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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrition & Food Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.248
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0034-6659 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6917
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Bioactive compounds, health benefits and valorization of (sand pear): a
           review

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      Authors: Rajat Chandel, Vikas Kumar, Ramandeep Kaur, Satish Kumar, Ankit Kumar, Dharminder Kumar, Swati Kapoor
      Abstract: Pyrus Pyrifolia (Sand Pear) is one of the most underused pear variety despite its nutraceutical potential. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the Pyrus Pyrifolia in term of origin, distribution and classification, nutritional and bioactive potential, therapeutic potential and valorization along with future prospectus. A wide variety of publications (88) were identified through electronic databases (Science direct, PubMed, SciELO, Google scholar, Link springer and Research gate) under the umbrella of different keywords such as bioactive compounds, health benefits, nutrition, sand pear, Pyrus and Pyrus pyrifolia. Pyrus Pyrifolia (Sand Pear) is abundant in nutritional and bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and minerals. It exhibits therapeutic potential as being an antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. However, P. pyrifolia is not much explored by food researchers and industrialists, hence remaining underused. A few attempts have been made toward the use of P. pyrifolia for jam, jelly, candy and wine preparation. However, more research is required for the commercial processing of P. pyrifolia and to enhance its availability outside its growing area. In this paper, nutritional and bioactive compounds of P. pyrifolia are discussed that provide knowledge to the researchers for its use as a functional ingredient.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2022-0306
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Individual determinants of Mediterranean diet adherence among urban
           Lebanese adult residents

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      Authors: Roubina Malakieh, Veronique El Khoury, Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh, Cecile Obeid, Doris Jaalouk
      Abstract: Many studies revealed positive health impacts of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), especially on metabolic disorders. Conversely, in Lebanon, recent information about determinants of adherence to the MedDiet are limited. This study aimed to examine the individual determinants of MedDiet adherence among adults in Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was carried out during July 2021 among a convenient sample of 326 Lebanese adults. Data from participants were collected via an online survey developed by study researchers, composed of two well-structured questionnaires: a background questionnaire and a 14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (14-MEDAS). The mean MedDiet score in the total sample was 7.59 ± 2.22, reflecting moderate/fair MedDiet adherence. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes and olive oil met the recommended MedDiet intake among most participants. Older age and having a regular routine of physical activity emerged as significant independent determinants of better MedDiet adherence. Future public health interventions aiming at promoting MedDiet adherence shall target predominantly younger age groups of the Lebanese population and incorporate strategies to boost physical activity among target groups.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2022-0267
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Nutritional and quality attributes of bread fortified with cheeseweed
           mallow leaves powder

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      Authors: Akram M. Mohammed, Ayman Mohammed El-Anany, Sami A. Althwab, Raghad M. Alhomaid, Hend F. Alharbi, Reham M. ALgheshairy, Rehab F.M. Ali
      Abstract: The purpose of this current investigation is to evaluate the effect of adding different levels of cheeseweed Malva parviflora L. mallow leaves powder (MPLP) on the nutritional and quality characteristics of bread. Wheat flour was partially replaced with MPLP at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% levels to obtain the wheat– MPLP composite flour. Chemical composition, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl of wheat flour and MPLP were determined. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with various levels of MPLP were evaluated. MPLP contains 23.9% of protein, 10.1% of crude fiber and 9.8% of ash, respectively. MPLP had a significantly higher concentration of micronutrients than wheat flour. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids as well as free radical scavenging activity of MPLP were 17.6, 38.2 and 6.0 fold, respectively, higher compared to wheat flour. Protein content in bread samples increased with the addition of the MPLP in a range of 1.2%–6.6%. The increasing replacement of MPLP in the composite flours resulted in progressively higher dietary fiber and ash contents for fortified bread samples. The higher level of MPLP reduced the specific volume of fortified breads. The highest scores for the sensory attributes were noted for bread samples fortified with 2% and 3% of MPLP, whereas the lowest scores for bread samples fortified with 4% and 5% MPLP. Supplementation of wheat bread with different levels of MPLP resulted in significant increases in macro and microelements of fortified breads. Supplementation of wheat bread with different levels of cheeseweed Mallow (Malva parviflora L.) leaves powder resulted in significant increases in macro and microelements of fortified breads.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0094
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Association between diet quality and BMI with side effects of
           Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titers

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      Authors: Hawal Lateef Fateh, Negin Kamari, Ayad M. Ali, Jalal Moludi, Shahab Rezayaeian
      Abstract: The nutritional and anthropometric status can be essential in determining their immune response to vaccines. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the association between diet quality and anthropometric indices with the side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titer among Kurdish adults. This cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted between December 2021 and February 2022. This paper included data on 115 adults, 20–89 years old, from the Kurdistan region. Dietary information was collected using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a plant-based healthy diet score. A blood test was performed to measure the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) titer after the vaccination's first and second doses. Overweight and obese subjects reported more local pain, myalgia, headache, local bruising and local reactions after receiving the first dose of the vaccine (p = 0.04). People on a less healthy diet reported more local pain, myalgia and headache (p = 0.04) and more local bruising and reactions (p = 0.01) after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. On the other hand, the authors observed that those with healthy dietary habits had more IgG titer after the first and second doses of vaccination than those with less healthy dietary habits (p = 0.001). The results showed that participants with a healthy diet and normal weight status had fewer side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine than obese people and those with a less healthy diet.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2023-01-02
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2022-0338
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Metabolic risks and prognosis of COVID-19: are dietary patterns
           important'

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      Authors: Hande Bakırhan, Fatmanur Özyürek Arpa, Halime Uğur, Merve Pehlivan, Neda Saleki, Tuğba Çelik
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the dietary patterns of two groups of subjects (with and without COVID-19), and to assess the relationship of findings with the prognosis of COVID-19 and metabolic risk parameters. This study included 100 individuals in the age range of 19–65 years. The medical history, and data on biochemical, hematological and inflammatory indicators were retrieved from the files. A questionnaire for the 24-h food record and the food intake frequency was administered in face-to-face interviews, and dietary patterns of subjects were assessed. In individuals with COVID-19, the hip circumference, the waist-hip ratio and the body fat percentage were significantly higher (p < 0.05), and the muscle mass percentage was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Mediterranean diet adherence screener (MEDAS), dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) and healthy eating ındex-2015 (HEI-2015) scores were low in the two groups. A linear correlation of DASH scores was found with the muscle mass percentage (p = 0.046) and a significant inverse correlation of with the body fat percentage (p = 0.006). HEI-2015 scores were significantly and negatively correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and neck circumference (p < 0.05). Every one-unit increase in MEDAS, DASH and HEI-2015 scores caused reductions in C-reactive protein levels at different magnitudes. Troponin-I was significantly and negatively correlated with fruit intake (p = 0.044), a component of a Mediterranean diet and with HEI-2015 total scores (p = 0.032). The limitation of this study includes the small sample size and the lack of dietary interventions. Another limitation is the use of the food recall method for the assessment of dietary patterns. This way assessments were performed based on participants’ memory and statements. Following a healthy diet pattern can help reduce the metabolic risks of COVİD-19 disease. Despite these limitations, this study is valuable because, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first study demonstrating the association of dietary patterns with disease prognosis and metabolic risks concerning COVID-19. This study suggests that dietary patterns during the COVID-19 process may be associated with several metabolic risks and inflammatory biomarkers.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2022-0360
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Association between the dietary inflammatory index and chronic daily
           headache: findings from Dena Persian cohort

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      Authors: Zeinab Sadri, Fereshteh Najafi, Reza Beiranvand, Farhad Vahid, Javad Harooni
      Abstract: While several studies have reported a relationship between chronic daily headache (CDH) and different dietary patterns, no study has investigated the association between CDH and the dietary inflammatory index (DII). This study aims to hypothesize that a higher DII score (proinflammatory diets) is associated with higher odds of CDH. This cross-sectional study was performed using the baseline data of the Dena PERSIAN cohort study, including demographic information, body mass index, medical history, laboratory tests, sleep duration and blood pressure. The DII was computed based on the data collected by a valid 113-item food frequency questionnaire and a 127-item indigenous food questionnaire. The association between CDH and DII score was analyzed by simple and multiple logistic regression. Out of 3,626 people included in the study, 23.1% had CDH. The median DII was −0.08 (interquartile range = 0.18). People in the third and fourth quartiles of DII (proinflammatory diet) had a 20% (odds ratio: 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.65–1) and a 25% (odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.61–0.94) lower chance of having CHD than those in the first quartile, respectively. After adjustment for confounding variables, this association did not remain statistically significant (p > 0.05). Although the analysis conducted without adjustment for medical history showed a significant association between proinflammatory diet and reduced CDH, considering the diverse etiology of different types of headaches and the paucity of studies in this area, further studies are needed to investigate the DII score of patients by the type of headache, its severity and duration.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-05-2022-0145
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of probiotic yogurt from almond and cow’s milk using
           GR-1

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      Authors: Ruth Burrowes, Sharareh Hekmat
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of almond milk supplementation on the growth and viability of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) in yogurt samples over 6 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. Four yogurt treatments (T1–T4) were inoculated with the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus GR-1 and fermented for 6 h at 37°C and then placed in refrigerated storage at 4°C for 30 days. Microbial and pH analysis of each sample was conducted every 2  h throughout the fermentation period and on Days 1, 15 and 30 of cold storage to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1. All samples achieved mean microbial counts of at least 108 CFU/mL during fermentation and storage. During fermentation, mean microbial counts increased for all treatments; however, differences in mean microbial counts between treatments were not significant. During storage, the mean microbial count for T4 at 15 and 30  days was significantly higher (p = 0.031) than microbial counts on Day 1. However, mean microbial counts did not differ significantly across all storage time points for treatments 1, 2 and 3 (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the addition of almond milk, in combination with cow’s milk, is suitable for propagating and preserving the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in yogurt. There is a consumer shift towards plant-based products due to health, environmental and ethical reasons. Almond milk is a popular nondairy alternative that provides enhanced nutritional value to traditionally dairy-based probiotic yogurts. L. rhamnosus GR-1 is an especially beneficial probiotic for women as it colonizes the gut and vaginal epithelium, promoting urogenital health, including preventing the recurrence of urinary tract infections and bacterial vaginosis.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0194
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Second generation extruded snacks from sweet chestnut and corn blends –
           numerical optimization, nutritional, nutraceutical and storage stability
           characteristics

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      Authors: Rifat Altaf, Imtiyaz Ahmad Zargar, Gousia Gani, Syed Zameer Hussain, Omar Bashir, Bazila Naseer, Sobiya Manzoor, Tawheed Amin
      Abstract: This study aims to develop sweet chestnut incorporated corn-based extrudates by the optimization of process conditions. The independent process variables for extrusion (blend ratio, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed moisture) were investigated to govern their impact on reliant variables, namely, bulk density, specific mechanical energy, water absorption index, water solubility index, color and hardness. Product and system responses were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the independent variables. Experimental design with quadratic models experienced a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99). Numerical optimization for the development of extrudates resulted in optimum conditions having corn flour: sweet chestnut flour (80:20), barrel temperature (120°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture (12%). Fat, moisture and protein contents of the developed extrudates using optimum conditions were significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared to raw materials – corn and sweet chestnut. The packaging of extrudates in aluminum laminates revealed shelf stability of three months at room temperature without deterioration of quality. Nutritionally rich sweet chestnut extruded products would be an exclusive option to already existing snacks in the market and can facilitate a new sphere in extruded product sector.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Is Ramadan model of intermittent fasting related to hedonic hunger'

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      Authors: M. Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Ziya Erokay METİN
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine hedonic hunger at the end of the Ramadan fasting. Data were collected by the Power of Food Scale (PFS), Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) and the Visual Analogue Scale. All data were taken twice at the beginning and end of Ramadan fasting. A total number of 105 volunteers (43.8% female and 56.2% male) participated in a cross-sectional study. Ramadan fasting associated with PFS food tasted sub-factor, whereas no association was found on PFS aggregate and other PFS domain factors. Participants had higher PFS food tasted domain score at the end of the Ramadan fasting than before Ramadan fasting (p < 0.001). Total FCQ-T score as well as all sub-domains did not differ significantly. Females desired to consume carbonated beverages more, whereas in male (p = 0.04), ice cream was the most craved food. The findings of this study provide data to the literature about the relation between Ramadan fasting and hedonic hunger. Ramadan fasting appears to have an influence on pleasure at first bite. The effect of Ramadan fasting on hedonic hunger should be tested with larger samples and controlled trials.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-05-2022-0166
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The use of extrusion technology for encapsulation of bioactive components
           for their improved stability and bioavailability

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      Authors: Sobiya Manzoor, Syed Zameer Hussain, Tawheed Amin, Omar Bashir, Bazila Naseer, Abida Jabeen, Ufaq Fayaz, Naseh Nisar, Aarizoo Mushtaq, Monisa Yousouf, Zahida Naseem, Uzznain Khan
      Abstract: The purpose of this article was to highlight the various methods of extrusion technologies for encapsulation of bioactive components (BACs). BACs provide numerous health-care benefits; however, downsides, including a strong effect of organoleptic properties by reason of the bitterness and acridity of a few components, and also a short shelf-life, limit their application in food. The food industry is still demanding complicated qualities from food ingredients, which were often impossible to obtain without encapsulation such as stability, delayed release, thermal protection and an acceptable sensory profile. Various techniques such as melt injection extrusion, hot-melt extrusion, electrostatic extrusion, co-extrusion and particles from gas-saturated solutions, could be used for maintaining these characteristics. Extrusion technology has been well used for encapsulation of bioactive chemicals in an effort to avoid their numerous downsides and to boost their use in food. The count of BACs that could be encapsulated has risen owing to the extrusion technology just as form of encapsulation. Extrusion technique also aids in the devaluation of the fragment size of encapsulated BACs, allowing for greater application in the food business. The study reported that encapsulating BACs makes them more stable in both the product itself and in the gastrointestinal tract, so using encapsulated BACs would result in a product with stronger preventive properties.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0125
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Role of health belief model and health consciousness in explaining
           behavioral intention to use restaurants and practicing healthy diet

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      Authors: Nihal Omar A. Natour, Eman Alshawish, Lina Alawi
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the association between health consciousness, health belief model and intention to engage in healthy activities in addition to use restaurants. An electronic questionnaire was distributed through social media and university website including questions on demographic variables and Likert scaled aspects of health consciousness, health belief model and behavioral intention to practice healthy habits and use fast-food restaurants. A total of 92 Palestinian adults participated in this study. Age 28.5 ± 9.7 years. Of the studied group, 28.6% were males, body mass index = 24.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2. Average health consciousness was 12.3 ± 3.1, health belief model (susceptibility = 10.4 ± 6.8, severity = 12.7 ± 7.2, benefit = 28.1 ± 5.3 and barriers = 17.8 ± 6.8) and for behavioral intention = 21.1 ± 6.4. In final regression models, only benefit was significantly associated with health consciousness (B = 0.18 ± 0.07, p = 0.012) and behavioral intention B = 0.26 ± 0.13, p = 0.05). Only barrier and severity were associated significantly with number of using restaurants weekly (0.04 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) and (0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.004), respectively. Health belief model partially explained use of restaurants and healthy lifestyle among Palestinians. This is a cross-sectional design and future clinical trials are needed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to address the role of health belief model and health consciousness in improving dietary style and habits.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2022-0258
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Risk benefit assessment of acrylamide in bakery products and bread

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      Authors: Amar Aouzelleg, Delia Ojinnaka
      Abstract: The purpose of this conceptual paper was to introduce the risk–benefit approach to bakery products in relation to their acrylamide content. Acrylamide is a compound which gives rise to risks of cancer, and several mitigating procedures have been in place for various products and processes. This paper concentrated on bakery products and took a risk–benefit approach in relation to acrylamide. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed. A combination of keywords such as acrylamide, bakery products and risk/benefit were used to find sources. Additional sources, such as governmental and non-governmental organisations documents, were also used when relevant. After looking at the main characteristics of acrylamide, the potential benefit of bread was also looked at. The paper summarises known information on acrylamide and looks at the risk and benefit of bakery products in relation to this compound. The risk analysis approach can be extended to include benefits so that a balanced conclusion can be reached whether a product is an acceptable part of the diet or not. Exposure to acrylamide was a function of the product type and preparation/process. Bakery products were a source of many nutrients, and the risk regarding acrylamide may be controlled by careful product and process design. There was contradictory information regarding how unsafe acrylamide is. In this paper, the risk–benefit approach has been qualitatively used to weigh both the risks and benefits of the bakery product category.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2022-0312
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Carbohydrate content and ingredient profile of supposedly “low-carb”
           food products in Brazil

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      Authors: Rodrigo Cavalcante Junco, Sarah Morais Senna Prates, Lucilene Rezende Anastácio
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the carbohydrate content, ingredient profile and degree of processing of supposedly “low-carb” foods in the Brazilian market. Information was collected from physical supermarkets in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais and on websites throughout Brazil between July and September/2020. The carbohydrate content was assessed in g/100 g, and ingredient lists were investigated for the presence of carbohydrate-rich ingredients. The degree of processing of the products was evaluated by NOVA classification to determine whether the term “low carb” had been translated into Portuguese. This study evaluated a total number of 164 products, the most frequent were bakery products (34.7%), granola and cereal bars (19.5%) and candies and desserts (14.0%). This claim was also found in low-carb foods such as cheese and chicken. Most food products evaluated (56.0%) were classified as ultra-processed, with the group having the highest carbohydrate content (20.0; 3.0–47.5g/100g), compared to products classified as processed foods (p < 0.01). The ingredient lists showed items rich in carbohydrates, such as cassava and corn derivatives. In 162 products, a low-carb claim was displayed without translation into Portuguese. These data demonstrate that most of these products are ultra-processed and have a high glycidic content. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study was a pioneer investigation of the ingredients of “low-carb” foods, their carbohydrate composition and their degree of processing based on the NOVA classification.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Was COVID-19 pandemic anxiety reflected on nutritional habits in
           adults'

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      Authors: Yasemin Açar, Hilal Yıldıran
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the reflection of COVID-19 pandemic anxiety experienced in adults on nutritional habits during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. The study was conducted with 600 adults aged between 19 and 64 years. The general characteristics of the individuals, nutritional habits, use of dietary supplements and COVID-19 pandemic anxiety before and during the pandemic period were questioned via a Web-based questionnaire. COVID-19-related anxiety was assessed using The COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 24.0. In this study, 49.8% of the participants stated that their appetite and food consumption amount increased during the pandemic period. The rate of use of dietary supplements among individuals was found to be 40%. It was observed that the mean body weight and body mass index increased significantly in both genders during the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been determined that anxiety about COVID-19 is higher in individuals and women who start using nutritional support during the pandemic period. The total C19P-S and STAI scores of those who started using a dietary supplement during the pandemic were significantly higher than those who did not use a dietary supplement. Similarly, those whose eating habits changed positively and those who bought more packaged products had higher C19P-S scale mean scores (p < 0.05). During the COVID-19 period, it is important to reduce the anxiety levels of individuals, provide psychological support, raise awareness of adequate and balanced nutrition and the correct use of dietary supplements to adapt to the new lifestyle.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2022-0276
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Quality evaluation and acceptability of cookies produced from wheat ()
           flour substituted with avocado puree as fat substitute

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      Authors: Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye, Olusola Timothy Bolaji, T.A. Abegunde, Helen O. Emun, Rasheed Adesina Oyenubi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute. Cookies were produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute in ratio 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. The formulation of margarine and avocado puree blends was done by using D-Optimal Mixture Design. In all, 20 samples were produced from each substitution level and analyses were done in triplicates to obtain mean values using standard methods. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test, and significances were accepted at less than 5% confidence level (p < 0.05). Proximate and functional analyses were conducted on the flour samples, while cookie samples were subjected to proximate and sensory analyses. The results of this study revealed that the values of loose bulk density, packed bulk density, oil absorption density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and dispersibility of the flours at p < 0.05 are 0.3–0.4 g/ml, 0.5–0.7 g/ml, 16.9%–94.0%, 39.7%–80.6%, 461.2%–618.2%, 6.0%–29.8% and 69.0%–82.8%, respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 3.6%–16.7%, 6.5%–9.9%, 2.5%–19.2%, 1.7%–1.9%, 1.1%–3.0% and 65.0%–70.7%, respectively. The taste, color, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 7.4–7.8, 6.9–7.5, 7.2–7.9, 7.3–7.7 and 7.4–8.3, respectively. The sensory scores showed that panelists preferred the taste, crispiness and texture of the cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute at varying proportion. The sensory characteristics of sample WF4 (100% avocado puree) were rated overall best in all the parameters tested followed by sample WF3 (75% avocado puree). Hence, this study established the possibility of producing cookies from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute without a negative impact on the sensory characteristics and the consumers’ acceptability. The cookies produced from this study are not meant for vegetarians because eggs were added in the formulations and recipes but could be valuable to ovo-vegetarians that may take food with eggs without restriction. The major challenge of this study was that avocados are very expensive in much of the world, so this is only suitable and viable where there is an excess of the fruit. This study examined the use of avocado puree as fat substitute in cookie production. Effects of avocado puree on proximate composition and functionality of cookies produced from wheat flour were also determined. This approach was novel, and it will encourage the use of avocado for value-added in industrial food production.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship between body mass index, anthropometric measurements and
           GRACE risk score in acute coronary syndrome

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      Authors: Nurgul Arslan, Gamze Akbulut, Muhammed Süleymanoğlu, Hacer Alataş, Bülent Yaprak
      Abstract: This study aims to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to evaluate the results in this context. This was a prospective cohort study of ACS patients admitted to a cardiac care unit in high specialization hospital's cardiology service. The study included 140 men aged>35 years who were diagnosed with ACS. The mean age of the individuals participating in the study was 61.4 ± 10.9 years old. The mean BMI of the individuals was 25.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2, and the mean value of the waist/hip ratio was 0.85 ± 0.01. Individuals were divided into four quarters according to the GRACE score. It was determined that individuals with the highest GRACE score were very underweight or morbidly obese according to their BMI values (p = 0.04). It has been observed that there is a U-shaped relationship between the GRACE score and the BMI in individuals diagnosed with ACS. The risk of death of ACS patients with very high or very low BMI values was found to be close to each other. Although there is a relationship between BMI and GRACE score, it is concluded that it is insufficient to determine the risk in coronary disease alone, and body fat distribution should be examined together with BMI.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Sports nutrition knowledge translates to enhanced athletic performance: a
           cross-sectional study among Lebanese university athletes

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      Authors: Mireille H. Serhan, Mira Yakan, Carole Serhan
      Abstract: Adequate nutrition knowledge forms the foundation for optimal physical health and performance. In Lebanon, there are limited studies on the effect of nutrition knowledge on the athletes’ performance. This study aims to evaluate university athletes’ nutrition knowledge status and to identify the factors predicting athletes’ performance. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 384 university student-athletes, using a validated tool with modifications (Furber et al., 2017) to assess nutrition knowledge. The modified questionnaire includes seven subsections (vitamins and minerals, general nutrition, fluid, fat, carbohydrate, protein and sporting performance). Further, anthropometric measurements were taken; body composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Handgrip strength, as an indirect measure of athlete performance, was assessed with the hand dynamometer. To measure the existence and degree of significance among different variables, Pearson correlation coefficients, χ2 and linear regression were used. The health group had a higher level of nutritional knowledge, compared with the non-health group. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 63.54%, which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%). Further, athletes’ performance was significantly predicted by the resting metabolic rate, lean muscle mass and weight. The findings may help the university administration to implement a nutrition education program for athletes enrolled in non-health majors. Information gained serve to help dietetics professionals in Lebanon refine education strategies and sports clubs in universities to start to budget for hiring dietitians.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2022-0228
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Food waste in Indonesian hospitals: a systematic review

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      Authors: Rian Diana, Drajat Martianto, Yayuk Farida Baliwati, Dadang Sukandar, Agung Hendriadi
      Abstract: This systematic review (SR) aims to investigate plate waste quantity, determinant factors, and food waste costs in Indonesian hospitals. This SR was conducted by searching for articles published on the Web of Science, PubMed, Emerald insight, ScienceDirect and hand-searching on nationally accredited journals in Indonesia which consist of 29 journals in nutrition, environment and public health. The inclusion criteria in this review were peer-reviewed articles, original research, research locations in hospitals in Indonesia and articles in English or Bahasa (Indonesian language). There were 21 studies (17 observational studies and 4 experimental studies) included in this systematic review. Results from 17 observational studies showed that the median plate waste was 27.6% (14.8%–88.7%). High plate waste was found in this review, particularly in pediatric patients and patients who receive liquid diet orally. Staple food and vegetables have a high contribution to patients’ plate waste. Economic costs of plate waste were $0.07–$0.5 per capita per day. Determinant factors of patient’s plate waste were patient clinical conditions, food taste and environmental conditions of hospital food service. Results from four experimental studies showed that meal replacement and smaller food portion intervention could reduce significant plate waste. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence for food waste reduction intervention because of small intervention studies in Indonesia. There was a high disparity in the quantity of plate waste and economic costs between studies included in this review. Improving food sensory and adjusting food portions particularly for staple food and vegetables can be done as a way to reduce patient’s plate waste. This SR is the first review of Indonesian hospital plate waste.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-05-2022-0150
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development and validation of the Jordanian food purchasing habits survey

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      Authors: Zeinah Abu Zeinah, Hiba Al Sayyed, Narmeen Al-Awwad
      Abstract: The authors developed and validated a questionnaire called “The Jordanian Food Purchasing Habits Survey” (JFPHS). The purpose of this questionnaire was to explore Jordanians’ food purchasing habits and the factors which may affect these habits among a convenient sample of people. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no such questionnaires have been developed to measure these factors for the Jordanian population. This paper aims to describe the reasoning behind and the process of developing the (JFPHS). The JFPHS investigated meal preparation and grocery shopping behaviors, nutrition label use and factors affecting purchasing of 13 (n = 13) food groups. A two-step process, a pilot test and validity study, were used to validate the questionnaire. Internal consistency (split-half reliability) tests were run on the factors in each individual food group producing Spearman–Brown correlation coefficients. A convenient sample of 483 individuals (118 males, 365 females) participated in the study. Spearman–Brown correlation coefficients were < 0.7 for bread and between 0.7–0.8 and 0.8–0.9 for other food groups. The ingredients list grid and the expiry date grid had Spearman–Brown coefficient values > 0.9. This questionnaire is a valid tool to assess food purchasing behavior. Results from our questionnaire, when published, may be used to monitor trends in food consumption. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no such questionnaires been developed to measure these factors for the Jordanian population.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0131
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessment of disordered eating attitude and mental health among Indian
           Kho-Kho players

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      Authors: Kommi Kalpana, Gulshan Lal Khanna
      Abstract: The potential problems of Kho-Kho players have been less studied. Considering eating disorders a public health problem, but also in particular for athletes, as it can cause serious health and performance decrements if left unmonitored. This study aims to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitude and their relationship with mental health among Indian Kho-Kho players. Fifty-two male Kho-Kho players aged 16–31 years were assessed for disordered eating attitude using Eating Attitude Test (EAT)-26 and mental health using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and t-test were computed to know the difference between positive and negative disordered eating attitude. The disordered eating attitude was prevalent among 11.5% of players. The players with disordered eating attitudes showed a significantly (p < 0.01) higher score for EAT-26 subscales related to dieting and oral control. Players were involved in binging (21.2%), purging (5.8%), use of laxatives (1.9%), extra exercise (>1 h) (34.6%) and lost>20 pounds of body weight in the last six months (13.5%). Depression, anxiety and stress were higher in the group with a disordered eating attitude. However, a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found only for depression. The disordered eating attitude was present among Kho-Kho Players and linked with depression. Health care service providers are encouraged to monitor and guide the players with disordered eating attitudes to take active measures to ensure optimum health and performance. The present paper provides evidence of disordered eating attitude linked with depression among Kho-Kho players.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0183
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Relationship between meteorin-like peptide (Metrnl) serum levels and
           inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers and body composition
           parameters in type 2 diabetes patients

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      Authors: Yaser Khajebishak, Sadra Madani, Amir Hossein Faghfouri, Ali Soleimani, Sara Ilaei, Said Peyrovi, Laleh Payahoo
      Abstract: Meteorin like-peptide (Metrnl) modulates energy hemostasis and relieves inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Metrnl levels and inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers and body composition parameters in obese type 2 diabetic patients. This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2020 and March 2021on 93 people (n = 32 obese type 2 diabetic patients, n = 31 healthy obese, n = 30 healthy normal weight). Serum Metrnl levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were measured using standard methods. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. p-Value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Serum Metrnl levels were lower in obese diabetic patients than in healthy normal-weight subjects (82.5 [72.4–94.5] ng/mL compared to 154 [129–189] ng/mL). The difference in Metrnl levels between the two groups was significant (p < 0.001). The difference in Metrnl levels between the two groups was significant. Moreover, a significant correlation between Metrnl level and both TNF-a and hs-CRP was detected (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively) and the correlation between Metrnl and IL-6 was borderline (p = 0.051). A negative correlation was revealed between Metrnl level and anthropometric measurements and body composition (p < 0.05) with the exception of fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass. To discover sufficient evidence for the therapeutic function of Metrnl and its use as a prognostic biomarker in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, future clinical studies are needed to highlight other factors influencing Metrnl serum levels.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0186
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effect of caffeine consumption on attention performance in female
           students at the faculty of health sciences

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      Authors: Emre Batuhan Kenger, Tugce Ozlu, Ani Agopyan, Can Ergun, Aysenur Uslu, Berfin Dinsel, Dilhan Disli, Nezihe Akdeniz
      Abstract: There are limited studies on the effects of coffee consumption, which has become part of popular culture and is highly common among young people, on the attention levels of female university students. This paper aims to examine the effects of caffeine consumption given at different doses (0, 100 and 200 mg) to female university students (n = 100) studying at the faculty of health sciences on attention performance with the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). Participants' test completion time, number of errors and corrections were tested. In addition, the frequencies of weekly coffee consumption were also recorded. It was found that consumption of coffee containing 200 mg of caffeine reduced the time to complete the sections of the SCWT test (p < 0.05), as well as the total test completion time (55.81 ± 8.67 s) compared to no coffee consumption (58.25 ± 9.46 s) and coffee consumption with 100-mg caffeine (57.56 ± 8.87 s) (p < 0.05; effect size: 0.268). The effect of caffeine on attention level was induced by 200-mg caffeine consumption, but was unapparent at 100-mg dose. In addition, SCWT completion times were reduced in the student group with more weekly coffee consumption (=3 cups/week) at 200-mg caffeine dose. In this context, caffeine dose is a factor that should be taken into account in determining the performance of individuals in the SCWT test. It is thought that coffee consumption can increase the concentration of students and have positive effects on academic achievement.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2022-0268
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of synbiotics on inflammatory markers and white blood cell count in
           COVID-19 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical
           trial

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      Authors: Mahsa Khodadoostan, Majid Aghadavood Marnani, Amir Reza Moravejolahkami, Gholamreza Askari, Bijan Iraj
      Abstract: Today, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) treatment is an evolving process, and synbiotic administration has been suggested as a new therapeutic strategy. This study aims to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplementation in COVID-19 patients. In this placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients were randomized to receive oral synbiotic capsule (containing fructooligosaccharide and seven bacterial strains; Lactobacillus (L) casei, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. bulgaricus, each one 109 colony-forming units) or placebo for two months. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and white blood cell (WBC) count were evaluated at two timepoints (baseline, two months later). The measured variables were adjusted for confounders and analyzed by SPSS v21.0. All 80 enrolled patients completed the study. The study adherence was good (approximately 70%). The mean changes for IL-6 were not significant (Δ = −0.6 ± 10.4 pg/mL vs Δ = +11.2 ± 50.3 pg/mL, p > 0.05). There were no significant improvements for CRP, ESR and WBC. Administration of synbiotics for two months did not improve inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0195
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrition Bio Shield (NBS) supplement effects on depression, anxiety,
           stress and food craving in women with depression and obesity: a
           double-blind randomized controlled trial

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      Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi, Aref Khalkhali
      Abstract: Nutrition Bio Shield (NBS) supplement is a natural product that is processed from whole wheat grains. This study aims to determine its effects on depression, anxiety, stress and food craving in women with depression and obesity in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Fifty-six eligible clients with body mass index ≥ 25 and mild or moderate depression signed the informed consent form. They were randomly assigned to receive daily 5 g of NBS or placebo. The assessments included the depression, anxiety and stress-21 questionnaire, food craving questionnaire, visual analogue scale for appetite, precise anthropometric measurements and body composition analyses. The assessments were conducted at the baseline and repeated after four and eight weeks. One month after the study completion, the participants’ weight was assessed. The authors analyzed the data by independent sample t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA). At the baseline, no significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the main and demographic variables. After four weeks, stress reduced significantly in the NBS group (p = 0.04), and after eight weeks, anxiety (p = 0.02), stress (p = 0.008) and food craving (p = 0.05) reduced significantly in the NBS group compared with the placebo. After controlling for the demographic variables and baseline measurements, MANCOVA model revealed a significant effect of NBS in reducing anxiety (Eta-squared = 0.28; p = 0.001) and stress (Eta-squared = 0.19; p = 0.009). Fisher’s exact test showed no significant difference regarding side effects between NBS and placebo (p = 0.47). NBS supplement is a patent and natural product that is processed from whole wheat grains. This product was efficient in reducing stress and anxiety after controlling for demographic variables and baseline measurements compared with the placebo and was safe.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0127
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Consumer understanding of sugar types predicts food label use

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      Authors: Chantelle Clarke, Kate Abel, Talitha Best
      Abstract: There is growing awareness internationally of the need to reduce intake of added sugars. The purpose of this study was to examine consumer sugar knowledge and food label use. This cross-sectional online survey included 229 adult participants (85% female and 15% male). Participants completed measures of demographics, sugar knowledge, interest in food and nutrition, food choice motivations and beliefs and food label use. The sample of convenience showed that participants were from Australasia (n = 90), the USA (n = 90) and other Western (Europe and Canada, n = 49) countries. Overall, participant sugar knowledge predicted nutrition label use over and above individual demographic and psychological characteristics (interest in food and nutrition, health beliefs and food choice motivations) (p < 0.001). Country comparisons revealed that those in Australasia reported lower sugar knowledge compared to the USA (p =< 0.001) and other Western countries (p = 0.028). Overall, participant sugar knowledge predicted nutrition label use over and above individual demographic and psychological characteristics (interest in food and nutrition, health beliefs and food choice motivations) (p < 001). Country comparisons revealed that those in Australasia reported lower sugar knowledge compared to the USA (p =< 0.001) and other Western countries (p = 0.028). This study explored sugar knowledge as a unique predictor of food label use, taking into account individual characteristics in demographics, food choice motivations and health beliefs.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The potential health benefits and food applications of jamun ( L.), an
           indigenous fruit of India

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      Authors: Surendra Babu Ayenampudi, Riya Verma, Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye
      Abstract: Jamun is an underutilised fruit crop of India whose utilization needs to be considerably increased. Despite its impressive nutritional profile and several health benefits, its cultivation is still very limited. Hence, this study aims to highlight the essential nutrients, health benefits and value-added products of jamun fruit and seed. Major sources of bibliometric information such as Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar were extensively searched with keywords such as nutritional composition of jamun, bioactive compounds, health benefits and jamun-based food products to obtain a database of 317 papers. Thirty four publications met the criteria for review. Jamun fruit (Syzygium cumini L.) is known for its attractive colour, astringent taste, enormous nutrients and nutraceutical properties; nevertheless, this fruit is seasonal, perishable and underutilised. Furthermore, the fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and also possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and cardio-protection properties. Investigations were done on the production of value-added food products such as read-to-serve beverages, jam, cookies and cake from jamun due to their several health benefits. The present review was an attempt to provide spotlights on the health benefits and food product applications of jamun fruit and its by-products. This review systematically collates evidence from various published sources regarding the nutritional profile, development of food products from jamun and their health benefits. The compiled information will help researchers and professional become aware of the significance of jamun fruit and thereby enhances its processing and applications in food systems.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-05-2022-0146
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship between dietary intakes assessed by duplicate portion
           sampling method and bone health in female students: a cross-sectional
           study

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      Authors: Hadith Tangestani, Maryam Ghaseminasab-Parizi, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Mesbah Shams, Afsane Ahmadi, Mohammad Fararouei
      Abstract: Osteoporosis is increasingly affecting the young female adults of the Iranian population. The role of nutrition and physical activity on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in young female students has not been fully examined. This study aims to assess the dietary intake of several nutrients, such as calcium, phosphorus and protein; serum concentrations of vitamin D; and physical activity and their relationship with BMC and BMD in young female students. Three-day dietary intakes of 67 female students were measured via duplicate portion sampling (DPS) method. Calcium and phosphorus content of the food samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Protein intake was determined by Kjeldahl method. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The mean ±SD dietary intake of protein, calcium and phosphorus was 58.8 ± 16.9 g/day, 388 ± 135 mg/day and 1884 ± 682 mg/day, respectively. Significant positive correlation was found between serum vitamin 25(OH) D concentrations and BMC of lumbar spine (r = 0.28, p = 0.016) and BMD of femoral neck (r = 0.29, p = 0.016). Moreover, the authors observed a significant positive correlation between physical activity and femoral neck BMC (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) and BMD (r = 0.28, p = 0.02). This study found no significant associations between dietary intakes of protein, calcium and phosphorus and bone density measurements. In this study, the authors measured the dietary intake of protein, calcium and phosphorus using DPS method. This study highlights the role of physical activity and serum vitamin 25(OH) D concentrations in female students’ bone health.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0061
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary patterns and migraine: are dietary intake and biochemical
           parameters associated with migraine characteristics'

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      Authors: Hande Bakırhan, Hilal Yıldıran, Tuğba Uyar Cankay
      Abstract: This study aims to elucidate the relationship between nutritional status and various biochemical parameters and migraine symptoms. The disability of individuals aged 19–64 years old with episodic migraine (n = 80, female n = 64, male n = 16) was assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, and migraine severity was evaluated with the visual analog scale. The metabolic risks of individuals were determined by analyzing body composition, various biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements. Nutrients and energy intake levels were measured using the food consumption recording form. Body muscle mass percentage was correlated directly with migraine severity and inversely with the attack duration (r = 0.26, p = 0.01 and r = −0.29, p = 0.007, respectively). High bone mass was associated with low attack frequency (r = −0.23, p = 0.03), while high body fat percentage was associated with long attack duration (r = 0.28, p = 0.009). A significant direct correlation was found between total cholesterol level and migraine severity and attack duration (r = 0.25, p = 0.02) and between triglyceride level and attack duration (r = 0.26, p = 0.01). There was a direct correlation between serum thyroxine (T4) level and migraine attack severity (r = 0.23, p = 0.03). There was a significant direct correlation between energy and carbohydrate intake and migraine severity (r = 0.26, p = 0.02 and r = 0.30, p = 0.009, respectively), protein and vitamin B2 intake and attack frequency (r = 0.24, p = 0.03 and r = 0.23, p = 0.04, respectively) and an inverse correlation between monounsaturated fatty acid, fiber and vitamin C intake and migraine severity score (r = −0.35, p = 0.002; r = −0.25, p = 0.02; and r = −0.41, p = 0.001, respectively). The findings confirm that nutritional status, body composition and some biochemical parameters can affect the course of migraine.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0190
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Association between COVID-19 vaccine side effects and history of
           nutritional supplement intake and body mass index (BMI): a retrospective
           study

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      Authors: Setayesh Ebrahimian, Shirin Amini, Zahra Aghoun
      Abstract: As the development and vaccination of the COVID 19 vaccine is accelerating worldwide, it is important to investigate the ways to improve immunity and immune responses to vaccines. This study aims to investigate the association between history of nutritional supplements intake and body mass index (BMI) in the severity of COVID-19 vaccine side effects after vaccination. A total of 465 vaccinated participants with the Sinopharm vaccine (females and males in the 18–65 age range) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the first visit. In addition, nutrient supplement history and demographic information were collected. Moreover, the participants’ phone numbers were collected and they were contacted. Participants were asked to report if they experienced systemic (whole-body) and/or local side effects after vaccination, in the following eight days. Then, participants were grouped into four categories: no symptoms (n = 232), mild symptoms (n = 121), moderate symptoms (n = 55) and severe symptoms (n = 57). There was a significant difference between the consumption of nutritional supplements by different groups of participants in the last six months (considering the severity of the symptoms) (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the incidence of side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine increased in the Q3 of BMI (range 22.94–26.34) in Modes 2 and 3: [OR: 1.85, (95% CI: 1.14– 3.00), p-for trend = 0.08] and [OR: 1.89, (95% CI: 1.16– 3.09), p-for trend = 0.09] based on logistic regression models. In this study, the history of nutrient supplement intake affects the severity of side effects after the vaccination with COVID-19. Furthermore, based on logistic regression models, side effects were more prevalent in the BMI range 22.9–26.3 when compared to BMI < 20.2 so further study is necessary.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0174
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Body composition of young male rats fed on diet added with taro () flour

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      Authors: Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa, Letícia Rozeno Pessôa, Gabrielle Ribeiro Gracio, Maíra Duque Coutinho de Abreu, Bianca Ferolla da Camara Boueri, Carolina Ribeiro Pessanha, Aline D'Avila Pereira, Danielle Cavalcante Ribeiro, Gilson Teles Boaventura
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of a diet added with taro (Colocasia esculenta) flour on the body composition of rats. Weanling male rats were divided into Control (n = 11) and experimental groups (Taro, n = 12); experimental rats were fed on taro for 90 days. Food intake, body mass and length were evaluated on a weekly basis. Body composition was assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and intra abdominal fat mass was measured at the end of 90 days. Taro group recorded protein intake (55.5 ± 14.1 vs 43.8 ± 12.8 kcal, P < 0.009), body mass (between 40 and 90 days, P < 0.05), fat mass (147.3 ± 7.7 vs 99 ± 6.1 g, P < 0.001), lean mass (282.8 ± 4 vs 253.5 ± 7 g, P < 0.001), trunk fat mass (97.1 ± 7.7 vs 71.5 ± 4.1 g, P < 0.010), as well as intra-abdominal (31.3 ± 1.9 vs 21.1 ± 1.7 g, P < 0.001), epididymal (9.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.7 ± 0.5 g, P < 0.001) and retroperitoneal (14.2 ± 0.9 vs 8.8 ± 1.2 g, P < 0.002) fat mass higher than that of the Control group. Taro flour would show anabolic effects on body compartments of rats. The extrapolation of these findings herein recorded for rats to humans requires caution; however, it is necessary conducting further studies to investigate potentials anabolic effects of taro (Colocacia esculenta) flour on the body composition of physical training models.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2022-0176
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Malnutrition in Ethiopia: pattern analysis and associated factors among
           under-five children

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      Authors: Reta Lemessa, Gudeta Aga, Ararso Tafese, Temesgen Senbeto
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the differences within individuals and clusters in nutritional status and identify socioeconomic factors in the nutritional status of under-five children in Ethiopia. A weighted sub-sample of 5,270 under-five children was drawn from the under-five children data set of the Ethiopian 2019 Mini Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel modeling was used to look at the association between the nutritional status of children with predictors. The proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting among under-five children were 39.3%, 28.6% and 16.3%, respectively. The observed Global Moran Index’s value for child malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) prevalence in Ethiopia were I = 0.204 for stunting, I = 0.152 for wasting and I = 0.195 for underweight at p = 0.000 was statistically significant indicating that spatial variability of malnutrition of under-five children across survey clusters and regions was observed. Moreover, the result of heterogeneity between clusters obtained for stunting, underweight and wasting was significant providing evidence of variation among regional clusters concerning the status of nutrition of under-five children. Child’s age in months, breastfeeding, family educational level, wealth index, place of residence, media access and region were highly significantly associated with childhood malnutrition. The inclusion of the explanatory variables has shown a significant impact on the variation in malnutrition among regions. Enhance education, expanding the activities regarding nutritional and health services using media, health extension workers, and health institutions. The study provides the malnutrition situation status of Ethiopian country when the survey carried out.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0393
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The consumer perception and purchasing attitude towards organic food: a
           critical review

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      Authors: Arijit Roy, Arpita Ghosh, Devika Vashisht
      Abstract: The paper aims to critically review the literature based on the factors identified by the authors to discuss and provide direction for future research. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the factors responsible for affecting consumers’ perceptions and purchasing attitudes toward organic food products. The literature review follows the review methodology elaborating on key factors identified which affect the consumer’s perception and attitude toward organic farming and products. A total of 50 articles are downloaded from different sources such as Google Scholar and Scopus and later the articles were finalized based on core areas and specializations. The findings reveal that the behavioral aspect plays a crucial role in the adoption of organic products by consumers; also various factors such as customer perspective, demand and supply, health aspect, cost-effectiveness, standard and reliability are responsible in endorsing organic products. The authors also reveal that among the factors mentioned, the lack of a supply chain market for organic products is the prime concern for the non-availability of products. The lack of effective distribution and promotion system affects the availability of organic food products. The paper provides a comprehensive review of organic food in terms of highlighting the factors affecting the perception and purchasing attitude of consumers toward organic food products consumption. Also, the present review study gives an idea of organizing the literature on the organic food based on factors influencing the customer responses.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0130
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of screen time with physical activity and weight status of
           autistic children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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      Authors: Muhammad Adeeb Najmi Rozaini, Sarina Sariman, Aswir Abd Rashed, Norshafarina Shari
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the screen time used by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children and its association with their physical activity and weight status. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 purposive sampled children registered under the National Autism Society of Malaysia centres in Kuala Lumpur. Parents-administered questionnaire composed of socio-demographic, anthropometric data (height and weight of the children), Autism Severity Questionnaire, Screen Time Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used in this study. Respondents in this study were categorised as having mild ASD (55%). Most of the respondents had higher screen time (78%), with average (4.14 ± 3.19) h spent using the devices. The respondents had low physical activity level (54%), with average PAQ-C scores of (2.38 ± 0.79). Average BMI-for-age z-scores was 1.06 ± 2.15, which was in the normal category. Approximately, 34% of the respondents were overweight and obese. BMI-for-age was positively associated with screen time during weekdays (χ2 = 11.06; p < 0.05) but not during weekend (χ2 = 3.14; p> 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed negative relationships between screen time on weekdays (rs = −0.30 and p < 0.01) and weekend (rs = −0.21 and p < 0.05) with PAQ-C of this group of ASD children. Screen time was directly associated with the BMI-for-age z-score but was inversely associated with physical activity. Future studies could implement a structured physical activity intervention among children with ASD, which may increase physical activity and decrease screen time behaviours while addressing the overweight/obesity and cognitive aspects of these ASD children. This study measured the amount of screen time, level of physical activity and weight status but not dietary intake of autistic children.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of chitosan on cardio-metabolic risk factors induced by high fat
           diet in rats

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      Authors: Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Beno Okechukwu Onunkwor, Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor, Kunle Ogungbemi, Anuoluwapo Adewole, Michael Ayobami Olowoyeye, David Arowojolu, Olamide Yewande Adeleke, Victory Chukwudalu Ugbaja
      Abstract: This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF). Thirty-six male Wistar rats were distributed across six groups (n = 6): normal diet (ND), HF, ND-5%CT, HF-1%CT, HF-3%CT and HF-5%CT, for seven weeks. Blood and cardiac tissues were processed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histopathological analyses. Ingestion of HF induced hyperlipidaemia and lipid accumulation, leading to increased body and heart weight by 70.5% (p < 0.0001) and 124% (p = 0.0021), respectively, compared to ND-groups. Cardiac damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde) were higher in the HF-group compared to control rats. Also, atherogenic and coronary risk indices were significantly elevated by 155% (p = 0.0044) and 174% (p = 0.0008), respectively, compared to control rats. Rats fed HF had significantly reduced cardiac antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and elevated expression of NF-κB-p65 and p53 (p < 0.0001) in the cardiac tissues. Histology revealed lipid inclusions in the cardiac tissues of HF-groups. CT (1%–5%) prevented hyperlipidaemia, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and cardiac damage in HF-fed rats, while greatly improving the histology of the cardiac tissues in HF-fed rats in a dose-dependent manner. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of CT against cardio-lipotoxicity elicited by HF diet ingestion. The findings suggest that CT may present a safe therapeutic alternative for managing complications arising from cardio-lipotoxicity.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0056
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effects of folic acid supplementation on depression in adults: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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      Authors: Parniyan Khalili, Omid Asbaghi, Ladan Aghakhani, Cain C.T. Clark, Neda Haghighat
      Abstract: This study aims, a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the effects of folic acid (folate) on patients with depression. Related articles were found by searching PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of science and Cochrane’s Library, from inception to January 2022. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Pooled analysis of six randomized controlled trials revealed that folic acid supplementation decreased the depression score in the Beck Depression Inventory (WMD: −3.9; 95% CI: −5.3 to −2.4, p < 0.001) compared with control group, without heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = 1.000). It also lowered the depression score in the Hamilton (HAM) Depression Inventory (WMD: −3.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: −4.6 to −2.4, p < 0.001) compared with control group, with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 71.8%, p = 0.007). Moreover, subgroup analysis showed that the folic acid supplementation reduced HAM in all subgroups. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of a significant linear relationship between dose and duration of folic acid supplementation and changes in HAM. Also, based on the non-linear dose response, no evidence of a relationship between dose and duration of folic acid supplementation and changes in HAM was found. Folic acid supplementation could possibly have an effect on lowering depression in patients. However, the clinical trials thus far are insufficient for clinical guidelines and practice.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0043
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring dietary diversity, nutritional status of adolescents among farm
           households in Nigeria: do higher commercialization levels translate to
           better nutrition'

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      Authors: Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin, Oluwaseun Aramide Otekunrin
      Abstract: This study aims to explore dietary diversity (DD) and nutritional status of adolescents among rural farm households in Southwestern Nigeria. It analyses whether higher commercialization levels of farm households translate to better nutrition. This study was conducted in Ogun and Oyo States of Southwestern Nigeria, using primary data from 352 farm households with a total of 160 adolescent members. The individual version of dietary diversity score (DDS) of nine food groups was used to calculate adolescent DDS over a 24-h recall period. World Health Organization AnthroPlus software was used in analyzing adolescents’ anthropometric data (height-for-age z-score and body mass index-for-age z-score) while household crop commercialization index (CCI) was estimated for each farm household. Separate logit models were used to examine the drivers of adolescents’ DD and malnutrition. The study findings indicated that 100% of the adolescents consumed starchy staples while 0%, 3.1% and 12.5% consumed organ meat, milk/milk products and eggs, respectively. Results revealed that 74.1% and 21.2% of boys were stunted and thin while the prevalence in adolescent girls was 50.7% and 9.3%, respectively. Prevalence of stunting was found to be very high (60%–83%) in all the four CCI levels’ households indicating that belonging to highly commercialized households (CCI 3–4) may not necessarily translate to better nutrition of adolescent members. Food expenditure (p < 0.01) and access to piped water (p < 0.01) negatively influenced adolescents’ stunting mainly because of lower expenditure on food items and lower percent of household having access to piped water, respectively, while education (p < 0.01) had positive effects on adolescents’ DD. Previous studies have contributed to the body of knowledge concerning the link between agricultural commercialization and nutrition using under-five children of the households. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that investigated the influence of CCI on DDS and nutritional status of adolescent members of farm households in Nigeria. This study fills this existing knowledge gap in investigating adolescents’ DD and malnutrition among smallholder farm households.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How safe are hemp-based food products' A review and risk assessment of
           analytical data from Germany

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      Authors: Fabian Pitter Steinmetz, Gerhard Nahler, James Christopher Wakefield
      Abstract: Hemp-based food products and supplements have gained popularity within recent years in Europe. Apart from the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, these products may also contain Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which can be of concern for safety and regulatory compliance. In the European Union, the currently accepted limit for THC in hemp is 0.3%. As many hemp-based products have been withdrawn from the German market within recent months/years, this study aims to investigate the current safety limit and potential concerns based on available analytical data. Therefore, a publicly accessible, analytical data set from the German food authority was analysed and complemented by literature data and expert opinions regarding THC in food products. Furthermore, critical exposures have been calculated based on different product types and limits. A safety-based limit of 11.9 µg/kg/day is proposed. Importantly, the authors’ examination of hemp seed oils, one of the most common food products, showed that 4 of the 102 samples were identified as having a low-to-moderate risk for inducing impairment – confirming the general need for regulation. For hemp leaf tea and common supplements, calculated exposures to THC were not considered critical. This has been also reflected by the absence of intoxication reports in the scientific literature. Whilst for most hemp-derived foods safety concerns for the general public are considered low, this may not be the case for some products, suggesting the general need for regulatory compliance. Nevertheless, a more realistic safety limit should be applied.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effect of methyl donor supplementation on body composition,
           homocysteine, lipid profile and appetite regulatory hormones in overweight
           and obese adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

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      Authors: Maryam Ranjbar Zahedani, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari, Mehran Nouri, Shohreh Alipour, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Majid Fardaei
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of methyl donor supplementation on anthropometric indices, body composition, glycemic control, lipid profile, homocysteine and appetite regulatory hormones in overweight and obese subjects. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on overweight and obese subjects in Shiraz, Iran, in 2018. The 25 participants in each intervention and control group were required to take methyl donor supplement and placebo, respectively, for eight weeks. A variety of measurements was collected at baseline and the end of the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The results indicated a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, body fat and waist and hip circumference (p < 0.001 for all parameters) within both groups and a significant improvement in skeletal muscle (p = 0.005), fat-free mass (p = 0.006), visceral fat area (p < 0.001) and body cell mass (p = 0.004) in the intervention group. Also, the results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding serum homocysteine concentration at the end of the intervention (p < 0.001). The results demonstrated that methyl donor supplementation might have effects on the improvement of anthropometric indices, body composition, glycemic and lipid profile status and appetite regulatory hormones among obese and overweight individuals. These effects might be attributed to their roles in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and epigenetics regulation.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0382
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Changes in eating behaviours due to crises, disasters and pandemics: a
           scoping review

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      Authors: Lauren Hunter, Sarah Gerritsen, Victoria Egli
      Abstract: This literature scoping review aims to investigate if, how and why eating behaviours change after a crisis event such as a natural disaster, financial crisis or pandemic in high-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting “lockdowns” and social distancing measures have changed access to food, the types of food consumed and usual eating behaviours. Early research on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic is compared with existing literature on other high-impact crises in high-income countries around the world, such as Hurricane Katrina and the Global Financial Crisis. A search of four electronic databases in August 2020 of literature from 2000 to 2020 yielded 50 relevant publications that were included in the qualitative thematic analysis. The analysis found that crisis events made accessing food more difficult and led to increased food insecurity. Home cooking, sharing food and eating together (within households during the pandemic) all increased during and after a crisis. Resources often reduced and needed to be pooled. Crises had a multi-directional impact on dietary patterns, and the motivators for dietary pattern change differ between populations and crises. In conclusion, eating behaviours impacted by crises because of the disruption of food systems, increased food insecurity and changes in daily routines. Community networks were a strong protective factor against adverse outcomes from food insecurity.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0385
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Context-specific optimal dietary guidelines for managing cancer for
           hospitalized patients in Tanzania

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      Authors: Happyness Amani Kisighii, Jofrey Raymond, Musa Chacha
      Abstract: The lack of food-based dietary guidelines for managing cancer among hospitalized patients has led to an increasing economic burden on the government and families in low- and middle-economy countries. There have been increasing medical costs due to delayed recovery, readmission and mortality. The purpose of this study is to contribute in reducing these effects by developing context-specific food-based dietary guidelines to assist health-care professionals and caregivers in planning diets for cancer patients. For seven days, the dietary intakes of 100 cancer patients in the hospital were recorded using weighed food records. Data on the costs of commonly consumed foods during hospitalization were obtained from hospital requisition books as well as nearby markets and shops. The information gathered was used to create optimal food-based dietary guidelines for cancer patients. Most patients did not meet the recommended food group and micronutrient intake according to their weighed food records. Sugar intake from processed foods was (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%), and calories (2585 ± 544 g) exceeded recommendations. Optimized models generated three menus that met the World Cancer Research Fund 2018 cancer prevention recommendation at a minimum cost of 2,700 Tanzanian Shillings (TSH), 3500TSH, and 4550TSH per day. The optimal dietary pattern includes nutrient-dense foods from all food groups in recommended portions and within calorie limits. Findings show that optimal dietary guidelines that are context-specific for managing cancer in hospitalized patients can be formulated using culturally acceptable food ingredients at minimum cost.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Do glycemic index and glycemic load of diet contribute to early childhood
           caries in preschool children'

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      Authors: Elif Inan Eroglu, Ruveyda Esra Ozkalayci, Cansu Ozsin Ozler, Meryem Uzamis-Tekcicek, Zehra Buyuktuncer
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential association between the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) with early childhood caries in preschool children. This cross-sectional study collected data from 225 children aged 37–71 months in governmental nursery schools within the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. GI and GL values of foods and beverages were calculated using 2008 international tables of GI and GL. Dental examinations were done under daylight and by using a headlight. The prevalence of caries was obtained by calculating the number of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index score or decayed, missing and filled surface (dmfs) index score. There were significant differences in the dmft and dmfs scores according to GI groups (p = 0.022 for both). The multivariate models showed that children who consumed a high-GI diet had higher dmft scores compared to children who consumed a medium-GI diet (ß 1.48, 95% CI −1.48, 4.44), whereas children who consumed a high-GL diet had lower dmft score compared to children who consumed low-GL diet (ß 0.55, 95% CI −0.97, 2.07), however, they were not statistically significant. Dietary total GI and GL did not significantly influence the caries experience of preschool children. Future studies should focus on the different age groups with a broader perspective.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Perspectives of pumpkin pulp and pumpkin shell and seeds uses as
           ingredients in food formulation

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      Authors: Ruby-Alejandra Villamil, Natalia Escobar, Laura Natalia Romero, Ribka Huesa, Anny Valentina Plazas, Carina Gutiérrez, Gloria Elizabeth Robelto
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the use of pumpkin pulp and its by-products in food formulation. Pumpkins are important and useful in the food industry. However, only the pulp is used, and the shell and seeds are wasted, which represents an important food waste. A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases relating to the physicochemical, textural and sensory effects of the pumpkin pulp and its by-products’ incorporation into foods. No human subjects were involved, and ethical approval was not required. Pumpkin seeds and shell have been included in quite a variety of products. The primary effects on the physicochemical properties of bakery products, dairy products, beverages and snacks are the increase in energy, protein, iron, calcium, carotene content and textural properties (hardness, chewiness, snapping force and viscosity). Limitations comprise the heterogeneity of the studies included, which causes varied results. It was evidenced that pumpkin is already included in food products, especially in bakery products. However, there are not many products where the shell and seeds are used. Therefore, it is a field to be explored, as these by-products have great potential both to enrich food products and to reduce food waste contributing to sustainability.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0126
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A comprehensive nutritional support perspective in patients with COVID-19:
           a review

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      Authors: Soraiya Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Amir Ali Sohrabpour, Saeid Safari, Nima Baziar, Shima Hadavi, Laleh Payahoo, Samaneh Shabani
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is becoming a crucial health problem worldwide. Continued and high-speed mutations of this virus result in the appearance of new manifestations, making the control of this disease difficult. It has been shown that well-nourished patients have strong immune systems who mostly have short-term hospitalization compared to others. The purpose of this study is to review the major nutrients involved in the immune system reinforcement and to explain nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19. In this review paper, the mechanistic role of nutrients in boosting the immune system and the nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19 patients were discussed. Papers indexed in scientific databases were searched using antioxidants, COVID-19, inflammation, immune system, macronutrient, micronutrient and probiotic as keywords from 2000 to 2022. Because of the adverse effects of drugs like thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and hypercholesterolemia, a balanced diet with enough concentrations of energy and macronutrients could increase the patient's durability. The inflammatory cytokines in a vicious cycle delay patients’ rehabilitation. The main mechanistic roles of micronutrients are attributed to the downregulation of virus replication and are involved in energy homeostasis. Dysbiosis is defined as another disturbance among COVID-19 patients, and supplementation with beneficial strains of probiotics helps to exert anti-inflammatory effects in this regard. Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients. Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Consumers’ opinions, use of food labels and knowledge of food
           additives

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      Authors: Hatice Merve Bayram, Arda Ozturkcan
      Abstract: This study aims to determine what consumers take into consideration while buying food and to increase awareness. We also demonstrated food additives knowledge, and the association between food additive consumption and illness. An online survey was used to collect data from respondents (n = 433). Gender and knowledge of food additives and E numbers were found to be statistically different, as were education status and knowledge of food additives (p 
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-04-2022-0137
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Factors influencing grocery shopping choices and the prevalence of food
           label use among Saudi mothers: a cross-sectional pilot study

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      Authors: Najlaa Alsini, Hebah Alawi Kutbi, Noor Hakim, Rana Mosli, Noura Eid, Zeinab Mulla
      Abstract: There is currently limited data available on the Saudi population’s adoption of nutritional guidelines or on other factors influencing food purchasing behaviors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutrition label use, explore factors that could influence food choices during grocery shopping and evaluate the association of these factors with the sociodemographic characteristics of mothers. Mothers were recruited at a community event. They were requested to complete a questionnaire that assessed social and lifestyle characteristics as well as product features that influence food choices during grocery shopping. The study included 157 mothers. The prevalence of label reading was high with 69% of participants always or mostly reading labels pre-purchase. Features that were most likely to “always” influence purchase choices included: product healthfulness (57.3%), children’s preference (45.9%), specific needs of a family member (38.9%). The feature “awareness campaigns and workshops” was found to be associated with both low and high-income groups. There was a poor understanding of what the “light” food label meant with only 37.6% answering correctly. Further research is needed with a higher sample size with diverse sociodemographic characteristics. Saudi mothers are influenced by product healthfulness as well as children’s and family members’ needs when grocery shopping. There was a high prevalence of reading nutrition labels prepurchase. These findings can inform future public health policy on the main drivers for food purchasing decisions and the need for educational initiatives in Saudi Arabia. The present research collates factors influencing food choices
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0345
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Shift work, sleep, and burnout: the impact of Mediterranean dietary
           pattern and nutritional status on emergency healthcare workers

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      Authors: Hande BAKIRHAN, Yunus Emre BAKIRHAN, Gamze Yaşar
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and shift work, sleep quality and burnout among emergency health-care workers. The nutritional status, sleep quality and burnout status of health-care workers (n = 91) in Turkey were investigated. Among the burnout subgroups, only emotional exhaustion was associated with high adherence to the Meditarrenean diet. (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Carbohydrates consumed during the shift day were associated with lower sleep quality (r = 0.24, p = 0.02). The intake of protein (r = −0.29, p < 0.01), fat (r = −0.27, p < 0.00), cholesterol (r = −0.31, p < 0.01), phosphorus (r = −0.22, p = 0.03) and iron (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) in shift day was negatively associated with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores (lower PSQI scores indicates good sleep quality). Consumption of vitamin C and potassium on the rest day was significantly associated with better sleep quality (respectively, r = −0.21, p = 0.04 and r=−0.23, p = 0.03). Personal accomplishment was positively correlated with carbohydrate consumption during the shift day and negatively correlated with protein, cholesterol and vitamin B6 intake (respectively, r = 0.22, p = 0.03; r = −0.21, p = 0.03; r=−0.28, p < 0.00, r = −0.28, p < 0.00). Emotional exhaustion was negatively correlated with protein consumption on the shift day (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with fat consumption on the rest day (r = 0.22, p = 0.02). The findings confirm the possible role of dietary patterns in health-care workers against burnout and sleep quality attributable to a possible association with nutrients intake on shift or rest day.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Food safety knowledge and changes in practices and concerns of Indian
           families during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Sunaina Thakur, Pulkit Mathur
      Abstract: Unsafe food can lead to various foodborne diseases and even death, especially among children. This paper aims to assess food safety knowledge and changes in practices and concerns among adults ≥ 18 years during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted among 325 adults living in Northern India. Demographic data and information regarding their knowledge, practices and concerns about various food safety issues were collected to see if there were any changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that the participants had slightly higher than average knowledge and good food safety practices with mean scores of 9.75 ± 2.23 and 24.87 ± 2.28, respectively. Contracting COVID-19 from food and food packaging materials was of high concern for more than 70% of the participants. Majority (> 80%) of them reported an increase in the frequency of handwashing. About 16% of the participants used chemical disinfectants for washing fruits and vegetables. An increase (57.5%) in the frequency of food label reading was also noted during the pandemic. Freshness and the general quality of food items (49.5%), safety of food (30.8%) and cost (18.2%) were the top drivers that influenced the purchase decision. This study highlighted the need to send out clear messages on safe food handling practices and keeping the tempo up for sustaining good hygienic practices. This will help in reducing the risk of foodborne diseases.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0034
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of third generation protein rich snacks from lentil and egg
           powder through microwave assisted extrusion cooking

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      Authors: Monisa Yousouf, Syed Zameer Hussain, Varsha Kanojia, Tahiya Qadri, Bazila Naseer, Fouzia Shafi, Abida Jabeen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology. In the first part of the hybrid technology, the feed proportion and extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design. In the second part of hybrid technology, the optimized protein pellets (PP) obtained were subjected to microwave heating (MH) for 50,100, 150, 200 and 250 s. The optimum predicted conditions for development of pellets using extrusion cooking were feed proportion (85% LF and 15% EP), barrel temperature (140°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture content (12%). When these pellets were subjected to MH, 150 s of heating time was considered as prudential to induce desirable quality changes in PP. The increase in sectional expansion index, crispness and overall acceptability from 0.637 to 0.659, 4.51 to 6.1 and 3.27 to 3.59 with corresponding decrease in bulk density and breaking strength from 73.33 to 69.75 kg/cm3 and 6.24 to 5.13 N during 150 s of MH indicated that quality characteristics of extruded PPs were improved after MH. Nowadays, consumers have become more health conscious than ever, and the demand for nutritious snacks has increased many folds. However, the high protein content restricts expansion of snacks, which was overcome by subjecting extruded pellets to MH to produce third generation pellets. Furthermore, the PP has a protein content of 31.62%, which indicates that if an average person consumes 100 g of these snacks, it will suffice 60% of total recommended dietary intake (0.75 g/kg body weight/day). Lentil-based pellets expanded by use of such hybrid technology (microwave-assisted extrusion cooking) can help to provide a feasible, low cost and protein-rich diet for malnourished population besides being a value addition to lentils. LF in combination with EP was tested for the first time for development of nutrient dense pellets. Moreover, use of microwave-assisted extrusion cooking offers a workable and innovative technique of developing protein-rich pellets with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Perspectives on the potential of Mangiferin as a nutraceutical: a review

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      Authors: Deepti Jamwal, Priyanka Saini, Pushpa C. Tomar, Arpita Ghosh
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a review of the research studies that took place in the previous years regarding Mangiferin and its potential use in the treatment of various disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Mangiferin can be easily extracted from the plant at a very low cost to treat some common as well as deadly diseases, which will be a miracle in herbal treatment. In support of this, the recent related articles were considered to understand the bioactive compound “Mangiferin” to treat lifestyle diseases. Various review articles and research papers were collected from international and national journals, and internet sources were also being used to compile the current manuscript. Mangiferin has been shown to have the potential to mitigate many life style diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, fatty liver, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and diabetes-related end-organ complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. In this comprehensive review, this study evaluates Mangiferin and its lifestyle disease-modifying properties for nutraceuticals purposes.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Food delivery before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil

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      Authors: Juliana Costa Liboredo, Cláudia Antônia Alcântara Amaral, Natália Caldeira Carvalho
      Abstract: This study aims to understand consumer behavior related to the purchase of meals by delivery services before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Brazil. An online survey was conducted between September and October 2020. The total number of valid responses was 971. About 55% of the participants reported a decrease in consumption or not having consumed food delivery during the pandemic. Of the total, 48.3% feared contracting COVID-19 from food delivery. A significant association was observed between fear of contracting COVID-19 from food delivery and variables such as education level (p = 0.001), observance of social distancing (p = 0.03) and food delivery consumption frequency (p < 0.001). More people were careful about cleaning food packaging (from 12.4% before to 66.1% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and disposal (from 47.6% before to 66.4% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and heating the food before consumption (from 7.6% before to 13.7% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and used payment methods without approximation (from 29.8% before to 43.2% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) compared with the pre-pandemic period. More people also reported that application of security protocols during delivery (from 29.8% before to 43.2% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and in restaurants (from 7.2% before to 25% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) and possessing knowledge about the financial difficulty of the establishment (from 4.6% before to 17% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) were the most important factors for choosing a food service. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore consumers’ fear of contracting COVID-19 from food delivery and consumer behavior related to food delivery services during the pandemic in Brazil – that is, way to order and payment methods, as well as concern and care related to the purchase of these foods.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0368
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Production of microbial pigments from whey and their applications: a
           review

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      Authors: Amrita Poonia, Surabhi Pandey
      Abstract: Whey is a by-product of paneer, cheese and casein industry and considered as a dairy waste. Worldwide, approximately 180–1,900 million tons of whey is produced annually. Whey is classified as a high pollutant due to its organic matter level. Owing to its high chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, it is a big threat to the environment. Whey contains 4.5%–5.0% lactose, 0.6%–0.7% protein, 0.4%–0.5% lipids, vitamins and minerals. Due to its high nutritional profile, it is a good substrate for the microorganisms for production of natural pigments. The purpose of this paper is to review the utilization of low cost substrate (whey) for production of various types of pigments and their applications in different sectors. The databases for the search included: Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Research gate and Google. The main search was directed towards different types of natural pigments, stability, technologies for enhancing their production and contribution towards circular economy. Approximately 100 research papers were initially screened. A global search was conducted about natural pigments. Research articles, review papers, books, articles in press and book chapters were the type of search for writing this review paper. Production of natural pigments using whey and their addition in food products not only improves the colour of food but also enhances the antioxidant properties of food products, helping the health benefits by chelating free radicals from the body. The sustainable use of whey for production of natural pigments can improve the bio-based economy of different industries and thereof the national economy. Efficient utilization of whey can bring a lot more opportunities for production of natural pigments in a sustainable manner. The sustainable approach and circular economy concepts will benefit the dependent industries and health conscious consumers. The potential uses of whey for the production of natural pigments using diverse organisms are highlighted in this paper.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its
           associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia

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      Authors: Wondwosen Molla, Dirshaye Aragaw, Robel Hussen, Aregahegn Wudneh, Derebe Madoro, Nebiyu Mengistu, Ruth Tilahun, Seid Shumye, Daniel Sisay, Habtamu Endashaw, Temesgen Muche
      Abstract: Achieving optimal nutrition among mothers and children is still a challenge in many developing country settings, including Ethiopia. Study on dietary diversity concordance of mother-to-child dyads is limited. Hence, this study aims to assess dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia, from January 1 to February 15, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done by Epi data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23.0 software, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Variables with p < 0.25 at bivariate analysis were chosen for multivariate analysis. Variables with a p-value of
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An understanding the food safety knowledge among food science students in
           Iraq

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      Authors: Sanar Muhyaddin, Iman Sabir
      Abstract: Food-borne diseases can be prevented with the knowledge of food safety. Food-related infirmity, especially in developing economy perspective such as Iraq can be addressed effectively with adequate food safety knowledge. So, this study aims to analyse the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students studying in food science programs. Four aspects of food safety, namely, the food poisoning, personal hygiene, temperature control and cross contamination and cleaning were considered to understand the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students. A survey of 105 Iraqi food technology students was conducted to know their food safety knowledge. A structured questionnaire was made involving multiple choice scales. Among the alternatives, one alternative was right and all other alternatives were wrong. Respondents were asked to pick the correct answer amongst the given alternatives. Correct answer given by the respondent was considered a measure of food safety knowledge. Findings of the study revealed that students had insufficient knowledge about various dimensions of food safety. Students had knowledge about the food poisoning (p < 0.001) Students had partial understanding about personal hygiene wherein they had knowledge about handwashing practices (p < 0.001) and food-handling practices (p < 0.001). Respondents had knowledge about role of freezing in bacterial growth (p < 0.001). Students only had knowledge about separation of cooked and uncooked food (p < 0.001), indicating partial understanding about cross contamination and cleanliness. Both age and gender of the student did not have relationship with their food safety knowledge. The results implied that instructors and tutors should stress upon the socio-cultural facets to facilitate the food safety knowledge. Educators should also emphasize upon the application and laboratory demonstration of food safety knowledge rather than over-emphasizing the theoretical part. The present study suffers from multiple limitations demanding specific mention. The study undertook a quantitative methodology and made use of a close-ended questionnaire. As generally the quantitative studies include the self-reported actions or behaviours of the selected respondents, the present study also offers its results on the basis of self-reported behaviour of the students. It might be possible to observe the difference between the stated and actual behaviour of the food technology students. Other researchers might use an observational study to obtain more genuine results. It is important to study food technology students regarding their food safety knowledge due to their projected future roles, as students are stipulated to perform the role of managers, food handlers, trainers, experts and caterers in the future in food industry. These students are more likely to influence the food safety orientations of society at large than the those belonging to other educational programs. Hence, this study offered a review of food safety knowledge of food technology students.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A systematic review on the role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating
           non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

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      Authors: Simran Gogna, Jaspreet Kaur, Kartik Sharma, Vishesh Bhadariya, Jyoti Singh, Vikas Kumar, Prasad Rasane, Vipasha Vipasha
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the health benefits, functional role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating diet-related non-communicable diseases, absorption, metabolism, toxicity and extraction of ALA. A wide range of publications were identified through electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and ResearchGate) on the basis of different keywords such as dietary sources, functional role, metabolism, beneficial effects, toxicity and extraction. ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is commonly found in dietary sources such as flaxseeds, rapeseed, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and fatty fish, with flaxseed being the richest among all the sources. Several convincing evidences depict the functional role of ALA in ameliorating cardiovascular functions, regulating systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improving neurological disorders, thus possessing anti-arrhythmic as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Its promising effect is also noticed on post-menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, insomnia and headache as well as in balancing the levels of sex hormones in women suffering from PCOS. Furthermore, it was also responsible for reducing the concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Its excess consumption may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances such as flatulence and bloating. Various extraction techniques, namely, medium pressure liquid chromatography, silver silica gel chromatography, silver ion-solid phase extraction and silver ion-high pressure liquid chromatography are used for the extraction of ALA from its sources. This is a novel review which will provide a brief overview of dietary sources, functional role, absorption and metabolism, health benefits, toxicity and extraction of ALA.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Aroma-taste-texture cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in
           yoghurt drink

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      Authors: Yi Jing Thun, See Wan Yan, Chin Ping Tan, Wen Xin Teoh, Xin Yue Gan
      Abstract: Prevention of chronic diseases by means of dietary modification can be achieved by consuming healthier foods with lower sugar content. However, reducing sugar content causes significant impact on the sensory quality and consumers’ acceptance towards local healthy products. This study aims to evaluate the effects of cross-modal interactions of Aroma-Taste-Texture (ATT) in yoghurt drink. Fifteen sugar reduced yoghurt drinks [S, sugar percentage (0%, 2%, 4%); T, stevia dosage (0%, 0.01%, 0.02%); P, pectin dosage (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%)] based on ATT were evaluated by 300 consumer panellists on aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability on a nine-point hedonic scale while sweetness intensity was measured using a seven-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Interactions between ATT were determined. Significant interaction was found between sugar and stevia, with F14 (4S0.02T0P) rated as sweeter than F4 (0S0.02T0P) (p = 0.003) and higher overall liking score than F11 (4S0T0P) (p = 0.001). Similarly, significant interaction was found between sugar and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Likewise, significant interaction was found between stevia and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Overall, F5 (0S0.02T0.6P) scored highest in overall liking and closest to the ideal sweetness (JAR = 4) indicating the possibility to apply 100% sugar replacement. Application from the present study could be great potential solution in developing healthier range products while meeting consumer preference. The present study concluded that interactions of ATT of yoghurt drink will induce desirable changes in sensory and sweetness perception.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Flavonoids and organochlorines in honey from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

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      Authors: Yutaka Tashiro
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the flavonoid composition and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in honey samples from different floral sources on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and to determine their nutritional characteristics and the risk of intaking hazardous pollutants. Honey samples were collected from various regions of the Ryukyu Islands. Thirty-one samples were analyzed for six flavonoid compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, and OCs from 14 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The differences in flavonoid composition among the samples from different floral sources were determined. Honey from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip. contained high concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. One sample with polychlorinated biphenyls and two with chlordane compounds were detected in one region; however, their concentrations were lower than those for food regulations. Novel chemical characteristics in Ryukyu honey, including high amounts of luteolin and apigenin from B. pilosa, were discovered, whereas low OC contamination was observed.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrient intakes and cognitive competence in the context of abstract
           reasoning of school-age children in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana

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      Authors: Reginald Adjetey Annan, Charles Apprey, Asamoah-Boakye Odeafo, Twum-Dei Benedicta, Takeshi Sakurai, Satoru Okonogi
      Abstract: The association between nutrition and cognitive test performance among school children is limited in developing countries, including Ghana. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and cognitive competence in the context of abstract reasoning among school-aged children in the Tamale Metropolis. The present cross-sectional study recruited 596 children aged 9–13 years from government-owned and private primary schools in Tamale Metropolis. Dietary intake was assessed by using three-day repeated 24-hour recall. Cognition was assessed by the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test, made up of 36 questions and used as a continuous variable, whereby higher scores indicated better cognition. The majority of the children did not meet the recommended dietary allowances for protein (55.5%) and fibre (94.0%) and estimated adequate requirement for energy (86.6%), folate (72.8%), vitamin E (90.6%) and zinc (74.8%). More girls (55.1%) performed poorly in the cognition test than the boys (45.7%) (p = 0.029). Between-subject effects determined using univariate and multivariate analyses indicated age (p = 0.002), dietary folate (p = 0.016), vitamin C intake (p = 0.011), combined age and dietary folate (p = 0.049) and combined age and dietary vitamin C (p = 0.022) significantly affected cognition scores. Girls had lower odds (AOR = 0.7, p = 0.021, 95%CI = 0.5–0.9) of scoring above the 50th percentile in cognition test than boys. The current nutrient intakes of the children were inadequate. The children performed poorly in Raven’s cognition test of abstract reasoning, and this was associated with being a girl. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate nutrient intakes and RCPM test performance among children in Northern Ghana. Thus, the findings of the study provide relevant information needed by stakeholders to implement nutrition programs in basic schools, aimed at ensuring optimal nutrition achievement among school children for improved cognition.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0343
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Potential blood pressure lowering effect of L-citrulline supplementation
           in at risk populations: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: Sadegh Jafarnejad, Catherine Tsang, Negin Amin
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and elderly populations. Three electronic databases, namely, Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus, were searched from 1990 to November 2020. Random effects model analysis was applied for quantitative data synthesis, and 6 trials with 150 participants were identified and included in the analysis. Results showed an overall non-significant effect of L-citrulline supplementation on both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in middle-aged and elderly participants. However, stratified analysis indicated a significant reduction in SBP (SMD: −0.41, 95% CI: −0.84, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.41; I2 = 10%) but not in DBP (SMD:−0.15, 95% CI: −0.57, 0.28; p = 0.51, heterogeneity p = 0.60; I2 = 0%), following longer-term (= 8 weeks) supplementation of L-citrulline. Additionally, higher doses of L-citrulline (= 6 grams) showed a marginally significant reduction in DBP (SMD: −0.38, 95% CI: −0.78, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.50; I2 = 0%). In conclusion, a higher dosage and longer duration of supplementation with L-citrulline may have potential BP lowering effects in populations at an increased risk of hypertension
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0378
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Survey of the blood pressure lowering potential of medicinal plants used
           in the management of hypertension in herbal homes in Zango Kataf, Kaduna,
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Esther Badugu Patrick, Sunday O. Otimenyin, Bukata B. Bukar
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure (BP) lowing potential of some herbs used by the indigenous people of Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, to treat hypertension. A total of 17 herbal healers and 15 hypertensive patients who use herbs to treat hypertension in Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were consulted between 2019 and 2020. Participants were selected via purposeful sampling. BP was measured before and after the ingestion of a herbal preparation. Three plant preparations were screened: Newbouldia laevis, Hibiscus cannabinus and Pavetta crassipes. H. cannabinus produced a significant decrease of 16, 12 and 14 mmHg in SBP at 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.001 at 2 h, p = 0.04 at 3 h, p = 0.01 at 4 h). While P. crassipes produced a significant decrease in SBP of 12, 15, 19 and 20 mmHg at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.04 at 1 h, p= 0.00 at 2 h, p = 0.00 at 3 h and p = 0.00 at 4 h). The findings for N. laevis were not reported due to incomplete information. The sample size of this study was small. The researcher could not meet with some hypertensive clients owing to the poor cooperation of some herbal healers. Further, some hypertensive patients rejected the offer to participate in the study. This study reveals that treatment with H. cannabinus and P. crassipes significantly decrease BP in hypertensive patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0326
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated
           with wheat–cassava composite flour

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      Authors: Omowumi Temitope Abiola, Michael Ayodele Idowu, Taofeek Akinyemi Shittu, Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo, Emmanuel Kehinde Oke
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker snacks coated with wheat (80%) and cassava (20%) composite flours. The peanuts were sorted, boiled, drained, roasted, coated and fried at temperature of 150–180°C for 154.6–240 s. The fried peanut cracker-coated (FPCC) snacks produced were analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents), rancidity indices (peroxide value, free fatty acid and iodine value), physical properties, colour (lightness, redness and yellowness), texture (hardness, fracturability, adhesiveness and cohesiveness) and sensory qualities (taste, crispiness, colour, odour and overall acceptability). There were significant differences in moisture (p = 0.000), crude fat (p = 0.001), crude protein (p = 0.000), crude fibre (p = 0.001), total ash (p = 0.00) and carbohydrate (p = 0.001). The range of values for moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents were 2.6%–4.9%, 27.1%–34.7%, 21.0%–26.3%, 3.1%–4.1%, 2.1%–2.5% and 33.9%–36.4%, respectively, while peroxide, free fatty acid and iodine values ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 mEq/kg, 32.8–47.0 mg KOH/g and 1.2–2.0 gI2/100 g, respectively. The physical properties of the FPCCs showed decrease as the frying temperature and time increased. The values for lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) ranged from 26.5 to 52.2, 11.4 to 22.0 and 37.0 to 42.5, while the texture attributes such as hardness (p = 0.001), fracturability (p = 0.023), adhesiveness (p = 0.001) and cohesiveness (p = 0.011) were significantly different and it ranged from 28.7 to 53.4 N, 28.6 to 48.3 N, 1.0 to 2.4 N/s and 0.0–0.1, respectively. The sensory score for wheat–cassava composite flours used for coating the snacks decreased as the frying temperature and time increased. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability. There are scanty information/published works on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated with wheat–cassava composite flour. This research work helps in producing fried peanut cracker coated with composite wheat–cassava flours. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Improve adherence to the Mediterranean diet through an innovative app: a
           pilot study

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      Authors: Andrea Devecchi, Simona Bo, Luca De Carli, Erik Breda, Valentina Ponzo, Andrea Pezzana
      Abstract: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a sustainable and healthy diet. However, compliance to the MD is still poor. Given this, the authors created a Web app to promote the MD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Web app YourPappa in terms of adherence to the MD. The authors developed a Web app, YourPappa, with the aim of encouraging virtuous dietary habits through a reward mechanism. After that, a randomized controlled study was conducted. All participants were given written advice on correct nutrition. Moreover, the case group was trained on the use of the app. The MD adherence was evaluated by a validated questionnaire (Medi-Lite). Cases found an average increase in the Medi-Lite scores of +7.1%, whereas controls showed an increase of +0.7% (p = 0.06; effect size 0.60). For most of the users, the Web app helped them to think about what they were buying and to promote the MD. Obesity and related diseases are a topical problem. New strategies are needed to counter it. This study showed interesting and encouraging results, which need further research and insight to be validated and supported. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the use of a Web app to stimulate the adoption of the MD through a reward mechanism.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0394
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship of fast food consumption with sociodemographic factors,
           body mass index and dietary habits among university students

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      Authors: Nurgul Arslan, Jiyan Aslan Ceylan, Abdulkerim Hatipoğlu
      Abstract: University students are one of the vulnerable groups in terms of having nutritional problems due to their lifestyle and social environment. This study aims to determine the consumption of fast food among university students and evaluate factors that may impact it, such as sociodemographic factors, body mass index (BMI) or nutritional habits. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of 184 university students (47.8% men and 52.2% women) with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.0 years. The survey included students’ sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and fast-food consumption. Chi-square test, t-test and binary logistic regression analysis were used depending on the characteristics of the data. Results indicated that 39.7% of the students consumed fast food at least once in 15 days and preferred these foods for taste, workload and social activity. Consumption of fast food occurred at an earlier age in men (%13.6) and the portions were higher than portions of vegetables (p = 0.001). By using regression analysis, a statistically significant relationship was found between the frequency of fast-food consumption and age, gender, economic status, BMI, the amount of vegetables consumed daily and the habit of eating breakfast (p < 0.05). It is planned to reach more students in the study. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, transportation to students became difficult or could not be reached. This study is one of the rare studies examining students’ orientation to fast food. The number of studies in this field in Turkey is limited.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Novel nutritionally improved snacks for school-aged children: formulation,
           characterization and acceptability

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      Authors: Nadia Lingiardi, Ezequiel Godoy, Ileana Arriola, María Soledad Cabreriso, Cecilia Accoroni, María Florencia Balzarini, Alberto Arribas, María Agustina Reinheimer
      Abstract: This study aims to formulate multiple nutritionally improved snacks intended for school-aged children according to international nutritional goals: Vanilla cookies (VC), Bay biscuits (BB), Cheese crackers (CC) and Tomato muffins (TM). The reformulation targets implied incorporating alternative flours and milk powder and reducing the sugar and sodium contents, with respect to the usually consumed control products. These products were subjected to proximate composition, colour and sensory profile analyses. Their overall acceptability was assessed by school-aged children whose nutritional status was also evaluated. Significant increments in relevant nutrients were observed in the composition of snacks: fibre (p = 0.01 for VC, p < 0.01 for BB and CC), proteins (p < 0.01 for all snacks) and calcium (p < 0.01 for all snacks). Average sodium reductions of 1.5% and 3.7% were achieved for CC and TM. During formulation, added sugar was reduced by 15.5% and 23.5% for VC and BB. All snacks were found to be acceptable in terms of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability by the participants, and VC, BB and CC were ready for their effective implementation as part of school meals. Comprehensive policies have become necessary to combat malnutrition, mainly overweight and obesity. The incorporation of nutritionally improved snacks in school environments is one of several strategies for promoting healthier lifestyles among children, including educational programs, workshops and food assistance.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessing the level of food insecurity among cancer patients undergoing
           active cancer treatment in a low-income community

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      Authors: Fatemeh Aamazadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh, Alireza Farsad-Naeimi, Zahra Tofighi
      Abstract: Food insecurity exists when access to nutritionally sufficient and secure foods or the ability to obtain admissible foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain. Food insecurity is most likely associated with chronic disease. However, research into the possible relationship between food insecurity and cancer, the world’s second leading cause of death, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity as well as the associated socioeconomic characteristics among cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 cancer patients in Iran. The socioeconomic and 18-item U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Questionnaires were used to measure general and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as food security status. The prevalence of food insecurity was 25.4% in the form of hunger and 52.5% in the form of hidden hunger. Only 22.1% of the patients were food secure. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that having children under 18 years old (P = 0.035), economic status (P < 0.001), age of the patient (P = 0.001), educational level of household’s head and his spouse (P = 0.044 and P = 0.045, respectively, had statistically significant relationships with food insecurity. Cancer patients have a high rate of food insecurity. Considering the importance of food security for effective cancer treatment, the health system’s attention to this issue, particularly by policymakers, appears to be required.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0355
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of various thermal processing methods and pretreatment methods to
           reduce phosphorus content of chicken meat for CKD patients

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      Authors: Kozue Uenishi, Keiko Tomita, Shinsuke Kido
      Abstract: The management of dietary phosphorus in chronic kidney disease patients is an important issue. Phosphorus is often found with protein in foods. However, excessive protein restriction worsens the nutritional status of the patient; thus, phosphorus must be selectively restricted. This study aims to assess the effects of various pretreatments readily available in ordinary households on phosphorus loss in foodstuffs. This study evaluated the retention of phosphorus in cooked chicken meat (boiled, baked, steamed and microwaved). In addition, this study incorporated various pretreatments (pounding, stabbing, cutting and enzymatic treatment) to the method exhibiting the lowest phosphorus retention (boiling) and assessed the effects on phosphorus retention. Boiling (65%, vs baking, p < 0.001; vs steaming, p = 0.013; vs microwaving, p = 0.002) of the chicken meat resulted in the lowest phosphorus retention compared to the other cooking methods (baking [89%], steaming [73%] and microwaving [75%]). In addition, stabbing (58%, p = 0.009) or cutting (46%, p < 0.001) further reduced the retention of phosphorus in boiled chicken meat. The retention of phosphorus in enzyme-pretreated boiled chicken was reduced by approximately 10% compared to untreated chicken (p = 0.01). The cooking method that reduced phosphorus retention to the greatest extent was enzyme treatment prior to cutting and boiling. This paper investigates the effects of common household cooking methods and combinations of methods on the phosphorus content of meat.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0384
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Ketogenic vs plantogenic diets for health: a review article

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      Authors: Hildemar Dos Santos, Diane Han, Mayabel Perez, Summer Johnson, Razaz Shaheen
      Abstract: To gain a better and more comprehensive understanding, this study aims to investigate the literature to explore the two popular diets’ health benefits and concerns. Google Scholar and PubMed were used to search for available and relevant nutrition and health articles that pertain to the benefits and concerns of plantogenic and ketogenic diets. Search terms like low carbohydrate, diet, ketogenic, vegetarian and chronic diseases were used. Information was obtained from review articles and original research articles and checked for accuracy. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Ketogenic and plantogenic (plant-based) diets have been adopted today by many professionals and the public. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Plantogenic diets also have been practiced for many years for religious, health and environmental reasons. Compared to plantogenic diets, ketogenic diets lack long-term evidence of its potential benefits and harm. Maybe Lacto-ovo vegetarian and pesco-vegetarian (eat fish but not meats) diets are OK. However, for strict plantogenic diets (total plantogenic/vegan diet), the risk of mineral or vitamin deficiency is present (Melina et al., 2016). Of particular concern is dietary vitamin B12, which is obtained mostly from animal sources (Melina et al., 2016). A long-term deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to macrocytic anemia and cause neuro and psychological effects (Obeid et al., 2019). Also, omega-3 fatty acids may be deficient in such a diet and probably need to be supplemented on those who follow the total plantogenic diet (Melina et al., 2016). Other deficiencies of concern would be zinc, iron, calcium, vitamin D and iodine (Melina et al., 2016). Another disadvantage is that many junk foods could be easily classified within the plantogenic diet, such as sugar, cakes, French fries, white bread and rice, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets in general. These items are related to higher weight gain and, consequently, to a higher incidence of diabetes and other chronic diseases (Schulze et al., 2004; Malik et al., 2006; Fung et al., 2009). Plantogenic diets were concluded to have sustainable health benefits for humans and the environment over ketogenic diets, which could be used but under professional follow-up only.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0344
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Probiotic supplement as an adjunctive therapy with Ritalin for treatment
           of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a
           double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

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      Authors: Milad Ghanaatgar, Sina Taherzadeh, Shadi Ariyanfar, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Fahime Martami, Javad Mahmoudi Gharaei, Amir Teimourpour, Zahra Shahrivar
      Abstract: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of microbiota-directed intervention in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the effects of probiotic supplements as an adjunct therapy in combination with Ritalin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD, aged 6–12 years, who had an intelligent quotient of ≥70 were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to either the group that received probiotics or the group that received the placebo in addition to the weight-adjusted dose of Ritalin. Parents were asked to complete the revised Conners Parent Rating Scale–short version (CPRS–RS), and the psychiatrist completed the seven-point Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI–S) scale. Two study groups were compared in three time points, including T1 (before intervention), T2 (at the end of fourth week) and T3 (at the end of the eighth week). A total of 38 participants completed the study. After eight weeks of intervention, the probiotic group had a significant improvement regarding CPRS–RS scores in T2 (9.4 unit, p = 0.014) and T3 (18.6 unit, p < 0.001), compared to placebo. In addition, children in the probiotic group had 0.7 unit lower CGI in T3 (p = 0.018) than the placebo group. A significant reduction of CGI scores was observed in each interval (T2 vs T1, T3 vs T2 and T3 vs T1; p < 0.05). This significant change in CGI score between intervals was also detected in the placebo group in T2 vs T1 (p = 0.002) and T3 vs T1 (p < 0.001). Mean CPRS scores of the groups were different in T2 and T3 (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively) and mean CGI scores of the two study groups were different in T3 (p = 0.018). Eight weeks of supplementation with probiotics had a favorable effect on symptoms and severity of ADHD. Therefore, probiotics as an adjuvant treatment might have a promising efficacy regarding the management of ADHD.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0388
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of a safe food handling knowledge questionnaire: Psychometric
           properties and acceptability among consumers

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      Authors: Jessica Charlesworth, Barbara Mullan, David Preece
      Abstract: Foodborne illness remains high globally, with the majority of cases occurring in the domestic environment. Research in the safe food-handling domain is limited by the absence of an up-to-date and suitable measure of safe food-handling knowledge for use among consumers, with previous measures limited by questionnaire design features that increase participant burden and burnout and a lack of alignment with current safe food-handling guidelines. The purpose of this study is to develop a safe food-handling knowledge measure to capture a comprehensive understanding of consumers’ safe food-handling knowledge while minimising participant burden and burnout. Items were developed and evaluated prior to administering them to participants. Data was collected among 277 participants who completed the measure online. Results indicated that the measure had good acceptability among participants in the sample (mean = 5.44, SD = 0.77, range = 2.42–7) and that the measure had acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.60), item discrimination and item difficulty. These findings suggest that the safe food-handling knowledge measure would be suitable for use in future studies examining consumer safe food-handling. This study provides an updated, acceptable and suitable safe food-handling knowledge measure for use among consumers to better understand consumers’ understanding of safe food-handling practices. Use of this measure in future research can improve the measurement of consumer safe food-handling knowledge to allow for better tailoring of future interventions and health campaigns for safe food-handling among consumers.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0365
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of low caffeine doses on jumping performance: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: J. Grgic
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of low doses of caffeine (
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Natural oils restore body weight, ameliorate serum bile acid and vitamin D
           and improve liver histology in depression

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      Authors: Khaled M.M. Koriem, Nevein N. Fadl, Salwa R. El-Zayat, Eman N. Hosny, Fatma A. Morsy
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats. Eighty male albino rats were divided into normal and depressed rats. Normal rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: control, venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil groups. Depressed rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: depressed rats, depressed rats + venlafaxine drug, depressed rats + anise oil and depressed rats + geranium oil groups. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were detected. Animal behavior, cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology were also investigated in this study. Body weight (117 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (5.6 ± 1.4 g/day) and water intake (8.7 ± 1.2 ml/day) were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to body weight (153 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (12.7 ± 1.6 g/day) and water intake (15.3 ± 1.6 ml/day) in control. Animal behavioral tests, e.g. sucrose preference (48.8 ± 1.5) test, distance traveled (70.0 ± 16.3), center square entries (0.20 ± 0.10), center square duration (52.18 ± 11.9), tail suspension (54.70 ± 2.9 s) test and forced swimming (134.4 ± 5.5 s) test were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to sucrose preference (89.2 ± 1.7) test, distance traveled (226 ± 90.1), center square entries (1.4 ± 1.8), center square duration (3.6 ± 2.0), tail suspension (19.3 ± 2.1 s) test and forced swimming (83.7 ± 3.6 s) test in control. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (7.4 ± 1.7 and 1.2 ± 0.54 pg/g tissue), dopamine (6.3 ± 1.5 and 0.86 ± 0.07 pg/g tissue), norepinephrine (8.1 ± 1.7 and 1.4 ± 0.41 pg/g tissue) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (1.3 ± 0.41 and 0.08 ± 0.04 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (46.8 ± 3.5 µmole/L) and vitamin D (1.3 ± 0.37 ng/ml) were significantly decreased (p'0.001) in depression compared to cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (16.8 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 1.4 pg/g tissue), dopamine (15.7 ± 2.0 and 1.8 ± 0.49 pg/g tissue) norepinephrine (18.2 ± 2.3 and 3.8 ± 1.3 pg/g tissue) and GABA (2.7 ± 0.62 and 0.16 ± 0.06 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (90.5 ± 4.3 µmole/L) and vitamin D (2.7 ± 0.58 ng/ml) in control. Depression induced injury to hepatic tissues. Oral supplementation with anise oil and geranium oil ameliorated body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depressed rats. Depression treatment persists for a long time, so the search for a new herbal treatment is of concern due to available sources, cheap and no side effects of herbal plants. Anise oil and geranium oil improved body weight, food consumption, water intake, animal behavioral tests, cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depression.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0383
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of body mass index and dietary fat intake with autism in
           children: a case-control study

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      Authors: Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Narjes Ashouri Mirsadeghi, Samira Rastgoo, Saheb Abbas Torki, Fatemeh Bourbour, Naser Kalantari, Hanieh Shafaei, Zohreh Teymoori, Atiyeh Alizadeh, Alireza Mosavi Jarrahi, Saeid Doaei
      Abstract: Deficiencies or imbalances in dietary fat intake may influence on mental and neurological functions of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aims to compare body mass index (BMI) and the amount of fatty acids intake in the autistic patients with the comparison group. This case-control was carried out on 200 randomly selected children from 5 to 15 years old (100 autistic patients as the case group and 100 healthy children as the comparison group) in Tehran, Iran. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the intake of calorie, macronutrients and different types of dietary fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), α-Linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids. The autistic patients had higher BMI, birth weight and mother’s BMI compared to the comparison group (All p < 0.01). No significant difference was found in the amount of dietary calorie, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake between two groups. The risk of ASD was associated with higher intake of MUFAs (OR: 3.18, CI%:1.13–4.56, p = 0.04), PUFAs (OR: 4.12, CI95%: 2.01–6.25, p < 0.01) and LA (OR: 4.76, CI95%: 1.34–14.32, p < 0.01). The autistic children had higher BMI and higher intake of unsaturated fatty acids except for omega-3 fatty acids. Further longitudinal studies are warranted.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0366
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
 
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