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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.373
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0029-6651 - ISSN (Online) 1475-2719
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Conference on ‘Obesity and the brain’

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      Authors: Hall; Wendy L.
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: The Winter Conference 2021 focused on the theme of obesity and the brain, with symposia on the consequences of obesity on brain function, developments in behavioural change interventions, neurobiology of appetite regulation and obesity treatment, and personalised medicine for obesity prevention and treatment. The first plenary lecture discussed sweetness perceptions and how non-nutritive sweeteners may lead to a mismatch between metabolic signals and reward systems in the brain, and the second plenary lecture presented novel approaches to the treatment of binge-eating disorders. This short report summarises the content of these scientific sessions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122000799
       
  • A new era in gut hormone-based pharmacotherapy for people with obesity

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      Authors: Firman; Chloe, Batterham, Rachel L.
      Pages: 217 - 226
      Abstract: Obesity, excess adipose tissue accumulation that may impair health, is a major global healthcare challenge that increases the risk of several life-limiting diseases, reduces quality of life and leads to premature mortality. Weight loss improves or leads to the resolution of obesity-related diseases. Lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone for all weight management programmes and lead to health benefits. However, for the majority of people with severe obesity, lifestyle interventions and currently available anti-obesity medications lead to insufficient weight loss to improve their health. For these patients the only effective treatment option is bariatric surgery, which whilst highly effective, is difficult to access and not suitable for everyone, leaving a ‘treatment gap’ between lifestyle interventions and bariatric surgery. Unfortunately, the history of development of drugs to treat obesity has been marred by poor efficacy and safety issues. This is now set to change as a result of scientific advancements, which have increased the understanding of the role that gut hormones play in regulating energy and glucose homoeostasis. This has led to the development of effective, safe drugs based on gut hormones that target the body's own appetite regulating systems that herald a new era of treatments for people living with obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122002695
       
  • Programming by maternal obesity: a pathway to poor cardiometabolic health
           in the offspring

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      Authors: Inzani; Isabella, Ozanne, Susan E.
      Pages: 227 - 242
      Abstract: There is an ever increasing prevalence of maternal obesity worldwide such that in many populations over half of women enter pregnancy either overweight or obese. This review aims to summarise the impact of maternal obesity on offspring cardiometabolic outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes. However, beyond this exposure to maternal obesity during development also increases the risk of her offspring developing long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes throughout their adult life. Both human studies and those in experimental animal models have shown that maternal obesity can programme increased risk of offspring developing obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction; type 2 diabetes with peripheral insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction; CVD with impaired cardiac structure and function and hypertension via impaired vascular and kidney function. As female offspring themselves are therefore likely to enter pregnancy with poor cardiometabolic health this can lead to an inter-generational cycle perpetuating the transmission of poor cardiometabolic health across generations. Maternal exercise interventions have the potential to mitigate some of the adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring health, although further studies into long-term outcomes and how these translate to a clinical context are still required.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122001914
       
  • Personal diet–microbiota interactions and weight loss

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      Authors: Roager; Henrik M., Christensen, Lars H.
      Pages: 243 - 254
      Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of how person-specific interactions between diet and the gut microbiota could play a role in affecting diet-induced weight loss responses. The highly person-specific gut microbiota, which is shaped by our diet, secretes digestive enzymes and molecules that affect digestion in the colon. Therefore, weight loss responses could in part depend on personal colonic fermentation responses, which affect energy extraction of food and production of microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which exert various effects on host metabolism. Colonic fermentation is the net result of the complex interplay between availability of dietary substrates, the functional capacity of the gut microbiome and environmental (abiotic) factors in the gut such as pH and transit time. While animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota can causally affect obesity, causal and mechanistic evidence from human studies is still largely lacking. However, recent human studies have proposed that the baseline gut microbiota composition may predict diet-induced weight loss-responses. In particular, individuals characterised by high relative abundance of Prevotella have been found to lose more weight on diets rich in dietary fibre compared to individuals with low Prevotella abundance. Although harnessing of personal diet–microbiota interactions holds promise for more personalised nutrition and obesity management strategies to improve human health, there is currently insufficient evidence to unequivocally link the gut microbiota and weight loss in human subjects. To move the field forward, a greater understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of personal diet–microbiota interactions is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122000805
       
  • Novel approaches to tackling emotional loss of control of eating across
           the weight spectrum

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      Authors: Treasure; Janet, Bektas, Sevgi, Mutwalli, Hiba, Dhopatkar, Namrata, Himmerich, Hubertus
      Pages: 255 - 263
      Abstract: Emotional overeating is a process that is particularly relevant to people within the binge spectrum of eating disorders. Approximately a third of people with overweight share this phenotype. In addition, this behaviour may occur in neurodevelopmental disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) and other psychiatric disorders. The biopsychosocial underpinnings of emotional eating include a genetic vulnerability to a higher weight and various cognitive and emotional traits. The environment also plays a key role. For example, the commodification of food and beauty and exposure to weight stigma, unpleasant eating experiences and general adversity can set the scene. The majority of people with binge-eating disorder do not seek treatment (perhaps related to internalised stigma and shame). Hence opportunities for early intervention and secondary prevention are lost. Most guidelines for binge-eating disorder (based on the limited available research) recommend forms of cognitive psychotherapies and antidepressants. However, novel treatments that target underlying mechanisms are in development. These include interventions to improve emotional regulation and inhibitory control using neuromodulation and/or brain training. New technologies have been applied to talking therapies, including apps which can offer ‘just-in-time interventions’ or virtual reality or avatar work which can deliver more personalised interventions using complex scenarios. Drugs used for the treatment of ADHD, psychiatric and metabolic disorders may have the potential to be repurposed for binge-eating disorder. Thus, this is an area of rapid change with novel solutions being applied to this problem.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1017/S0029665122000994
       
 
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