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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition Research Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.756
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0954-4224 - ISSN (Online) 1475-2700
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • NRR volume 35 issue 2 Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422422000191
       
  • Circulating bile acids as a link between the gut microbiota and
           cardiovascular health: impact of prebiotics, probiotics and
           polyphenol-rich foods

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      Authors: Pushpass; Rose-Anna G., Alzoufairi, Shouq, Jackson, Kim G., Lovegrove, Julie A.
      Pages: 161 - 180
      Abstract: Beneficial effects of probiotic, prebiotic and polyphenol-rich interventions on fasting lipid profiles have been reported, with changes in the gut microbiota composition believed to play an important role in lipid regulation. Primary bile acids, which are involved in the digestion of fats and cholesterol metabolism, can be converted by the gut microbiota to secondary bile acids, some species of which are less well reabsorbed and consequently may be excreted in the stool. This can lead to increased hepatic bile acid neo-synthesis, resulting in a net loss of circulating low-density lipoprotein. Bile acids may therefore provide a link between the gut microbiota and cardiovascular health. This narrative review presents an overview of bile acid metabolism and the role of probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenol-rich foods in modulating circulating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers and bile acids. Although findings from human studies are inconsistent, there is growing evidence for associations between these dietary components and improved lipid CVD risk markers, attributed to modulation of the gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. These include increased bile acid neo-synthesis, due to bile sequestering action, bile salt metabolising activity and effects of short-chain fatty acids generated through bacterial fermentation of fibres. Animal studies have demonstrated effects on the FXR/FGF-15 axis and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis (CYP7A1) and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP and HMGR). Further human studies are needed to determine the relationship between diet and bile acid metabolism and whether circulating bile acids can be utilised as a potential CVD risk biomarker.
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000081
       
  • Nutrition across the curriculum: a scoping review exploring the
           integration of nutrition education within primary schools

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      Authors: Follong; Berit M., Verdonschot, Angeliek, Prieto-Rodriguez, Elena, Miller, Andrew, Collins, Clare E., Bucher, Tamara
      Pages: 181 - 196
      Abstract: Primary schools contribute to promoting healthy eating behaviour and preventing overweight and obesity by providing nutrition education. Research highlights the importance of improving teachers’ programme implementation to enhance intervention effectiveness. An integrative approach has been suggested to reduce time barriers that teachers currently experience in teaching nutrition. This scoping review explores use and effectiveness of integrative teaching in primary-school-based nutrition education programmes. Six databases were searched for primary-school-based interventions on nutrition education. Papers reporting on integration of nutrition topics within core curriculum were included. s and full texts of potentially relevant articles were screened to determine eligibility. Next, data were extracted and tabulated. Findings were collated and summarised to describe intervention characteristics, subject integration and effectiveness of the included programmes. Data describing integration of nutrition into the primary school curriculum were extracted from 39 eligible papers. Nutrition education programmes often involve lessons about food groups and are frequently embedded within the mathematics, science or literacy syllabus. Although articles report on the integration of nutrition, the use of this approach was not commonly described in detail. Only seven papers discussed student outcomes related to the integration of nutrition education within core subjects. The ability to draw strong conclusions about school-based nutrition intervention effectiveness is limited by the current lack of programme description and methodological issues. Hence, more research is warranted to inform evidence on effectiveness of integrative nutrition education for both teacher and student outcomes. Future studies that include greater detail regarding the integrative approach are needed.
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000111
       
  • Understanding the role of smoking and chronic excess alcohol consumption
           on reduced caloric intake and the development of sarcopenia

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      Authors: Prokopidis; Konstantinos, Witard, Oliver C.
      Pages: 197 - 206
      Abstract: This narrative review provides mechanistic insight into the biological link between smoking and/or chronic excess alcohol consumption, and increased risk of developing sarcopenia. Although the combination of excessive alcohol consumption and smoking is often associated with ectopic adipose deposition, this review is focused on the context of a reduced caloric intake (leading to energy deficit) that also may ensue due to either lifestyle habit. Smoking is a primary cause of periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that both induce swallowing difficulties, inhibit taste and mastication, and are associated with increased risk of muscle atrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction. Smoking may contribute to physical inactivity, energy deficit via reduced caloric intake, and increased systemic inflammation, all of which are factors known to suppress muscle protein synthesis rates. Moreover, chronic excess alcohol consumption may result in gut microbiota dysbiosis and autophagy-induced hyperammonemia, initiating the up-regulation of muscle protein breakdown and down-regulation of muscle protein synthesis via activation of myostatin, AMPK and REDD1, and deactivation of IGF-1. Future research is warranted to explore the link between oral healthcare management and personalised nutrition counselling in light of potential detrimental consequences of chronic smoking on musculoskeletal health outcomes in older adults. Experimental studies should investigate the impact of smoking and chronic excess alcohol consumption on the gut–brain axis, and explore biomarkers of smoking-induced oral disease progression. The implementation of behavioural change interventions and health policies regarding smoking and alcohol intake habits may mitigate the clinical and financial burden of sarcopenia on the healthcare system.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000135
       
  • The gut microbiota as a therapeutic target for obesity: a scoping review

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      Authors: Santos-Paulo; Stephanie, Costello, Samuel P., Forster, Samuel C., Travis, Simon P., Bryant, Robert V.
      Pages: 207 - 220
      Abstract: There is mounting evidence that microbiome composition is intimately and dynamically connected with host energy balance and metabolism. The gut microbiome is emerging as a novel target for counteracting the chronically positive energy balance in obesity, a disease of pandemic scale which contributes to>70 % of premature deaths. This scoping review explores the potential for therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota as a means of prevention and/or treatment of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The evidence base for interventional approaches which have been shown to affect the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome is summarised, including dietary strategies, oral probiotic treatment, faecal microbiota transplantation and bariatric surgery. Evidence in this field is still largely derived from preclinical rodent models, but interventional studies in obese populations have demonstrated metabolic improvements effected by microbiome-modulating treatments such as faecal microbiota transplantation, as well as drawing attention to the unappreciated role of microbiome modulation in well-established anti-obesity interventions, such as dietary change or bariatric surgery. The complex relationship between microbiome composition and host metabolism will take time to unravel, but microbiome modulation is likely to provide a novel strategy in the limited armamentarium of effective treatments for obesity.
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000160
       
  • Impact of Christian Orthodox Church dietary recommendations on metabolic
           syndrome risk factors: a scoping review

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      Authors: Kokkinopoulou; A., Kafatos, A.
      Pages: 221 - 235
      Abstract: Fasting has been a practice among followers of different religions for many years. Christian Orthodox Church (COC) fasting is a periodic vegetarian-type diet in which seafood and snails are allowed on most fasting days. The present scoping review aimed to present available data regarding the benefits of COC fasting on metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. Databases were searched for available studies. Twenty publications, with a total of 1226 fasting participants, provided data on the effects on different variables of MetS, including blood pressure, blood lipids and anthropometric measurements. Fasters’ diet is characterised by low saturated and trans fat intake, high complex carbohydrate and fibre consumption, due to permissible foods. COC fasting has no deficiency in essential amino acid intake since seafood and snails are allowed on fasting days. Fasters have healthier blood lipid profiles during and after COC fasting periods, and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body weight and BMI are reduced after a fasting period. Due to restricted or forbidden intake of specific foods during the COC fasting periods, one might expect that fasters have reduced intake of macro- and micronutrients, but as shown in the available literature, there are no deficiencies. Future research on COC fasting is needed in areas not investigated at all, like MetS, before reaching definite conclusions.
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000184
       
  • Obesity and dietary fat influence dopamine neurotransmission: exploring
           the convergence of metabolic state, physiological stress, and inflammation
           on dopaminergic control of food intake

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      Authors: Wallace; Conner W., Fordahl, Steve C.
      Pages: 236 - 251
      Abstract: The aim of this review is to explore how metabolic changes induced by diets high in saturated fat (HFD) affect nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine neurotransmission and food intake, and to explore how stress and inflammation influence this process. Recent evidence linked diet-induced obesity and HFD with reduced dopamine release and reuptake. Altered dopamine neurotransmission could disrupt satiety circuits between NAc dopamine terminals and projections to the hypothalamus. The NAc directs learning and motivated behaviours based on homeostatic needs and psychological states. Therefore, impaired dopaminergic responses to palatable food could contribute to weight gain by disrupting responses to food cues or stress, which impacts type and quantity of food consumed. Specifically, saturated fat promotes neuronal resistance to anorectic hormones and activation of immune cells that release proinflammatory cytokines. Insulin has been shown to regulate dopamine neurotransmission by enhancing satiety, but less is known about effects of diet-induced stress. Therefore, changes to dopamine signalling due to HFD warrant further examination to characterise crosstalk of cytokines with endocrine and neurotransmitter signals. A HFD promotes a proinflammatory environment that may disrupt neuronal endocrine function and dopamine signalling that could be exacerbated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and κ-opioid receptor stress systems. Together, these adaptive changes may dysregulate eating by changing NAc dopamine during hedonic versus homeostatic food intake. This could drive palatable food cravings during energy restriction and hinder weight loss. Understanding links between HFD and dopamine neurotransmission will inform treatment strategies for diet-induced obesity and identify molecular candidates for targeted therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000196
       
  • Carbohydrates deteriorate fatty liver by activating the inflammatory
           response

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      Authors: Gao; Yuqi, Hua, Rui, Hu, Kaiqiang, Wang, Zhao
      Pages: 252 - 267
      Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was defined in 1980 and has the same histological characteristics as alcoholic liver disease except for alcohol consumption. After 40 years, the understanding of this disease is still imperfect. Without specific drugs available for treatment, the number of patients with NAFLD is increasing rapidly, and NAFLD currently affects more than one-quarter of the global population. NAFLD is mostly caused by a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake of fat and sugar. To ameliorate or avoid NAFLD, people commonly replace high-fat foods with high-carbohydrate foods (especially starchy carbohydrates) as a way to reduce caloric intake and reach satiety. However, there are few studies that concentrate on the effect of carbohydrate intake on liver metabolism in patients with NAFLD, much fewer than the studies on fat intake. Besides, most of these studies are not systematic, which has made identification of the mechanism difficult. In this review, we collected and analysed data from studies on human and animal models and, surprisingly, found that carbohydrates and liver steatosis could be linked by inflammation. This review not only describes the effects of carbohydrates on NAFLD and body lipid metabolism but also analyses and predicts possible molecular pathways of carbohydrates in liver lipid synthesis that involve inflammation. Furthermore, the limitations of recent research and possible targets for regulating inflammation and lipogenesis are discussed. This review describes the effects of starchy carbohydrates, a nutrient signal, on NAFLD from the perspective of inflammation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000202
       
  • Ketogenic diets and the nervous system: a scoping review of neurological
           outcomes from nutritional ketosis in animal studies

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      Authors: Field; Rowena, Field, Tara, Pourkazemi, Fereshteh, Rooney, Kieron
      Pages: 268 - 281
      Abstract: Objectives:Ketogenic diets have reported efficacy for neurological dysfunctions; however, there are limited published human clinical trials elucidating the mechanisms by which nutritional ketosis produces therapeutic effects. The purpose of this present study was to investigate animal models that report variations in nervous system function by changing from a standard animal diet to a ketogenic diet, synthesise these into broad themes, and compare these with mechanisms reported as targets in pain neuroscience to inform human chronic pain trials.Methods:An electronic search of seven databases was conducted in July 2020. Two independent reviewers screened studies for eligibility, and descriptive outcomes relating to nervous system function were extracted for a thematic analysis, then synthesised into broad themes.Results:In total, 170 studies from eighteen different disease models were identified and grouped into fourteen broad themes: alterations in cellular energetics and metabolism, biochemical, cortical excitability, epigenetic regulation, mitochondrial function, neuroinflammation, neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, neurotransmitter function, nociception, redox balance, signalling pathways, synaptic transmission and vascular supply.Discussion:The mechanisms presented centred around the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as a reduction in nervous system excitability. Given the multiple potential mechanisms presented, it is likely that many of these are involved synergistically and undergo adaptive processes within the human body, and controlled animal models that limit the investigation to a particular pathway in isolation may reach differing conclusions. Attention is required when translating this information to human chronic pain populations owing to the limitations outlined from the animal research.
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000214
       
  • Ferroptosis Regulation by Nutrient Signalling

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      Authors: Qi; Yingao, Zhang, Xiaoli, Wu, Zhihui, Tian, Min, Chen, Fang, Guan, Wutai, Zhang, Shihai
      Pages: 282 - 294
      Abstract: Tremendous progress has been made in the field of ferroptosis since this regulated cell death process was first named in 2012. Ferroptosis is initiated upon redox imbalance and driven by excessive phospholipid peroxidation. Levels of multiple intracellular nutrients (iron, selenium, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) are intimately related to the cellular antioxidant system and participate in the regulation of ferroptosis. Dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulates ferroptosis by directly modifying the fatty acid composition in cell membranes. In addition, amino acids and glucose (energy stress) manipulate the ferroptosis pathway through the nutrient-sensitive kinases mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Understanding the molecular interaction between nutrient signals and ferroptosis sensors might help in the identification of the roles of ferroptosis in normal physiology and in the development of novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of ferroptosis-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000226
       
  • Aspirin and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid use and their interaction
           in cardiovascular diseases and colorectal adenomas

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      Authors: Wang; Ivan E., Yi, Shana, Block, Robert C., Mousa, Shaker A.
      Pages: 295 - 307
      Abstract: Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is inexpensive and is established in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal adenomas. Omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have also shown benefit in preventing CVD. The combination could be an effective preventative measure in patients with such diseases. ASA and n3 PUFA reduced the risk of CVD in ASA-resistant or diabetic patients. EPA- and DHA-deficient patients also benefited the most from n3 PUFA supplementation. Synergistic effects between ASA and EPA and DHA are ‘V-shaped’ such that optimal ASA efficacy is dependent on EPA and DHA concentrations in blood. In colorectal adenomas, ASA (300 mg/d) and EPA reduced adenoma burden in a location- and subtype-specific manner. Low doses of ASA (75–100 mg/d) were used in CVD prevention; however, ultra-low doses (30 mg/d) can also reduce thrombosis. EPA-to-DHA ratio is also important with regard to efficacy. DHA is more effective in reducing blood pressure and modulating systemic inflammation; however, high-dose EPA can lower CVD events in high-risk individuals. Although current literature has yet to examine ASA and DHA in preventing CVD, such combination warrants further investigation. To increase adherence to ASA and n3 PUFA supplementation, combination dosage form may be required to improve outcomes.
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000238
       
  • Nutritional consequences and management of hyperemesis gravidarum: a
           narrative review

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      Authors: Maslin; Kate, Dean, Caitlin
      Pages: 308 - 318
      Abstract: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition at the extreme end of the pregnancy sickness spectrum, estimated to affect 1–2 % of pregnant women. This narrative review provides an overview of the current literature concerning the nutritional implications and management of HG. HG can persist throughout pregnancy, causing malnutrition, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and unintended weight loss, requiring hospital admission in most cases. In addition to its negative effect on maternal, physical and psychological wellbeing, HG can negatively impact fetal growth and may have adverse consequences on the health of the offspring. HG care and research have been hampered in the past due to stigma, inconsistent diagnostic criteria, mismanagement and lack of investment. Little is known about the nutritional intake of women with HG and whether poor intake at critical stages of pregnancy is associated with perinatal outcomes. Effective treatment requires a combination of medical interventions, lifestyle changes, dietary changes, supportive care and patient education. There is, however, limited evidence-based research on the effectiveness of dietary approaches. Enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition are generally reserved for the most intractable cases, where other treatment modalities have failed. Wernicke encephalopathy is a rare but very serious and avoidable consequence of unmanaged HG. A recent priority-setting exercise involving patients, clinicians and researchers highlighted the importance of nutrition research to all. Future research should focus on these priorities to better understand the nutritional implications of HG. Ultimately improved recognition and management of malnutrition in HG is required to prevent complications and optimise nutritional care.
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.1017/S0954422421000305
       
 
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