra-hepatocellular TAG (IHTG), for which adiposity is almost invariably a causative factor may result in dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Accumulation of IHTG is likely due to an imbalance between fatty acid delivery, synthesis and removal (via oxidation or export as TAG) from the liver; insulin plays a key role in all of these processes.
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003761
       
  • Parkinson's disease: the nutrition perspective

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      Authors: Ó Breasail; Mícheál, Smith, Matthew D., Tenison, Emma, Henderson, Emily J., Lithander, Fiona E.
      Pages: 12 - 26
      Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease and affects about 1% of the population over the age of 60 years in industrialised countries. The aim of this review is to examine nutrition in PD across three domains: dietary intake and the development of PD; whole body metabolism in PD and the effects of PD symptoms and treatment on nutritional status. In most cases, PD is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and although there has been much research in the area, evidence suggests that poor dietary intake is not a risk factor for the development of PD. The evidence about body weight changes in both the prodromal and symptomatic phases of PD is inconclusive and is confounded by many factors. Malnutrition in PD has been documented as has sarcopaenia, although the prevalence of the latter remains uncertain due to a lack of consensus in the definition of sarcopaenia. PD symptoms, including those which are gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal, are known to adversely affect nutritional status. Similarly, PD treatments can cause nausea, vomiting and constipation, all of which can adversely affect nutritional status. Given that the prevalence of PD will increase as the population ages, it is important to understand the interplay between PD, comorbidities and nutritional status. Further research may contribute to the development of interventional strategies to improve symptoms, augment care and importantly, enhance the quality of life for patients living with this complex neurodegenerative disease.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003645
       
  • Fish, n-3 fatty acids, cognition and dementia risk: not just a fishy tale

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      Authors: Saleh; Rasha N. M., Minihane, Anne Marie
      Pages: 27 - 40
      Abstract: With growing and ageing populations, the incidence of dementia is expected to triple globally by 2050. In the absence of effective drugs to treat or reverse the syndrome, dietary approaches which prevent or delay disease onset have considerable population health potential. Prospective epidemiological studies and mechanistic insight from experimental models strongly support a positive effect of a high fish and long chain n-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) intake on a range of cognitive outcomes and dementia risk, with effect sizes equivalent to several years of ageing between the highest and lowest consumers. As reviewed here, an effect of EPA and DHA on neuroinflammation and oxylipin production is likely to in part mediate the neurophysiological benefits. However, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with EPA and DHA supplementation have produced mixed findings. Insight into the likely modulators of response to intervention and factors which should be considered for future RCTs are given. Furthermore, the impact of APOE genotype on disease risk and response to EPA and DHA supplementation is summarised. The prevalence of dementia is several-fold higher in APOE4 females (about 13% Caucasian populations) relative to the general population, who are emerging as a subgroup who may particularly benefit from DHA intervention, prior to the development of significant pathology.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003700
       
  • Advances in knowledge of screening practices and their use in clinical
           practice to prevent malnutrition

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      Authors: Browne; Sarah, Geraghty, Aisling, Corish, Clare
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Malnutrition is common among older adults and is associated with a progressive decline in overall health and increased mortality. With a rapidly ageing population, the detection, prevention and management of malnutrition require urgent attention within health service planning and delivery. Routine screening for malnutrition among older adults in community settings, which addresses aetiological as well as phenotypic factors, is considered an important step for prevention and early intervention. The aim of this review is to summarise current malnutrition screening literature and highlight research that seeks to understand and address community-based approaches to malnutrition screening and management. Key healthcare professionals (HCPs) that encounter community-dwelling older adults include general practitioners (GPs), community-based nurses, community pharmacists and a range of other health and social care professionals including dietitians, physiotherapists, speech and language therapists, and occupational therapists. The key barriers to implementing screening in primary care include lack of knowledge about malnutrition among non-dietetic HCPs, lack of resources allocated to managing malnutrition, lack of access to dietetic services, and poor GP knowledge about oral nutritional supplement prescribing. In addition, older adults have poor insight into the clinical condition and the associated negative health implications. Investment in education among HCPs and public awareness is required, as well as accompanying resources to successfully implement malnutrition screening programmes for community-dwelling older adults.
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003670
       
  • Plant-based diets: a review of the definitions and nutritional role in the
           adult diet

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      Authors: Kent; Gráinne, Kehoe, Laura, Flynn, Albert, Walton, Janette
      Pages: 62 - 74
      Abstract: Plant-based (PB) diets are associated with good health and are also recommended for environmental sustainability. The present review aimed to summarise the definitions of PB diets globally and to investigate the nutritional role of PB diets in adults. This review found that there is a wide range of PB definitions ranging from the traditional vegetarian diets (including vegan) to semi-vegetarian/flexitarian diets. Furthermore, other diets which were originally developed due to their associations with positive health outcomes, such as the portfolio, Mediterranean-style, DASH, healthy US-style, planetary health and Nordic-style diets, have been encompassed in PB definitions due to their emphasis on certain PB components. This review has highlighted that those consuming a PB diet are more likely to meet recommended intakes for carbohydrate, dietary fibre and vitamin E and are less likely to meet recommendations for protein, vitamin B12 and iodine compared to omnivores. Regardless of consumer type, neither PB consumers nor omnivores met recommendations for intakes of vitamin D, calcium and sodium. While intakes of protein, n-3, iron and zinc were generally sufficient from the PB diet, it is important to acknowledge the lower bioavailability of these nutrients from PB foods compared to animal-derived products. As dietary patterns shift towards a more PB diet, there is a need for further studies to investigate the role of PB diets for nutritional adequacy and status in populations currently accustomed to consuming a primarily omnivorous diet.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003839
       
  • Considerations for health and food choice in adolescents

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      Authors: Daly; Aisling N., O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J., Kearney, John M.
      Pages: 75 - 86
      Abstract: The aim of this review is to summarise the common barriers and motivations for healthy food choice among adolescents, with a specific focus on the Irish context where available. It will also discuss other concerns adolescents have, which may influence their food choices and eating habits. Adolescence represents a period of rapid physical, mental and social development, and many health-related habits developed during adolescence tend to persist into adulthood, making the teenage years an optimal time to encourage healthy eating and health-promoting behaviours. Adolescents are concerned about the health impact of their diet, but their understanding of health is often seen in the context of their physical appearance or body image. Body image concerns are prevalent in adolescents, and this can affect their food choices. Taste, price and convenience are commonly noted factors influencing adolescents' food choices, and as they grow, their level of independence increases and spending more time with their peers means that social desirability and social norms about food become increasingly important factors in adolescent food choice. However, their limited autonomy means their supporting food environment also plays an important role. When developing more targeted interventions in adolescent populations, information on adolescent nutrition needs, their concerns for health and body image, and the barriers and motivations for healthy eating and food choice should be considered. Such a holistic approach should help support healthy eating and the prevention of overweight and obesity in the population, whilst also supporting a healthy relationship with food and their bodies.
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003827
       
  • Addressing the gaps in nutritional care before and during pregnancy

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      Authors: Killeen; Sarah Louise, Geraghty, Aisling A., O'Brien, Eileen C., O'Reilly, Sharleen L., Yelverton, Cara A., McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: The present paper outlines current issues in the nutritional care of women during pregnancy and potential resources to address them. Globally, overnutrition, undernutrition and nutritional imbalances are widespread among women of reproductive age; increasing the risk of pregnancy complications and non-communicable diseases in both mothers and their children. Most women do not meet dietary guidelines for pregnancy. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends nutrition and weight counselling during pregnancy for all women. However, clinical practices focusing on nutrition vary and there is no consensus on which outcomes are most important for pregnancy nutrition interventions, with little consideration for the ‘patient voice’. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) nutrition checklist is a clinical practice tool that is available for healthcare professionals that will address this issue. The pregnancy nutrition core outcome set will also support advancement of antenatal nutrition by identifying the most critical nutrition-related outcomes from the perspective of healthcare professionals, researchers and women with experience of pregnancy. While poor nutrition can result in adverse outcomes across women of all weight categories, those with obesity may require specialist care to reduce their risk. Obesity is a chronic, progressive, relapsing disease that has high individual variability in its prognosis. The use of obesity staging systems, which consider mental, physical and functional health, can stratify individuals into risk categories and aid in treatment prioritisation in pregnancy. As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, an obesity staging approach may support clinicians, especially those in limited resource settings.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003724
       
  • Using food fortification to improve vitamin D bioaccessibility and intakes

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      Authors: McCourt; A. F., O'Sullivan, A. M.
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Vitamin D intakes and status are low in many countries due to seasonal UVB exposure variation and the fact that few foods are naturally vitamin D rich. Data modelling studies show that vitamin D intakes increase with food fortification, and countries with mandatory fortification policies have higher vitamin D intakes and status compared to countries without. While many foods can be vitamin D fortified, vitamin D bioavailability differs depending on fortification methods, food structure and composition. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) report that vitamin D2 bioavailability varies between foods, whereas vitamin D3 is bioavailable from many foods. In vitro studies suggest that altering the lipid composition of fortified foods increases vitamin D3 absorption. Olive oil increased vitamin D3 absorption during in vitro digestion compared to other dietary oils. Additionally, when vitamin D3 was incorporated into micelles formed from in vitro digestion of olive oil, more vitamin D3 was absorbed compared to other dietary oils. However, in a human postprandial study, a preformed vitamin D3 micelle dairy drink did not increase vitamin D3 absorption, and a vitamin D3 olive dairy drink increased vitamin D3 absorption in vitamin D insufficient participants only. Action is urgently needed to improve vitamin D intakes and status worldwide. Food fortification improves vitamin D intakes; however, fortification strategies unique to each country are needed. This review will synthesise the literature describing data modelling and intervention trials that assess the safety and efficacy of vitamin D fortification strategies, and those manipulating food composition to alter vitamin D bioavailability from fortified foods. Additionally, RCT examining the impact of vitamin D fortification strategies on vitamin D intakes and status over time are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003803
       
  • Iron deficiency during the first 1000 days of life: are we doing enough to
           protect the developing brain'

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      Authors: McCarthy; Elaine K., Murray, Deirdre M., Kiely, Mairead E.
      Pages: 108 - 118
      Abstract: Iron is essential for the functioning of all cells and organs, most critically for the developing brain in the fundamental neuronal processes of myelination, energy and neurotransmitter metabolism. Iron deficiency, especially in the first 1000 days of life, can result in long-lasting, irreversible deficits in cognition, motor function and behaviour. Pregnant women, infants and young children are most vulnerable to iron deficiency, due to their high requirements to support growth and development, coupled with a frequently inadequate dietary supply. An unrecognised problem is that even if iron intake is adequate, common pregnancy-related and lifestyle factors can affect maternal–fetal iron supply in utero, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency for the mother and her fetus. Although preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction are known risk factors, more recent evidence suggests that maternal obesity and delivery by caesarean section further increase the risk of iron deficiency in the newborn infant, which can persist into early childhood. Despite the considerable threat that early-life iron deficiency poses to long-term neurological development, life chances and a country's overall social and economic progress, strategies to tackle the issue are non-existent, too limited or totally inappropriate. Prevention strategies, focused on improving the health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age are required. Delayed cord clamping should be considered a priority. Better screening strategies to enable the early detection of iron deficiency during pregnancy and early-life should be prioritised, with intervention strategies to protect maternal health and the developing brain.
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121002858
       
 
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