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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Eating Disorders : Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Aktuelle Ernährungsmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Appetite     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise     Open Access  
Archive of Food and Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Journal Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Clinical Nutrition     Open Access  
Childhood Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Nutrition Experimental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Nutrition Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Nutrition Open Science     Open Access  
Clinical Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Developments in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Nutrition Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
DEMETRA : Alimentação, Nutrição & Saúde     Open Access  
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecology of Food and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Egyptian Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ernährung & Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food and Environmental Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food and Foodways: Explorations in the History and Culture of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Genes & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Human Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Eating Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Transplant and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dietary Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Eating Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism     Open Access  
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nutritional Disorders & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nutritional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (JPGN)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Journal of the American College of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Gizi dan Dietetik Indonesia : Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition     Open Access  
Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Kesehatan     Open Access  
La Ciencia al Servicio de la Salud y Nutrición     Open Access  
Lifestyle Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lifestyle Journal     Open Access  
Maternal & Child Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Médecine & Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription  
Media Gizi Indonesia     Open Access  
Metabolism and Nutrition in Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrición Hospitalaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrients     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrire     Hybrid Journal  
Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Nutrition & Dietetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nutrition & Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nutrition & Diabetes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Nutrition & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nutrition - Science en évolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition and Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nutrition Bytes     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nutrition in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Nutrition Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Nutrition Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutrition Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Nutrition Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nutritional Neuroscience : An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Obesity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Oil Crop Science     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access  
Open Nutrition Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Obesity Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pediatric Obesity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Plant Production Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBONE - Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Nutricion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Salud Pública y Nutrición     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Clinical Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Nutrition & Food Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.248
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0034-6659 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6917
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Production of microbial pigments from whey and their applications: a
           review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amrita Poonia , Surabhi Pandey
      Abstract: Whey is a by-product of paneer, cheese and casein industry and considered as a dairy waste. Worldwide, approximately 180–1,900 million tons of whey is produced annually. Whey is classified as a high pollutant due to its organic matter level. Owing to its high chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, it is a big threat to the environment. Whey contains 4.5%–5.0% lactose, 0.6%–0.7% protein, 0.4%–0.5% lipids, vitamins and minerals. Due to its high nutritional profile, it is a good substrate for the microorganisms for production of natural pigments. The purpose of this paper is to review the utilization of low cost substrate (whey) for production of various types of pigments and their applications in different sectors. The databases for the search included: Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Research gate and Google. The main search was directed towards different types of natural pigments, stability, technologies for enhancing their production and contribution towards circular economy. Approximately 100 research papers were initially screened. A global search was conducted about natural pigments. Research articles, review papers, books, articles in press and book chapters were the type of search for writing this review paper. Production of natural pigments using whey and their addition in food products not only improves the colour of food but also enhances the antioxidant properties of food products, helping the health benefits by chelating free radicals from the body. The sustainable use of whey for production of natural pigments can improve the bio-based economy of different industries and thereof the national economy. Efficient utilization of whey can bring a lot more opportunities for production of natural pigments in a sustainable manner. The sustainable approach and circular economy concepts will benefit the dependent industries and health conscious consumers. The potential uses of whey for the production of natural pigments using diverse organisms are highlighted in this paper.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its
           associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia

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      Authors: Wondwosen Molla , Dirshaye Aragaw , Robel Hussen , Aregahegn Wudneh , Derebe Madoro , Nebiyu Mengistu , Ruth Tilahun , Seid Shumye , Daniel Sisay , Habtamu Endashaw , Temesgen Muche
      Abstract: Achieving optimal nutrition among mothers and children is still a challenge in many developing country settings, including Ethiopia. Study on dietary diversity concordance of mother-to-child dyads is limited. Hence, this study aims to assess dietary diversity concordance among mother-to-child pairs and its associated factors in Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia, from January 1 to February 15, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done by Epi data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23.0 software, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Variables with p < 0.25 at bivariate analysis were chosen for multivariate analysis. Variables with a p-value of
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An understanding the food safety knowledge among food science students in
           Iraq

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      Authors: Sanar Muhyaddin , Iman Sabir
      Abstract: Food-borne diseases can be prevented with the knowledge of food safety. Food-related infirmity, especially in developing economy perspective such as Iraq can be addressed effectively with adequate food safety knowledge. So, this study aims to analyse the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students studying in food science programs. Four aspects of food safety, namely, the food poisoning, personal hygiene, temperature control and cross contamination and cleaning were considered to understand the food safety knowledge of Iraqi students. A survey of 105 Iraqi food technology students was conducted to know their food safety knowledge. A structured questionnaire was made involving multiple choice scales. Among the alternatives, one alternative was right and all other alternatives were wrong. Respondents were asked to pick the correct answer amongst the given alternatives. Correct answer given by the respondent was considered a measure of food safety knowledge. Findings of the study revealed that students had insufficient knowledge about various dimensions of food safety. Students had knowledge about the food poisoning (p < 0.001) Students had partial understanding about personal hygiene wherein they had knowledge about handwashing practices (p < 0.001) and food-handling practices (p < 0.001). Respondents had knowledge about role of freezing in bacterial growth (p < 0.001). Students only had knowledge about separation of cooked and uncooked food (p < 0.001), indicating partial understanding about cross contamination and cleanliness. Both age and gender of the student did not have relationship with their food safety knowledge. The results implied that instructors and tutors should stress upon the socio-cultural facets to facilitate the food safety knowledge. Educators should also emphasize upon the application and laboratory demonstration of food safety knowledge rather than over-emphasizing the theoretical part. The present study suffers from multiple limitations demanding specific mention. The study undertook a quantitative methodology and made use of a close-ended questionnaire. As generally the quantitative studies include the self-reported actions or behaviours of the selected respondents, the present study also offers its results on the basis of self-reported behaviour of the students. It might be possible to observe the difference between the stated and actual behaviour of the food technology students. Other researchers might use an observational study to obtain more genuine results. It is important to study food technology students regarding their food safety knowledge due to their projected future roles, as students are stipulated to perform the role of managers, food handlers, trainers, experts and caterers in the future in food industry. These students are more likely to influence the food safety orientations of society at large than the those belonging to other educational programs. Hence, this study offered a review of food safety knowledge of food technology students.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A systematic review on the role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating
           non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

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      Authors: Simran Gogna , Jaspreet Kaur , Kartik Sharma , Vishesh Bhadariya , Jyoti Singh , Vikas Kumar , Prasad Rasane , Vipasha Vipasha
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the health benefits, functional role of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in combating diet-related non-communicable diseases, absorption, metabolism, toxicity and extraction of ALA. A wide range of publications were identified through electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and ResearchGate) on the basis of different keywords such as dietary sources, functional role, metabolism, beneficial effects, toxicity and extraction. ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is commonly found in dietary sources such as flaxseeds, rapeseed, pumpkin seeds, walnuts and fatty fish, with flaxseed being the richest among all the sources. Several convincing evidences depict the functional role of ALA in ameliorating cardiovascular functions, regulating systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improving neurological disorders, thus possessing anti-arrhythmic as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Its promising effect is also noticed on post-menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, insomnia and headache as well as in balancing the levels of sex hormones in women suffering from PCOS. Furthermore, it was also responsible for reducing the concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Its excess consumption may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances such as flatulence and bloating. Various extraction techniques, namely, medium pressure liquid chromatography, silver silica gel chromatography, silver ion-solid phase extraction and silver ion-high pressure liquid chromatography are used for the extraction of ALA from its sources. This is a novel review which will provide a brief overview of dietary sources, functional role, absorption and metabolism, health benefits, toxicity and extraction of ALA.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Aroma-taste-texture cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in
           yoghurt drink

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      Authors: Yi Jing Thun , See Wan Yan , Chin Ping Tan , Wen Xin Teoh , Xin Yue Gan
      Abstract: Prevention of chronic diseases by means of dietary modification can be achieved by consuming healthier foods with lower sugar content. However, reducing sugar content causes significant impact on the sensory quality and consumers’ acceptance towards local healthy products. This study aims to evaluate the effects of cross-modal interactions of Aroma-Taste-Texture (ATT) in yoghurt drink. Fifteen sugar reduced yoghurt drinks [S, sugar percentage (0%, 2%, 4%); T, stevia dosage (0%, 0.01%, 0.02%); P, pectin dosage (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%)] based on ATT were evaluated by 300 consumer panellists on aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability on a nine-point hedonic scale while sweetness intensity was measured using a seven-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Interactions between ATT were determined. Significant interaction was found between sugar and stevia, with F14 (4S0.02T0P) rated as sweeter than F4 (0S0.02T0P) (p = 0.003) and higher overall liking score than F11 (4S0T0P) (p = 0.001). Similarly, significant interaction was found between sugar and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Likewise, significant interaction was found between stevia and pectin, with F2 (0S0T0.6P) rated as significantly lower overall liking score and less sweet than F1 (0S0T0P) (p = 0.0001). Overall, F5 (0S0.02T0.6P) scored highest in overall liking and closest to the ideal sweetness (JAR = 4) indicating the possibility to apply 100% sugar replacement. Application from the present study could be great potential solution in developing healthier range products while meeting consumer preference. The present study concluded that interactions of ATT of yoghurt drink will induce desirable changes in sensory and sweetness perception.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Flavonoids and organochlorines in honey from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

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      Authors: Yutaka Tashiro
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the flavonoid composition and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in honey samples from different floral sources on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and to determine their nutritional characteristics and the risk of intaking hazardous pollutants. Honey samples were collected from various regions of the Ryukyu Islands. Thirty-one samples were analyzed for six flavonoid compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, and OCs from 14 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The differences in flavonoid composition among the samples from different floral sources were determined. Honey from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip. contained high concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. One sample with polychlorinated biphenyls and two with chlordane compounds were detected in one region; however, their concentrations were lower than those for food regulations. Novel chemical characteristics in Ryukyu honey, including high amounts of luteolin and apigenin from B. pilosa, were discovered, whereas low OC contamination was observed.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-03-2022-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrient intakes and cognitive competence in the context of abstract
           reasoning of school-age children in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana

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      Authors: Reginald Adjetey Annan , Charles Apprey , Asamoah-Boakye Odeafo , Twum-Dei Benedicta , Takeshi Sakurai , Satoru Okonogi
      Abstract: The association between nutrition and cognitive test performance among school children is limited in developing countries, including Ghana. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake and cognitive competence in the context of abstract reasoning among school-aged children in the Tamale Metropolis. The present cross-sectional study recruited 596 children aged 9–13 years from government-owned and private primary schools in Tamale Metropolis. Dietary intake was assessed by using three-day repeated 24-hour recall. Cognition was assessed by the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test, made up of 36 questions and used as a continuous variable, whereby higher scores indicated better cognition. The majority of the children did not meet the recommended dietary allowances for protein (55.5%) and fibre (94.0%) and estimated adequate requirement for energy (86.6%), folate (72.8%), vitamin E (90.6%) and zinc (74.8%). More girls (55.1%) performed poorly in the cognition test than the boys (45.7%) (p = 0.029). Between-subject effects determined using univariate and multivariate analyses indicated age (p = 0.002), dietary folate (p = 0.016), vitamin C intake (p = 0.011), combined age and dietary folate (p = 0.049) and combined age and dietary vitamin C (p = 0.022) significantly affected cognition scores. Girls had lower odds (AOR = 0.7, p = 0.021, 95%CI = 0.5–0.9) of scoring above the 50th percentile in cognition test than boys. The current nutrient intakes of the children were inadequate. The children performed poorly in Raven’s cognition test of abstract reasoning, and this was associated with being a girl. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate nutrient intakes and RCPM test performance among children in Northern Ghana. Thus, the findings of the study provide relevant information needed by stakeholders to implement nutrition programs in basic schools, aimed at ensuring optimal nutrition achievement among school children for improved cognition.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0343
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Potential blood pressure lowering effect of L-citrulline supplementation
           in at risk populations: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: Sadegh Jafarnejad , Catherine Tsang , Negin Amin
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and elderly populations. Three electronic databases, namely, Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus, were searched from 1990 to November 2020. Random effects model analysis was applied for quantitative data synthesis, and 6 trials with 150 participants were identified and included in the analysis. Results showed an overall non-significant effect of L-citrulline supplementation on both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in middle-aged and elderly participants. However, stratified analysis indicated a significant reduction in SBP (SMD: −0.41, 95% CI: −0.84, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.41; I2 = 10%) but not in DBP (SMD:−0.15, 95% CI: −0.57, 0.28; p = 0.51, heterogeneity p = 0.60; I2 = 0%), following longer-term (= 8 weeks) supplementation of L-citrulline. Additionally, higher doses of L-citrulline (= 6 grams) showed a marginally significant reduction in DBP (SMD: −0.38, 95% CI: −0.78, 0.02; p = 0.06, heterogeneity p = 0.50; I2 = 0%). In conclusion, a higher dosage and longer duration of supplementation with L-citrulline may have potential BP lowering effects in populations at an increased risk of hypertension
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0378
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Survey of the blood pressure lowering potential of medicinal plants used
           in the management of hypertension in herbal homes in Zango Kataf, Kaduna,
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Esther Badugu Patrick , Sunday O. Otimenyin , Bukata B. Bukar
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure (BP) lowing potential of some herbs used by the indigenous people of Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, to treat hypertension. A total of 17 herbal healers and 15 hypertensive patients who use herbs to treat hypertension in Zango Kataf, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were consulted between 2019 and 2020. Participants were selected via purposeful sampling. BP was measured before and after the ingestion of a herbal preparation. Three plant preparations were screened: Newbouldia laevis, Hibiscus cannabinus and Pavetta crassipes. H. cannabinus produced a significant decrease of 16, 12 and 14 mmHg in SBP at 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.001 at 2 h, p = 0.04 at 3 h, p = 0.01 at 4 h). While P. crassipes produced a significant decrease in SBP of 12, 15, 19 and 20 mmHg at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively (p = 0.04 at 1 h, p= 0.00 at 2 h, p = 0.00 at 3 h and p = 0.00 at 4 h). The findings for N. laevis were not reported due to incomplete information. The sample size of this study was small. The researcher could not meet with some hypertensive clients owing to the poor cooperation of some herbal healers. Further, some hypertensive patients rejected the offer to participate in the study. This study reveals that treatment with H. cannabinus and P. crassipes significantly decrease BP in hypertensive patients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0326
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated
           with wheat–cassava composite flour

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      Authors: Omowumi Temitope Abiola , Michael Ayodele Idowu , Taofeek Akinyemi Shittu , Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo , Emmanuel Kehinde Oke
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker snacks coated with wheat (80%) and cassava (20%) composite flours. The peanuts were sorted, boiled, drained, roasted, coated and fried at temperature of 150–180°C for 154.6–240 s. The fried peanut cracker-coated (FPCC) snacks produced were analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents), rancidity indices (peroxide value, free fatty acid and iodine value), physical properties, colour (lightness, redness and yellowness), texture (hardness, fracturability, adhesiveness and cohesiveness) and sensory qualities (taste, crispiness, colour, odour and overall acceptability). There were significant differences in moisture (p = 0.000), crude fat (p = 0.001), crude protein (p = 0.000), crude fibre (p = 0.001), total ash (p = 0.00) and carbohydrate (p = 0.001). The range of values for moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and carbohydrate contents were 2.6%–4.9%, 27.1%–34.7%, 21.0%–26.3%, 3.1%–4.1%, 2.1%–2.5% and 33.9%–36.4%, respectively, while peroxide, free fatty acid and iodine values ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 mEq/kg, 32.8–47.0 mg KOH/g and 1.2–2.0 gI2/100 g, respectively. The physical properties of the FPCCs showed decrease as the frying temperature and time increased. The values for lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) ranged from 26.5 to 52.2, 11.4 to 22.0 and 37.0 to 42.5, while the texture attributes such as hardness (p = 0.001), fracturability (p = 0.023), adhesiveness (p = 0.001) and cohesiveness (p = 0.011) were significantly different and it ranged from 28.7 to 53.4 N, 28.6 to 48.3 N, 1.0 to 2.4 N/s and 0.0–0.1, respectively. The sensory score for wheat–cassava composite flours used for coating the snacks decreased as the frying temperature and time increased. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability. There are scanty information/published works on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fried peanut cracker coated with wheat–cassava composite flour. This research work helps in producing fried peanut cracker coated with composite wheat–cassava flours. The study shows that 20% of cassava flour incorporated into the formulation of coated snacks does not affect its overall acceptability.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary practice and associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients in
           Gambella region hospitals, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Tigist Teklemariam , Kebebe Bidira , Girma Bacha , Asrat Zewdie
      Abstract: Dietary management is one of the cornerstones of diabetes care and is based on the concept of healthy eating in the context of social, cultural and psychological influences on food choice. In Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of data on diabetic patients’ dietary practices, which undervalues their importance in diabetes management. Hence, this study assessed the level of proper dietary practice and its associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients in Gambella hospitals, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 190 randomly selected diabetic patients in two hospitals in the Gambella region, Ethiopia. Data was entered into Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Logistic regressions were used to check the association between dietary practice and explanatory variables. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of the association between dependent and independent variables. More than half (57.4%) of the study participants followed a healthy dietary practice. Getting nutritional education from doctors (AOR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 13.2, p = 0.031), having access to fruits and vegetables (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.1, p = 0.018) and family involvement during patient counseling (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.9, 6.5, p = 0.021) were factors associated with good dietary practice. A self-reporting method was used rather than direct observation of patients’ dietary practices, which may result in recall bias. Adherence to the recommended dietary practice among diabetic patients was relatively low. The integration of diabetes-based nutritional advice with family involvement and strengthening agricultural activities should be emphasized in the study area. The two-hospital design of this study ensures that a representative sample of study subjects in the Gambella hospitals is obtained, which is useful for intervention strategies and activities. Data gathering tools that were standardized and verified for use by the World Health Organization were used.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0353
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Improve adherence to the Mediterranean diet through an innovative app: a
           pilot study

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      Authors: Andrea Devecchi , Simona Bo , Luca De Carli , Erik Breda , Valentina Ponzo , Andrea Pezzana
      Abstract: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a sustainable and healthy diet. However, compliance to the MD is still poor. Given this, the authors created a Web app to promote the MD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Web app YourPappa in terms of adherence to the MD. The authors developed a Web app, YourPappa, with the aim of encouraging virtuous dietary habits through a reward mechanism. After that, a randomized controlled study was conducted. All participants were given written advice on correct nutrition. Moreover, the case group was trained on the use of the app. The MD adherence was evaluated by a validated questionnaire (Medi-Lite). Cases found an average increase in the Medi-Lite scores of +7.1%, whereas controls showed an increase of +0.7% (p = 0.06; effect size 0.60). For most of the users, the Web app helped them to think about what they were buying and to promote the MD. Obesity and related diseases are a topical problem. New strategies are needed to counter it. This study showed interesting and encouraging results, which need further research and insight to be validated and supported. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the use of a Web app to stimulate the adoption of the MD through a reward mechanism.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0394
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship of fast food consumption with sociodemographic factors,
           body mass index and dietary habits among university students

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      Authors: Nurgul Arslan , Jiyan Aslan Ceylan , Abdulkerim Hatipoğlu
      Abstract: University students are one of the vulnerable groups in terms of having nutritional problems due to their lifestyle and social environment. This study aims to determine the consumption of fast food among university students and evaluate factors that may impact it, such as sociodemographic factors, body mass index (BMI) or nutritional habits. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of 184 university students (47.8% men and 52.2% women) with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.0 years. The survey included students’ sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and fast-food consumption. Chi-square test, t-test and binary logistic regression analysis were used depending on the characteristics of the data. Results indicated that 39.7% of the students consumed fast food at least once in 15 days and preferred these foods for taste, workload and social activity. Consumption of fast food occurred at an earlier age in men (%13.6) and the portions were higher than portions of vegetables (p = 0.001). By using regression analysis, a statistically significant relationship was found between the frequency of fast-food consumption and age, gender, economic status, BMI, the amount of vegetables consumed daily and the habit of eating breakfast (p < 0.05). It is planned to reach more students in the study. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, transportation to students became difficult or could not be reached. This study is one of the rare studies examining students’ orientation to fast food. The number of studies in this field in Turkey is limited.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Novel nutritionally improved snacks for school-aged children: formulation,
           characterization and acceptability

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      Authors: Nadia Lingiardi , Ezequiel Godoy , Ileana Arriola , María Soledad Cabreriso , Cecilia Accoroni , María Florencia Balzarini , Alberto Arribas , María Agustina Reinheimer
      Abstract: This study aims to formulate multiple nutritionally improved snacks intended for school-aged children according to international nutritional goals: Vanilla cookies (VC), Bay biscuits (BB), Cheese crackers (CC) and Tomato muffins (TM). The reformulation targets implied incorporating alternative flours and milk powder and reducing the sugar and sodium contents, with respect to the usually consumed control products. These products were subjected to proximate composition, colour and sensory profile analyses. Their overall acceptability was assessed by school-aged children whose nutritional status was also evaluated. Significant increments in relevant nutrients were observed in the composition of snacks: fibre (p = 0.01 for VC, p < 0.01 for BB and CC), proteins (p < 0.01 for all snacks) and calcium (p < 0.01 for all snacks). Average sodium reductions of 1.5% and 3.7% were achieved for CC and TM. During formulation, added sugar was reduced by 15.5% and 23.5% for VC and BB. All snacks were found to be acceptable in terms of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability by the participants, and VC, BB and CC were ready for their effective implementation as part of school meals. Comprehensive policies have become necessary to combat malnutrition, mainly overweight and obesity. The incorporation of nutritionally improved snacks in school environments is one of several strategies for promoting healthier lifestyles among children, including educational programs, workshops and food assistance.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessing the level of food insecurity among cancer patients undergoing
           active cancer treatment in a low-income community

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      Authors: Fatemeh Aamazadeh , Mohammad Alizadeh , Alireza Farsad-Naeimi , Zahra Tofighi
      Abstract: Food insecurity exists when access to nutritionally sufficient and secure foods or the ability to obtain admissible foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain. Food insecurity is most likely associated with chronic disease. However, research into the possible relationship between food insecurity and cancer, the world’s second leading cause of death, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity as well as the associated socioeconomic characteristics among cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 cancer patients in Iran. The socioeconomic and 18-item U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Questionnaires were used to measure general and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as food security status. The prevalence of food insecurity was 25.4% in the form of hunger and 52.5% in the form of hidden hunger. Only 22.1% of the patients were food secure. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that having children under 18 years old (P = 0.035), economic status (P < 0.001), age of the patient (P = 0.001), educational level of household’s head and his spouse (P = 0.044 and P = 0.045, respectively, had statistically significant relationships with food insecurity. Cancer patients have a high rate of food insecurity. Considering the importance of food security for effective cancer treatment, the health system’s attention to this issue, particularly by policymakers, appears to be required.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0355
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of various thermal processing methods and pretreatment methods to
           reduce phosphorus content of chicken meat for CKD patients

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      Authors: Kozue Uenishi , Keiko Tomita , Shinsuke Kido
      Abstract: The management of dietary phosphorus in chronic kidney disease patients is an important issue. Phosphorus is often found with protein in foods. However, excessive protein restriction worsens the nutritional status of the patient; thus, phosphorus must be selectively restricted. This study aims to assess the effects of various pretreatments readily available in ordinary households on phosphorus loss in foodstuffs. This study evaluated the retention of phosphorus in cooked chicken meat (boiled, baked, steamed and microwaved). In addition, this study incorporated various pretreatments (pounding, stabbing, cutting and enzymatic treatment) to the method exhibiting the lowest phosphorus retention (boiling) and assessed the effects on phosphorus retention. Boiling (65%, vs baking, p < 0.001; vs steaming, p = 0.013; vs microwaving, p = 0.002) of the chicken meat resulted in the lowest phosphorus retention compared to the other cooking methods (baking [89%], steaming [73%] and microwaving [75%]). In addition, stabbing (58%, p = 0.009) or cutting (46%, p < 0.001) further reduced the retention of phosphorus in boiled chicken meat. The retention of phosphorus in enzyme-pretreated boiled chicken was reduced by approximately 10% compared to untreated chicken (p = 0.01). The cooking method that reduced phosphorus retention to the greatest extent was enzyme treatment prior to cutting and boiling. This paper investigates the effects of common household cooking methods and combinations of methods on the phosphorus content of meat.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0384
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Ketogenic vs plantogenic diets for health: a review article

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      Authors: Hildemar Dos Santos , Diane Han , Mayabel Perez , Summer Johnson , Razaz Shaheen
      Abstract: To gain a better and more comprehensive understanding, this study aims to investigate the literature to explore the two popular diets’ health benefits and concerns. Google Scholar and PubMed were used to search for available and relevant nutrition and health articles that pertain to the benefits and concerns of plantogenic and ketogenic diets. Search terms like low carbohydrate, diet, ketogenic, vegetarian and chronic diseases were used. Information was obtained from review articles and original research articles and checked for accuracy. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Ketogenic and plantogenic (plant-based) diets have been adopted today by many professionals and the public. Ketogenic diets have been used for a long time for convulsion in children and now reappeared for weight loss purposes. Plantogenic diets also have been practiced for many years for religious, health and environmental reasons. Compared to plantogenic diets, ketogenic diets lack long-term evidence of its potential benefits and harm. Maybe Lacto-ovo vegetarian and pesco-vegetarian (eat fish but not meats) diets are OK. However, for strict plantogenic diets (total plantogenic/vegan diet), the risk of mineral or vitamin deficiency is present (Melina et al., 2016). Of particular concern is dietary vitamin B12, which is obtained mostly from animal sources (Melina et al., 2016). A long-term deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to macrocytic anemia and cause neuro and psychological effects (Obeid et al., 2019). Also, omega-3 fatty acids may be deficient in such a diet and probably need to be supplemented on those who follow the total plantogenic diet (Melina et al., 2016). Other deficiencies of concern would be zinc, iron, calcium, vitamin D and iodine (Melina et al., 2016). Another disadvantage is that many junk foods could be easily classified within the plantogenic diet, such as sugar, cakes, French fries, white bread and rice, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets in general. These items are related to higher weight gain and, consequently, to a higher incidence of diabetes and other chronic diseases (Schulze et al., 2004; Malik et al., 2006; Fung et al., 2009). Plantogenic diets were concluded to have sustainable health benefits for humans and the environment over ketogenic diets, which could be used but under professional follow-up only.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0344
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bioactive compounds and its optimization from food waste: review on novel
           extraction techniques

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      Authors: Subhamoy Dhua , Kshitiz Kumar , Vijay Singh Sharanagat , Prabhat K. Nema
      Abstract: The amount of food wasted every year is 1.3 billion metric tonne (MT), out of which 0.5 billion MT is contributed by the fruits processing industries. The waste includes by-products such as peels, pomace and seeds and is a good source of bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds, flavonoids, pectin lipids and dietary fibres. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to review the novel extraction techniques used for the extraction of the bio active compounds from food waste for the selection of suitable extraction method. Novel extraction techniques such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pulsed electric field extraction and pressurized liquid extraction have emerged to overcome the drawbacks and constraints of conventional extraction techniques. Hence, this study is focussed on novel extraction techniques, their limitations and optimization for the extraction of bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetable waste. This study presents a comprehensive review on the novel extraction processes that have been adopted for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food waste. This paper also summarizes bioactive compounds' optimum extraction condition from various food waste using novel extraction techniques. Food waste is rich in bioactive compounds, and its efficient extraction may add value to the food processing industries. Hence, compressive analysis is needed to overcome the problem associated with the extraction and selection of suitable extraction techniques. Selection of a suitable extraction method will not only add value to food waste but also reduce waste dumping and the cost of bioactive compounds. This paper presents the research progress on the extraction of bioactive active compounds from food waste using novel extraction techniques.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0373
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Probiotic supplement as an adjunctive therapy with Ritalin for treatment
           of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a
           double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

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      Authors: Milad Ghanaatgar , Sina Taherzadeh , Shadi Ariyanfar , Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi , Fahime Martami , Javad Mahmoudi Gharaei , Amir Teimourpour , Zahra Shahrivar
      Abstract: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of microbiota-directed intervention in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the effects of probiotic supplements as an adjunct therapy in combination with Ritalin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD, aged 6–12 years, who had an intelligent quotient of ≥70 were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to either the group that received probiotics or the group that received the placebo in addition to the weight-adjusted dose of Ritalin. Parents were asked to complete the revised Conners Parent Rating Scale–short version (CPRS–RS), and the psychiatrist completed the seven-point Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI–S) scale. Two study groups were compared in three time points, including T1 (before intervention), T2 (at the end of fourth week) and T3 (at the end of the eighth week). A total of 38 participants completed the study. After eight weeks of intervention, the probiotic group had a significant improvement regarding CPRS–RS scores in T2 (9.4 unit, p = 0.014) and T3 (18.6 unit, p < 0.001), compared to placebo. In addition, children in the probiotic group had 0.7 unit lower CGI in T3 (p = 0.018) than the placebo group. A significant reduction of CGI scores was observed in each interval (T2 vs T1, T3 vs T2 and T3 vs T1; p < 0.05). This significant change in CGI score between intervals was also detected in the placebo group in T2 vs T1 (p = 0.002) and T3 vs T1 (p < 0.001). Mean CPRS scores of the groups were different in T2 and T3 (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively) and mean CGI scores of the two study groups were different in T3 (p = 0.018). Eight weeks of supplementation with probiotics had a favorable effect on symptoms and severity of ADHD. Therefore, probiotics as an adjuvant treatment might have a promising efficacy regarding the management of ADHD.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0388
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Characterization of Bolivian chili peppers; antioxidant capacity, total
           phenolic compounds, capsaicin and β-carotene concentration

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      Authors: Leslie Tejeda , Pamela Elizabeth Vasquez Iriarte , Jimena Valeria Ortiz , Enzo Aliaga-Rossel , Patricia Mollinedo , J. Mauricio Peñarrieta
      Abstract: Chili pepper pods are a worldwide used and cultivated spice with a high economic and cultural importance. Bolivia is a center of origin and diversification of important crops including wild pepper varieties, but little is known about the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and the Scoville and bioactive compounds of these chili peppers. The purpose of this study was to contribute with new data about the chemical composition and the Scoville scale of Bolivian Chili peppers. A total of 26 samples of Bolivian Chili peppers were extracted using distilled water and methanol. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. The total phenolic content was determined by Folin and Ciocalteu. Carotene, protein and ashes were determined by Bolivian analytical norms. Capsaicin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. All determinations were expressed as mean values± standard deviation of six replicates measured over three days of one extract. All values were less than 5% of coefficient of variation. Principal component analysis was applied to reveal patterns in the data. PC1 and PC2 together explained 78% of the total variance. The protein content (3.8–6.3 g/100 g of dw) and the antioxidant activity (88.2 to 374 by FRAP and 87.0 to 172 evaluated by ABTS) studied in these species revealed that the values were above the average reported in the literature. The amount of pungency or capsaicin content expressed as Scoville Heat Units were reported moderately highly and very highly pungent (5,696–148,800 g dw) in several of the Bolivian peppers which demonstrates a good potential for capsaicin extraction and different applications for industry and as food ingredients. This manuscript presents an important and novel contribution to the knowledge of the chili peppers in the region.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0341
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Development of a safe food handling knowledge questionnaire: Psychometric
           properties and acceptability among consumers

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      Authors: Jessica Charlesworth , Barbara Mullan , David Preece
      Abstract: Foodborne illness remains high globally, with the majority of cases occurring in the domestic environment. Research in the safe food-handling domain is limited by the absence of an up-to-date and suitable measure of safe food-handling knowledge for use among consumers, with previous measures limited by questionnaire design features that increase participant burden and burnout and a lack of alignment with current safe food-handling guidelines. The purpose of this study is to develop a safe food-handling knowledge measure to capture a comprehensive understanding of consumers’ safe food-handling knowledge while minimising participant burden and burnout. Items were developed and evaluated prior to administering them to participants. Data was collected among 277 participants who completed the measure online. Results indicated that the measure had good acceptability among participants in the sample (mean = 5.44, SD = 0.77, range = 2.42–7) and that the measure had acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.60), item discrimination and item difficulty. These findings suggest that the safe food-handling knowledge measure would be suitable for use in future studies examining consumer safe food-handling. This study provides an updated, acceptable and suitable safe food-handling knowledge measure for use among consumers to better understand consumers’ understanding of safe food-handling practices. Use of this measure in future research can improve the measurement of consumer safe food-handling knowledge to allow for better tailoring of future interventions and health campaigns for safe food-handling among consumers.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0365
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutritional problems and body mass index of Turkish children with autism

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      Authors: Esma Asil , Aslı Uçar , Çağla Zeynep Tunay , Aynur Bütün Ayhan
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the nutritional habits, eating behavior and nutritional status of children with autism. This study was conducted with 60 boys and 16 girls diagnosed with autism (mean age: 8.3 ± 4.9 years). Research data were collected from parents of children with autism using a questionnaire form developed by researchers after literature searching. The height and body weight of the children were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Almost half of the children except the 13–18 age group were overweight/obese according to BMI. Difficulty in giving new food was 73.1% in the 2–5 age group, 70% in the 6–12 age group and 40% in the 13–18 age group (p = 0.04). It was determined that the children refused to consume a median of 3 (1–8) types of food (p = 0.04) and were obsessed with consuming 2 (1–4) types of food and 1 (1–4) type of beverages. Additionally, milk and dairy products were refused significantly higher between 2–5 and 6–12 years than 13–18 years (p = 0.02). Also, it was found that age had an inverse effect on refusal food number (β = 0.38, 95% CI = −0.30 − −0.08, p = 0.01). In conclusion, obesity and nutritional problems such as food selectivity, food refusal and obsessive eating behavior are encountered in children with autism which affect children socially and physically and should not be ignored when planning the treatment of children with autism. The lack of a control group to compare the results of children with autism is an important limitation of the study. This study fulfills a defined need to examine and evaluate Turkish children’s nutritional status, nutritional habits and eating behavior with autism.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0389
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of low caffeine doses on jumping performance: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: J. Grgic
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of low doses of caffeine (
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-02-2022-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Anemia, a moderate public health problem among adolescent school girls in
           Aysaita district, the pastoral community of the Afar region, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Etsay Anbesu , Getahun Mulaw , Kusse Mare , Molla Kahssay
      Abstract: Adolescents are a vulnerable age group in the human life cycle for the development of anemia. Despite limited health infrastructures, there are limited studies in the pastoral community of the Afar region. Thus, this study aims to assess anemia and associated factors among adolescent school girls in the Aysaita district, the pastoral community of the Afar region, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 522 randomly selected adolescent girls in the Aysaita district. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and a systematic random sampling technique was used using school registration rosters. Hemoglobin was measured using a complete blood count machine from the vein blood sample. Anthropometric measurements were done to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. Descriptive logistic regression analysis was used to summarize the results and identify the factors associated with anemia. In this study, the prevalence of anemia among adolescent school girls was 109 (21.7%) [95% CI: (18.1%, 25.3%)]. School adolescent girls from rural residence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.42, 95% CI (1.97, 5.94)], who had a minimum dietary diversity score less than 4 [AOR = 3.4, 95% CI (2.1, 5.42)] and menstrual duration 5 and above days [AOR = 2.34, 95% CI (1.36, 4.01)] were associated with increased odds of anemia. This is original manuscript. Not submitted and published elsewhere.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0392
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Eating behavior among remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Chin Xuan Tan , Shuen Dee Goh , Seok Shin Tan , Seok Tyug Tan
      Abstract: The Malaysian movement control order is a series of national lockdowns implemented by the Malaysian federal government to contain the spread of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The government has made it mandatory for all non-essential sectors to work remotely to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The eating behavior of working adults may have altered following the changes in working norms. This study aimed to assess the eating behavior of remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 159 remote working adults were recruited through a convenience sampling approach. Bodyweight and body height were self-reported by the respondents. Body mass index was calculated according to the cut-off of World Health Organization standards. The eating behavior was evaluated using the eating behavior questionnaire. Results revealed more than half of the remote working respondents did not practice meal skipping. Irrespective of the gender, more than 70% of the respondents consumed either breakfast, lunch or dinner every day. Most of the respondents consumed vegetables, bread/rice/noodles and meat/chicken at least two times per day. Regression analysis revealed meal skipping was associated with younger people, overweight status and median monthly household income. Many sectors adopted remote working systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is postulated that working remotely will be a new normal even after this pandemic. Until now, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, little or no data are available on assessing the eating behavior of remote working adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study could provide an insight into the eating behavior of adults during remote working.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0331
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Enhancement of vitamin D in edible mushroom using ultraviolet irradiation
           and assessing its storage and cooking stability

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      Authors: Muneeb Ahmad Malik , Yasmeena Jan , Afrozul Haq , Jasmeet Kaur , Bibhu Prasad Panda
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to optimize the parameters for enhancing the vitamin D2 formation in three edible mushroom varieties, namely, shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Freshly harvested mushrooms were irradiated with UV-B and UV-C lamps. Further, mushrooms were treated with UV-B at a distance ranging between 10 and 50 cm from the UV light source, for 15–150 min, to maximize the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2. Analysis of vitamin D2 content in mushrooms before and after UV exposure was done by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC results showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in vitamin D2 levels of shiitake (17.3 ± 0.35 µg/g), button (24.9 ± 0.71 µg/g) and oyster (19.1 ± 0.35 µg/g) mushrooms, irradiated with UV-B at a distance of 20–30 cm for 120 min. Further, stability studies revealed that vitamin D2 levels in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms gradually increased for 48 and 72 h of storage at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. During cooking operations, 62%–93% of vitamin D2 was retained in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms. This study describes the most effective parameters such as ideal wavelength, mushrooms size, duration of exposure and distance from UV sources for maximum vitamin D2 formation in edible mushrooms using UV irradiation. Further, assessment of vitamin D2 stability in UV exposed mushrooms during storage period and cooking operations has been carried out. In addition, this study also provides a comparison of the vitamin D2 levels of the three widely cultivated and consumed mushroom varieties treated simultaneously under similar UV exposure conditions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0391
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A meta-analysis on the effects of caffeine ingestion on swimming
           performance

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      Authors: J. Grgic
      Abstract: Caffeine is a popular ergogenic aid, but its effects on swimming performance are not yet fully clear. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of caffeine on swimming performance. Crossover placebo-controlled studies that explored the effects of caffeine on swimming performance were included. Six databases were searched to find relevant studies with additional forward and backward citation tracking. The data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Eight studies were included in the review. The main meta-analysis showed a significant ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on swimming performance (Cohen’s d: –0.20; 95% confidence interval: −0.32, −0.08; p = 0.0008; –1.7%). In the analysis for short-distance swimming events, caffeine ingestion had a significant ergogenic effect on swimming performance (Cohen’s d: –0.14; 95% confidence interval: –0.27, −0.01; p = 0.03; −1.4%). An ergogenic effect of caffeine was also found in the analysis for moderate-to-long swimming distance events (Cohen’s d: –0.36; 95% confidence interval: −0.67, −0.05; p = 0.02; −2.2%). The present meta-analysis found that caffeine ingestion decreases the time needed to complete a given swimming event. While these ergogenic effects may be classified as small, they are likely important in swimming, where narrow margins commonly determine placings.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of body image, percent body fat, nutrient intake, physical
           activity among adolescent

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      Authors: Nazhif Gifari , Laras Sitoayu , Rachmanida Nuzrina , Putri Ronitawati , Mury Kuswari , Teguh Jati Prasetyo
      Abstract: Obesity in adolescents has been a severe public health problem in developing countries in recent years. This study aims to assess the differences in socioeconomic, nutrition knowledge, breakfast habits, body image, physical activity, smoking, total sleep quality and nutrient intake between obese and non-obese adolescents. This cross-sectional study with 2,432 adolescents (16–18 years) was conducted at senior high schools in DKI Jakarta from January to November 2019. Body image, percent body fat, nutrition intake and physical activity variables were collected. This study found that more than 30% of adolescents in DKI Jakarta were overweight and obese. Overall, adolescents have a 56.3% positive body image, participate in moderate-intensity physical activity (49.02%), and smoke was found at a rate of 6.9%. The average total sleep quality was 71.3% fair and nutrient intakes 1599 ± 413 calories. The findings suggest that monthly income (p = 0.001, p = 0.016), energy intake (p = 0.005, p = 0.019) and total sleep quality (p = 0.008, p = 0.04) variables were consistently associated with nutritional status and percent body fat. Moreover, the body image perception (p = 0.035) variable had a negative correlation with nutritional status, and the smoking habits variable (p = 0.001) had a negative correlation with percent body fat. This study provides empirical evidence that establishes the association between monthly income, energy intake, total sleep quality with nutritional status and body fat percentage in adolescents.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0305
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of orthorexia nervosa tendency and fear of COVID-19 in
           university students receiving health education

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      Authors: Zeynep Uzdil , Ayça Sevdanur Üstüner
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate level of fear and the tendency toward orthorexia nervosa (ON) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the university students receiving health education. A total of 765 students, consisting of 626 females (81.8%) and 139 males (18.2%) were included in the study. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and the tendency toward ON were assessed using an online questionnaire. The FCV-19S scores differed according to gender and were higher in the female students (P < 0.001). In students with a high EAT-26 score, the tendency toward ON was higher (P < 0.001). According to estimated regression models, a unit increase of the FCV-19S scores led to a decrease of 0.10 points in the Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11 (ORTO-11) scores. It was determined that students with high FCV-19S scores had a tendency toward ON and increased EAT-26 scores (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). There was a weak negative correlation between the FCV-19S score and the ORTO-11 score (P < 0.001) and a weak positive correlation between the FCV-19S score and the EAT-26 score (P = 0.001). In this cross-sectional study, it was determined that the fear of COVID-19 was related to an increase in the tendency toward ON and eating attitude in students receiving health education. Because of the fear and ON tendencies of students due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it would be beneficial to provide education on adequate and balanced nutrition during this period.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0354
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Natural oils restore body weight, ameliorate serum bile acid and vitamin D
           and improve liver histology in depression

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      Authors: Khaled M.M. Koriem , Nevein N. Fadl , Salwa R. El-Zayat , Eman N. Hosny , Fatma A. Morsy
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats. Eighty male albino rats were divided into normal and depressed rats. Normal rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: control, venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil groups. Depressed rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: depressed rats, depressed rats + venlafaxine drug, depressed rats + anise oil and depressed rats + geranium oil groups. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were detected. Animal behavior, cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology were also investigated in this study. Body weight (117 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (5.6 ± 1.4 g/day) and water intake (8.7 ± 1.2 ml/day) were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to body weight (153 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (12.7 ± 1.6 g/day) and water intake (15.3 ± 1.6 ml/day) in control. Animal behavioral tests, e.g. sucrose preference (48.8 ± 1.5) test, distance traveled (70.0 ± 16.3), center square entries (0.20 ± 0.10), center square duration (52.18 ± 11.9), tail suspension (54.70 ± 2.9 s) test and forced swimming (134.4 ± 5.5 s) test were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to sucrose preference (89.2 ± 1.7) test, distance traveled (226 ± 90.1), center square entries (1.4 ± 1.8), center square duration (3.6 ± 2.0), tail suspension (19.3 ± 2.1 s) test and forced swimming (83.7 ± 3.6 s) test in control. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (7.4 ± 1.7 and 1.2 ± 0.54 pg/g tissue), dopamine (6.3 ± 1.5 and 0.86 ± 0.07 pg/g tissue), norepinephrine (8.1 ± 1.7 and 1.4 ± 0.41 pg/g tissue) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (1.3 ± 0.41 and 0.08 ± 0.04 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (46.8 ± 3.5 µmole/L) and vitamin D (1.3 ± 0.37 ng/ml) were significantly decreased (p'0.001) in depression compared to cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (16.8 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 1.4 pg/g tissue), dopamine (15.7 ± 2.0 and 1.8 ± 0.49 pg/g tissue) norepinephrine (18.2 ± 2.3 and 3.8 ± 1.3 pg/g tissue) and GABA (2.7 ± 0.62 and 0.16 ± 0.06 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (90.5 ± 4.3 µmole/L) and vitamin D (2.7 ± 0.58 ng/ml) in control. Depression induced injury to hepatic tissues. Oral supplementation with anise oil and geranium oil ameliorated body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depressed rats. Depression treatment persists for a long time, so the search for a new herbal treatment is of concern due to available sources, cheap and no side effects of herbal plants. Anise oil and geranium oil improved body weight, food consumption, water intake, animal behavioral tests, cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depression.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0383
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Olive cake reduces obesity by decreasing epididymal adipocyte size,
           inhibiting oxidative stress and pancreatic lipase, in rat fed high fat
           diet

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      Authors: Mansourou Samba Garba , Sherazede Bouderbala
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of olive cake (OC) on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers, lipase activity and on the histological analysis of epididymal fat, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Male obese rats were divided into two groups and were fed an HFD supplemented (HFD-OC) or not (HFD) with OC for 28 days. A control group was fed a standard diet for the same experimental period. HFD significantly increased body weight, which was reduced by OC in the HFD-OC compared to HFD (p = 0.038). Lipase activity was higher (52%; p = 0.009) in the HFD group than the control group. Administration of OC to the obese rats decreased significantly this activity (38%; p = 0.025) compared to the HFD group. Serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide and advanced oxidation protein products levels were significantly increased in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.032, p = 0.023 and p = 0.017, respectively). These levels were significantly reduced in HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.030, p = 0.021 and p = 0.010, respectively). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased (53%; p = 0.04), (61%; p = 0.03) and (32%; p = 0.002), in the HFD group than the control group. OC restored these activities (46%; p = 0.01), (58%; p = 0.003) and (30%; p = 0.0003) in the HFD-OC rats than the HFD rats. Consumption of the HFD resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy. Indeed, epididymal adipocyte size was significantly larger in the HFD group than the control group (p = 0.0001), whereas it was reduced in the HFD-OC compared to the HFD group (p = 0.012). OC possesses an anti-obesity effect. This effect might be mediated by lipase inhibition, reduced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant activities. In addition, the reduction of fat accumulation in adipose tissue by OC consumption is reflected by reducing adipocyte size.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0319
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of dietary inflammatory index, functional foods and some
           antioxidants intake with COVID-19 vaccine side effects in Iranian adults

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      Authors: Mahsa Mohajeri
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII), consumption of functional food and some antioxidants with COVID-19 vaccine side effects in Iranian adults. This was a case–control study conducted among the 1,067 Iranian adults who were invited to participate through WhatsApp software. The dietary intake was assessed using the food frequency questionnaire. There was a significant difference (p = 0.04) in vitamin D consumption between healthy people and persons with a vaccine side effect. Vitamin E intake in healthy participants was significantly (p = 0.04) more than case group. There was a significant difference in the consumption of zinc (p = 0.01), selenium (p = 0.02) and vitamin C (p = 0.02), between persons without vaccine side effects and the case group. Consumption of onion (82.5 ± 9.5 g/day vs 32.2 ± 6.3; p = 0.0001), garlic (6 ± 0.3 g/day vs 0.2 ± 0.08; p = 0.0001) and oat (2.2 ± 0.05 g/day vs 0.5 ± 0.01; p = 0.001) in the control group was significantly more than persons with vaccine side effects. With the increase in each unit in the score of the DII, the risk of COVID-19 vaccine side effect incidence increased 1.7 times (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–1.8). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that investigated the association between functional food intake and side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0349
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Changes in quality parameters and microbial stability of hog plum ( Linn.)
           juice during ambient and refrigerated storage

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Folasade Olabimpe Adeboyejo , Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe , Fehintola Oluwatosin Ojo , Steven Akintomide Fagbemi
      Abstract: Several factors may play critical roles in alterations to product quality during storage of hog plum juice. This study aims to evaluate variations to physicochemical, antioxidant, anti-nutritional properties and microbial stability of hog plum juice during storage. Juice was produced from hog plum fruits and stored for eight weeks at refrigerated and ambient conditions. Physicochemical, antioxidant properties, antinutritional factors and microbial properties of juices were determined using standard procedures Degradation of ascorbic acid was higher in juices stored at ambient conditions (64.4%) compared to those stored by refrigeration (44.4%). Trends were similar for total phenolic, total flavonoid and total carotenoid contents. Total phenolic, total carotenoid and lycopene contents of fresh juice were 3.9 mg GAE/mL, 4.0 mg/mL and 1.3 mg/mL, which were not significantly different (at p = 0.08, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively) from the values at two weeks of storage at refrigerated conditions (3.9 mg GAE/mL, 3.9 mg/mL and 1.3 mg/mL). A sharp decrease of more than 40% (p = 0.02) in lycopene was recorded after four weeks, irrespective of storage temperature. Pasteurized hog plum juice showed no microbial growth until after four weeks of refrigerated storage when 1 CFU/mL each of bacterial and fungal growth were recorded. The juices, however, showed higher susceptibility to fungal growth as storage period increased. Other variables not considered in this study such as nature of packaging materials may have significantly contributed to the observed data set. Further studies may, therefore, widen the scope of discussion to evaluate the associated relationship of these variables. Hog plum juice retained a considerable amount of bioactive components during refrigerated storage, which makes it a viable nutraceutical drink with industrial potentials and possible positive health implications for consumers. This study provides new information that support the possible classification and use of hog plum juice as a safe functional beverage for human consumption. Although the effect of storage temperature was significant in most of the properties studied, storage duration seems to have a greater influence on the stability of quality parameters during the storage of hog plum juice.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0304
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The effect of maternal and nutritional factors on birth weight: a cohort
           study in Tehran, Iran

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      Authors: Tahereh Karimi , Zeinab Moslemi , Arezoo Rezazadeh , Hassan Eini-Zinab
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of maternal food intake before and during pregnancy on birth weight. As a prospective cohort study, a total of 585 pregnant women of first trimester, visiting Tehran Metropolitan Area public health centers and private sectors (clinics and hospitals), were interviewed at first phase, and pregestational dietary intake was obtained by a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. At the third trimester, dietary recalls were collected via interview. Finally, birth weight information was extracted from health records. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to explore the effect of maternal and nutritional factors on birth weight. The results of the analysis show that direct measures of nutrition, measured as food group consumption at first and third trimester of pregnancy, had no significant effect on birth weight once the confounding factors were controlled (p > 0.05). Of control variables included in the analysis, twin pregnancy outcome (p = 0.000), pregnancy number (p = 0.04), prepregnancy weight (p = 0.004) (marginally significant) and gestational age (p = 0.000) (marginally significant) were associated with birth weight. The results of this study show no significant role of mother’s nutrition during pregnancy on birth weight, while long-term nutrition outcomes such as prepregnancy weight had significant role. It seems the main reasons behind less important role of pregnancy nutrition on birth weight in this study include the following: food intake deficiency is not a major problem for participants, and cross-sectional data on food intake are less important on outcome of pregnancy weight than long-term nutritional status outcome variables such as mother’s weight and height. This finding should be addressed in public health planning for women at childbearing age.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0311
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An overview on recent advances in functional properties of dietary lipids,
           encapsulation strategies and applications

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      Authors: Jaydeep Pinakin Dave , Ali Muhammed Moula Ali , Sri Charan Bindu Bavisetty
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide contemporary scientific knowledge on the functionality of edible lipids, sources, health benefits, and a special emphasis on different encapsulation strategies to enhance their dietary application and boost the market value. Novel technologies overcoming these issues are in great demand. Given that, several novel encapsulation techniques have been established aiming at most of the aspects of functional lipids. In addition, these techniques have been designed to enhance the storage stability and controlled release of lipids in food systems. Plant and marine oils are one of the richest sources of functional lipids but are attached with limitations. Currently, alternative sources, such as different types of algae and microorganisms are gaining attention in terms of sustainable production systems. Advances in various encapsulation techniques have helped to overcome the dispersibility and stability problems of lipids encapsulation. Refinement in physicochemical interaction, colloidal dispersion and core-shell modules between wall and core matrix protect dietary lipids during processing have been implemented. Liposomes, micro/nanoemulsions and micro/nanocapsules are found most suitable for food application by improving the fatty acid profile, stability and sensorial properties. Functional lipids offer numerous health benefits (i.e., simple health-promoting properties to complex disease preventive and curative effects). However, these functional lipids are associated with several disadvantages, such as region-specific availability, vulnerability to oxidation depending on the level of unsaturation, degradation/hydrolysis on processing, low bioavailability, confined storage stability, and others.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0282
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of orange peel and moringa leaves extracts on quality of chicken
           sausages under frozen storage

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      Authors: Suman Bishnoi , Sanjay Yadav , Diwakar Sharma , Ashok Kumar Pathera
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of orange peel and moringa leaves extracts on microbiological safety, sensory quality, lipid oxidation and color properties of chicken sausages under frozen storage. Chicken sausages were prepared by using orange peel, moringa leaves extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The sausages were stored in a freezer at −18°C. Samples were taken at a regular interval of 20 days from the day of production to spoilage of sausages and analyzed for microbiological safety, sensory quality, lipid oxidation and color properties. In comparison to the control sausage, sausages having BHT, orange peel and moringa leaves extract had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower bacterial, yeast and mold count. All the sausages were microbiologically safe for consumption till the 100th day, and the results of the 120th day crossed the permissible limits. Sensory acceptability scores of sausages were good (>6) throughout the storage period. The color values of sausages were not affected by the addition of orange peel and moringa leaves extract. The extent of lipid oxidation increased during storage, and sausages with BHT, orange peel and moringa leaves extract had significantly (p < 0.05) lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and free fatty acids (FFAs) toward the end of the storage period. The observations of this paper endorse the use of orange peel and moringa leaves extract in meat products formulation for acceptable storage stability under frozen conditions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0309
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effect of curcumin on body mass index and glycemic indices in females with
           PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial
           

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      Authors: Mehran Nouri , Sara Sohaei , Mohammed Nader Shalaby , Sanaz Mehrabani , Atena Ramezani , Shiva Faghih
      Abstract: This paper aims to assess the impact of curcumin supplementation body mass index and glycemic indices in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, Scopus and ISI web of science to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from the earliest record up to February 2021. The authors used a random-effects model to estimate pooled effect sizes. A total of four potentially related clinical trials met the inclusion criteria which included a total of 198 participants. Random-effects meta-analysis showed significant effects of curcumin on fasting blood sugar (FBS) (−3.62 mg/dl, 95% CI [−5.65, −1.58], p-value < 0.001, I2 = 0.0%), insulin level (−1.67 µU/mL, 95% CI [−3.06, −0.28], p-value = 0.018, I2 = 0.0%) and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−0.42, 95% CI [−0.76, −0.09], p-value < 0.01, I2 = 0.0%). No evidence of publication bias was discovered in the meta-analyses. Present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs showed beneficial effects of curcumin consumption on FBS, insulin level and HOMA-IR in patients with PCOS. However, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0334
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary approach to stop hypertension and obesity among Iranian adults:
           Yazd health study-TAMYZ and Shahedieh cohort

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      Authors: Sahar Sarkhosh-Khorasani , Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi , Azadeh Nadjarzadeh , Masoud Mirzaei , Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh
      Abstract: Established data revealed a relationship between obesity and increasing the risk of mortality and morbidity of chronic diseases. There are conflicting data regarding the association between adherence of dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate this relationship among a large sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed by 10,693 individuals; 6750 individuals related to Yazd Health Study living in the urban area and 3943 individuals related to Shahedieh cohort study living in the suburb area. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In all participants, anthropometric indices including body mass index were measured. The DASH score was considered using gender-specific quintiles of DASH items. To evaluate the relationship of DASH diet and obesity, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. By adjusting confounders, participants in highest quintiles of DASH diet were compared to the lowest have lower odds of obesity in suburb area (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.96), in urban (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.99) and in whole population of both studies (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.90). Besides, more compliance of women to this diet in urban (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.85) and population of both studies (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96) were associated with reduced odds of central obesity. Considering this study limitations, the following can be mentioned: in this cross-sectional study, the causal relationship between DASH diet and obesity could not be assessed. Consequently, further prospective studies are required in this area. Second, although a valid food frequency questionnaire was used, but there was a measurement error and an error in the classification of people participating in the study. Moreover, we cannot reject the possibility of residual confounding bias because unknown or unmeasured confounders may exist that affected our results. Finally, our participants with odds of obesity might have been advised to reduce their fat intake, which led them to alter their dietary habits. However, such possibility cannot be resolved in a cross-sectional study. DASH dietary pattern could decrease odds of obesity in both urban and suburb area and central obesity in urban area only. Further prospective studies are needed for causal conclusion.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0308
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The association of body mass index and dietary fat intake with autism in
           children: a case-control study

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      Authors: Maryam Gholamalizadeh , Narjes Ashouri Mirsadeghi , Samira Rastgoo , Saheb Abbas Torki , Fatemeh Bourbour , Naser Kalantari , Hanieh Shafaei , Zohreh Teymoori , Atiyeh Alizadeh , Alireza Mosavi Jarrahi , Saeid Doaei
      Abstract: Deficiencies or imbalances in dietary fat intake may influence on mental and neurological functions of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aims to compare body mass index (BMI) and the amount of fatty acids intake in the autistic patients with the comparison group. This case-control was carried out on 200 randomly selected children from 5 to 15 years old (100 autistic patients as the case group and 100 healthy children as the comparison group) in Tehran, Iran. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the intake of calorie, macronutrients and different types of dietary fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), α-Linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids. The autistic patients had higher BMI, birth weight and mother’s BMI compared to the comparison group (All p < 0.01). No significant difference was found in the amount of dietary calorie, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake between two groups. The risk of ASD was associated with higher intake of MUFAs (OR: 3.18, CI%:1.13–4.56, p = 0.04), PUFAs (OR: 4.12, CI95%: 2.01–6.25, p < 0.01) and LA (OR: 4.76, CI95%: 1.34–14.32, p < 0.01). The autistic children had higher BMI and higher intake of unsaturated fatty acids except for omega-3 fatty acids. Further longitudinal studies are warranted.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2021-0366
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary intervention of prebiotics and vitamins on gut health of children

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      Authors: Deepti Kaushal , Gurpreet Kalsi
      Abstract: Gut health has multidimensional impact on childhood growth and development. Diet being the major modulator of gut health, this study aims to hypothesize if supplementation of dietary prebiotics and vitamins can impact gut environment of healthy children. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with parallel allocation of children 8–13 years of age to placebo or test group. Test group was supplemented with 1.5 g of formulation comprising prebiotics and vitamins, and to placebo, maltodextrin (1.5 g) was supplemented. After four weeks, the effect on markers of gut health (i.e. beneficial microbes, and gut integrity markers such as secretory Immunoglobulin A [sIgA] and calprotectin concentration) was evaluated in feces of children. Significant increase of 17.1% in fecal bifidobacteria counts (p = 0.04) was observed in the test group compared to placebo after four weeks. Also, fecal calprotectin concentration decreased (20%) significantly (p = 0.01) in test group compared to placebo. In addition, the test group showed significant improvement in fecal sIgA and lactobacilli compared to baseline concentration (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). This study demonstrates that prebiotic (and vitamin) intervention may influence health outcomes in children by positively modulating markers of gut health. There are limited studies demonstrating the efficacy of prebiotic and vitamins on gut health of school age children.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0267
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Utilisation of (persimmon) as a functional ingredient to produce
           functional foods: a review

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      Authors: Naman Kaur , Anjana Kumari , Aparna Agarwal , Manisha Sabharwal , Saumya Dipti
      Abstract: This study aims to discuss the nutritional value and potential nutraceutical properties of Diospyros kaki L. (DKL); to encapsulate recent studies conducted across the world to develop functional foods using different parts of Persimmon fruit to emphasise on the need for further research on Persimmon fruit. The methodology of the study involved surveying primary and secondary information generated in the respective field of interest. The papers found most suited for the research problem and objective of the study were selected. The perspectives taken by different studies and researchers were synthesised to generate a solution to the research problems and to bridge the research gaps in the field. As a result of the global rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders, researchers are aimed at identifying nutrient rich foods and techniques to develop functional foods for the population. Researchers have recognised the role of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and probiotics, are now interested in leveraging these foods by incorporating them in conventional foods, such as breads, jams, pastas and yoghurts as functional ingredients. One such food that has gained the interests of various researchers is DKL. Owing to its rich macro-and micro-nutrient, as well as phytochemical content various studies have been conducted to explore the possibility of using it as a functional ingredient to develop a range of foods. A limited studies are available that have investigated the effect of the functional foods developed using different parts of Persimmon fruit on different ailments. This study collected the data/information from recently published research in the field of health and medicinal benefits of Persimmon fruits and its utilisation to develop functional food.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2021-0337
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Nutrient variability of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) from Manipur,
           Northeast India and its nutrients supply potential in rice-based diets

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      Authors: T. Longvah , Anitha Chauhan , Sreedhar Mudavath , Bhaskar Varanasi , Neeraja CN
      Abstract: Rice landraces are essential for supplying beneficial traits for developing improved rice varieties with better nutritional quality. Nevertheless, in a yield-driven environment, grain nutritional quality has been ignored especially that of rice landraces. Given this, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the content and nutritional variability of rice landraces from Manipur. Thirty-three most popular rice landraces were collected as dry paddy samples from Manipur and transported to the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, by air. All the paddy samples were processed and analyzed for 35 nutrient parameters using standard methodologies. The mean nutrient content of Nagaland brown rice was: protein 7.5 ± 0.8, fat 3.0 ± 0.3, TDF 5.5 ± 0.4 and ash 1.2 ± 0.2 g/100g. The range of water soluble-vitamin content in mg/100g, was 0.1–0.43 for Thiamine and for Niacin 2.1–3.5, while the content in µg/100g was 40–64 for Riboflavin, 0.5–3.9 for Pantothenic acid and 20–118 for Pyridoxine. A relatively large coefficient of variation was observed for iron (25%), manganese (28%), copper (32%), calcium (13%) and phosphorus (11%). Manipur rice landraces have significantly higher total dietary fiber and lower phytate contents than modern varieties. Milling led to steep losses of nutrients, and limiting to 5% milling substantially improves nutrient retention in milled rice. Future nutrition interventions should use rice with superior nutrient quality to improve nutrient intakes. Manipur rice landraces conserved over generations can broaden the genetic base of breeding stocks especially in the face of climate change. The paper presents comprehensive nutritional data of 33 rice landraces from the state of Manipur, India. The results indicate large nutrient variability even within these 33 rice landraces with important traits such as high total dietary fiber and low phytate contents. The study highlights the importance of conserving the existing rich genetic material of Manipur rice landraces to develop varieties that combine higher yields with stress tolerance and superior grain nutritional value to improve the food and nutrient security.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0296
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Association of dietary inflammatory potential (DIP) and endothelial
           function biomarkers among females

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      Authors: Mohammad Gholizadeh , Ebrahim Falahi , Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli , Ahmadreza Yazdan Nik , Parvane Saneei , Ahmad Esmaillzadeh , Ahmad Saedisomeolia
      Abstract: Dietary inflammatory potential (DIP) is a novel dietary index designed to evaluate individuals’ diets with considering inflammation and anti-inflammation score. In addition, adhesion molecules including soluble intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1), soluble cellular adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1) and E-selectin are important biomarkers to assess endothelium dysfunction which are related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Also, there is no study for assessing the association between adhesion molecules and DIP until now as well as other studies that assessed the relationship between dietary inflammatory index or DIP has controversy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the correlation between DIP and endothelial markers such as E-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 among female nurses from Isfahan. In this study, DIP was used instead of DII. This study was performed on 420 healthy nurses. The nurses were selected by random cluster sampling method from private and public Isfahan hospitals. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was applied to assess the DIP. A fasting blood sample was collected for measuring the plasma levels of the endothelial markers and other variables. After adjusting different potential confounders, no statistical association was found between DIP and sICAM-1, E–selectin and sVCAM-1 in Model I (P = 0.57, 0.98 and 0.45), Model II (P = 0.57, 0.98 and 0.45) and Model III (P = 0.67, 0.92 and 0.50) in comparison to the crude group (P = 0.35, 0.83 and 0.49, respectively). The results revealed that the plasma levels of endothelial markers including E-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were not significantly associated with DIP in female nurses.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0211
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Pumpkin seed oil and zinc attenuate chronic mild stress perturbations in
           the cerebral cortex of rats

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      Authors: Marwa H. El-Azma , Nadia M. El-Beih , Karima A. El-Shamy , Khaled M.M. Koriem , Mahitab I. Elkassaby , Wael M. El-Sayed
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the potential of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) and zinc to attenuate oxidative stress and neuroinflammation caused by chronic mild stress (CMS) in the cerebral cortex of male rats. The rats were submitted to stress for six weeks and then the behavior of the rats was tested by forced swimming test (FST) and novel cage test. The treated groups were given venlafaxine (20 mg/kg), pumpkin seed oil (40 mg/kg) and zinc (4 mg/kg). The cortex homogenate was used for the detection of the oxidative stress parameters, the concentration of neurotransmitters, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and the expression of histamine N-methyltransferase (Hnmt) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). CMS causes a significant increase in immobility time in the FST and a significant decrease in the number of rearing in the novel cage test. CMS group showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, levels of cortisol, TNF-α, IL-1β, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde. CMS caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of serotonin, GABA, norepinephrine, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and Na+/K+-ATPase. CMS caused a marked reduction in the expression of Hnmt and Th in the cortex. PSO and zinc attenuated the Na+/K+-ATPase activity, oxidative parameters and neuroinflammation induced by the CMS, and this was reflected by the elevation of the concentration of neurotransmitters and reduction of cortisol and ALT, in addition to the behavior normalization. PSO and zinc attenuated the CMS by improving the antioxidant milieu and anti-inflammatory status of the cerebral cortex. There are no studies on the effect of pumpkin seed oil on depression
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0315
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Dietary intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among tanker truck
           drivers in Ghana

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      Authors: Charles Apprey , Bernice Adu Baah-Nuako , Veronica Tawiah Annaful , Atinuke Olusola Adebanji , Victoria Dzogbefia
      Abstract: This study aims to assess dietary intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among tanker truck drivers in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. A cross-sectional study design enrolled 212 fuel tanker drivers. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data were collected. MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) 2005 criteria. A three-day 24-h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predicting factors of MetS among study participants. The prevalence of MetS was 19.6% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. The prevalence of obesity, high BP, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia among participants were 7.5, 39.7, 37.7 and 57.3%, respectively. The energy intake for 176 (88.4%) of the participants was inadequate. The predicting factors of MetS were age (OR: 1.3, p = 0.04), glycated haemoglobin (OR: 9.6, p = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.2 95%, p = 0.01) and service years (OR: 0.8, p = 0.01). The current study focused on MetS among tanker truck drivers in Kumasi metropolis, which makes the current findings only limited to drivers of tanker truck within the municipality. Additionally, the 24-h dietary recall could be subjected to recall bias. However, the study is still of relevance as it becomes the first to target such a group within the municipality, taking into consideration the importance of these tanker truck drivers in driving the economy of Ghana. This study highlights dietary intake and MetS among fuel tanker drivers previously underreported in the Ghanaian population. Findings of this study would inform further studies on lifestyle-related determinants of MetS among other cohort of drivers in other settings within the country.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0250
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Adherence to Mediterranean diet among adults during the COVID-19 outbreak
           and the economic crisis in Lebanon

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      Authors: Joanne Karam , Wissam Ghach , Carol Bouteen , Mary-Joe Makary , Marwa Riman , Mireille Serhan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the adherence to MedDiet among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis, using the validated 14-item MedDiet assessment tool. A quantitative research approach, based on the distribution of an online survey throughout the social media platforms, via networking, was the applied method. The structure of the survey included the socio-economic and demographic data along with the weekly adherence to physical activity; and the validated MedDiet assessment tool. The target population included 1,030 Lebanese adults from all provinces. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the sample population. Adherence to the MedDiet was determined by the Med-Diet score ≥ 9. Significant differences among the variables and the adherence to the MedDiet were examined using the chi-square test. Mean adherence to the MedDiet was found to be lower than an adequate score among 60.8% of participants [mean adherence 8/14 < 9 (S.D. 2.2)]. Participants from North Province, those aged 45 years and above, university graduates, participants with an average income and those who exercised for a minimum of 30 min for three times/week had a higher mean of adherence compared to other groups. Higher percentage of those who exercised had adequate adherence compared to those who exercised less or did not. More than 50% of the participants consumed olive oil, vegetables, red meat, butter/margarine, sugary drinks, commercial sweets and sofrito according to recommendations. Less than 50% of the participants consumed fruits, nuts, fish and wine according to the MedDiet standards. More men consumed fruits (55.1%), wine (21%), fish (29%) and nuts (48.5%) than women according to the MedDiet recommendations; however, more women consumed legumes (69.7%) and Sofrito (88.4%) than men, in addition more women preferred consuming chicken over meat (72.3%). The findings call for an urgent need of spreading national awareness among adult population in Lebanon to increase the adherence to MedDiet. To add, information gained from this study serve to help understanding nutritional behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis, so public health authorities can start planning to save the threatened health-care system and preserve the wellness of the population.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0325
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Chocolate craving: does it affect eating attitude and body mass index'

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      Authors: Nevin Sanlier , Büşra Açıkalın , Elif Eroglu , Fatma Kılınç , Bulent Celik
      Abstract: Some kinds of foods, by producing an effect like addiction, may trigger overeating. This paper aims to investigate whether excessive chocolate consumption and hunger cause food addiction. Food cravings questionnaire-trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r), food cravings questionnaire-state (FCQ-S) and eating attitude test-26 (EAT-26) scales were used. The relation between chocolate addiction, anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, eating behavior of the people were analyzed. The study was conducted on 864 individuals between 17 and 64 years old (men = 327, women = 537). As the body mass index (BMI) of the individuals increased, chocolate craving, chocolate hunger, thought of eating chocolate, lack of control of chocolate increased. Also, significant correlations were determined with BMI, respectively, (r = 0.39; r = 0.32; r = 0.33; r = 0.29; p < 0.001). The lack of control overeating chocolate, craving for chocolate was found to be higher in female participants than in male participants. It was seen that craving for chocolate decreases (r = −0.17; p < 0.001) with increasing age; this was more apparent in male participants compared to female participants. Besides, significant correlation was found (r = 0.76, p < 0.05) between the EAT-26, the craving to eat chocolate in this study. It was seen that individual, who were excessively eager to consume chocolate, exhibited abnormal eating behavior (29.50 ± 12.09). This showed that there is a positive relation (r = 0.08, p < 0.001) between food addiction, eating attitude disorder. Food craving increases the consumption of food, especially chocolate, sugar, with high carbohydrate content and energy. This can lead to overeating and being overweight.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0283
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Impact of high pressure processing on microbiological, nutritional and
           sensory properties of food: a review

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      Authors: Ajith Amsasekar , Rahul S. Mor , Anand Kishore , Anupama Singh , Saurabh Sid
      Abstract: The increased demand for high-quality, nutritionally rich processed food has led to non-thermal food processing technologies like high pressure processing (HPP), a novel process for microbial inactivation with minimal loss of nutritional and sensory properties. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of HPP on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory properties of food. Recent research on the role of HPP in maintaining food quality and safety and the impact of process conditions with respect to various food properties have been explored in this paper. Also, the hurdle approach and the effectiveness of HPP on food quality have been documented. HPP has been verified for industrial application, fulfilling the consumer demand for processed food with minimum nutrition loss at low temperatures. The positive impact of HPP with other treatments is known as the hurdle approach that enhances its impact against microorganism activity and minimizes the effects on nutrition and sensory attributes. This paper highlights the impact of HPP on various food properties and a good alternative as non-thermal technology for maintaining shelf life, sensory properties and retention of nutrients.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0249
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bacterial viability, antioxidant stability, antimutagenicity and sensory
           properties of onion types fermentation by using probiotic starter during
           storage

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      Authors: Shayma T.G. Al-Sahlany , Alaa K. Niamah
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the bacterial viability, antioxidative activity, antimutagenicity and sensory evaluation of fermented onion types by using probiotic starters after fermentation at 37 °C for 24 hours and storage in the refrigerator for 28 days. For onion fermentation, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5), Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB-12), and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) were utilised. This research was conducted on three types of onion: white onion, red onion and scallion. With a 5% brine solution, the onions were sliced into 3-5 cm long and 1-2 cm wide slices. The process of fermentation was achieved by adding 2% (108 CFU/ gm) of fresh probiotic starter and incubating it for 24 hours at 37 °C. The fermented onion samples were kept in the refrigerator for 28 days. After fermentation and storage, the pH and total acidity were estimated, the vitality of probiotic bacteria was evaluated in samples of the onion species. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique was used to identify the bioactive components in fermented onion types. The antioxidant activity of fermented onions was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay and the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity test. The Ames test was used to detect the antimutagenicity of fermented onion samples. After fermentation, the fermented scallion (p = 0.036) has the highest vitality of all the starter bacteria species. The fermentation of onion types produced a pH of between 4.1–4.7 and 0.19–0.23% total acidity, which is in the range of reduced 3.1–3.5 pH values and 0.42–0.63% total acidity after 28 days. The viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in fermented scallions was Log. 7.79 and 7.57 CFU/gm. The GC-MS technique found 14 bioactive compounds in fermented white onions and 13 compounds in fermented white onions, with 15 compounds in scallion fermentation. The majority of these bioactive compounds are strong antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of fermented scallion significantly increased after 28 days of storage time, showing an inhibitory effect on the DPPH assay (p = 0.02) and the scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical assay (p = 0.01). Sensory evaluation tests revealed that the fermented scallion was a suitable product in terms of appearance, aroma and overall acceptability. Commercially accessible probiotic foods account for a sizable portion of the consumer market. Furthermore, as consumer interest in healthy eating grows, so does demand for plant-based goods. All onion types fermented with probiotic bacteria have many chemical compounds that have both antioxidant and carcinogenic activity. The fermented scallion onion sample was significantly superior to the rest of the other types of onions.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0204
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Benzene food exposure and their prevent methods: a review

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      Authors: Parisa Sadighara , Mohadeseh Pirhadi , Melina Sadighara , Parisa Shavaly-Gilani , Mohammad Reza Zirak , Tayebeh Zeinali
      Abstract: Benzene contamination has been reported in some food groups. This study aims to identify high-risk foods groups to assess exposure to benzene. Benzene is a hazardous volatile organic compound commonly used in the production of chemicals, detergents, paints and plastics. In addition, benzene is present in food and beverages. Citrus juice-based beverages are usually more contaminated with benzene than other beverages. Benzene was also detected in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickles, lime juices, mayonnaise and salad dressing. Smoked and canned products have higher content of benzene. Aromas that are used in food contained benzene. Food packaging is one of the sources of benzene contamination of food. One of the reasons for its formation in food staff is due to the reaction of vitamin C (or similar acid) with benzoate, which is mainly used as a preservative in various foods. Foods contaminated with benzene were determined. Moreover, mechanisms of its formation and some preventive measures were discussed. This review determined the amount of benzene in foods, mechanism of formation and suggestion for prevention of benzene contamination in food.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0306
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Perceived social support is greater among food secure Iranian households
           during the COVID-19 outbreak

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      Authors: Neda Ezzeddin , Naser Kalantari , Zahra Veysi
      Abstract: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many different aspects of people’s lives around the world, including household food security. This study aims to investigate the food security status and its determinants, with emphasis on perceived social support among the Iranian population during the epidemic.. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,871 Iranian adults by social media in all provinces of the country. Demographic and socioeconomic information, household food security status and perceived social support status were assessed by the validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed by statistical package for the social sciences version 22.0, with one-way ANOVA, Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression tests. The prevalence of food security among the studied population was 55.2%. The results indicated that perceived social support plays a protective role on food security [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.09, P-value < 0.001]. Reduced income during the epidemic [OR = 0.29, CI = 0.17, 0.47, P-value < 0.001] and presence of an old person (>65 years old) in the household [OR = 1.72, CI = 1.14, 2.60, P-value < 0.05], were significantly higher among moderate to severe food insecure group than food-secure group. More monthly income [OR = 0.28, CI = 0.13, 0.57, P-value < 0.001] and homeownership [OR = 1.83, CI = 1.22, 2.75, P-value < 0.05] were also predictors of food security status. The development of supportive strategies which act immediately can protect vulnerable people against the consequences of the epidemic, including food insecurity. Long-term planning should also be considered to improve society’s resistance against such disasters.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0216
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Gluten-free cake with unripe banana peel flour substitution: impact on
           nutritional, functional and sensorial properties

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      Authors: Burcu Türker , Nazlı Savlak
      Abstract: This study aims to develop nutritious and functional gluten-free cakes for celiac patients by substituting rice flour with unripe banana peel flour (UBPF) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and to propound some chemical, textural and sensorial properties of cakes. A secondary purpose was also to contribute to waste management of the banana products industry by reevaluating the peel. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple comparison test (p < 0.05) were used to determine differences among the mean values. Proximate analysis, color, texture profile analysis, antioxidant activity, mineral composition and sensorial analysis were carried out. Data was analyzed using SAS software. Cake production was carried out in three replications. UBPF in this study had high protein (11.2%) and dietary fiber (18.3%) as well as high antioxidant activity. In all, 5%–20% UBPF-substituted cakes had enhanced dietary fiber (2.5%–3.7% dry matter), ash content (1.6%–1.9% DM) in comparison to control cake (1.4% and 1.4%, respectively). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of enriched gluten-free cakes increased by 102%–534%, whereas ferric-reducing antioxidant power increased by 29.6%–143%. Up to 10% UBPF substitution resulted in texturally and sensorially acceptable, nutritious gluten-free cakes. The developed product can be used practically for several applications as a healthy alternative. The use of unripe banana peel represents a promising strategy to increase the nutritional value and number of ready-to-eat food in the gluten-free market. This study propounds a nutritious, functional and sensorially acceptable gluten-free cake for celiac people to use practically while socialization. Cakes which are appreciated by panelists in sensory analysis will create product variety in kitchens, markets and social areas, in particular for those people suffering from celiac and gluten intolerance. This is the first study to consider UBPF as an ingredient in gluten-free cake formulation. The product may positively contribute to the life quality of celiac people by propounding a gluten-free snack food for consumption in their social life. This study is also an example of the contribution of banana by-products toward the implementation of the circular economy.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0259
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effects of betanin on AMPK, Sirtuin1, and Sirtuin6 gene expression and
           inflammatory cytokines levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of
           patients with coronary artery disease

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      Authors: Neda Mahami , Nasim Abedimanesh , Somayyeh Asghari , Kosar Mohammadnejad , Mohammad Reza Eskandari , Zivar Nejadebrahimi , Hassan Ahangar , Keivan Nedaei , Mojtaba Fathi , Ehsan Noori , Behrooz Motlagh
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effects of betanin on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) gene expression as well as the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) cytokine release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy controls. PBMCs isolated from whole blood of 50 patients with CAD and 48 healthy subjects aged 45 to 60 years were treated with 10 and 20 µM of betanin for 24 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess gene expression levels of AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6. The supernatants of the cultured cells were used to assess the IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels by ELISA. Treatment with both doses of betanin significantly increased AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6 expression in PBMCs of CAD patients compared to control non-treated cells (p < 0.05). In PBMCs of healthy subjects, only treatment with high dose of betanin showed significant increase in AMPK (p = 0.007), SIRT1 (p = 0.013) and SIRT6 (p = 0.024) expression compared to control non-treated cells. Betanin (20 µM) also significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the culture supernatants of the CAD patients compared to control non-treated cells (p < 0.001). Betanin could enhance AMPK, SIRT1 and SIRT6 gene expressions in PBMCs and represent a useful complementary treatment to reduce the proinflammatory status accompanied with CAD.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0272
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Cañihua ( Aellen) a promising superfood in food industry: a review

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      Authors: Jerry Fredy Gomez Cahuata , Yessica Estefany Rosas-Quina , Erika Pachari Vera
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to divulge the current knowledge about the nutritional and functional characteristics of Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen), in addition to its potential applications in the food industry since research studies related to it are still limited compared to other cereals of greater diffusion. The scientific information was collected from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, using keywords such as nutrition value of Chenopodium pallidicaule, amaranth and pseudocereals. Consistent information was selected according to its relevance, year of publication and accuracy with the topic. A total of 49 research papers were selected. Cañihua is a grain with high nutritional potential, considered a superfood because it has a high protein quality, a balanced composition of essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids, with a high concentration of linoleic and oleic acid. Besides, it has a good level of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity. However, its production and consumption are limited outside its area of origin, although its cultivation is possible under harsh conditions. This paper, through a systematic bibliographic review, highlights the potential of cañihua to be considered in the development of food products with high nutritional and functional value. The information compiled will help researchers and professionals become aware of the importance of this grain and join forces in its processing and enhancement of its attributes.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0277
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Corporate social responsibility and biotechnological foods: an
           experimental study on consumer’s behaviour

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      Authors: Flavio Boccia , Daniela Covino
      Abstract: New food technologies based on biotechnological organisms are increasingly becoming a cause for debate and conflicting discussions. This paper aims to investigate hypothetical consumer behaviour, and the willingness to pay (WtP), towards a specific type of genetically modified food in relation to particular indications on the label about the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives by manufacturing companies. For this purpose a choice experiment was used on a representative sample of more 1,300 Italian families, interviewing the component in charge of the buying choices within the selected household. A random parameter logit-error component model allows for heterogeneity in consumer preferences and potential correlation across utilities and across taste parameters. Beyond investigating consumers’ preferences regarding that product through a choice experiment, the aim was to detect the drivers of that purchase and preference heterogeneity across consumers’ choice, and the WtP, for the products with those features. Results also offer a topic for further discussion and are useful for companies’ strategies to understand how to address such concerns through appropriate CSR policies. The main results are: CSR initiatives always have a strong effect on consumer choice; the price is consistently important, exerting a negative influence in the decision-making process for individuals; consumers may also know possible effects of genetically modified foods, but that does not always translate into purchase behaviour. The research considers a particular link between genetically modified food and CSR not addressed in details; moreover, it is also based on the author’s own previous research and is its natural continuation and development, but also important for future researches.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0293
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The relationship between dietary inflammatory index and metabolic syndrome
           in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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      Authors: Teymour Sheikhi , Yahya Pasdar , Jalal Moludi , Mehdi Moradinazar , Hadi Abdollahzad
      Abstract: Inflammation plays a significant role in incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose risk can be reduced through modifying the diet. Considering the importance of incidence of MetS among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), this study aims to determine the relationship between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and MetS in these patients. This study was performed on 261 adults 35–65 years of age suffering from RA. The patients were among the participants in Ravansar non-communicable disease prospective study. DII was calculated based on food frequency questionnaire. The components of MetS were measured according to the protocol of prospective epidemiological research studies in Iran cohort. Data analysis was carried out using univariate and multivariate logistic regression model by modifying the confounding variables. In patients with RA, prevalence of MetS was 37.5%. The mean of DII in RA patients with MetS and without MetS was −2.3 ± 1.5 and −2.2 ± 1.6, respectively, with no significant difference between two groups. After modifying the variables of age and gender, the odds of increasing waist circumference (WC) were near 1.9 times greater in the fourth quartile (pro-inflammatory diet) compared to the first quartile of DII (anti-inflammatory diet) (P = 0.03). The odds of developing hypertension was approximately 1.3 times greater in the fourth compared to the first quartile of DII (P = 0.034). The odds of developing MetS increased by 27% in the fourth quartile in comparison to the first one, though this increase was not statistically significant. In RA patients, with increase in DII score, the WC and blood pressure had increased. The DII had no significant relationship with MetS. Further studies are essential across larger populations to confirm the findings.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0302
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Does strawberry supplementation ameliorate markers of cardiovascular and
           metabolic health' A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Reihaneh Mousavi , Morteza Arab-Zozani , Elaheh Foroumandi , Majid Karandish , Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad , Anahita Mansoori , Jalal Moludi
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the effect of strawberry supplementation on some metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative parameters in adults with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed up to November 2020 using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Sciences and Scopus databases. The pooled mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to analyze the data by random-effects model. I2 statistics and Cochrane risk of bias tool were used for investigating heterogeneity and quality of included studies, respectively. In total, 13 randomized controlled trials with 488 participants were included. Strawberry supplementation significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (MD = −2.1, 95% CI [−3.7, −0.42], P = 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.16, −0.30, −0.02, P = 0.03), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.76, −1.4, −0.05, P < 0.001) and CRP (−0.31, −0.43, −0.18, P = 0.04). Leptin levels were raised in control group compared with participants who had received strawberry (0.65, 0.09 and 1.2, P = 0.02). The results of subgroup analysis based on the follow-up duration and supplementation dose showed that consumption of strawberry for more than eight weeks and 50 g day−1 can significantly decrease some other CV risk factors compared to control group. Further, both higher follow-up duration and supplementation dose were more effective in increasing leptin levels of control group compared to intervention group. The use of some useful plant foods such as strawberries by the pharmaceutical industry and the community health sector can greatly help improve people’s CV and metabolic health.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-10-2021-0295
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Determinants of late adolescent nutritional status in Indonesia: a
           nation-wide cross-sectional survey

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      Authors: Ni Ny Wedarthani Achintya Amrita , Ni Wayan Arya Utami , Kadek Tresna Adhi
      Abstract: This study aims to examine determinants of underweight and overweight nutritional status among late adolescents in Indonesia. A cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 Indonesian Family Life Survey 5 (IFLS-5) was conducted. Respondents for this study were selected through stratified and multistage random sampling. Of all IFLS-5 respondents, 2,791 were adolescents 18–24 years old. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to identify major determinants of nutritional status among late adolescents. The prevalence of underweight and overweight nutritional status was 19.10% and 12.79%, respectively. Underweight status among late adolescents was strongly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–2.33). Moreover, living in urban areas showed the strongest association with overweight status among the same group (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.29–2.44). This study gained the advantage from the use of national data that are collected by trained enumerators. Therefore, the possibility of bias is very small, and the study results can be generalized to a late adolescent group in Indonesia. However, this study also has limitations in the types of data available, as it uses secondary data. The lack of detailed data regarding food security, frequency of food consumption in a month and sources of income of the adolescents limit the interpretation of the study. Further studies should consider using a retrospective cohort approach in all adolescent age groups using data from the IFLS-1 to IFLS-5 so that the temporal relationship of the multifactorial nutrition variables can be identified. Provide input and advice to policymakers in all sectors related to adolescent health and educational curricula for consideration in making interventions that focus on improving nutrition by taking into account the characteristics of adolescents, such as smoking habits, area of residence, income and age of adolescents because nutritional problems are multifactorial. This study can provide education to adolescents to create healthier consumption habits to reduce non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the adult phase, ideal body weight, reduce unhealthy lifestyles (smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs) and increase self-esteem and reduce depression. This study brings significant findings on the dominant determinant of nutritional status among late adolescents in Indonesia and their vulnerability to NCDs. To address the high prevalence of underweight and overweight nutritional status in Indonesia, a collaboration between smoking cessation, community nutrition and reproductive health programs is required for preventing the underweight nutritional status in adolescents, with a focus on obesity prevention for adolescents living in urban areas. It is expected that this collaboration will support the early prevention of NCD risks.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0235
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Association of plant-based diets with lipid profile and anthropometric
           indices: a cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Mohadese Borazjani , Mehran Nouri , Kamesh Venkatakrishnane , Maryam Najafi , Shiva Faghih
      Abstract: Plant-based diets have been related to decreasing morbidity and mortality of many non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plant-based diets and lipid profiles and anthropometric indices. This cross-sectional study was performed on 236 men and women selected from Shiraz health-care centers. This study used a 168-item food frequency questionnaire to calculate plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) and unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI). Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Furthermore, body mass index, a body shape index and conicity index (CI) were calculated after measuring weight, height and waist circumference. Higher score of PDI was significantly related to higher triglycerides level (OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.48; P = 0.03). In the fully adjusted model, there was a significant association between ABSI and hPDI (OR = 4.88; 95% CI: 1.17, 20.24; P = 0.03). A significant inverse association was observed between uPDI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.98; P = 0.03). Also, this study found a decreasing, but insignificant trend in relation of ABSI (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.22, 2.34) and CI (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.56) with PDI. Further studies are needed to explore the association of PDI with anthropometric indices and lipid profile and also to assess the potential causality of the observed associations. Plant-based diets according to their contents could affect triglycerides, HDL and anthropometric properties. Hence, dietitians should consider the findings of this study such as the inverse effect of unhealthy plant-based diets on HDL and the relation between healthy plant-based diets and WC and abdominal obesity. This study showed that adherence to a plant-based diet was related to higher triglycerides levels. Also, uPDI was inversely associated with HDL level. Furthermore, participants who adhered more to a healthy plant-based diet had higher abdominal adiposity.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2021-0181
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Physiochemical properties and sensory characteristics of resistant starch
           enriched cookies

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      Authors: Arezoo Rojhani , Joshua Naranjo , Ping Ouyang
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine sensory attributes, physiochemical characteristics and consumer preference of drop sugar cookies prepared using high-amylose maize resistant starch (HAMRS) as a replacement for 10%, 20% and 30% of all-purpose (AP) flour as compared to a control made with 100% AP flour. A balanced complete block experimental design was used to evaluate the eating quality of the resistant starch enriched cookies using a consumer panel. Consumer preference for the appearance, flavor, texture, moistness and overall acceptability of cookies was assessed. Diameter, height, spread ratio, hardness, moisture, pH, density, surface color and nutrient composition of cookies were analyzed. Compared with the control cookies, the HAMRS cookies had lower diameters, higher, heights, reduced spreads, reduced % moisture losses and lower densities (p < 0.001). TA.XT Plus Texture Analyzer showed the HAMRS cookies had a softer texture than the control cookies (p < 0.0001). Evaluation of surface color showed no significant difference in lightness between the control and the HAMRS cookies. The HAMRS cookies were preferred over the control for appearance, texture and moistness in sensory evaluation with 42.5% of panelists choosing the 20% HAMRS replaced cookies as their overall preference. The 20% and 30% HAMRS replaced cookies qualify to be labeled as a “good source” and “excellent source” of fiber, respectively. This data demonstrates that replacement of up to 30% of AP flour with HAMRS improves eating quality and dietary fiber content of sugar cookies. Our results show that HAMRS has good potential for developing high fiber cookies with minimal adverse impact on physical characteristics and notable improvements in sensory attributes and nutritional value. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that has reported on the functionality, consumer preference and nutritional value of cookies enriched with a HAMRS that is available to consumers in the form of flour.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0231
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and practices of adults on food
           safety: a cross-sectional sample from Turkey

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      Authors: Pınar Göbel , Nevin Şanlier , Sine Yilmaz , Onur Toka , Büşra Açikalin , Şule Kocabaş
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the levels of food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of consumer. In total, 1,161 volunteers were included in this study, which has been developed to measure the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adults on food safety. Study data were collected through an online survey technique. A statistically significant difference was determined between male and female participants and also at the education level considering total food safety attitude and practice scores (p < 0,001). It was determined that university graduates had higher scores at all scales than the median scores. When an assessment was made on the body mass index of the participants, it was seen that the implementation and attitude scales were statistically different from each other, and in paired comparisons on these scales, the average scores of normal-weight individuals were observed higher in the sub-dimensions than slightly obese individuals (p < 0.007; p < 0.001). Even though the population of the study was adults living in different cities, the results should not be generalized to all adults and the whole country. Also, the fact that the answers to the questions were not face-to-face, could create a bias. Although the reliability coefficient was found to be high, the data reported by the individuals participating in the study about their behavior formed the study results. This study makes an important contribution to the literature. Determining the knowledge, attitude and behavior of consumers about food safety is important in ensuring food safety.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0268
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with overweight and
           obesity among primary school children in Tanzania: a case-control study

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      Authors: Renatha Pacific , Kissa Kulwa , Haikael D. Martin , Pammla Petrucka
      Abstract: This study aims at determining the risk of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors on overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 10–13 years in Tanzania. A case-control study was conducted from January to March 2020 involving 69 overweight/obese children as cases and 138 normal weight children as controls. Cases were identified as having body mass index-for-age ≥ +1 standard deviation (SD) and controls as those having BMI-for-age range between −2 SD to 2 h/week (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1) and walking for exercise 2 h/week (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03–0.7) was a protective factor against overweight/obesity. Controls had a significantly higher mean score of being active during lunch breaks compared to cases (p = 0.012). Cases had higher weight, height and percentage body fat than controls (p < 0.001). The home environment provided more avenues for physical activity than the school environment. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is original research work and the first case-control study to predict physical activity and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight and obesity in Tanzanian school children.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-09-2021-0273
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Research of resilience and elastic properties of short pastry with the
           meals of soy, sunflower and milk thistle

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      Authors: Vitalii Mihailik , Oksana Vitriak , Inna Danyliuk , Mykola Valko , Olga Mamai , Tatyana Popovych , Anna Ryabinina , Lyudmila Vishnevskaya , Valentyna Burak , Ludmila Vognivenko
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the resilience and elastic properties of short pastry with the meals of soy, sunflower and milk thistle. Recent studies in the emerging food technologies of short pastry with use of meals were considered. Their focus on the improvement of the functional peculiarities of short pastry and benefits for people were the defining characteristics of the studies. Model food compositions have been developed from soybean meal, sunflower meal and milk thistle for adding them to semi-finished short pastry products. The technology of short pastry confectionery made from short pastry with oilseed meal has been scientifically substantiated and developed. The chemical composition of shortbread cookies with the use of oilseed meal was calculated. The developed technology increased protein content by 2.5 times, cellulose content – by six times, significantly increased mineralization in the developed confectionery products. The content of calcium increased by 172.9 mg, selenium – by 13.06 mcg, iodine – by 2.76 mcg and vitamin E by 2.4 mg. The developed technology of short pastry with a model composition of the meal can be used in practice. The use of a meal composition is a promising direction to improve the brittleness of short pastry products. The developed pastry products made from short pastry with added meal can be introduced into catering establishments as functional products with improved biological value. Developed pastry products can be used as functional products with improved biological value, which is important for people’s health and has positive effects on the human body. The use of meals of soy, sunflower and milk thistle in short pastry increases its nutritional and biological value, which improves the impact on the human body. The developed pastry products can be introduced as functional products with improved biological value, which is important for the improvement of people’s health in different countries of the world.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2021-0189
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • The comprehensive mechanistic insight into the effects of vitamin D on
           dementia – a review

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      Authors: Jaber Jafarzadeh , Laleh Payahoo , Mohammad Yousefi , Ali Barzegar
      Abstract: This paper aims to depict the mechanistic role of vitamin D on dementia prevention, relief of the severity and the complication of the disease. All papers indexed in scientific databases, including Scopus, Elsevier, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar between 2000 and 2021 were extracted and discussed. To present the mechanistic role of vitamin D in declining the severity of dementia, keywords including dementia, vitamin D, oxidative stress, inflammation, amyloid beta-Peptides were used. Dementia is a prevalent cognitive disorder worldwide, especially in elderly people, which is accompanied by serious disabilities. Besides genetic, biological and lifestyle factors are involved in the incidence of dementia. An unhealthy diet along with micronutrient deficiencies are among modifiable factors. Vitamin D is one of the important micronutrients in brain health. Besides the involvement in gene expression, bone mineralization, apoptosis, inflammation, skeletal maturation, neurotropic action and hemostasis of phosphate and calcium, vitamin D also exerts neuroprotective effects via genomic and non-genomic pathways. Vitamin D up-regulates the expression of various genes involved in dementia incidence via various mechanisms. Decreasing oxidative stress and the neuro-inflammatory cytokines levels, regulation of the expression of alternated Proteins including Tau and Amyloid-ß, calcium homeostasis in the central nervous system and also vascular are considered main mechanisms. Considering the importance of diet in preventing dementia, adherence to a healthy diet that provides essential nutrients to brain function seems to be urgent. Controlling serum levels of vitamin D periodically and providing vitamin D by related sources or supplements, if there is a deficiency, is recommended. Future studies are needed to clarify other related mechanisms.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0256
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • The effect of Aloe vera powder on anthropometric and metabolic
           syndrome’s indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized,
           double-blinded controlled clinical trial

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      Authors: Najme Zareian , Reihane Taheri , Mohammad Hossein Borgei , Siavash Babajafari , Hamid Mosallanezhad , Mohammad Hossein Nikoo , Reza Barati-Boldaji
      Abstract: It is well accepted that diabetes is associated with heart diseases and hyperlipidemia as a risk factor. In traditional medicines, some herbs such as Aloe vera seem to be effective in controlling diabetes. Owing to lack of human studies, this study aims to examine the effect of Aloe vera consumption on fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profiles and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study was conducted in 2019, in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 56 diabetic subjects were randomized by block randomization to receive a daily supplement of 1,000 mg Aloe vera powder capsules (n = 28) or placebo (n = 28) for eight weeks. At baseline and after eight weeks of treatment, dietary intake and physical activity were assessed by three-day food recall and international physical activity questionnaire. Meanwhile, after an overnight fasting, FBS and lipid profiles were measured. Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were assessed in the beginning and the end of the study. Independent t-tests were used for between-group analysis and paired t-tests for within-group analysis. After intervention, weight, body mass index and waist circumference significantly decreased in comparison to the placebo group (p-value: < 0.001, 0.001 and 0.02). Although, FBS, total triglyceride and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p-value: 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01), no change has been seen in low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol blood level and diastolic blood pressure. The limitations of this study are the short study duration and lack of Aloe vera powder’s ingredient analysis. This study is one of few human studies investigating the effect of Aloe vera on metabolic syndrome’s indices in diabetic patients. Because pharmacological therapy is tough, not comfort and correlated with potential adverse drug interactions, it is important to find an alternative or complementary measure to aid the diabetic patients. This study shows that Aloe vera has positive effect on body weight and blood sugar.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2021-0175
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Stunting and its associated factors in children aged 6–59 months in
           Ilubabor zone, Southwest Ethiopia

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      Authors: Asrat Zewdie , Efrem Negash , Dereje Tsegaye
      Abstract: Stunting, which refers to low height-for-age, is one of the most important public health problems in Ethiopia, and it more accurately reflects nutritional deficiencies and illness that occur during the most critical periods for growth and development in early life. Given this, this paper aims at determining the magnitude and factors associated with stunting among 6–59 month old children in Ilubabor Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. This paper opted for a descriptive study using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements of 617 children aged 6–59 months. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 and World Health Organization (WHO) Anthro software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of stunting. About 33.7% of children aged 6–59 months included in this study were stunted. The proportion of moderate and severe stunting among the stunted children was 26.4% and 7.3%, respectively. Large family size (AOR = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5, 6.4), low dietary diversity score (AOR = 7.8; 95% CI: 4.6, 13.0) and household food insecurity (AOR = 16.4; 95% CI: 10.0, 26.7) were independent predictors of stunting. Reporting and recall bias related to food groups consumed over the past seven days and seasonal variation may affect the findings related to factors associated with stunting. Globally, it is estimated that nearly 165 million children under the age of five are stunted. Outcomes associated with stunting include increased risk of mortality, increased disease risk, developmental delays, diminished ability to learn and lower school achievement and reduced lifelong productivity. So, determining the level of stunting in a particular community is important to design strategies for curbing the contributing factors. This study’s community-based design yields a representative sample of study subjects in the Hurumu district, which is valuable for intervention methods and actions. Standardized tools that are validated for use by the World Health Organization are used. Besides, anthropometric data were analyzed using the updated WHO Anthro software.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0227
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Comparative study of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different
           parts of lemongrass leaves and their application in the functional drink

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      Authors: Muhammad Abbas Ranjah , Amir Ismail , Muhammad Waseem , Saira Tanweer , Baila Ahmad , Tahir Mehmood , Faiz-Ul-Hassan Shah , Zulfiqar Ahmad , Majid Hussain , Tariq Ismail
      Abstract: This study aims to compare the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different parts (tip, mid and base portion) of lemongrass leaves for application as a natural ingredient in the functional drink. Lemongrass leaf powder was prepared from different parts of leaves and evaluated for nutritional composition. Additionally, the extracts of different portions of lemongrass leaves were analyzed for total phenolics, free radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and antimicrobial activities for their application in food products. Tip portion of lemongrass leaf anticipated significantly (p < 0.05) higher contents of ash, protein, calcium, potassium and iron i.e. 6.2 mg/100 g, 18 mg/100 g, 340 ppm, 819 ppm and 32 ppm, respectively. Maximum (p < 0.05) phenolics (14.7 mg GAE/100 g), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydroxyl (86.3%) and FRAP (200 mmol/100 g) were observed in lemongrass leaf tip methanolic extracts. Moreover, lemongrass leaf tip hydro-methanolic extracts portrayed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus i.e. 16.7 and 18.2 mm, respectively. This study demonstrated higher antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the tip of lemongrass leaves as compared with mid and base portions, hence suggesting its role in the improvement of physicochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of food products. Consequently, the application of lemongrass methanolic extract up to 10% remarkably enhanced the nutritional value and sensorial acceptance of the beverages. The present research draws evidence from laboratory analysis of fresh lemongrass grown in Pakistan. The findings suggest that lemongrass methanolic extracts could be used as a nutritionally rich source of antioxidant activity in functional drinks.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-04
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0237
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • The dark side of the quarantine: night eating, sleep quality and the
           health locus of control in women

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      Authors: Sine Yılmaz , Nevin Sanlier , Pınar Göbel , Büşra Açıkalın , Sule Kocabas , Akif Dundar
      Abstract: Staying at home for a prolonged period, the stress during COVID-19 quarantine may affect sleep quality, night eating behaviours of individuals. This paper aims to identify the relationship between night eating behaviour, sleep quality, perceptions of health locus of control in women during the pandemic. An anonymous, Web based, cross-sectional study was conducted for the duration of a month (April-May, 2020). The study evaluated the nutritional habits of the participants. Anthropometric measurements were noted. Night Eating Syndrome Questionnaire (NESQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Multi-dimensional Health Locus of Control-A were used for data collection. With a mean age of 33 ± 8 years, 529 women participated in the study. The mean NESQ score was 14.4 ± 4.7, PSQI score was 6.4 ± 2.9. Higher night eating scores were observed in participants with chance locus of control (CLC) perception when compared to participants with internal health locus of control (IHLC) perception (p < 0.05). Lower sleep quality was observed in obese participants compared to normal/overweight participants (p < 0.05). It was also found that night eating behaviours significantly predicted sleep quality (R = 0.36, R2 = 0.13; p < 0.01), explaining about 13.3% of total variance of sleep quality. Only internet users and women participated in the study, and the questionnaire form was applied online; the information was obtained in the form of the participants' own statements. It was found that night eating behaviour significantly predicted sleep quality during the pandemic. It was also determined that the individuals with high chance locus of control perception had higher NES scores than the individuals with high internal locus of control perception. The night eating behaviours significantly predict sleep quality, individuals with a high perception of CLC had a higher night eating score than individuals with high perception of IHLC during the pandemic.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0246
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Green tea might be effective in alleviating COVID-19 associated
           psychiatric complications: preliminary results from a pilot randomized
           controlled trial

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      Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan , Arsalan Salari , Eshagh Mohammadyari , Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi , Aydin Pourkazemi , Azin Vakilpour , Morteza Rahbar Taramsari , Zeinab Ghorbani
      Abstract: It is argued that COVID-19 patients show various neuropsychiatric symptoms, including fatigue, depression and anxiety. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated that green tea could potentially have antiviral effects and ameliorate psychiatric disorders. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether drinking green tea can clinically improve psychiatric complications of COVID-19 infection. This study included 40 patients with laboratory confirmed mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disorder in the current randomized open-label controlled trial. Patients were instructed to include three cups/day of green tea (intervention) or black tea (control) to their usual diet for four weeks immediately after diagnosis of the disease. At the study baseline and after the intervention, the enrolled patients’ fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed by the Chalder Fatigue Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. A total of 19 COVID-19 cases in the intervention group (mean age = 52 years) and 14 cases (mean age = 50 years) in the control group completed the study. Analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline levels, and confounders revealed that those who consumed three cups/day of green tea compared to the patients who received black tea experienced significantly lower fatigue, depression and state and trait anxiety levels (adjusted means for fatigue = 12.3 vs 16.2 (P = 0.03), depression = 0.53 vs 1.8 (P = 0.01), 37.4 vs 45.5 (P < 0.01) and 37.9 vs 45.2 (P < 0.01)). The open-label design may bias the evaluation of the self-reported status of fatigue, depression or anxiety as the main outcomes assessed. Moreover, as this study did not include patients with severe COVID-19, this might affect the generalizability of the present results. Thus, the recommendation of daily drinking green tea may be limited to the subjects diagnosed with mild-to-moderate type of infection or those with long-term neuropsychiatric complications owing to COVID-19. Besides, considering the ethical issues, this study could not exclude the drug therapy’s confounding effects; thereby, this point should be considered when interpreting the current results. Besides, it is worth noting that Guilan province in the north of Iran is recognized as a tea (and particularly green tea) producing region; thereby, it is an available and relatively inexpensive product. Considering this issue, the recommendation to consume this medicinal plant in adjunct to the routine treatment approach among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 based on its beneficial effects may be widely accepted. Green tea consumption could be considered an option to combat COVID-19 associated psychological complications, including fatigue, depression and anxiety among patients suffering from mild-to-moderate type of this viral infection. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, in this study, for the first time, the effects of green tea compared to black tea on COVID-19 associated fatigue, depression and anxiety status within an open-label controlled trial have been investigated.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0258
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Effect of processing method on quality characteristics of harit soybean
           (glycine max): in vitro protein digestibility, hplc, ftir analysis

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      Authors: Deepika Kathuria , Anju K. Dhiman , Surekha Attri , Manish Kumar
      Abstract: Soybean is potentially a rich source of protein and lipids along with isoflavone. However, the use of soybean is limited due to presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, etc. The present study aimed at evaluation of Harit soya seeds of different treatments such as soaking, dehulling, germination, soaking+roasting and roasting in order to enhance its quality. Harit soya seeds were utilized were soaked overnight and subjected for dehulling, germination for 3 days as well as roasting followed by drying to obtain fine powder for quality evaluation. Dehulling and germination produce significant (p < 0.01) increase in protein, crude fiber, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and isoflavones while fat was decreased non-significantly. The highest value of 12.4 mg/100g, 5.3 mgGAE/g and 6.6 mg/g for ascorbic acid, total phenolics and isoflavones was found in germinated seeds. Also, the effect of soaking, roasting and their combination lead to significant decrease in the functional properties of the seeds. Anti-nutritional factors were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced in all forms of treated seeds while pepsin and trysin digestibility was enhanced during soaking, dehulling and germination with maximum value of 72.6 and 25.8%, respectively in germinated seeds. Improvement in quality of evergreen variety of soybean using cost effective traditional methods
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0212
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Vitamin D status and dietary intake in young university students in the UK

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      Authors: Honglin Dong , Viktorija Asmolovaite , Nareen Marseal , Maryam Mearbon
      Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide. This paper aims to investigate the vitamin D status and dietary intake in young university students. Forty-one healthy students aged 18–29 years from Coventry University UK were recruited during January-February 2019, including white Caucasians (n = 18), African-Caribbeans (n = 14) and Asians (n = 9). Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured and dietary vitamin D intake was determined. Chi-square and simple linear regression were used to analyse the data. The plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were (36.0 ± 22.2) nmol/L in all subjects, (46.5 ± 25.3) nmol/L in white Caucasians, (22.6 ± 7.4) nmol/L in African-Caribbeans and (37.4 ± 21.7 nmol/L) in Asians. The majority (85.7%) of African-Caribbeans were vitamin D deficient compared with 22.2% of white Caucasians and 33.3% of Asians (p = 0.001). Overweight/obese subjects showed a significant higher proportion of vitamin D deficiency (65%) than normal weight subjects (28.6%) (p = 0.04). The average dietary vitamin D intake in all subjects was (4.6 ± 3.9) µg/day. Only 12.1% of the subjects met the recommended dietary vitamin D intake of 10 µg/day. Dietary vitamin D intake (p = 0.04) and ethnicity (p = 0.01) were significant predictors of 25(OH)D levels and accounted for 13% and 18.5% of 25(OH)D variance, respectively. This small-scale study showed an alarmingly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among subjects from African-Caribbean origin during wintertime. Education programs and campaigns are urgently needed to fight the vitamin D deficiency in this population. The targeted population were in a critical period of transition from adolescence toward adulthood involving in changes in behaviours and nutrition.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-07-2021-0201
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Protein quality assessment of pecan [ (wangenh.) K. Koch] and pine (
           wall.) nuts for dietary supplementation

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      Authors: Beenu Tanwar , Rajni Modgil , Ankit Goyal
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the protein (biological) quality of pecan and pine nuts supplemented diets in male Wistar albino rats. A randomized and controlled study (45 d) was conducted in male Wistar albino rats (n = 60) comprising six groups, namely, control (Cc), control with 1% cholesterol (CC1), Pecan group (Pe), Pecan group supplemented with 1% cholesterol (Pi1), Pine group supplemented with 1% cholesterol (Pi1). Protein quality of supplemented diet/s was assessed in terms of various biological indices. Pe and Pi groups exhibited normal growth when compared with Cc. Despite showing higher feed and protein intake, Pe and Pi groups exhibited significantly (P = 0.023) lower weight gain than Cc. There was no significant difference between the protein efficiency ratio (3.8 ± 0.2 and 3.7 ± 0.2), apparent protein digestibility (81.5 ± 2.2 and 80.5 ± 2%), true protein digestibility (90.6 ± 1.1 and 88.5 ± 3.5%) and biological value (BV) (75.6 ± 0.9 and 72.6 ± 0.9%) of Pe and Pi groups, respectively. Pe group presented considerably higher net protein utilization (68.5 ± 1.4 vs 64.4 ± 0.8%) and protein retention efficiency (34.8 ± 1.1 vs 31.2 ± 1.3%) than Pi group. Overall, pecan-based diet displayed superior biological quality over pine nut. Antinutrients present in the nuts did not show any major negative effect on the growth, digestibility and bioavailability of the nutrients in rats. BV ranging from 72.6% to 75.6% suggested a satisfactory quality of experimental nut-based diets. Further investigation of pecan and pine nuts consumption to examine the potential benefits and associated mechanisms of action is warranted which would aid in a better understanding and to establish nutritional recommendations. Overall, the exploitation of pecan and pine nut flours for the development of value-added food products is favorable from a nutritional point of view.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-24
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0260
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Association between individual and environmental factors with body mass
           index for age z-score in female adolescents living in North-West of Iran

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      Authors: Bahareh Seyyedin , Nasrin Omidvar , Bahar Bakhshi , Farid Zayeri , Arezoo Rezazadeh
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of individual and environmental indicators with body mass-index-for-age-z-score (BAZ) of female adolescents living in the North-West of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 380 female adolescents aged 16-18 years were selected from two major ethnic groups (Azeri and Kurd) in Urmia city selected by stratified cluster sampling method. In total, 13 high schools (9 public and 4 private) were selected across all municipality zones of Urmia city. BAZ was calculated by Anthro-Plus software. Demographic and socioeconomic information of samples were collected by a questionnaire through interviews. Home environment features (including physical activity facilities, television, computer games and social media use, food consumption habits and family rules) and school environment features (including socioeconomic status [SES], physical activity facilities, food consumption habits) were evaluated by two separate self-constructed questionnaires via an interview with adolescents and schools’ deans, respectively. Azeri adolescents had parents with higher education and job level and higher SES compared to Kurds (p = 0.000). A higher percent of Azeri adolescents were obese than their Kurd counterparts (p = 0.006). No association was found between individual factors and BAZ in each ethnic group. Considering home environment characteristics, in Kurd adolescents, the maternal occupational level was positively associated with BAZ (p = 0.02). With regard to school environmental features, accessibility of physical activity facilities in school was inversely associated with BAZ only in Kurds (p = 0.005). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate various environmental factors in association with adolescent’s overweight/obesity prevalence in different ethnical groups in northwest Iran.
      Citation: Nutrition & Food Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.1108/NFS-06-2021-0185
      Issue No: Vol. 52 , No. 4 (2021)
       
  • Nutrition & Food Science

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