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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition & Food Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.248
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0034-6659 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6917
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Effect of chitosan on cardio-metabolic risk factors induced by high fat
           diet in rats

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      Authors: Regina Ngozi Ugbaja , Beno Okechukwu Onunkwor , Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor , Kunle Ogungbemi , Anuoluwapo Adewole , Michael Ayobami Olowoyeye , David Arowojolu , Olamide Yewande Adeleke , Victory Chukwudalu Ugbaja
      Abstract: This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF). Thirty-six male Wistar rats were distributed across six groups (n = 6): normal diet (ND), HF, ND-5%CT, HF-1%CT, HF-3%CT and HF-5%CT, for seven weeks. Blood and cardiac tissues were processed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histopathological analyses. Ingestion of HF induced hyperlipidaemia and lipid accumulation, leading to increased body and heart weight by 70.5% (p < 0.0001) and 124% (p = 0.0021), respectively, compared to ND-groups. Cardiac damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde) were higher in the HF-group compared to control rats. Also, atherogenic and coronary risk indices were significantly elevated by 155% (p = 0.0044) and 174% (p = 0.0008), respectively, compared to control rats. Rats fed HF had significantly reduced cardiac antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and elevated expression of NF-κB-p65 and p53 (p < 0.0001) in the cardiac tissues. Histology revealed lipid inclusions in the cardiac tissues of HF-groups. CT (1%–5%) prevented hyperlipidaemia, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and cardiac damage in HF-fed rats, while greatly improving the histology of the cardiac tissues in HF-fed rats in a dose-dependent manner. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of CT against cardio-lipotoxicity elicited by HF diet ingestion. The findings suggest that CT may present a safe therapeutic alternative for managing complications arising from cardio-lipotoxicity.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0056
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effects of folic acid supplementation on depression in adults: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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      Authors: Parniyan Khalili , Omid Asbaghi , Ladan Aghakhani , Cain C.T. Clark , Neda Haghighat
      Abstract: This study aims, a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the effects of folic acid (folate) on patients with depression. Related articles were found by searching PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of science and Cochrane’s Library, from inception to January 2022. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Pooled analysis of six randomized controlled trials revealed that folic acid supplementation decreased the depression score in the Beck Depression Inventory (WMD: −3.9; 95% CI: −5.3 to −2.4, p < 0.001) compared with control group, without heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = 1.000). It also lowered the depression score in the Hamilton (HAM) Depression Inventory (WMD: −3.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: −4.6 to −2.4, p < 0.001) compared with control group, with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 71.8%, p = 0.007). Moreover, subgroup analysis showed that the folic acid supplementation reduced HAM in all subgroups. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of a significant linear relationship between dose and duration of folic acid supplementation and changes in HAM. Also, based on the non-linear dose response, no evidence of a relationship between dose and duration of folic acid supplementation and changes in HAM was found. Folic acid supplementation could possibly have an effect on lowering depression in patients. However, the clinical trials thus far are insufficient for clinical guidelines and practice.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0043
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring dietary diversity, nutritional status of adolescents among farm
           households in Nigeria: do higher commercialization levels translate to
           better nutrition'

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      Authors: Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin , Oluwaseun Aramide Otekunrin
      Abstract: This study aims to explore dietary diversity (DD) and nutritional status of adolescents among rural farm households in Southwestern Nigeria. It analyses whether higher commercialization levels of farm households translate to better nutrition. This study was conducted in Ogun and Oyo States of Southwestern Nigeria, using primary data from 352 farm households with a total of 160 adolescent members. The individual version of dietary diversity score (DDS) of nine food groups was used to calculate adolescent DDS over a 24-h recall period. World Health Organization AnthroPlus software was used in analyzing adolescents’ anthropometric data (height-for-age z-score and body mass index-for-age z-score) while household crop commercialization index (CCI) was estimated for each farm household. Separate logit models were used to examine the drivers of adolescents’ DD and malnutrition. The study findings indicated that 100% of the adolescents consumed starchy staples while 0%, 3.1% and 12.5% consumed organ meat, milk/milk products and eggs, respectively. Results revealed that 74.1% and 21.2% of boys were stunted and thin while the prevalence in adolescent girls was 50.7% and 9.3%, respectively. Prevalence of stunting was found to be very high (60%–83%) in all the four CCI levels’ households indicating that belonging to highly commercialized households (CCI 3–4) may not necessarily translate to better nutrition of adolescent members. Food expenditure (p < 0.01) and access to piped water (p < 0.01) negatively influenced adolescents’ stunting mainly because of lower expenditure on food items and lower percent of household having access to piped water, respectively, while education (p < 0.01) had positive effects on adolescents’ DD. Previous studies have contributed to the body of knowledge concerning the link between agricultural commercialization and nutrition using under-five children of the households. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that investigated the influence of CCI on DDS and nutritional status of adolescent members of farm households in Nigeria. This study fills this existing knowledge gap in investigating adolescents’ DD and malnutrition among smallholder farm households.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How safe are hemp-based food products' A review and risk assessment of
           analytical data from Germany

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      Authors: Fabian Pitter Steinmetz , Gerhard Nahler , James Christopher Wakefield
      Abstract: Hemp-based food products and supplements have gained popularity within recent years in Europe. Apart from the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, these products may also contain Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which can be of concern for safety and regulatory compliance. In the European Union, the currently accepted limit for THC in hemp is 0.3%. As many hemp-based products have been withdrawn from the German market within recent months/years, this study aims to investigate the current safety limit and potential concerns based on available analytical data. Therefore, a publicly accessible, analytical data set from the German food authority was analysed and complemented by literature data and expert opinions regarding THC in food products. Furthermore, critical exposures have been calculated based on different product types and limits. A safety-based limit of 11.9 µg/kg/day is proposed. Importantly, the authors’ examination of hemp seed oils, one of the most common food products, showed that 4 of the 102 samples were identified as having a low-to-moderate risk for inducing impairment – confirming the general need for regulation. For hemp leaf tea and common supplements, calculated exposures to THC were not considered critical. This has been also reflected by the absence of intoxication reports in the scientific literature. Whilst for most hemp-derived foods safety concerns for the general public are considered low, this may not be the case for some products, suggesting the general need for regulatory compliance. Nevertheless, a more realistic safety limit should be applied.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effect of methyl donor supplementation on body composition,
           homocysteine, lipid profile and appetite regulatory hormones in overweight
           and obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

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      Authors: Maryam Ranjbar Zahedani , Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari , Mehran Nouri , Shohreh Alipour , Jafar Hassanzadeh , Majid Fardaei
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of methyl donor supplementation on anthropometric indices, body composition, glycemic control, lipid profile, homocysteine and appetite regulatory hormones in overweight and obese subjects. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on overweight and obese subjects in Shiraz, Iran, in 2018. The 25 participants in each intervention and control group were required to take methyl donor supplement and placebo, respectively, for eight weeks. A variety of measurements was collected at baseline and the end of the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The results indicated a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, body fat and waist and hip circumference (p < 0.001 for all parameters) within both groups and a significant improvement in skeletal muscle (p = 0.005), fat-free mass (p = 0.006), visceral fat area (p < 0.001) and body cell mass (p = 0.004) in the intervention group. Also, the results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding serum homocysteine concentration at the end of the intervention (p < 0.001). The results demonstrated that methyl donor supplementation might have effects on the improvement of anthropometric indices, body composition, glycemic and lipid profile status and appetite regulatory hormones among obese and overweight individuals. These effects might be attributed to their roles in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and epigenetics regulation.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0382
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Changes in eating behaviours due to crises, disasters and pandemics: a
           scoping review

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      Authors: Lauren Hunter , Sarah Gerritsen , Victoria Egli
      Abstract: This literature scoping review aims to investigate if, how and why eating behaviours change after a crisis event such as a natural disaster, financial crisis or pandemic in high-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting “lockdowns” and social distancing measures have changed access to food, the types of food consumed and usual eating behaviours. Early research on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic is compared with existing literature on other high-impact crises in high-income countries around the world, such as Hurricane Katrina and the Global Financial Crisis. A search of four electronic databases in August 2020 of literature from 2000 to 2020 yielded 50 relevant publications that were included in the qualitative thematic analysis. The analysis found that crisis events made accessing food more difficult and led to increased food insecurity. Home cooking, sharing food and eating together (within households during the pandemic) all increased during and after a crisis. Resources often reduced and needed to be pooled. Crises had a multi-directional impact on dietary patterns, and the motivators for dietary pattern change differ between populations and crises. In conclusion, eating behaviours impacted by crises because of the disruption of food systems, increased food insecurity and changes in daily routines. Community networks were a strong protective factor against adverse outcomes from food insecurity.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0385
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Context-specific optimal dietary guidelines for managing cancer for
           hospitalized patients in Tanzania

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      Authors: Happyness Amani Kisighii , Jofrey Raymond , Musa Chacha
      Abstract: The lack of food-based dietary guidelines for managing cancer among hospitalized patients has led to an increasing economic burden on the government and families in low- and middle-economy countries. There have been increasing medical costs due to delayed recovery, readmission and mortality. The purpose of this study is to contribute in reducing these effects by developing context-specific food-based dietary guidelines to assist health-care professionals and caregivers in planning diets for cancer patients. For seven days, the dietary intakes of 100 cancer patients in the hospital were recorded using weighed food records. Data on the costs of commonly consumed foods during hospitalization were obtained from hospital requisition books as well as nearby markets and shops. The information gathered was used to create optimal food-based dietary guidelines for cancer patients. Most patients did not meet the recommended food group and micronutrient intake according to their weighed food records. Sugar intake from processed foods was (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%), and calories (2585 ± 544 g) exceeded recommendations. Optimized models generated three menus that met the World Cancer Research Fund 2018 cancer prevention recommendation at a minimum cost of 2,700 Tanzanian Shillings (TSH), 3500TSH, and 4550TSH per day. The optimal dietary pattern includes nutrient-dense foods from all food groups in recommended portions and within calorie limits. Findings show that optimal dietary guidelines that are context-specific for managing cancer in hospitalized patients can be formulated using culturally acceptable food ingredients at minimum cost.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Do glycemic index and glycemic load of diet contribute to early childhood
           caries in preschool children'

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      Authors: Elif Inan Eroglu , Ruveyda Esra Ozkalayci , Cansu Ozsin Ozler , Meryem Uzamis-Tekcicek , Zehra Buyuktuncer
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential association between the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) with early childhood caries in preschool children. This cross-sectional study collected data from 225 children aged 37–71 months in governmental nursery schools within the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. GI and GL values of foods and beverages were calculated using 2008 international tables of GI and GL. Dental examinations were done under daylight and by using a headlight. The prevalence of caries was obtained by calculating the number of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index score or decayed, missing and filled surface (dmfs) index score. There were significant differences in the dmft and dmfs scores according to GI groups (p = 0.022 for both). The multivariate models showed that children who consumed a high-GI diet had higher dmft scores compared to children who consumed a medium-GI diet (ß 1.48, 95% CI −1.48, 4.44), whereas children who consumed a high-GL diet had lower dmft score compared to children who consumed low-GL diet (ß 0.55, 95% CI −0.97, 2.07), however, they were not statistically significant. Dietary total GI and GL did not significantly influence the caries experience of preschool children. Future studies should focus on the different age groups with a broader perspective.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Perspectives of pumpkin pulp and pumpkin shell and seeds uses as
           ingredients in food formulation

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      Authors: Ruby-Alejandra Villamil , Natalia Escobar , Laura Natalia Romero , Ribka Huesa , Anny Valentina Plazas , Carina Gutiérrez , Gloria Elizabeth Robelto
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the use of pumpkin pulp and its by-products in food formulation. Pumpkins are important and useful in the food industry. However, only the pulp is used, and the shell and seeds are wasted, which represents an important food waste. A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases relating to the physicochemical, textural and sensory effects of the pumpkin pulp and its by-products’ incorporation into foods. No human subjects were involved, and ethical approval was not required. Pumpkin seeds and shell have been included in quite a variety of products. The primary effects on the physicochemical properties of bakery products, dairy products, beverages and snacks are the increase in energy, protein, iron, calcium, carotene content and textural properties (hardness, chewiness, snapping force and viscosity). Limitations comprise the heterogeneity of the studies included, which causes varied results. It was evidenced that pumpkin is already included in food products, especially in bakery products. However, there are not many products where the shell and seeds are used. Therefore, it is a field to be explored, as these by-products have great potential both to enrich food products and to reduce food waste contributing to sustainability.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0126
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A comprehensive nutritional support perspective in patients with COVID-19:
           a review

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      Authors: Soraiya Ebrahimpour-Koujan , Amir Ali Sohrabpour , Saeid Safari , Nima Baziar , Shima Hadavi , Laleh Payahoo , Samaneh Shabani
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is becoming a crucial health problem worldwide. Continued and high-speed mutations of this virus result in the appearance of new manifestations, making the control of this disease difficult. It has been shown that well-nourished patients have strong immune systems who mostly have short-term hospitalization compared to others. The purpose of this study is to review the major nutrients involved in the immune system reinforcement and to explain nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19. In this review paper, the mechanistic role of nutrients in boosting the immune system and the nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19 patients were discussed. Papers indexed in scientific databases were searched using antioxidants, COVID-19, inflammation, immune system, macronutrient, micronutrient and probiotic as keywords from 2000 to 2022. Because of the adverse effects of drugs like thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and hypercholesterolemia, a balanced diet with enough concentrations of energy and macronutrients could increase the patient's durability. The inflammatory cytokines in a vicious cycle delay patients’ rehabilitation. The main mechanistic roles of micronutrients are attributed to the downregulation of virus replication and are involved in energy homeostasis. Dysbiosis is defined as another disturbance among COVID-19 patients, and supplementation with beneficial strains of probiotics helps to exert anti-inflammatory effects in this regard. Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients. Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Consumers’ opinions, use of food labels and knowledge of food
           additives

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      Authors: Hatice Merve Bayram , Arda Ozturkcan
      Abstract: This study aims to determine what consumers take into consideration while buying food and to increase awareness. We also demonstrated food additives knowledge, and the association between food additive consumption and illness. An online survey was used to collect data from respondents (n = 433). Gender and knowledge of food additives and E numbers were found to be statistically different, as were education status and knowledge of food additives (p 
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0137
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Factors influencing grocery shopping choices and the prevalence of food
           label use among Saudi mothers: a cross-sectional pilot study

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      Authors: Najlaa Alsini , Hebah Alawi Kutbi , Noor Hakim , Rana Mosli , Noura Eid , Zeinab Mulla
      Abstract: There is currently limited data available on the Saudi population’s adoption of nutritional guidelines or on other factors influencing food purchasing behaviors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutrition label use, explore factors that could influence food choices during grocery shopping and evaluate the association of these factors with the sociodemographic characteristics of mothers. Mothers were recruited at a community event. They were requested to complete a questionnaire that assessed social and lifestyle characteristics as well as product features that influence food choices during grocery shopping. The study included 157 mothers. The prevalence of label reading was high with 69% of participants always or mostly reading labels pre-purchase. Features that were most likely to “always” influence purchase choices included: product healthfulness (57.3%), children’s preference (45.9%), specific needs of a family member (38.9%). The feature “awareness campaigns and workshops” was found to be associated with both low and high-income groups. There was a poor understanding of what the “light” food label meant with only 37.6% answering correctly. Further research is needed with a higher sample size with diverse sociodemographic characteristics. Saudi mothers are influenced by product healthfulness as well as children’s and family members’ needs when grocery shopping. There was a high prevalence of reading nutrition labels prepurchase. These findings can inform future public health policy on the main drivers for food purchasing decisions and the need for educational initiatives in Saudi Arabia. The present research collates factors influencing food choices
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0345
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Shift work, sleep, and burnout: the impact of Mediterranean dietary
           pattern and nutritional status on emergency healthcare workers

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      Authors: Hande BAKIRHAN , Yunus Emre BAKIRHAN , Gamze Yaşar
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and shift work, sleep quality and burnout among emergency health-care workers. The nutritional status, sleep quality and burnout status of health-care workers (n = 91) in Turkey were investigated. Among the burnout subgroups, only emotional exhaustion was associated with high adherence to the Meditarrenean diet. (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Carbohydrates consumed during the shift day were associated with lower sleep quality (r = 0.24, p = 0.02). The intake of protein (r = −0.29, p < 0.01), fat (r = −0.27, p < 0.00), cholesterol (r = −0.31, p < 0.01), phosphorus (r = −0.22, p = 0.03) and iron (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) in shift day was negatively associated with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores (lower PSQI scores indicates good sleep quality). Consumption of vitamin C and potassium on the rest day was significantly associated with better sleep quality (respectively, r = −0.21, p = 0.04 and r=−0.23, p = 0.03). Personal accomplishment was positively correlated with carbohydrate consumption during the shift day and negatively correlated with protein, cholesterol and vitamin B6 intake (respectively, r = 0.22, p = 0.03; r = −0.21, p = 0.03; r=−0.28, p < 0.00, r = −0.28, p < 0.00). Emotional exhaustion was negatively correlated with protein consumption on the shift day (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with fat consumption on the rest day (r = 0.22, p = 0.02). The findings confirm the possible role of dietary patterns in health-care workers against burnout and sleep quality attributable to a possible association with nutrients intake on shift or rest day.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Food safety knowledge and changes in practices and concerns of Indian
           families during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Sunaina Thakur , Pulkit Mathur
      Abstract: Unsafe food can lead to various foodborne diseases and even death, especially among children. This paper aims to assess food safety knowledge and changes in practices and concerns among adults ≥ 18 years during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted among 325 adults living in Northern India. Demographic data and information regarding their knowledge, practices and concerns about various food safety issues were collected to see if there were any changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that the participants had slightly higher than average knowledge and good food safety practices with mean scores of 9.75 ± 2.23 and 24.87 ± 2.28, respectively. Contracting COVID-19 from food and food packaging materials was of high concern for more than 70% of the participants. Majority (> 80%) of them reported an increase in the frequency of handwashing. About 16% of the participants used chemical disinfectants for washing fruits and vegetables. An increase (57.5%) in the frequency of food label reading was also noted during the pandemic. Freshness and the general quality of food items (49.5%), safety of food (30.8%) and cost (18.2%) were the top drivers that influenced the purchase decision. This study highlighted the need to send out clear messages on safe food handling practices and keeping the tempo up for sustaining good hygienic practices. This will help in reducing the risk of foodborne diseases.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0034
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of third generation protein rich snacks from lentil and egg
           powder through microwave assisted extrusion cooking

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      Authors: Monisa Yousouf , Syed Zameer Hussain , Varsha Kanojia , Tahiya Qadri , Bazila Naseer , Fouzia Shafi , Abida Jabeen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology. In the first part of the hybrid technology, the feed proportion and extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design. In the second part of hybrid technology, the optimized protein pellets (PP) obtained were subjected to microwave heating (MH) for 50,100, 150, 200 and 250 s. The optimum predicted conditions for development of pellets using extrusion cooking were feed proportion (85% LF and 15% EP), barrel temperature (140°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture content (12%). When these pellets were subjected to MH, 150 s of heating time was considered as prudential to induce desirable quality changes in PP. The increase in sectional expansion index, crispness and overall acceptability from 0.637 to 0.659, 4.51 to 6.1 and 3.27 to 3.59 with corresponding decrease in bulk density and breaking strength from 73.33 to 69.75 kg/cm3 and 6.24 to 5.13 N during 150 s of MH indicated that quality characteristics of extruded PPs were improved after MH. Nowadays, consumers have become more health conscious than ever, and the demand for nutritious snacks has increased many folds. However, the high protein content restricts expansion of snacks, which was overcome by subjecting extruded pellets to MH to produce third generation pellets. Furthermore, the PP has a protein content of 31.62%, which indicates that if an average person consumes 100 g of these snacks, it will suffice 60% of total recommended dietary intake (0.75 g/kg body weight/day). Lentil-based pellets expanded by use of such hybrid technology (microwave-assisted extrusion cooking) can help to provide a feasible, low cost and protein-rich diet for malnourished population besides being a value addition to lentils. LF in combination with EP was tested for the first time for development of nutrient dense pellets. Moreover, use of microwave-assisted extrusion cooking offers a workable and innovative technique of developing protein-rich pellets with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Perspectives on the potential of Mangiferin as a nutraceutical: a review

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      Authors: Deepti Jamwal , Priyanka Saini , Pushpa C. Tomar , Arpita Ghosh
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a review of the research studies that took place in the previous years regarding Mangiferin and its potential use in the treatment of various disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Mangiferin can be easily extracted from the plant at a very low cost to treat some common as well as deadly diseases, which will be a miracle in herbal treatment. In support of this, the recent related articles were considered to understand the bioactive compound “Mangiferin” to treat lifestyle diseases. Various review articles and research papers were collected from international and national journals, and internet sources were also being used to compile the current manuscript. Mangiferin has been shown to have the potential to mitigate many life style diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, fatty liver, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and diabetes-related end-organ complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. In this comprehensive review, this study evaluates Mangiferin and its lifestyle disease-modifying properties for nutraceuticals purposes.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Food delivery before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil

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      Authors: Juliana Costa Liboredo , Cláudia Antônia Alcântara Amaral , Natália Caldeira Carvalho
      Abstract: This study aims to understand consumer behavior related to the purchase of meals by delivery services before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Brazil. An online survey was conducted between September and October 2020. The total number of valid responses was 971. About 55% of the participants reported a decrease in consumption or not having consumed food delivery during the pandemic. Of the total, 48.3% feared contracting COVID-19 from food delivery. A significant association was observed between fear of contracting COVID-19 from food delivery and variables such as education level (p = 0.001), observance of social distancing (p = 0.03) and food delivery consumption frequency (p < 0.001). More people were careful about cleaning food packaging (from 12.4% before to 66.1% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and disposal (from 47.6% before to 66.4% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and heating the food before consumption (from 7.6% before to 13.7% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and used payment methods without approximation (from 29.8% before to 43.2% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) compared with the pre-pandemic period. More people also reported that application of security protocols during delivery (from 29.8% before to 43.2% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and in restaurants (from 7.2% before to 25% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and possessing knowledge about the financial difficulty of the establishment (from 4.6% before to 17% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) were the most important factors for choosing a food service. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore consumers’ fear of contracting COVID-19 from food delivery and consumer behavior related to food delivery services during the pandemic in Brazil – that is, way to order and payment methods, as well as concern and care related to the purchase of these foods.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0368
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Production of microbial pigments from whey and their applications: a
           review

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      Authors: Amrita Poonia , Surabhi Pandey
      Abstract: Whey is a by-product of paneer, cheese and casein industry and considered as a dairy waste. Worldwide, approximately 180–1,900 million tons of whey is produced annually. Whey is classified as a high pollutant due to its organic matter level. Owing to its high chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, it is a big threat to the environment. Whey contains 4.5%–5.0% lactose, 0.6%–0.7% protein, 0.4%–0.5% lipids, vitamins and minerals. Due to its high nutritional profile, it is a good substrate for the microorganisms for production of natural pigments. The purpose of this paper is to review the utilization of low cost substrate (whey) for production of various types of pigments and their applications in different sectors. The databases for the search included: Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Research gate and Google. The main search was directed towards different types of natural pigments, stability, technologies for enhancing their production and contribution towards circular economy. Approximately 100 research papers were initially screened. A global search was conducted about natural pigments. Research articles, review papers, books, articles in press and book chapters were the type of search for writing this review paper. Production of natural pigments using whey and their addition in food products not only improves the colour of food but also enhances the antioxidant properties of food products, helping the health benefits by chelating free radicals from the body. The sustainable use of whey for production of natural pigments can improve the bio-based economy of different industries and thereof the national economy. Efficient utilization of whey can bring a lot more opportunities for production of natural pigments in a sustainable manner. The sustainable approach and circular economy concepts will benefit the dependent industries and health conscious consumers. The potential uses of whey for the production of natural pigments using diverse organisms are highlighted in this paper.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its
           associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia

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      Authors: Wondwosen Molla , Dirshaye Aragaw , Robel Hussen , Aregahegn Wudneh , Derebe Madoro , Nebiyu Mengistu , Ruth Tilahun , Seid Shumye , Daniel Sisay , Habtamu Endashaw , Temesgen Muche
      Abstract: Achieving optimal nutrition among mothers and children is still a challenge in many developing country settings, including Ethiopia. Study on dietary diversity concordance of mother-to-child dyads is limited. Hence, this study aims to assess dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia, from January 1 to February 15, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done by Epi data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23.0 software, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Variables with p < 0.25 at bivariate analysis were chosen for multivariate analysis. Variables with a p-value of
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An understanding the food safety knowledge among food science students in
           Iraq

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      Authors: Sanar Muhyaddin , Iman Sabir
      Abstract: Food-borne diseases can be prevented with the knowledge of food safety. Food-related infirmity, especially in developing economy perspective such as Iraq can be addressed effectively with adequate food safety knowledge. So, this study aims to analyse the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students studying in food science programs. Four aspects of food safety, namely, the food poisoning, personal hygiene, temperature control and cross contamination and cleaning were considered to understand the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students. A survey of 105 Iraqi food technology students was conducted to know their food safety knowledge. A structured questionnaire was made involving multiple choice scales. Among the alternatives, one alternative was right and all other alternatives were wrong. Respondents were asked to pick the correct answer amongst the given alternatives. Correct answer given by the respondent was considered a measure of food safety knowledge. Findings of the study revealed that students had insufficient knowledge about various dimensions of food safety. Students had knowledge about the food poisoning (p < 0.001) Students had partial understanding about personal hygiene wherein they had knowledge about handwashing practices (p < 0.001) and food-handling practices (p < 0.001). Respondents had knowledge about role of freezing in bacterial growth (p < 0.001). Students only had knowledge about separation of cooked and uncooked food (p < 0.001), indicating partial understanding about cross contamination and cleanliness. Both age and gender of the student did not have relationship with their food safety knowledge. The results implied that instructors and tutors should stress upon the socio-cultural facets to facilitate the food safety knowledge. Educators should also emphasize upon the application and laboratory demonstration of food safety knowledge rather than over-emphasizing the theoretical part. The present study suffers from multiple limitations demanding specific mention. The study undertook a quantitative methodology and made use of a close-ended questionnaire. As generally the quantitative studies include the self-reported actions or behaviours of the selected respondents, the present study also offers its results on the basis of self-reported behaviour of the students. It might be possible to observe the difference between the stated and actual behaviour of the food technology students. Other researchers might use an observational study to obtain more genuine results. It is important to study food technology students regarding their food safety knowledge due to their projected future roles, as students are stipulated to perform the role of managers, food handlers, trainers, experts and caterers in the future in food industry. These students are more likely to influence the food safety orientations of society at large than the those belonging to other educational programs. Hence, this study offered a review of food safety knowledge of food technology students.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A systematic review on the role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating
           non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

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      Authors: Simran Gogna , Jaspreet Kaur , Kartik Sharma , Vishesh Bhadariya , Jyoti Singh , Vikas Kumar , Prasad Rasane , Vipasha Vipasha
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the health benefits, functional role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating diet-related non-communicable diseases, absorption, metabolism, toxicity and extraction of ALA. A wide range of publications were identified through electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and ResearchGate) on the basis of different keywords such as dietary sources, functional role, metabolism, beneficial effects, toxicity and extraction. ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is commonly found in dietary sources such as flaxseeds, rapeseed, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and fatty fish, with flaxseed being the richest among all the sources. Several convincing evidences depict the functional role of ALA in ameliorating cardiovascular functions, regulating systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improving neurological disorders, thus possessing anti-arrhythmic as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Its promising effect is also noticed on post-menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, insomnia and headache as well as in balancing the levels of sex hormones in women suffering from PCOS. Furthermore, it was also responsible for reducing the concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Its excess consumption may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances such as flatulence and bloating. Various extraction techniques, namely, medium pressure liquid chromatography, silver silica gel chromatography, silver ion-solid phase extraction and silver ion-high pressure liquid chromatography are used for the extraction of ALA from its sources. This is a novel review which will provide a brief overview of dietary sources, functional role, absorption and metabolism, health benefits, toxicity and extraction of ALA.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Aroma-taste-texture cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in
           yoghurt drink

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      Authors: Yi Jing Thun , See Wan Yan , Chin Ping Tan , Wen Xin Teoh , Xin Yue Gan
      Abstract: Prevention of chronic diseases by means of dietary modification can be achieved by consuming healthier foods with lower sugar content. However, reducing sugar content causes significant impact on the sensory quality and consumers’ acceptance towards local healthy products. This study aims to evaluate the effects of cross-modal interactions of Aroma-Taste-Texture (ATT) in yoghurt drink. Fifteen sugar reduced yoghurt drinks [S, sugar percentage (0%, 2%, 4%); T, stevia dosage (0%, 0.01%, 0.02%); P, pectin dosage (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%)] based on ATT were evaluated by 300 consumer panellists on aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability on a nine-point hedonic scale while sweetness intensity was measured using a seven-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Interactions between ATT were determined. Significant interaction was found between sugar and stevia, with F14 (4S0.02T0P) rated as sweeter than F4 (0S0.02T0P) (p = 0.003) and higher overall liking score than F11 (4S0T0P) (p = 0.001). Similarly, significant interaction was found between sugar and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Likewise, significant interaction was found between stevia and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Overall, F5 (0S0.02T0.6P) scored highest in overall liking and closest to the ideal sweetness (JAR = 4) indicating the possibility to apply 100% sugar replacement. Application from the present study could be great potential solution in developing healthier range products while meeting consumer preference. The present study concluded that interactions of ATT of yoghurt drink will induce desirable changes in sensory and sweetness perception.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Flavonoids and organochlorines in honey from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

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      Authors: Yutaka Tashiro
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the flavonoid composition and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in honey samples from different floral sources on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and to determine their nutritional characteristics and the risk of intaking hazardous pollutants. Honey samples were collected from various regions of the Ryukyu Islands. Thirty-one samples were analyzed for six flavonoid compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, and OCs from 14 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The differences in flavonoid composition among the samples from different floral sources were determined. Honey from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip. contained high concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. One sample with polychlorinated biphenyls and two with chlordane compounds were detected in one region; however, their concentrations were lower than those for food regulations. Novel chemical characteristics in Ryukyu honey, including high amounts of luteolin and apigenin from B. pilosa, were discovered, whereas low OC contamination was observed.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrient intakes and cognitive competence in the context of abstract
           reasoning of school-age children in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana

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      Authors: Reginald Adjetey Annan , Charles Apprey , Asamoah-Boakye Odeafo , Twum-Dei Benedicta , Takeshi Sakurai , Satoru Okonogi
      Abstract: The association between nutrition and cognitive test performance among school children is limited in developing countries, including Ghana. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and cognitive competence in the context of abstract reasoning among school-aged children in the Tamale Metropolis. The present cross-sectional study recruited 596 children aged 9–13 years from government-owned and private primary schools in Tamale Metropolis. Dietary intake was assessed by using three-day repeated 24-hour recall. Cognition was assessed by the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test, made up of 36 questions and used as a continuous variable, whereby higher scores indicated better cognition. The majority of the children did not meet the recommended dietary allowances for protein (55.5%) and fibre (94.0%) and estimated adequate requirement for energy (86.6%), folate (72.8%), vitamin E (90.6%) and zinc (74.8%). More girls (55.1%) performed poorly in the cognition test than the boys (45.7%) (p = 0.029). Between-subject effects determined using univariate and multivariate analyses indicated age (p = 0.002), dietary folate (p = 0.016), vitamin C intake (p = 0.011), combined age and dietary folate (p = 0.049) and combined age and dietary vitamin C (p = 0.022) significantly affected cognition scores. Girls had lower odds (AOR = 0.7, p = 0.021, 95%CI = 0.5–0.9) of scoring above the 50th percentile in cognition test than boys. The current nutrient intakes of the children were inadequate. The children performed poorly in Raven’s cognition test of abstract reasoning, and this was associated with being a girl. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate nutrient intakes and RCPM test performance among children in Northern Ghana. Thus, the findings of the study provide relevant information needed by stakeholders to implement nutrition programs in basic schools, aimed at ensuring optimal nutrition achievement among school children for improved cognition.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0343
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Potential blood pressure lowering effect of L-citrulline supplementation
           in at risk populations: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: Sadegh Jafarnejad , Catherine Tsang , Negin Amin
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and elderly populations. Three electronic databases, namely, Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus, were searched from 1990 to November 2020. Random effects model analysis was applied for quantitative data synthesis, and 6 trials with 150 participants were identified and included in the analysis. Results showed an overall non-significant effect of L-citrulline supplementation on both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in middle-aged and elderly participants. However, stratified analysis indicated a significant reduction in SBP (SMD: −0.41, 95% CI: −0.84, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.41; I2 = 10%) but not in DBP (SMD:−0.15, 95% CI: −0.57, 0.28; p = 0.51, heterogeneity p = 0.60; I2 = 0%), following longer-term (= 8 weeks) supplementation of L-citrulline. Additionally, higher doses of L-citrulline (= 6 grams) showed a marginally significant reduction in DBP (SMD: −0.38, 95% CI: −0.78, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.50; I2 = 0%). In conclusion, a higher dosage and longer duration of supplementation with L-citrulline may have potential BP lowering effects in populations at an increased risk of hypertension
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0378
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Survey of the blood pressure lowering potential of medicinal plants used
           in the management of hypertension in herbal homes in Zango Kataf, Kaduna,
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Esther Badugu Patrick , Sunday O. Otimenyin , Bukata B. Bukar
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure (BP) lowing potential of some herbs used by the indigenous people of Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, to treat hypertension. A total of 17 herbal healers and 15 hypertensive patients who use herbs to treat hypertension in Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were consulted between 2019 and 2020. Participants were selected via purposeful sampling. BP was measured before and after the ingestion of a herbal preparation. Three plant preparations were screened: Newbouldia laevis, Hibiscus cannabinus and Pavetta crassipes. H. cannabinus produced a significant decrease of 16, 12 and 14 mmHg in SBP at 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.001 at 2 h, p = 0.04 at 3 h, p = 0.01 at 4 h). While P. crassipes produced a significant decrease in SBP of 12, 15, 19 and 20 mmHg at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.04 at 1 h, p= 0.00 at 2 h, p = 0.00 at 3 h and p = 0.00 at 4 h). The findings for N. laevis were not reported due to incomplete information. The sample size of this study was small. The researcher could not meet with some hypertensive clients owing to the poor cooperation of some herbal healers. Further, some hypertensive patients rejected the offer to participate in the study. This study reveals that treatment with H. cannabinus and P. crassipes significantly decrease BP in hypertensive patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0326
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated
           with wheat–cassava composite flour

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      Authors: Omowumi Temitope Abiola , Michael Ayodele Idowu , Taofeek Akinyemi Shittu , Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo , Emmanuel Kehinde Oke
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker snacks coated with wheat (80%) and cassava (20%) composite flours. The peanuts were sorted, boiled, drained, roasted, coated and fried at temperature of 150–180°C for 154.6–240 s. The fried peanut cracker-coated (FPCC) snacks produced were analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents), rancidity indices (peroxide value, free fatty acid and iodine value), physical properties, colour (lightness, redness and yellowness), texture (hardness, fracturability, adhesiveness and cohesiveness) and sensory qualities (taste, crispiness, colour, odour and overall acceptability). There were significant differences in moisture (p = 0.000), crude fat (p = 0.001), crude protein (p = 0.000), crude fibre (p = 0.001), total ash (p = 0.00) and carbohydrate (p = 0.001). The range of values for moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents were 2.6%–4.9%, 27.1%–34.7%, 21.0%–26.3%, 3.1%–4.1%, 2.1%–2.5% and 33.9%–36.4%, respectively, while peroxide, free fatty acid and iodine values ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 mEq/kg, 32.8–47.0 mg KOH/g and 1.2–2.0 gI2/100 g, respectively. The physical properties of the FPCCs showed decrease as the frying temperature and time increased. The values for lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) ranged from 26.5 to 52.2, 11.4 to 22.0 and 37.0 to 42.5, while the texture attributes such as hardness (p = 0.001), fracturability (p = 0.023), adhesiveness (p = 0.001) and cohesiveness (p = 0.011) were significantly different and it ranged from 28.7 to 53.4 N, 28.6 to 48.3 N, 1.0 to 2.4 N/s and 0.0–0.1, respectively. The sensory score for wheat–cassava composite flours used for coating the snacks decreased as the frying temperature and time increased. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability. There are scanty information/published works on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated with wheat–cassava composite flour. This research work helps in producing fried peanut cracker coated with composite wheat–cassava flours. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Improve adherence to the Mediterranean diet through an innovative app: a
           pilot study

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      Authors: Andrea Devecchi , Simona Bo , Luca De Carli , Erik Breda , Valentina Ponzo , Andrea Pezzana
      Abstract: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a sustainable and healthy diet. However, compliance to the MD is still poor. Given this, the authors created a Web app to promote the MD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Web app YourPappa in terms of adherence to the MD. The authors developed a Web app, YourPappa, with the aim of encouraging virtuous dietary habits through a reward mechanism. After that, a randomized controlled study was conducted. All participants were given written advice on correct nutrition. Moreover, the case group was trained on the use of the app. The MD adherence was evaluated by a validated questionnaire (Medi-Lite). Cases found an average increase in the Medi-Lite scores of +7.1%, whereas controls showed an increase of +0.7% (p = 0.06; effect size 0.60). For most of the users, the Web app helped them to think about what they were buying and to promote the MD. Obesity and related diseases are a topical problem. New strategies are needed to counter it. This study showed interesting and encouraging results, which need further research and insight to be validated and supported. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the use of a Web app to stimulate the adoption of the MD through a reward mechanism.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0394
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship of fast food consumption with sociodemographic factors,
           body mass index and dietary habits among university students

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      Authors: Nurgul Arslan , Jiyan Aslan Ceylan , Abdulkerim Hatipoğlu
      Abstract: University students are one of the vulnerable groups in terms of having nutritional problems due to their lifestyle and social environment. This study aims to determine the consumption of fast food among university students and evaluate factors that may impact it, such as sociodemographic factors, body mass index (BMI) or nutritional habits. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of 184 university students (47.8% men and 52.2% women) with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.0 years. The survey included students’ sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and fast-food consumption. Chi-square test, t-test and binary logistic regression analysis were used depending on the characteristics of the data. Results indicated that 39.7% of the students consumed fast food at least once in 15 days and preferred these foods for taste, workload and social activity. Consumption of fast food occurred at an earlier age in men (%13.6) and the portions were higher than portions of vegetables (p = 0.001). By using regression analysis, a statistically significant relationship was found between the frequency of fast-food consumption and age, gender, economic status, BMI, the amount of vegetables consumed daily and the habit of eating breakfast (p < 0.05). It is planned to reach more students in the study. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, transportation to students became difficult or could not be reached. This study is one of the rare studies examining students’ orientation to fast food. The number of studies in this field in Turkey is limited.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Novel nutritionally improved snacks for school-aged children: formulation,
           characterization and acceptability

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      Authors: Nadia Lingiardi , Ezequiel Godoy , Ileana Arriola , María Soledad Cabreriso , Cecilia Accoroni , María Florencia Balzarini , Alberto Arribas , María Agustina Reinheimer
      Abstract: This study aims to formulate multiple nutritionally improved snacks intended for school-aged children according to international nutritional goals: Vanilla cookies (VC), Bay biscuits (BB), Cheese crackers (CC) and Tomato muffins (TM). The reformulation targets implied incorporating alternative flours and milk powder and reducing the sugar and sodium contents, with respect to the usually consumed control products. These products were subjected to proximate composition, colour and sensory profile analyses. Their overall acceptability was assessed by school-aged children whose nutritional status was also evaluated. Significant increments in relevant nutrients were observed in the composition of snacks: fibre (p = 0.01 for VC, p < 0.01 for BB and CC), proteins (p < 0.01 for all snacks) and calcium (p < 0.01 for all snacks). Average sodium reductions of 1.5% and 3.7% were achieved for CC and TM. During formulation, added sugar was reduced by 15.5% and 23.5% for VC and BB. All snacks were found to be acceptable in terms of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability by the participants, and VC, BB and CC were ready for their effective implementation as part of school meals. Comprehensive policies have become necessary to combat malnutrition, mainly overweight and obesity. The incorporation of nutritionally improved snacks in school environments is one of several strategies for promoting healthier lifestyles among children, including educational programs, workshops and food assistance.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessing the level of food insecurity among cancer patients undergoing
           active cancer treatment in a low-income community

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      Authors: Fatemeh Aamazadeh , Mohammad Alizadeh , Alireza Farsad-Naeimi , Zahra Tofighi
      Abstract: Food insecurity exists when access to nutritionally sufficient and secure foods or the ability to obtain admissible foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain. Food insecurity is most likely associated with chronic disease. However, research into the possible relationship between food insecurity and cancer, the world’s second leading cause of death, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity as well as the associated socioeconomic characteristics among cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 cancer patients in Iran. The socioeconomic and 18-item U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Questionnaires were used to measure general and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as food security status. The prevalence of food insecurity was 25.4% in the form of hunger and 52.5% in the form of hidden hunger. Only 22.1% of the patients were food secure. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that having children under 18 years old (P = 0.035), economic status (P < 0.001), age of the patient (P = 0.001), educational level of household’s head and his spouse (P = 0.044 and P = 0.045, respectively, had statistically significant relationships with food insecurity. Cancer patients have a high rate of food insecurity. Considering the importance of food security for effective cancer treatment, the health system’s attention to this issue, particularly by policymakers, appears to be required.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0355
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of various thermal processing methods and pretreatment methods to
           reduce phosphorus content of chicken meat for CKD patients

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      Authors: Kozue Uenishi , Keiko Tomita , Shinsuke Kido
      Abstract: The management of dietary phosphorus in chronic kidney disease patients is an important issue. Phosphorus is often found with protein in foods. However, excessive protein restriction worsens the nutritional status of the patient; thus, phosphorus must be selectively restricted. This study aims to assess the effects of various pretreatments readily available in ordinary households on phosphorus loss in foodstuffs. This study evaluated the retention of phosphorus in cooked chicken meat (boiled, baked, steamed and microwaved). In addition, this study incorporated various pretreatments (pounding, stabbing, cutting and enzymatic treatment) to the method exhibiting the lowest phosphorus retention (boiling) and assessed the effects on phosphorus retention. Boiling (65%, vs baking, p < 0.001; vs steaming, p = 0.013; vs microwaving, p = 0.002) of the chicken meat resulted in the lowest phosphorus retention compared to the other cooking methods (baking [89%], steaming [73%] and microwaving [75%]). In addition, stabbing (58%, p = 0.009) or cutting (46%, p < 0.001) further reduced the retention of phosphorus in boiled chicken meat. The retention of phosphorus in enzyme-pretreated boiled chicken was reduced by approximately 10% compared to untreated chicken (p = 0.01). The cooking method that reduced phosphorus retention to the greatest extent was enzyme treatment prior to cutting and boiling. This paper investigates the effects of common household cooking methods and combinations of methods on the phosphorus content of meat.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0384
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Ketogenic vs plantogenic diets for health: a review article

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      Authors: Hildemar Dos Santos , Diane Han , Mayabel Perez , Summer Johnson , Razaz Shaheen
      Abstract: To gain a better and more comprehensive understanding, this study aims to investigate the literature to explore the two popular diets’ health benefits and concerns. Google Scholar and PubMed were used to search for available and relevant nutrition and health articles that pertain to the benefits and concerns of plantogenic and ketogenic diets. Search terms like low carbohydrate, diet, ketogenic, vegetarian and chronic diseases were used. Information was obtained from review articles and original research articles and checked for accuracy. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Ketogenic and plantogenic (plant-based) diets have been adopted today by many professionals and the public. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Plantogenic diets also have been practiced for many years for religious, health and environmental reasons. Compared to plantogenic diets, ketogenic diets lack long-term evidence of its potential benefits and harm. Maybe Lacto-ovo vegetarian and pesco-vegetarian (eat fish but not meats) diets are OK. However, for strict plantogenic diets (total plantogenic/vegan diet), the risk of mineral or vitamin deficiency is present (Melina et al., 2016). Of particular concern is dietary vitamin B12, which is obtained mostly from animal sources (Melina et al., 2016). A long-term deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to macrocytic anemia and cause neuro and psychological effects (Obeid et al., 2019). Also, omega-3 fatty acids may be deficient in such a diet and probably need to be supplemented on those who follow the total plantogenic diet (Melina et al., 2016). Other deficiencies of concern would be zinc, iron, calcium, vitamin D and iodine (Melina et al., 2016). Another disadvantage is that many junk foods could be easily classified within the plantogenic diet, such as sugar, cakes, French fries, white bread and rice, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets in general. These items are related to higher weight gain and, consequently, to a higher incidence of diabetes and other chronic diseases (Schulze et al., 2004; Malik et al., 2006; Fung et al., 2009). Plantogenic diets were concluded to have sustainable health benefits for humans and the environment over ketogenic diets, which could be used but under professional follow-up only.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0344
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bioactive compounds and its optimization from food waste: review on novel
           extraction techniques

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      Authors: Subhamoy Dhua , Kshitiz Kumar , Vijay Singh Sharanagat , Prabhat K. Nema
      Abstract: The amount of food wasted every year is 1.3 billion metric tonne (MT), out of which 0.5 billion MT is contributed by the fruits processing industries. The waste includes by-products such as peels, pomace and seeds and is a good source of bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds, flavonoids, pectin lipids and dietary fibres. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to review the novel extraction techniques used for the extraction of the bio active compounds from food waste for the selection of suitable extraction method. Novel extraction techniques such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pulsed electric field extraction and pressurized liquid extraction have emerged to overcome the drawbacks and constraints of conventional extraction techniques. Hence, this study is focussed on novel extraction techniques, their limitations and optimization for the extraction of bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetable waste. This study presents a comprehensive review on the novel extraction processes that have been adopted for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food waste. This paper also summarizes bioactive compounds' optimum extraction condition from various food waste using novel extraction techniques. Food waste is rich in bioactive compounds, and its efficient extraction may add value to the food processing industries. Hence, compressive analysis is needed to overcome the problem associated with the extraction and selection of suitable extraction techniques. Selection of a suitable extraction method will not only add value to food waste but also reduce waste dumping and the cost of bioactive compounds. This paper presents the research progress on the extraction of bioactive active compounds from food waste using novel extraction techniques.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0373
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Probiotic supplement as an adjunctive therapy with Ritalin for treatment
           of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a
           double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

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      Authors: Milad Ghanaatgar , Sina Taherzadeh , Shadi Ariyanfar , Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi , Fahime Martami , Javad Mahmoudi Gharaei , Amir Teimourpour , Zahra Shahrivar
      Abstract: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of microbiota-directed intervention in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the effects of probiotic supplements as an adjunct therapy in combination with Ritalin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD, aged 6–12 years, who had an intelligent quotient of ≥70 were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to either the group that received probiotics or the group that received the placebo in addition to the weight-adjusted dose of Ritalin. Parents were asked to complete the revised Conners Parent Rating Scale–short version (CPRS–RS), and the psychiatrist completed the seven-point Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI–S) scale. Two study groups were compared in three time points, including T1 (before intervention), T2 (at the end of fourth week) and T3 (at the end of the eighth week). A total of 38 participants completed the study. After eight weeks of intervention, the probiotic group had a significant improvement regarding CPRS–RS scores in T2 (9.4 unit, p = 0.014) and T3 (18.6 unit, p < 0.001), compared to placebo. In addition, children in the probiotic group had 0.7 unit lower CGI in T3 (p = 0.018) than the placebo group. A significant reduction of CGI scores was observed in each interval (T2 vs T1, T3 vs T2 and T3 vs T1; p < 0.05). This significant change in CGI score between intervals was also detected in the placebo group in T2 vs T1 (p = 0.002) and T3 vs T1 (p < 0.001). Mean CPRS scores of the groups were different in T2 and T3 (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively) and mean CGI scores of the two study groups were different in T3 (p = 0.018). Eight weeks of supplementation with probiotics had a favorable effect on symptoms and severity of ADHD. Therefore, probiotics as an adjuvant treatment might have a promising efficacy regarding the management of ADHD.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0388
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Characterization of Bolivian chili peppers; antioxidant capacity, total
           phenolic compounds, capsaicin and β-carotene concentration

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      Authors: Leslie Tejeda , Pamela Elizabeth Vasquez Iriarte , Jimena Valeria Ortiz , Enzo Aliaga-Rossel , Patricia Mollinedo , J. Mauricio Peñarrieta
      Abstract: Chili pepper pods are a worldwide used and cultivated spice with a high economic and cultural importance. Bolivia is a center of origin and diversification of important crops including wild pepper varieties, but little is known about the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and the Scoville and bioactive compounds of these chili peppers. The purpose of this study was to contribute with new data about the chemical composition and the Scoville scale of Bolivian Chili peppers. A total of 26 samples of Bolivian Chili peppers were extracted using distilled water and methanol. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. The total phenolic content was determined by Folin and Ciocalteu. Carotene, protein and ashes were determined by Bolivian analytical norms. Capsaicin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. All determinations were expressed as mean values± standard deviation of six replicates measured over three days of one extract. All values were less than 5% of coefficient of variation. Principal component analysis was applied to reveal patterns in the data. PC1 and PC2 together explained 78% of the total variance. The protein content (3.8–6.3 g/100 g of dw) and the antioxidant activity (88.2 to 374 by FRAP and 87.0 to 172 evaluated by ABTS) studied in these species revealed that the values were above the average reported in the literature. The amount of pungency or capsaicin content expressed as Scoville Heat Units were reported moderately highly and very highly pungent (5,696–148,800 g dw) in several of the Bolivian peppers which demonstrates a good potential for capsaicin extraction and different applications for industry and as food ingredients. This manuscript presents an important and novel contribution to the knowledge of the chili peppers in the region.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0341
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of a safe food handling knowledge questionnaire: Psychometric
           properties and acceptability among consumers

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      Authors: Jessica Charlesworth , Barbara Mullan , David Preece
      Abstract: Foodborne illness remains high globally, with the majority of cases occurring in the domestic environment. Research in the safe food-handling domain is limited by the absence of an up-to-date and suitable measure of safe food-handling knowledge for use among consumers, with previous measures limited by questionnaire design features that increase participant burden and burnout and a lack of alignment with current safe food-handling guidelines. The purpose of this study is to develop a safe food-handling knowledge measure to capture a comprehensive understanding of consumers’ safe food-handling knowledge while minimising participant burden and burnout. Items were developed and evaluated prior to administering them to participants. Data was collected among 277 participants who completed the measure online. Results indicated that the measure had good acceptability among participants in the sample (mean = 5.44, SD = 0.77, range = 2.42–7) and that the measure had acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.60), item discrimination and item difficulty. These findings suggest that the safe food-handling knowledge measure would be suitable for use in future studies examining consumer safe food-handling. This study provides an updated, acceptable and suitable safe food-handling knowledge measure for use among consumers to better understand consumers’ understanding of safe food-handling practices. Use of this measure in future research can improve the measurement of consumer safe food-handling knowledge to allow for better tailoring of future interventions and health campaigns for safe food-handling among consumers.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0365
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of low caffeine doses on jumping performance: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: J. Grgic
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of low doses of caffeine (
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Anemia, a moderate public health problem among adolescent school girls in
           Aysaita district, the pastoral community of the Afar region, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Etsay Anbesu , Getahun Mulaw , Kusse Mare , Molla Kahssay
      Abstract: Adolescents are a vulnerable age group in the human life cycle for the development of anemia. Despite limited health infrastructures, there are limited studies in the pastoral community of the Afar region. Thus, this study aims to assess anemia and associated factors among adolescent school girls in the Aysaita district, the pastoral community of the Afar region, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 522 randomly selected adolescent girls in the Aysaita district. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and a systematic random sampling technique was used using school registration rosters. Hemoglobin was measured using a complete blood count machine from the vein blood sample. Anthropometric measurements were done to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. Descriptive logistic regression analysis was used to summarize the results and identify the factors associated with anemia. In this study, the prevalence of anemia among adolescent school girls was 109 (21.7%) [95% CI: (18.1%, 25.3%)]. School adolescent girls from rural residence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.42, 95% CI (1.97, 5.94)], who had a minimum dietary diversity score less than 4 [AOR = 3.4, 95% CI (2.1, 5.42)] and menstrual duration 5 and above days [AOR = 2.34, 95% CI (1.36, 4.01)] were associated with increased odds of anemia. This is original manuscript. Not submitted and published elsewhere.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0392
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Eating behavior among remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Chin Xuan Tan , Shuen Dee Goh , Seok Shin Tan , Seok Tyug Tan
      Abstract: The Malaysian movement control order is a series of national lockdowns implemented by the Malaysian federal government to contain the spread of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The government has made it mandatory for all non-essential sectors to work remotely to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The eating behavior of working adults may have altered following the changes in working norms. This study aimed to assess the eating behavior of remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 159 remote working adults were recruited through a convenience sampling approach. Bodyweight and body height were self-reported by the respondents. Body mass index was calculated according to the cut-off of World Health Organization standards. The eating behavior was evaluated using the eating behavior questionnaire. Results revealed more than half of the remote working respondents did not practice meal skipping. Irrespective of the gender, more than 70% of the respondents consumed either breakfast, lunch or dinner every day. Most of the respondents consumed vegetables, bread/rice/noodles and meat/chicken at least two times per day. Regression analysis revealed meal skipping was associated with younger people, overweight status and median monthly household income. Many sectors adopted remote working systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is postulated that working remotely will be a new normal even after this pandemic. Until now, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, little or no data are available on assessing the eating behavior of remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study could provide an insight into the eating behavior of adults during remote working.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0331
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Enhancement of vitamin D in edible mushroom using ultraviolet irradiation
           and assessing its storage and cooking stability

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      Authors: Muneeb Ahmad Malik , Yasmeena Jan , Afrozul Haq , Jasmeet Kaur , Bibhu Prasad Panda
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to optimize the parameters for enhancing the vitamin D2 formation in three edible mushroom varieties, namely, shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Freshly harvested mushrooms were irradiated with UV-B and UV-C lamps. Further, mushrooms were treated with UV-B at a distance ranging between 10 and 50 cm from the UV light source, for 15–150 min, to maximize the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2. Analysis of vitamin D2 content in mushrooms before and after UV exposure was done by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC results showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in vitamin D2 levels of shiitake (17.3 ± 0.35 µg/g), button (24.9 ± 0.71 µg/g) and oyster (19.1 ± 0.35 µg/g) mushrooms, irradiated with UV-B at a distance of 20–30 cm for 120 min. Further, stability studies revealed that vitamin D2 levels in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms gradually increased for 48 and 72 h of storage at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. During cooking operations, 62%–93% of vitamin D2 was retained in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms. This study describes the most effective parameters such as ideal wavelength, mushrooms size, duration of exposure and distance from UV sources for maximum vitamin D2 formation in edible mushrooms using UV irradiation. Further, assessment of vitamin D2 stability in UV exposed mushrooms during storage period and cooking operations has been carried out. In addition, this study also provides a comparison of the vitamin D2 levels of the three widely cultivated and consumed mushroom varieties treated simultaneously under similar UV exposure conditions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0391
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A meta-analysis on the effects of caffeine ingestion on swimming
           performance

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      Authors: J. Grgic
      Abstract: Caffeine is a popular ergogenic aid, but its effects on swimming performance are not yet fully clear. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of caffeine on swimming performance. Crossover placebo-controlled studies that explored the effects of caffeine on swimming performance were included. Six databases were searched to find relevant studies with additional forward and backward citation tracking. The data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Eight studies were included in the review. The main meta-analysis showed a significant ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on swimming performance (Cohen’s d: –0.20; 95% confidence interval: −0.32, −0.08; p = 0.0008; –1.7%). In the analysis for short-distance swimming events, caffeine ingestion had a significant ergogenic effect on swimming performance (Cohen’s d: –0.14; 95% confidence interval: –0.27, −0.01; p = 0.03; −1.4%). An ergogenic effect of caffeine was also found in the analysis for moderate-to-long swimming distance events (Cohen’s d: –0.36; 95% confidence interval: −0.67, −0.05; p = 0.02; −2.2%). The present meta-analysis found that caffeine ingestion decreases the time needed to complete a given swimming event. While these ergogenic effects may be classified as small, they are likely important in swimming, where narrow margins commonly determine placings.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of body image, percent body fat, nutrient intake, physical
           activity among adolescent

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      Authors: Nazhif Gifari , Laras Sitoayu , Rachmanida Nuzrina , Putri Ronitawati , Mury Kuswari , Teguh Jati Prasetyo
      Abstract: Obesity in adolescents has been a severe public health problem in developing countries in recent years. This study aims to assess the differences in socioeconomic, nutrition knowledge, breakfast habits, body image, physical activity, smoking, total sleep quality and nutrient intake between obese and non-obese adolescents. This cross-sectional study with 2,432 adolescents (16–18 years) was conducted at senior high schools in DKI Jakarta from January to November 2019. Body image, percent body fat, nutrition intake and physical activity variables were collected. This study found that more than 30% of adolescents in DKI Jakarta were overweight and obese. Overall, adolescents have a 56.3% positive body image, participate in moderate-intensity physical activity (49.02%), and smoke was found at a rate of 6.9%. The average total sleep quality was 71.3% fair and nutrient intakes 1599 ± 413 calories. The findings suggest that monthly income (p = 0.001, p = 0.016), energy intake (p = 0.005, p = 0.019) and total sleep quality (p = 0.008, p = 0.04) variables were consistently associated with nutritional status and percent body fat. Moreover, the body image perception (p = 0.035) variable had a negative correlation with nutritional status, and the smoking habits variable (p = 0.001) had a negative correlation with percent body fat. This study provides empirical evidence that establishes the association between monthly income, energy intake, total sleep quality with nutritional status and body fat percentage in adolescents.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0305
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of orthorexia nervosa tendency and fear of COVID-19 in
           university students receiving health education

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      Authors: Zeynep Uzdil , Ayça Sevdanur Üstüner
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate level of fear and the tendency toward orthorexia nervosa (ON) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the university students receiving health education. A total of 765 students, consisting of 626 females (81.8%) and 139 males (18.2%) were included in the study. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and the tendency toward ON were assessed using an online questionnaire. The FCV-19S scores differed according to gender and were higher in the female students (P < 0.001). In students with a high EAT-26 score, the tendency toward ON was higher (P < 0.001). According to estimated regression models, a unit increase of the FCV-19S scores led to a decrease of 0.10 points in the Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11 (ORTO-11) scores. It was determined that students with high FCV-19S scores had a tendency toward ON and increased EAT-26 scores (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). There was a weak negative correlation between the FCV-19S score and the ORTO-11 score (P < 0.001) and a weak positive correlation between the FCV-19S score and the EAT-26 score (P = 0.001). In this cross-sectional study, it was determined that the fear of COVID-19 was related to an increase in the tendency toward ON and eating attitude in students receiving health education. Because of the fear and ON tendencies of students due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it would be beneficial to provide education on adequate and balanced nutrition during this period.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0354
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Natural oils restore body weight, ameliorate serum bile acid and vitamin D
           and improve liver histology in depression

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      Authors: Khaled M.M. Koriem , Nevein N. Fadl , Salwa R. El-Zayat , Eman N. Hosny , Fatma A. Morsy
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats. Eighty male albino rats were divided into normal and depressed rats. Normal rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: control, venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil groups. Depressed rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: depressed rats, depressed rats + venlafaxine drug, depressed rats + anise oil and depressed rats + geranium oil groups. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were detected. Animal behavior, cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology were also investigated in this study. Body weight (117 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (5.6 ± 1.4 g/day) and water intake (8.7 ± 1.2 ml/day) were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to body weight (153 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (12.7 ± 1.6 g/day) and water intake (15.3 ± 1.6 ml/day) in control. Animal behavioral tests, e.g. sucrose preference (48.8 ± 1.5) test, distance traveled (70.0 ± 16.3), center square entries (0.20 ± 0.10), center square duration (52.18 ± 11.9), tail suspension (54.70 ± 2.9 s) test and forced swimming (134.4 ± 5.5 s) test were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to sucrose preference (89.2 ± 1.7) test, distance traveled (226 ± 90.1), center square entries (1.4 ± 1.8), center square duration (3.6 ± 2.0), tail suspension (19.3 ± 2.1 s) test and forced swimming (83.7 ± 3.6 s) test in control. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (7.4 ± 1.7 and 1.2 ± 0.54 pg/g tissue), dopamine (6.3 ± 1.5 and 0.86 ± 0.07 pg/g tissue), norepinephrine (8.1 ± 1.7 and 1.4 ± 0.41 pg/g tissue) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (1.3 ± 0.41 and 0.08 ± 0.04 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (46.8 ± 3.5 µmole/L) and vitamin D (1.3 ± 0.37 ng/ml) were significantly decreased (p'0.001) in depression compared to cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (16.8 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 1.4 pg/g tissue), dopamine (15.7 ± 2.0 and 1.8 ± 0.49 pg/g tissue) norepinephrine (18.2 ± 2.3 and 3.8 ± 1.3 pg/g tissue) and GABA (2.7 ± 0.62 and 0.16 ± 0.06 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (90.5 ± 4.3 µmole/L) and vitamin D (2.7 ± 0.58 ng/ml) in control. Depression induced injury to hepatic tissues. Oral supplementation with anise oil and geranium oil ameliorated body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depressed rats. Depression treatment persists for a long time, so the search for a new herbal treatment is of concern due to available sources, cheap and no side effects of herbal plants. Anise oil and geranium oil improved body weight, food consumption, water intake, animal behavioral tests, cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depression.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0383
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Olive cake reduces obesity by decreasing epididymal adipocyte size,
           inhibiting oxidative stress and pancreatic lipase, in rat fed high fat
           diet

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      Authors: Mansourou Samba Garba , Sherazede Bouderbala
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of olive cake (OC) on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers, lipase activity and on the histological analysis of epididymal fat, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Male obese rats were divided into two groups and were fed an HFD supplemented (HFD-OC) or not (HFD) with OC for 28 days. A control group was fed a standard diet for the same experimental period. HFD significantly increased body weight, which was reduced by OC in the HFD-OC compared to HFD (p = 0.038). Lipase activity was higher (52%; p = 0.009) in the HFD group than the control group. Administration of OC to the obese rats decreased significantly this activity (38%; p = 0.025) compared to the HFD group. Serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide and advanced oxidation protein products levels were significantly increased in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.032, p = 0.023 and p = 0.017, respectively). These levels were significantly reduced in HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.030, p = 0.021 and p = 0.010, respectively). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased (53%; p = 0.04), (61%; p = 0.03) and (32%; p = 0.002), in the HFD group than the control group. OC restored these activities (46%; p = 0.01), (58%; p = 0.003) and (30%; p = 0.0003) in the HFD-OC rats than the HFD rats. Consumption of the HFD resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy. Indeed, epididymal adipocyte size was significantly larger in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.0001), whereas it was reduced in the HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.012). OC possesses an anti-obesity effect. This effect might be mediated by lipase inhibition, reduced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant activities. In addition, the reduction of fat accumulation in adipose tissue by OC consumption is reflected by reducing adipocyte size.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0319
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of dietary inflammatory index, functional foods and some
           antioxidants intake with COVID-19 vaccine side effects in Iranian adults

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      Authors: Mahsa Mohajeri
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII), consumption of functional food and some antioxidants with COVID-19 vaccine side effects in Iranian adults. This was a case–control study conducted among the 1,067 Iranian adults who were invited to participate through WhatsApp software. The dietary intake was assessed using the food frequency questionnaire. There was a significant difference (p = 0.04) in vitamin D consumption between healthy people and persons with a vaccine side effect. Vitamin E intake in healthy participants was significantly (p = 0.04) more than case group. There was a significant difference in the consumption of zinc (p = 0.01), selenium (p = 0.02) and vitamin C (p = 0.02), between persons without vaccine side effects and the case group. Consumption of onion (82.5 ± 9.5 g/day vs 32.2 ± 6.3; p = 0.0001), garlic (6 ± 0.3 g/day vs 0.2 ± 0.08; p = 0.0001) and oat (2.2 ± 0.05 g/day vs 0.5 ± 0.01; p = 0.001) in the control group was significantly more than persons with vaccine side effects. With the increase in each unit in the score of the DII, the risk of COVID-19 vaccine side effect incidence increased 1.7 times (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–1.8). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that investigated the association between functional food intake and side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0349
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effect of maternal and nutritional factors on birth weight: a cohort
           study in Tehran, Iran

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      Authors: Tahereh Karimi , Zeinab Moslemi , Arezoo Rezazadeh , Hassan Eini-Zinab
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of maternal food intake before and during pregnancy on birth weight. As a prospective cohort study, a total of 585 pregnant women of first trimester, visiting Tehran Metropolitan Area public health centers and private sectors (clinics and hospitals), were interviewed at first phase, and pregestational dietary intake was obtained by a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. At the third trimester, dietary recalls were collected via interview. Finally, birth weight information was extracted from health records. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to explore the effect of maternal and nutritional factors on birth weight. The results of the analysis show that direct measures of nutrition, measured as food group consumption at first and third trimester of pregnancy, had no significant effect on birth weight once the confounding factors were controlled (p > 0.05). Of control variables included in the analysis, twin pregnancy outcome (p = 0.000), pregnancy number (p = 0.04), prepregnancy weight (p = 0.004) (marginally significant) and gestational age (p = 0.000) (marginally significant) were associated with birth weight. The results of this study show no significant role of mother’s nutrition during pregnancy on birth weight, while long-term nutrition outcomes such as prepregnancy weight had significant role. It seems the main reasons behind less important role of pregnancy nutrition on birth weight in this study include the following: food intake deficiency is not a major problem for participants, and cross-sectional data on food intake are less important on outcome of pregnancy weight than long-term nutritional status outcome variables such as mother’s weight and height. This finding should be addressed in public health planning for women at childbearing age.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0311
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An overview on recent advances in functional properties of dietary lipids,
           encapsulation strategies and applications

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      Authors: Jaydeep Pinakin Dave , Ali Muhammed Moula Ali , Sri Charan Bindu Bavisetty
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide contemporary scientific knowledge on the functionality of edible lipids, sources, health benefits, and a special emphasis on different encapsulation strategies to enhance their dietary application and boost the market value. Novel technologies overcoming these issues are in great demand. Given that, several novel encapsulation techniques have been established aiming at most of the aspects of functional lipids. In addition, these techniques have been designed to enhance the storage stability and controlled release of lipids in food systems. Plant and marine oils are one of the richest sources of functional lipids but are attached with limitations. Currently, alternative sources, such as different types of algae and microorganisms are gaining attention in terms of sustainable production systems. Advances in various encapsulation techniques have helped to overcome the dispersibility and stability problems of lipids encapsulation. Refinement in physicochemical interaction, colloidal dispersion and core-shell modules between wall and core matrix protect dietary lipids during processing have been implemented. Liposomes, micro/nanoemulsions and micro/nanocapsules are found most suitable for food application by improving the fatty acid profile, stability and sensorial properties. Functional lipids offer numerous health benefits (i.e., simple health-promoting properties to complex disease preventive and curative effects). However, these functional lipids are associated with several disadvantages, such as region-specific availability, vulnerability to oxidation depending on the level of unsaturation, degradation/hydrolysis on processing, low bioavailability, confined storage stability, and others.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0282
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of orange peel and moringa leaves extracts on quality of chicken
           sausages under frozen storage

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      Authors: Suman Bishnoi , Sanjay Yadav , Diwakar Sharma , Ashok Kumar Pathera
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of orange peel and moringa leaves extracts on microbiological safety, sensory quality, lipid oxidation and color properties of chicken sausages under frozen storage. Chicken sausages were prepared by using orange peel, moringa leaves extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The sausages were stored in a freezer at −18°C. Samples were taken at a regular interval of 20 days from the day of production to spoilage of sausages and analyzed for microbiological safety, sensory quality, lipid oxidation and color properties. In comparison to the control sausage, sausages having BHT, orange peel and moringa leaves extract had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower bacterial, yeast and mold count. All the sausages were microbiologically safe for consumption till the 100th day, and the results of the 120th day crossed the permissible limits. Sensory acceptability scores of sausages were good (>6) throughout the storage period. The color values of sausages were not affected by the addition of orange peel and moringa leaves extract. The extent of lipid oxidation increased during storage, and sausages with BHT, orange peel and moringa leaves extract had significantly (p < 0.05) lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and free fatty acids (FFAs) toward the end of the storage period. The observations of this paper endorse the use of orange peel and moringa leaves extract in meat products formulation for acceptable storage stability under frozen conditions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0309
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of curcumin on body mass index and glycemic indices in females with
           PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial
           

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      Authors: Mehran Nouri , Sara Sohaei , Mohammed Nader Shalaby , Sanaz Mehrabani , Atena Ramezani , Shiva Faghih
      Abstract: This paper aims to assess the impact of curcumin supplementation body mass index and glycemic indices in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, Scopus and ISI web of science to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from the earliest record up to February 2021. The authors used a random-effects model to estimate pooled effect sizes. A total of four potentially related clinical trials met the inclusion criteria which included a total of 198 participants. Random-effects meta-analysis showed significant effects of curcumin on fasting blood sugar (FBS) (−3.62 mg/dl, 95% CI [−5.65, −1.58], p-value < 0.001, I2 = 0.0%), insulin level (−1.67 µU/mL, 95% CI [−3.06, −0.28], p-value = 0.018, I2 = 0.0%) and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−0.42, 95% CI [−0.76, −0.09], p-value < 0.01, I2 = 0.0%). No evidence of publication bias was discovered in the meta-analyses. Present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs showed beneficial effects of curcumin consumption on FBS, insulin level and HOMA-IR in patients with PCOS. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0334
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary approach to stop hypertension and obesity among Iranian adults:
           Yazd health study-TAMYZ and Shahedieh cohort

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      Authors: Sahar Sarkhosh-Khorasani , Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi , Azadeh Nadjarzadeh , Masoud Mirzaei , Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh
      Abstract: Established data revealed a relationship between obesity and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity of chronic diseases. There are conflicting data regarding the association between adherence of dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate this relationship among a large sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed by 10,693 individuals; 6750 individuals related to Yazd Health Study living in the urban area and 3943 individuals related to Shahedieh cohort study living in the suburb area. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In all participants, anthropometric indices including body mass index were measured. The DASH score was considered using gender-specific quintiles of DASH items. To evaluate the relationship of DASH diet and obesity, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. By adjusting confounders, participants in highest quintiles of DASH diet were compared to the lowest have lower odds of obesity in suburb area (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.96), in urban (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.99) and in whole population of both studies (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.90). Besides, more compliance of women to this diet in urban (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.85) and population of both studies (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96) were associated with reduced odds of central obesity. Considering this study limitations, the following can be mentioned: in this cross-sectional study, the causal relationship between DASH diet and obesity could not be assessed. Consequently, further prospective studies are required in this area. Second, although a valid food frequency questionnaire was used, but there was a measurement error and an error in the classification of people participating in the study. Moreover, we cannot reject the possibility of residual confounding bias because unknown or unmeasured confounders may exist that affected our results. Finally, our participants with odds of obesity might have been advised to reduce their fat intake, which led them to alter their dietary habits. However, such possibility cannot be resolved in a cross-sectional study. DASH dietary pattern could decrease odds of obesity in both urban and suburb area and central obesity in urban area only. Further prospective studies are needed for causal conclusion.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0308
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of body mass index and dietary fat intake with autism in
           children: a case-control study

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      Authors: Maryam Gholamalizadeh , Narjes Ashouri Mirsadeghi , Samira Rastgoo , Saheb Abbas Torki , Fatemeh Bourbour , Naser Kalantari , Hanieh Shafaei , Zohreh Teymoori , Atiyeh Alizadeh , Alireza Mosavi Jarrahi , Saeid Doaei
      Abstract: Deficiencies or imbalances in dietary fat intake may influence on mental and neurological functions of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aims to compare body mass index (BMI) and the amount of fatty acids intake in the autistic patients with the comparison group. This case-control was carried out on 200 randomly selected children from 5 to 15 years old (100 autistic patients as the case group and 100 healthy children as the comparison group) in Tehran, Iran. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the intake of calorie, macronutrients and different types of dietary fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), α-Linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids. The autistic patients had higher BMI, birth weight and mother’s BMI compared to the comparison group (All p < 0.01). No significant difference was found in the amount of dietary calorie, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake between two groups. The risk of ASD was associated with higher intake of MUFAs (OR: 3.18, CI%:1.13–4.56, p = 0.04), PUFAs (OR: 4.12, CI95%: 2.01–6.25, p < 0.01) and LA (OR: 4.76, CI95%: 1.34–14.32, p < 0.01). The autistic children had higher BMI and higher intake of unsaturated fatty acids except for omega-3 fatty acids. Further longitudinal studies are warranted.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0366
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary intervention of prebiotics and vitamins on gut health of children

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      Authors: Deepti Kaushal , Gurpreet Kalsi
      Abstract: Gut health has multidimensional impact on childhood growth and development. Diet being the major modulator of gut health, this study aims to hypothesize if supplementation of dietary prebiotics and vitamins can impact gut environment of healthy children. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with parallel allocation of children 8–13 years of age to placebo or test group. Test group was supplemented with 1.5 g of formulation comprising prebiotics and vitamins, and to placebo, maltodextrin (1.5 g) was supplemented. After four weeks, the effect on markers of gut health (i.e. beneficial microbes, and gut integrity markers such as secretory Immunoglobulin A [sIgA] and calprotectin concentration) was evaluated in feces of children. Significant increase of 17.1% in fecal bifidobacteria counts (p = 0.04) was observed in the test group compared to placebo after four weeks. Also, fecal calprotectin concentration decreased (20%) significantly (p = 0.01) in test group compared to placebo. In addition, the test group showed significant improvement in fecal sIgA and lactobacilli compared to baseline concentration (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). This study demonstrates that prebiotic (and vitamin) intervention may influence health outcomes in children by positively modulating markers of gut health. There are limited studies demonstrating the efficacy of prebiotic and vitamins on gut health of school age children.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0267
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Utilisation of (persimmon) as a functional ingredient to produce
           functional foods: a review

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      Authors: Naman Kaur , Anjana Kumari , Aparna Agarwal , Manisha Sabharwal , Saumya Dipti
      Abstract: This study aims to discuss the nutritional value and potential nutraceutical properties of Diospyros kaki L. (DKL); to encapsulate recent studies conducted across the world to develop functional foods using different parts of Persimmon fruit to emphasise on the need for further research on Persimmon fruit. The methodology of the study involved surveying primary and secondary information generated in the respective field of interest. The papers found most suited for the research problem and objective of the study were selected. The perspectives taken by different studies and researchers were synthesised to generate a solution to the research problems and to bridge the research gaps in the field. As a result of the global rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders, researchers are aimed at identifying nutrient rich foods and techniques to develop functional foods for the population. Researchers have recognised the role of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and probiotics, are now interested in leveraging these foods by incorporating them in conventional foods, such as breads, jams, pastas and yoghurts as functional ingredients. One such food that has gained the interests of various researchers is DKL. Owing to its rich macro-and micro-nutrient, as well as phytochemical content various studies have been conducted to explore the possibility of using it as a functional ingredient to develop a range of foods. A limited studies are available that have investigated the effect of the functional foods developed using different parts of Persimmon fruit on different ailments. This study collected the data/information from recently published research in the field of health and medicinal benefits of Persimmon fruits and its utilisation to develop functional food.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0337
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrient variability of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) from Manipur,
           Northeast India and its nutrients supply potential in rice-based diets

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      Authors: T. Longvah , Anitha Chauhan , Sreedhar Mudavath , Bhaskar Varanasi , Neeraja CN
      Abstract: Rice landraces are essential for supplying beneficial traits for developing improved rice varieties with better nutritional quality. Nevertheless, in a yield-driven environment, grain nutritional quality has been ignored especially that of rice landraces. Given this, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the content and nutritional variability of rice landraces from Manipur. Thirty-three most popular rice landraces were collected as dry paddy samples from Manipur and transported to the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, by air. All the paddy samples were processed and analyzed for 35 nutrient parameters using standard methodologies. The mean nutrient content of Nagaland brown rice was: protein 7.5 ± 0.8, fat 3.0 ± 0.3, TDF 5.5 ± 0.4 and ash 1.2 ± 0.2 g/100g. The range of water soluble-vitamin content in mg/100g, was 0.1–0.43 for Thiamine and for Niacin 2.1–3.5, while the content in µg/100g was 40–64 for Riboflavin, 0.5–3.9 for Pantothenic acid and 20–118 for Pyridoxine. A relatively large coefficient of variation was observed for iron (25%), manganese (28%), copper (32%), calcium (13%) and phosphorus (11%). Manipur rice landraces have significantly higher total dietary fiber and lower phytate contents than modern varieties. Milling led to steep losses of nutrients, and limiting to 5% milling substantially improves nutrient retention in milled rice. Future nutrition interventions should use rice with superior nutrient quality to improve nutrient intakes. Manipur rice landraces conserved over generations can broaden the genetic base of breeding stocks especially in the face of climate change. The paper presents comprehensive nutritional data of 33 rice landraces from the state of Manipur, India. The results indicate large nutrient variability even within these 33 rice landraces with important traits such as high total dietary fiber and low phytate contents. The study highlights the importance of conserving the existing rich genetic material of Manipur rice landraces to develop varieties that combine higher yields with stress tolerance and superior grain nutritional value to improve the food and nutrient security.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0296
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Pumpkin seed oil and zinc attenuate chronic mild stress perturbations in
           the cerebral cortex of rats

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      Authors: Marwa H. El-Azma , Nadia M. El-Beih , Karima A. El-Shamy , Khaled M.M. Koriem , Mahitab I. Elkassaby , Wael M. El-Sayed
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the potential of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) and zinc to attenuate oxidative stress and neuroinflammation caused by chronic mild stress (CMS) in the cerebral cortex of male rats. The rats were submitted to stress for six weeks and then the behavior of the rats was tested by forced swimming test (FST) and novel cage test. The treated groups were given venlafaxine (20 mg/kg), pumpkin seed oil (40 mg/kg) and zinc (4 mg/kg). The cortex homogenate was used for the detection of the oxidative stress parameters, the concentration of neurotransmitters, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and the expression of histamine N-methyltransferase (Hnmt) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). CMS causes a significant increase in immobility time in the FST and a significant decrease in the number of rearing in the novel cage test. CMS group showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, levels of cortisol, TNF-α, IL-1β, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde. CMS caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of serotonin, GABA, norepinephrine, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and Na+/K+-ATPase. CMS caused a marked reduction in the expression of Hnmt and Th in the cortex. PSO and zinc attenuated the Na+/K+-ATPase activity, oxidative parameters and neuroinflammation induced by the CMS, and this was reflected by the elevation of the concentration of neurotransmitters and reduction of cortisol and ALT, in addition to the behavior normalization. PSO and zinc attenuated the CMS by improving the antioxidant milieu and anti-inflammatory status of the cerebral cortex. There are no studies on the effect of pumpkin seed oil on depression
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0315
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among tanker truck
           drivers in Ghana

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      Authors: Charles Apprey , Bernice Adu Baah-Nuako , Veronica Tawiah Annaful , Atinuke Olusola Adebanji , Victoria Dzogbefia
      Abstract: This study aims to assess dietary intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among tanker truck drivers in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. A cross-sectional study design enrolled 212 fuel tanker drivers. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data were collected. MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) 2005 criteria. A three-day 24-h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predicting factors of MetS among study participants. The prevalence of MetS was 19.6% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. The prevalence of obesity, high BP, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia among participants were 7.5, 39.7, 37.7 and 57.3%, respectively. The energy intake for 176 (88.4%) of the participants was inadequate. The predicting factors of MetS were age (OR: 1.3, p = 0.04), glycated haemoglobin (OR: 9.6, p = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.2 95%, p = 0.01) and service years (OR: 0.8, p = 0.01). The current study focused on MetS among tanker truck drivers in Kumasi metropolis, which makes the current findings only limited to drivers of tanker truck within the municipality. Additionally, the 24-h dietary recall could be subjected to recall bias. However, the study is still of relevance as it becomes the first to target such a group within the municipality, taking into consideration the importance of these tanker truck drivers in driving the economy of Ghana. This study highlights dietary intake and MetS among fuel tanker drivers previously underreported in the Ghanaian population. Findings of this study would inform further studies on lifestyle-related determinants of MetS among other cohort of drivers in other settings within the country.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0250
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutritional problems and body mass index of Turkish children with autism

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      Authors: Esma Asil , Aslı Uçar , Çağla Zeynep Tunay , Aynur Bütün Ayhan
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the nutritional habits, eating behavior and nutritional status of children with autism. This study was conducted with 60 boys and 16 girls diagnosed with autism (mean age: 8.3 ± 4.9 years). Research data were collected from parents of children with autism using a questionnaire form developed by researchers after literature searching. The height and body weight of the children were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Almost half of the children except the 13–18 age group were overweight/obese according to BMI. Difficulty in giving new food was 73.1% in the 2–5 age group, 70% in the 6–12 age group and 40% in the 13–18 age group (p = 0.04). It was determined that the children refused to consume a median of 3 (1–8) types of food (p = 0.04) and were obsessed with consuming 2 (1–4) types of food and 1 (1–4) type of beverages. Additionally, milk and dairy products were refused significantly higher between 2–5 and 6–12 years than 13–18 years (p = 0.02). Also, it was found that age had an inverse effect on refusal food number (β = 0.38, 95% CI = −0.30 − −0.08, p = 0.01). In conclusion, obesity and nutritional problems such as food selectivity, food refusal and obsessive eating behavior are encountered in children with autism which affect children socially and physically and should not be ignored when planning the treatment of children with autism. The lack of a control group to compare the results of children with autism is an important limitation of the study. This study fulfills a defined need to examine and evaluate Turkish children’s nutritional status, nutritional habits and eating behavior with autism.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0389
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Changes in quality parameters and microbial stability of hog plum ( Linn.)
           juice during ambient and refrigerated storage

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Folasade Olabimpe Adeboyejo , Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe , Fehintola Oluwatosin Ojo , Steven Akintomide Fagbemi
      Abstract: Several factors may play critical roles in alterations to product quality during storage of hog plum juice. This study aims to evaluate variations to physicochemical, antioxidant, anti-nutritional properties and microbial stability of hog plum juice during storage. Juice was produced from hog plum fruits and stored for eight weeks at refrigerated and ambient conditions. Physicochemical, antioxidant properties, antinutritional factors and microbial properties of juices were determined using standard procedures Degradation of ascorbic acid was higher in juices stored at ambient conditions (64.4%) compared to those stored by refrigeration (44.4%). Trends were similar for total phenolic, total flavonoid and total carotenoid contents. Total phenolic, total carotenoid and lycopene contents of fresh juice were 3.9 mg GAE/mL, 4.0 mg/mL and 1.3 mg/mL, which were not significantly different (at p = 0.08, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively) from the values at two weeks of storage at refrigerated conditions (3.9 mg GAE/mL, 3.9 mg/mL and 1.3 mg/mL). A sharp decrease of more than 40% (p = 0.02) in lycopene was recorded after four weeks, irrespective of storage temperature. Pasteurized hog plum juice showed no microbial growth until after four weeks of refrigerated storage when 1 CFU/mL each of bacterial and fungal growth were recorded. The juices, however, showed higher susceptibility to fungal growth as storage period increased. Other variables not considered in this study such as nature of packaging materials may have significantly contributed to the observed data set. Further studies may, therefore, widen the scope of discussion to evaluate the associated relationship of these variables. Hog plum juice retained a considerable amount of bioactive components during refrigerated storage, which makes it a viable nutraceutical drink with industrial potentials and possible positive health implications for consumers. This study provides new information that support the possible classification and use of hog plum juice as a safe functional beverage for human consumption. Although the effect of storage temperature was significant in most of the properties studied, storage duration seems to have a greater influence on the stability of quality parameters during the storage of hog plum juice.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0304
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Adherence to Mediterranean diet among adults during the COVID-19 outbreak
           and the economic crisis in Lebanon

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      Authors: Joanne Karam , Wissam Ghach , Carol Bouteen , Mary-Joe Makary , Marwa Riman , Mireille Serhan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the adherence to MedDiet among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis, using the validated 14-item MedDiet assessment tool. A quantitative research approach, based on the distribution of an online survey throughout the social media platforms, via networking, was the applied method. The structure of the survey included the socio-economic and demographic data along with the weekly adherence to physical activity; and the validated MedDiet assessment tool. The target population included 1,030 Lebanese adults from all provinces. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the sample population. Adherence to the MedDiet was determined by the Med-Diet score ≥ 9. Significant differences among the variables and the adherence to the MedDiet were examined using the chi-square test. Mean adherence to the MedDiet was found to be lower than an adequate score among 60.8% of participants [mean adherence 8/14 < 9 (S.D. 2.2)]. Participants from North Province, those aged 45 years and above, university graduates, participants with an average income and those who exercised for a minimum of 30 min for three times/week had a higher mean of adherence compared to other groups. Higher percentage of those who exercised had adequate adherence compared to those who exercised less or did not. More than 50% of the participants consumed olive oil, vegetables, red meat, butter/margarine, sugary drinks, commercial sweets and sofrito according to recommendations. Less than 50% of the participants consumed fruits, nuts, fish and wine according to the MedDiet standards. More men consumed fruits (55.1%), wine (21%), fish (29%) and nuts (48.5%) than women according to the MedDiet recommendations; however, more women consumed legumes (69.7%) and Sofrito (88.4%) than men, in addition more women preferred consuming chicken over meat (72.3%). The findings call for an urgent need of spreading national awareness among adult population in Lebanon to increase the adherence to MedDiet. To add, information gained from this study serve to help understanding nutritional behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis, so public health authorities can start planning to save the threatened health-care system and preserve the wellness of the population.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0325
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Chocolate craving: does it affect eating attitude and body mass index'

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      Authors: Nevin Sanlier , Büşra Açıkalın , Elif Eroglu , Fatma Kılınç , Bulent Celik
      Abstract: Some kinds of foods, by producing an effect like addiction, may trigger overeating. This paper aims to investigate whether excessive chocolate consumption and hunger cause food addiction. Food cravings questionnaire-trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r), food cravings questionnaire-state (FCQ-S) and eating attitude test-26 (EAT-26) scales were used. The relation between chocolate addiction, anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, eating behavior of the people were analyzed. The study was conducted on 864 individuals between 17 and 64 years old (men = 327, women = 537). As the body mass index (BMI) of the individuals increased, chocolate craving, chocolate hunger, thought of eating chocolate, lack of control of chocolate increased. Also, significant correlations were determined with BMI, respectively, (r = 0.39; r = 0.32; r = 0.33; r = 0.29; p < 0.001). The lack of control overeating chocolate, craving for chocolate was found to be higher in female participants than in male participants. It was seen that craving for chocolate decreases (r = −0.17; p < 0.001) with increasing age; this was more apparent in male participants compared to female participants. Besides, significant correlation was found (r = 0.76, p < 0.05) between the EAT-26, the craving to eat chocolate in this study. It was seen that individual, who were excessively eager to consume chocolate, exhibited abnormal eating behavior (29.50 ± 12.09). This showed that there is a positive relation (r = 0.08, p < 0.001) between food addiction, eating attitude disorder. Food craving increases the consumption of food, especially chocolate, sugar, with high carbohydrate content and energy. This can lead to overeating and being overweight.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0283
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Impact of high pressure processing on microbiological, nutritional and
           sensory properties of food: a review

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      Authors: Ajith Amsasekar , Rahul S. Mor , Anand Kishore , Anupama Singh , Saurabh Sid
      Abstract: The increased demand for high-quality, nutritionally rich processed food has led to non-thermal food processing technologies like high pressure processing (HPP), a novel process for microbial inactivation with minimal loss of nutritional and sensory properties. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of HPP on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory properties of food. Recent research on the role of HPP in maintaining food quality and safety and the impact of process conditions with respect to various food properties have been explored in this paper. Also, the hurdle approach and the effectiveness of HPP on food quality have been documented. HPP has been verified for industrial application, fulfilling the consumer demand for processed food with minimum nutrition loss at low temperatures. The positive impact of HPP with other treatments is known as the hurdle approach that enhances its impact against microorganism activity and minimizes the effects on nutrition and sensory attributes. This paper highlights the impact of HPP on various food properties and a good alternative as non-thermal technology for maintaining shelf life, sensory properties and retention of nutrients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0249
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Bacterial viability, antioxidant stability, antimutagenicity and sensory
           properties of onion types fermentation by using probiotic starter during
           storage

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      Authors: Shayma T.G. Al-Sahlany , Alaa K. Niamah
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the bacterial viability, antioxidative activity, antimutagenicity and sensory evaluation of fermented onion types by using probiotic starters after fermentation at 37 °C for 24 hours and storage in the refrigerator for 28 days. For onion fermentation, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5), Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB-12), and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) were utilised. This research was conducted on three types of onion: white onion, red onion and scallion. With a 5% brine solution, the onions were sliced into 3-5 cm long and 1-2 cm wide slices. The process of fermentation was achieved by adding 2% (108 CFU/ gm) of fresh probiotic starter and incubating it for 24 hours at 37 °C. The fermented onion samples were kept in the refrigerator for 28 days. After fermentation and storage, the pH and total acidity were estimated, the vitality of probiotic bacteria was evaluated in samples of the onion species. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique was used to identify the bioactive components in fermented onion types. The antioxidant activity of fermented onions was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay and the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity test. The Ames test was used to detect the antimutagenicity of fermented onion samples. After fermentation, the fermented scallion (p = 0.036) has the highest vitality of all the starter bacteria species. The fermentation of onion types produced a pH of between 4.1–4.7 and 0.19–0.23% total acidity, which is in the range of reduced 3.1–3.5 pH values and 0.42–0.63% total acidity after 28 days. The viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in fermented scallions was Log. 7.79 and 7.57 CFU/gm. The GC-MS technique found 14 bioactive compounds in fermented white onions and 13 compounds in fermented white onions, with 15 compounds in scallion fermentation. The majority of these bioactive compounds are strong antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of fermented scallion significantly increased after 28 days of storage time, showing an inhibitory effect on the DPPH assay (p = 0.02) and the scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical assay (p = 0.01). Sensory evaluation tests revealed that the fermented scallion was a suitable product in terms of appearance, aroma and overall acceptability. Commercially accessible probiotic foods account for a sizable portion of the consumer market. Furthermore, as consumer interest in healthy eating grows, so does demand for plant-based goods. All onion types fermented with probiotic bacteria have many chemical compounds that have both antioxidant and carcinogenic activity. The fermented scallion onion sample was significantly superior to the rest of the other types of onions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0204
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Benzene food exposure and their prevent methods: a review

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      Authors: Parisa Sadighara , Mohadeseh Pirhadi , Melina Sadighara , Parisa Shavaly-Gilani , Mohammad Reza Zirak , Tayebeh Zeinali
      Abstract: Benzene contamination has been reported in some food groups. This study aims to identify high-risk foods groups to assess exposure to benzene. Benzene is a hazardous volatile organic compound commonly used in the production of chemicals, detergents, paints and plastics. In addition, benzene is present in food and beverages. Citrus juice-based beverages are usually more contaminated with benzene than other beverages. Benzene was also detected in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickles, lime juices, mayonnaise and salad dressing. Smoked and canned products have higher content of benzene. Aromas that are used in food contained benzene. Food packaging is one of the sources of benzene contamination of food. One of the reasons for its formation in food staff is due to the reaction of vitamin C (or similar acid) with benzoate, which is mainly used as a preservative in various foods. Foods contaminated with benzene were determined. Moreover, mechanisms of its formation and some preventive measures were discussed. This review determined the amount of benzene in foods, mechanism of formation and suggestion for prevention of benzene contamination in food.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0306
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Nutrition & Food Science

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