Subjects -> RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (Total: 845 journals)
    - BUDDHIST (14 journals)
    - EASTERN ORTHODOX (1 journals)
    - HINDU (6 journals)
    - ISLAMIC (179 journals)
    - JUDAIC (23 journals)
    - OTHER DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS (4 journals)
    - PROTESTANT (21 journals)
    - RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (564 journals)
    - ROMAN CATHOLIC (33 journals)

RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (564 journals)                  1 2 3     

Showing 1 - 197 of 197 Journals sorted alphabetically
'Ilu. Revista de Ciencias de las Religiones     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Patristica et Byzantina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Theologica     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Acta Universitatis Carolinae Theologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Addin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in the Study of Information and Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Al-Adyan     Open Access  
al-Afkar : Journal For Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Albertus Magnus     Open Access  
Aleph Historical Studies in Science and Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Alue ja Ympäristö     Open Access  
Amasya Theology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Theology & Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Andrews University Seminary Student Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Andrews University Seminary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Canonici     Open Access  
Annales Missiologici Posnanienses     Open Access  
Annali di Scienze Religiose     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the University of Bucharest : Philosophy Series     Open Access  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences religieuses     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ANZTLA EJournal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Apocrypha     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Approaching Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archiv für Religionsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Artuklu Akademi     Open Access  
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asbury Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Augustinian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Augustinianum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Religion Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Baha'l Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bible Translator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biblica et Patristica Thoruniensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bijdragen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Black Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Buddhist Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Buddhist-Christian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin for the Study of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Caderno Teológico da PUCPR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers d’études du religieux     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d’études du religieux. Recherches interdisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Caminhando     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chôra : Revue d’Études Anciennes et Médiévales - philosophie, théologie, sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Christian Bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Christian Education Journal : Research on Educational Ministry     Hybrid Journal  
Christian Perspectives in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Christian Spirituality and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Church History : Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Church, Communication and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Religión/Ciências Sociais e Religião     Open Access  
Clotho     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comparative Islamic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Conciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conspectus : The Journal of the South African Theological Seminary     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Islam     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Contemporary Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Contemporary Jewry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Conversations In Religion & Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Covenant Quarterly     Open Access  
Critical Research on Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Crosscurrents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuestiones Teológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cultural Encounters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Culture and Religion: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Currents in Biblical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dansk Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Der Islam     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diaconia : Journal for the Study of Christian Social Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Diakrisis Yearbook of Theology and Philosophy     Open Access  
Dialog: a Journal of Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dialogue - A Journal of Mormon Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
DIN : Tidsskrift for religion og kultur     Open Access  
Dini Araştırmalar / Journal of Religious Studies     Open Access  
Dios y el Hombre     Open Access  
Doctor virtualis     Open Access  
Downside Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
e-Makalat Mezhep Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
e-Theologos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EarthSong Journal: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ecclesia : Studia z Dziejów Wielkopolski     Open Access  
Ecclesiastical Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
El-Hikmah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eleutheria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Entangled Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Epistemology & Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Estudios Eclesiásticos. Revista teológica de investigación e información     Open Access  
Estudos de Religião     Open Access  
Estudos Teológicos     Open Access  
ET-Studies : Journal of the European Society for Catholic Theology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Études d’histoire religieuse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Journal for Church and State Research - Revue européenne des relations Églises-État     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
European Journal for the Study of Thomas Aquinas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evangelische Theologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expository Times     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Faith and Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Fieldwork in Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Filosofia Theoretica : Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Exegese und Hochschuldidaktik: Verstehen von Anfang an     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forum Philosophicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Franciscanum. Revista de las ciencias del espíritu     Open Access  
Fronteiras : Revista de Teologia da Unicap     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geschichte in Köln     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Göttinger Predigtmeditationen     Hybrid Journal  
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Hiphil     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hispania Sacra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Holy Land Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Homiletische Monatshefte     Hybrid Journal  
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IBDA' : Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
IKON     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Illumine : Journal of the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society Graduate Students Association     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Implicit Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inferensi : Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  
Innes Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interdisciplinary Journal for Religion and Transformation in Contemporary Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Bulletin of Mission Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
International Journal for Religious Freedom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for the Psychology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Christianity & Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Latin American Religions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Practical Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systematic Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Review of Mission     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Studies in Catholic Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interpretation : A Journal of Bible and Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Intiqad : Jurnal Agama dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Irish Theological Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Ius Canonicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Jewish History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Jewish Social Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Język - Szkoła - Religia     Open Access  
Jonathan Edwards Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Christian Scholarship = Tydskrif vir Christelike Wetenskap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal for Peace and Justice Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Journal for the Study of Religion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal for the Study of Spirituality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal for the Study of the New Testament     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Adult Theological Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Adventist Mission Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Africana Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Journal of Analytic Theology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Christian Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biblical Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)

        1 2 3     

Similar Journals
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Amasya Theology Journal
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2667-7326 - ISSN (Online) 2667-6710
Published by Amasya Universitesi Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The teaching of Elifbā (the Qurānic Alphabet) from the Proclamation of
           the Imperial Edict of Tanzimat to the Acceptance of the Latin Alphabet

    • Authors: Hatice AYAR ; İ̇rfan BAŞKURT
      Abstract: In the Islamic world, both learning and teaching of the Qur’ān has been considered an important duty since the early days. The first step of teaching the Qur’ān is undoubtedly the teaching of Arabic Alphabet. The teaching activity through elifbās (the Qur’ānic Alphabet) is important for proper reading of the Qur’ān. In this study, the historical process of the elifbā courses taught at primary schools from the proclamation of the Imperial Edict of Tanzimat to the acceptance of the Latin Alphabet (1839-1928), is discussed. The basic problem of the research was identified as discussing the questions of “How was the Qur’ān taught with the elifbās, which were used in primary schools in the period from the proclamation of the Imperial Edict of Tanzimat until the acceptance of the Latin alphabet (1839-1928)'”. The aim of the study was to identify the problems experienced in elifbā courses with its methods, and to evaluate the development in elifbās in the context of teaching the Qur’ān. Although great importance has been paid to the learning and teaching of the Qur’ān from the early days of Islam to our present day, it is seen that studies conducted on the elifbās with which the Qur’ān is taught are insufficient. For this reason, this study is important in terms of revealing the historical accumulation related to elifbā teaching.In this study, the document analysis, one of the method of qualitative researches, was used. The data on the historical process of elifbā teaching was obtained from the literature review and Ottoman Archives of the Presidency. The catalogs of many libraries, which especially the National Library, were scanned to reach the elifbās published between 1856 and 1928. Also, second-hand booksellers and collectors were applied to obtain elifbās. In this way, more than 200 elifbās were identified that were prepared between 1856 and 1928. These elifbās were classified as sections in Ottoman Turkish teaching, teaching of the Qur’ān, and teaching of both Ottoman Turkish and Qur’ān. In the study, elifbās both for Ottoman Turkish and Qur’ān teaching was examined. In this direction, some of the 62 elifbās identified were supplied as digital and printed. During the examination of the elifbās, descriptive analysis was done and the resulting data were interpreted to reach results.As a result of the study, it was seen that the elifbā classes in primary schools were at the forefront of teaching the Qur’an until the mid-19th, while the teaching of Ottoman Turkish remained secondary. It was found that the problems experienced in the teaching of the Qur’ān and Ottoman Turkish were closely related to issues such as the registration and attendance to primary schools were being not obligatory, the lessons being done individually, and that both the Qur’ān and Ottoman Turkish were taught by using one single elifbā. Since the past as of mid-19th, it was found that learning of Ottoman Turkish became more important than in the past, which has led to the teaching of Qur’an to secondary after the opening of Secondary Schools as an alternative to Primary Schools. Especially from 1890s onwards, some factors such as the teaching of Turkish sounds of letters in the elifbās that were prepared with sound method to teach Ottoman Turkish, the grasping of similar vowel letters in Turkish as if they were the same letters, and the fact that not adequate time was allocated for the subjects, such as cazm, shadda, and mad which are necessary to read the Qur’ān, negatively affected the teaching of the Qur’ān. As a result of the decisions at the Thessalian Teachers Congress gathered to solve the problem in question, the preparation of separate elifbās for the teaching of Qur’an and Ottoman Turkish has been an important development in terms of teaching the Qur’ān since 1911.Based on the studied elifbās, it was understood that the preparation of elifbās to use in the teaching of the Qur’ān based on sounds that will facilitate learning in our present day, and will be useful for the correct pronunciation of Arabic sounds of letters. Furthermore, it has been determined that in the teaching of Qur’ān elifbā without combining similar letters, such as ص س ث in s, which are similar in Turkish, by emphasizing that they have different sounds, and without establishing a sound link between Arabic letters and Turkish letters, as in the examples of a tie’s ﻂ, and a germ’s ﻕ, will make it easier to read the Qur’ān with the correct pronunciation.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Evaluation on the Concept of "بَقِيَّةُ/Baqıyya"

    • Authors: Mehmet ALTUNTAŞ
      Abstract: Some concepts in Quran such as the "al-bâkıyâtu's-sâlihât", "bekıyyetullâh" and "ulû bekıyye" are difficult expressions to understand. Because, it is not an easy to determine what the concept "al-bâkıyâtu’s-sâlihât" indicates through language, as the great commentator Taberî rightly points out. One of the main reasons for this is that it is not clearly mentioned what the deeds are described as "al-bâkıyâtu's-sâlihât" in the relevant verses. Another is that these concepts are included in the Meccan sûrahs. Based on this, some commentators have interpreted the concept "al-bâkıyâtu's-salihât" with invocation expressions which included Tawhid by taking into account the period of Mecca. On the other hand, some other commentators have explained the concept in a way that includes all good deeds without making a distinction between the surah of Meccan and Medinan.The concept "al-bâkıyâtu’s-sâlihât" is mentioned in both the sûrah al-Kahf and Mary which were revealed in Mecca. However, it seems unlikely possible to determine what these two adjectives indicate without looking at the context. However, in our opinion, it is possible to determine the meaning of this concept from the context. As in the whole of Meccan surahs, the issues of faith are explained in both contexts in which this concept is included. The commentators explained the concept by taking into account the relevant context and hadiths on the subject. Therefore, they interpreted this concept with phases such as "subhânallah", "alhamdulillâh", "la havla velâ quwwata illâ billâh" and "Allâhu akbar that express belief in Allah". In our opinion, this interpretation seems appropriate in context from the beginning of the prophecy. Therefore, the explanations that made about the concept and including all the worship, do not fully reflect the meaning of concept. Because it is a known issue that most of prayers are prescribed as obligatory in Medina. In addition, the meanings such as "righteous girls" and "deeds which born into one's heart" in the commentaries about the concept do not correspond to the context in which these expressions are included. As a result, it is possible to say that the concept "al-bâkıyâtü’s-sâlihât", which expresses belief in Allah, indicates the faith and eternal life in hereafter.Another expression used in the Qur’an regarding the word "baqıyya" is the concept "baqıyyetullâh". Some of the commentators have explained this concept by associating it with trade in the relevant context. As narrated in Surah Hûd, the people of Madian tribe made it a custom to deceive people by trading fraud. They thought that the wealth and power, that had acquired by the forbidden way, would keep them alive forever. However, the concept "baqıyyetullâh" shows that the reward of Allah will give to the believers in the hereafter is much more valuable than the temporary worldly blessings that the infidels people of Median tribe obtained through fraudulent means. Accordingly, this concept states that the return mean of trade obtained by lawful ways is eternal paradise. Therefore, with considering the context it is possible to say that this concept means "lawful profit obtained by considering the consent of Allah".Another expression used in the Qur'an regarding the word "baqıyya" is the concept "ulû bekıyye". The commentators have given different meanings to this concept. It is possible to say that those who express their sincerely faith to Allah are more accurate in the context of the meanings. Accordingly, it is possible to interpret this concept as "virtuous people who believe in Allah”. Because only believers who sincerely believe in Allah can eliminate the evils which committed in the world.Finally, the commentators made different interpretations about the concept "baqıyya" in verse 248 of the Surah al-Baqarah. However, it is possible to say that the concept "baqıyya" in this verse refers to "Torah" with considering the relevant context. Because the concept “baqıyya” in this verse refers to an object from Moses and Aaron. In addition, considering the singularity of the word "baqıyya" in the verse, it seems more reasonable that it refers to a single object, namely the Torah, rather than some items. In this article, firstly the verses in which these concepts are mentioned and the related contexts are examined. Then, in the light of the relevant hadiths, these concepts were tried to be interpreted with the examples of some Qur’an translations.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Issue of Being Cursed to Jews in the Qur'an

    • Authors: Enver BAYRAM
      Abstract: In this study, it was discussed why the Jews were cursed by Allah Almighty in the framework of the Qur'an. First of all, let us express that the Quran is a divine message sent by Allah for the guidance of humanity. It contains information that will lead humanity to happiness both in this world and hereafter. There are also concepts in it that describe paradise, its bounties, and the rewards that believers will receive. Besides some of the terms in the Qur'an, there are also concepts that evoke punishment. One of these concepts is “cursing” that means to be away from the mercy of Allah in both the world and hereafter. Also the concept “curse” is used in the Qur'an as meanings of "curse", "insulting", and "removal from Almighty Allah's mercy". Those who are cursed by Almighty Allah will be deprived of Allah's forgiveness in both this world and the hereafter. This is a punishment by Allah. Again, it is the curse of the angels and all people to that person. According to the Qur'an, Allah, angels and all people curse that occurs sometimes physically or psychologically. Allah will punish His servant who deviates from the right path, both physically and psychologically, in both this world and hereafter.The Quran contains stories of many tribes. Undoubtedly, one of them is about the Jews. The life story of Israelites or the Jews is widely included in the Quran. The life of Jews in Egypt and their later periods are mentioned. Meanwhile, the Israelites went astray by worshiping the calf after crossing the Red Sea. They also violated the Saturday ban in another period. Therefore the Jews, who oppose Allah's orders and prohibitions and do not fulfill their responsibilities, were turned into apes in the world, and will be also punished with the hell in hereafter. In addition, they will be faced with psychological punishments in both the world and hereafter. The Qur'an also expressed some of the reasons why Jews were psychologically or physically converted into monkeys. The reasons such as denial, rebellion, renunciation, fabricating lies in the name of Allah, concealing the truth, and distorting the book are mentioned among them. It is clearly stated in the Quran that the servant will be cursed because of these reasons. The way to avoid this is expressed as fulfilling the commandments and prohibitions of Allah.It is possible to divide the punishments into two as physical and psychological. Physical punishments such as slapping, hitting the body, and pushing anyone are punishments that affect the human body. However, the effect of psychological punishments, such as depriving a person of something that he loves, scolding, warning, threatening, condemning, cutting off love and attention from him, on the human soul that means the soul of man suffers from it. While the effect of physical punishments applied to the body passes over time, the effect of psychological punishments on the soul is more permanent. For this reason, the greatest psychological punishment for Jews is depriving of God's mercy in both the world and hereafter. Again, they win the curse of both angels and all people. Nevertheless, those who do not care about the faith and moral principles in the Qur'an, will invoke the curse of Allah regardless of their religion. In this study, the concept “curse” in the Qur’an will be discussed firstly. In this section, it will be explained what the meaning of the concept “curse” used in the Qur’an. Because many concepts in the Qur'an seem to have different meanings. Then, it will be focus on the reasons which caused the Jews to be cursed by Allah. Here, the reasons such as denial, rebellion, abstinence from their words, fabricating lies in the name of Allah, concealing the truth, and distorting the book will be mentioned. In addition, the physical and psychological punishments resulting from cursing will be considered and examined. In the last section, it will be tried to reach a conclusion with an evaluation.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Intellectual Interest for the Protection and Narration of Hadiths: The
           Method of Imlā and Its Reflections to Hadith Literature

    • Authors: Mustafa TANRIVERDİ
      Abstract: Discussions about the beginning of the writing the hadiths are very important in terms of enabling to determine a time period in which the important determinations will be based on the history of the hadith. Especially, the existence of narrations that can be used as evidence against and in favor of this issue makes this debate even more meaningful. In fact, the interest in the hadith has led to efforts to transfer this knowledge both orally and in writing from the early periods of the hadith history. Although it is noted that from the earliest times, as a result of the reliance on memory rather than writing, a reflex against writing hadith has remained in existence for a certain period of time, but it is understood that the activities on hadith writing have found a wide scope of practice and oral tradition left its place to written culture in the subsequent process of time. In this context, efforts towards written narrations have brought the writing to the fore fore as the prevailing element in the preservation and transmission of hadiths over time. One of the efforts in this direction is the imlā activities that begin between the teacher and the student, and has became widespread intellectual interest in the process. Imlā is a reliable method of the reception of hadith based on the fact that the material subject to the narration is written under the supervision of the shaykh himself in accordance with a number of rules and corrected it by checking on the original copy. This method, the first examples of which were seen in the period of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), started to be seen technically in the 2nd century (8.). In the middle of this century, Hadith imlā activities, which gained momentum, had become one of the important ways of hadith reception and transmission. These activities, which has attracted the attention of very large groups since the 3rd century (9.) has continued for a long time. During these periods, Imlā sessions, which are not determined as a special meeting place, were organized in mosque, market, bazaar, streets and avenues and in the 5th century (11.), it began to organized in madrasas and dār al-hadīth, which were the science centers of the period. In addition, such scientific institutions built in different regions with the special incentives of the state officials in this process have given a more systematic identity to the imlā sessions in terms of the place and time of meeting. Imlā meetings, which were accepted by the people as well as the muhaddiths; have been organized in many regions such as Baghdad, Basra, Damascus, Medina, Qazvin, Isfahan, Herat, Merv and Nishapur. In addition, the participation of large masses in the meetings led to increase the intellectual curiosity towards imlā activities and enriched the hadith culture of these regions. In this context, imlā sessions have also ensured the formation of a social fabric by bringing together different segments of society from scholars to politicians on a common ground of “hadith”. Moreover, with this method, which plays an important role in the written narration and preservation of the hadiths, a remarkable literature has emerged in the hadith literature thanks to extensive participation to the imlā sessions concluded in various regions since the early periods. During these sessions, a large number of literary works in different genres and sizes named as juz’, madjlis and amālī were created, as a result of these activities it made a significant contribution to the hadith literature and culture. By the 10th century (16.), the activities of imlā lost its former importance due to various reasons such as the increasing reliance on books with the effect of the changing in the understanding on science and culture of the period, the collection of hadiths the understanding on science and culture of the period, the becoming large extent, and the decreasing in hadith the hafizes and enthusiastic students. In this study, the historical aspect of imlā method which arouses intellectual curiosity on almost every segment of the society that interested in hadith, from scholars to politicians as well as muhaddiths, and the reflections of imlā activities on the history of hadith literature and history were examined.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Active Use of Games, Toys and Toy Museums in Children's Education and
           Their Contribution to Success

    • Authors: Mustafa ÖNDER
      Abstract: Games, toys and toy museums are indispensable elements of modern education. In developed countries and recently in Turkey, it is seen that games, toys and toy museums are effectively used in education and training in all kinds of educational system. It is even known that there is a serious contribution of games and toys in the teaching of religion and morality. Experts describe the game as follows: it is a part of real life and the most effective learning process for the child, the basis of cognitive, physical, emotional, linguistic and social development that is performed willingly and lovingly by children and performed with or without a specific purpose. If it should be noted that this description mentions an action which contributes to the development of the child and performs willingly and lovingly.A toy is the most important friend and confidant of a child in life. Children learn to control themselves through play and obeying the rules. They play games and conduct various experiments in the game in order to learn and understand what they cannot do in real life. All children have a playmate in their dreams from an early age. These friends usually consist of one or several toys. The games and toys are not only an endeavor and educational activity for young children but also an important activity that contributes to the development of mental health. It is known that the play and toy play activities are likely to be found in children (autism, learning difficulties, etc.) provides an important opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment. These toys can be used for digital addiction, which keeps it up to date and seeks ways to protect children from harm.In addition to the relationship of games and toys with different branches of science, it also has a close relationship with culture. In Turkey and the World, the important cities are now competing not only with their cultural and historical heritage, tourism movements, but also with educational places focused on games and toys for children. The games and toys are an indicator of the educational systems of countries, but also the common language of all children. The games and toys are very important materials that contain the codes of a country's future vision. It clearly seems that one of the main reasons for the development is the production of toys if we look at the situation of countries 50 or 70 years ago. The toys that Japan produced at that time were robots and their derivatives. Today, Japan is unbeatable in robot technology. During the same periods, toys produced by the United States weighed spacecraft and rockets. Today, the United States is also at the forefront of space technology. It is an indicator of creativity about the future that is the production of toys. For this reason, it is an area that should be emphasized by adults.One of the most important goals of education is to educate generations who have gained understanding, questioning, innovative ideas and the ability to compete with production. The basic condition of acquiring these features is to bring our children together with the games and toys. The countries solved the educational problem in the world have been able to integrate formal education with games, toys and toy museums. The well-known cities that are the focus of attention today are not only those with historical and tourist riches; but they are also cities with rich infrastructure for children.Toy museums are a complementary element of formal educational institutions, where toys stand out its educational aspect rather than its visuals. In addition to their contribution to children's education, these places will contribute to the emergence of national culture with the domestic toy industry. These institutions can be an incentive for traditional manufacturers of wooden toy, who still maintain their existence as difficult. Within the activities such as toy design, repair and manufacturing workshops, the toy museum will be the center of interest. The toys and museums also mean introducing our culture to the whole world.In our study, the importance of games, toys and toys museum on the education of children was revealed. The result of the study which is used the model of literature review, showed that it is a necessary the establishing healthy playgrounds and toy museums for increase quality and success in education. 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluation of the Allocation of “Lahw al-ḥadith” to
           Music in Terms of Tafsir

    • Authors: Faysal ARPAGUŞ
      Abstract: The Prophet Moḥammed stated in a hadith that it is not lawful for training to sing, buying, and gaining fee of selling the female singers. A relationship was established between the ḥadith and verse "But there are, among men, those who purchase idle tales, without knowledge, to mislead from the Path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the Path): for such there will be a Humiliating Penalty." (Loqmān 31/6) and in addition to people such as Mojāhid, Sofyān al-Thawrī, and Ibn Wahb, many later commentators interpreted the lahw al-ḥadith in the verse as music. Based on the explanation of lahw al-ḥadith as music in many fiqh books, this verse is considered as evidence that music is prohibited in Islam. In our opinion, the problem originates from the allocation of the term lahw al-ḥadith to music. In this framework, the concepts determined for research consists of allocation, interpretation, lahw al-ḥadith and music. Allocation is the opposite of generalization, which means keeping one thing separate from the whole so that others do not participate in it by rule. This occurs as a result of an interpretation. The determination of the meaning to be given to the law text is called interpretation, as well as the science that mentions the state of utterance of the words of the Qur’ān, the meanings attributed to them, and the elements that complement them. At this point, ijtihād is an activity of interpretation, in other words, is a commentary. The comment may be accurate as well as inaccurate; because the interpretation of lahw al-ḥadith as music is not a definite interpretation. When the allocation of something is legally ordered that is freedom and prohibition or whatever is ruled between the two; it means that this provision is reserved only for it. In this case, those who are excluded from allocation are considered separately from the provision in question.The article primarily sought to determine whether lahw al-ḥadith, which is obscure and general was allocated by some commentators. For this purpose, starting from the classical age of Islam the views of some commentators was consulted. It is really thought to claim that what is meant by lahw al-ḥadith is music by referring to a ḥadith that is described as "weak" and "ġarīb" in terms of deed and text as if its signification is definite.In the Qur’ān, there is no verse stating that music is forbidden such as alcohol, interest and other forbidden things, and there is also no verse indicating this in the context of the interpretation of the Qu’rān with the Qu’rān. However, it cannot be said that there is no evidence for music in the form of obscenity and unlawful. In this case, the way in which The Prophet includes music in his life in the context of the interpretation of the Qu’rān with sunnah will reveal as a measure for Muslims. It is known that He allows the use of music in weddings, festivals and entertainments within legitimate boundaries, and sometimes even encourages them; but it is also the case that he has a harsh attitude towards those who entertain themselves and neglect their religious duties and responsibilities. But based on this, to claim that music is completely forbidden, it contains all the branches of the known art performed by sound and instrument as mentioned in the description of music leading to salah, adhan and reading the beautiful Qu’rān is also forbidden. So there is a limit and a measure set by religion for legitimate music. However, the phrase lahw al-ḥadith, which is mentioned in the verse, is different from all these expressions.In the article, the data in some classical tafsir and fiqh sources were collected, and the discussions of today's theology researchers on the subject were included. By making an evaluation in the light of the data, it has been tried to clarify whether it is possible or not to allocate lahw al-ḥadith to music and if possible, to what extent it is possible According to this, considering the context and other methods of interpretation, it has been concluded that it would be more appropriate to explain the lahw al-ḥadith not only as music, but as all kinds of words that prevent from the path of Allah and His Messenger in general. As a result of such an approach, it was emphasized that Muslims would be in agreement within the framework of legitimate limits with music, which is the concrete manifestation of feelings that Allah has places on human nature.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Qualities that should have in the Naqshbandiyya Sheikhs in the Context
           of Imam Rabbani's Work Titled al-Maktubat

    • Authors: Mevlüt ÖZÇELİK
      Abstract: In this article, from the point of view of Imam Rabbani Ahmad Farouk al-Sarhandi, it was tried to present the qualifications required to be a sheikh, who is at the center of sufi education. The phrase “sufism is not a science of words, but a science of experience” draws attention to the importance of the sheikh in the system of sufi education. Because the sufi education is not conveyed with the information learned from the books, but through the sheikhs who actually lived this education in their soul. According to Imam Rabbani, the true sheikhs were the heirs of the Prophet (pbuh) in conveying people to the true path. But in order to be able to talk about a sound sufi education, the sheikh, who provided this education, must also bear on some qualities: the sheikh must have the scientific heritage of the Prophet (pbuh). His scientific heritage consists of the religious provisions and secrets. The sciences of provisions are the ostensible sciences that constitute the origin of shariah, while the sciences of secrets are sufistical knowledges. The sciences of religious provisions are like the root of a tree, whereas the sufistical knowledges are like the fruits of the tree. Just as it is impossible for a rootless tree to bear fruit, it is impossible for sufistical knowledges to emerge without the sciences of religious provisions. Therefore, the sheikh must master in both sciences.Sheikh must comply the sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). There are seven degrees of this compliance: The first degree belongs to the common Muslims who have faith and fulfill the apparent provisions of the shariah. The second degree belongs to the people of the Tariqa who follows the words and deeds of the Prophet (pbuh) in matters such as beautifying morality, refinement of the nafs and purification of the heart. The third degree belongs to the saints who follows the spiritual state and discoveries of the Prophet (pbuh). The fourth degree belongs to the scholars who have the right to be in the status of the heirs of Prophet (pbuh). This degree can be achieved by obeying the Prophet (pbuh) in the full sense and abandoning all kinds of innovation. The fifth degree belongs to the Prophets of Perseverance who follows the perfection of Prophet (pbuh). The sixth degree is to be being subject to the perfection of the Prophet (pbuh) regarding the position of "mahbubiyyah". The seventh degree is the most comprehensive degree that includes all degrees. In this degree, there is a great similarity between the followed and follower; but the follower is another person, the followed is another one. The sheikh must be from the people of “sahw” (spiritual alertness), not from the people of "sakr" (spiritual ecstasy). This is possible by completing the process of spiritual development under the perfect sheikh. It is impossible for someone in a "sakr" situation to educate the disciples. Such people’s word that contradict the apparent provisions of shariah are not respected. Also, the sheikh must know how to behave towards his disciples. The sheikh should not teach the science of sufistical instruction to anyone without doing "istikhara" and should not be proud of the multitude of his disciples nor should he seek fame; while training his disciples he should only aim at gaining Allah's approval and should not pursue any interests.The sheikh should act with the awareness that he is an exemplary figure for her disciples; he should abandon “rukhsah” while act with azimah (determination), and he must carefully protect the boundaries of the shariah in all respects, especially in teaching the sciences of tariqa to female students. According to Imam Rabbani, the sheikh, who has the above qualities, is the true sheikh while the sheikh, who lacks these qualities, is an imperfect sheikh. Just as the imperfect doctors jeopardize the material life of the patients who applied to him, the imperfect sheikhs also jeopardize the spritual life of the disciples who attached to them. Therefore, a disciple who entered the sufi path, must pay attention to whether the sheikh to whom will has the qualities of the perfect sheikh. Otherwise, it is not possible for the disciple to mature spiritually.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigation of the Relationship between Attitudes of Students’ Reading
           

    • Authors: Ahmet KOÇ
      Abstract: This study aims to determine the relationship between students' book reading attitudes and their views on the effect of their reading attitudes on values. In the study, both the level of the reading attitudes of the students was examined, and the extent to which the students' reading attitudes affect the values in the curriculum of the Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge (RCMK) lesson taught from class 4 to 12 in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was investigated. In particular, the study examined the effects of reading attitudes on students' values of "justice, sensitivity, solidarity, compassion, kindness, honesty, patience, love, respect, responsibility and solidarity". The reason why these values are the subject of the research is that they are the main values that are aimed to be taught in the TRNC RCMK program. In addition, compared to the values selected as research subjects and the ten values (justice, friendship, honesty, self-control, patience, respect, love, responsibility, patriotism, and benevolence) determined by the Ministry of Education of Republic of Turkey in 2017, both groups largely seems to overlap in a large extent. The research was conducted in 2020 with 464 students studying in 11 schools selected from 53 secondary schools and high schools in TRNC with the maximum diversity method from purposeful sampling methods. The schools selected as sample consist of public/private schools from each region/type for the reflecting the demographic structure of the TRNC. This study was conducted with quantitative research method and the “Book Reading Attitude Scale” developed by Sarar-Kuzu and Doğan in order to determine students' attitudes towards reading books, and the “Effect of Reading Books on Values Scale” developed by the researcher to measure the effect of reading attitude on values were used together. According to the research results; it was found that although both 15.9% of the students never read a book at all and 51.2% of them read less, they have a high attitude in the factor of "contributing to their personal/social development" and have a moderate attitude in the factors of "interest/love" and "finding important/valuable". The students' opinions about the effect of reading books on values are at a high level. It was determined that the reading attitudes of female students were higher than male students. The views of students about the effect of reading books on values do not differ according to the gender variable. Both male and female students have a high level of attitudes towards this issue. When the data were analysed according to the variable of school type, it was determined that Anatolian High School, Theology College and College students scored are higher than other students in the factors of "the contribution of reading books to personal/social development", and "finding important/valuable". It can be said that the positive correlation between academic achievement and reading books is the reason for this result. In the "interest/love" factor for reading books, it was determined that the students of Theology College had a higher attitude than the students in other schools. It can be said that the reading activities at the school, the competitions and the easy access to the library played a role in the interest/love of the students of the Theology College. In addition, other variables such as "grade level, number of books they read in a year, having a study room/library/book corner at home, buying books from the school library, going to a library outside of school, buying books out of textbooks and reading digital books/magazines" caused to differentiated into the groups. It was determined that there is a positive and significant correlation between the students' reading attitudes and their views on the effect of reading books on values. Accordingly, it is possible to say that as the reading attitudes of the students increase; their views that reading books affect values also increase. According to these results, the books to be selected according to their ages for students can gain them national and spiritual values. In addition, both the attitudes of reading can be increased and national/spiritual values can be taught through reading projects, competitions and activities to be organized in schools. In addition, qualitative research can be conducted to reveal how reading a book effects on which values.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Essay on the Scientific Tafsir in the Context of the Words
           “Hunnes”, “Cevâri” and “Kûnnes” from Surah at-Takwir

    • Authors: Ahmet AKBAŞ
      Abstract: In the Qur'an, although the literal meanings are known, there are some specific expressions concerning the scientific field based on experiment and observation in terms of their subjects, whose meanings have been discussed, that enter the research area of the scientific tafsîr method. Such statements can be better understood by the scientific findings obtained in the last century and more consistent explanations of what their purposes are. To conduct in-depth research on such expressions of the Qur'an is an effort to reveal its renewed direction in every century. Because the Qur'an has miraculous language and style characteristics that can also appeal to centuries ago. This shows that it is nor a human being, but the word of Allah, who knows everyting. In this study, there are some expressions in the 15th and 16th verses of Takwir Surah that enter the research field of astronomy, which is one of the positive sciences. Many interpretations have been made in our interpretations of the words "hunnes", "cevârî" and "künnes" in the verses of past centuries and discussed at length what is pointed out by these words. The basis of the discussion is the question of whether these three words are sworn to deer, gazelles and antiloba or stars. Even if most commentators prefer the view that the stars are sworn in this verse, the issue of which stars are sworn and what qualities of these words emphasized that has been a separate topic of discussion. The relevant comments and discussions show that the statements in these verses are not fully understood, at least not a consensus. The fact that these explanations are not unconvincing in terms of containing irreconcilables make it necessary to reconsider these statements and to reinterpret them by taking advantage of the scientific accumulation of this century. Because these words are related to the space realm, which is one of the fields of scientific research. Today, it is obvious that the knowledge gained about the space realm and stars is too advanced to be even compared with the information at the time of the verses. When these expressions in the Takwir Surah are evaluated together with the available information about the space realm, it is concluded that a special type of star has been discovered here in recent years, and some scholars in the last century draw attention to this issue in the verses. Because in terms of its basic meanings, the word "hunnes" means privacy, invisibility and retreat and puckering, the word "cevârî" means fluency and mobility, and the word "kunnes" means sweeping and collecting. The verses begin with the oath “lâ uqsimu" that refers to strongly hard-indicating sworn to a physical phenomenon marked by the words "hunnes", "cevârî" and "kunnes". With the style of oath, which has a special place in the Qur'an, is drawn an attention to the fact that the oath is evidence of God’s power and greatness. With the considering the usual view int he exegesis that these words in the verses mean stars, it is concluded that these verses point to the type of a star knwn as “black hole”, whose invisibility and inward puckering, movement and fluency, as well as the ability of swallow objects around it, have been discovered in recent years. Because the black hole is also a type of star, their characteristics match the true meanings expressed by the words in the verses. The fact that such a physical phenomenon has been pointed out in the Qur'an that reinforces the fact of the Allah Word, which is encompassed by its knowledge and power. The fact that such a physical phenomenon, which is discovered in the 20th century which the findings about it increased day by day was noted from centuries ago in the Quran which reconfirms the fact of Qur’an as Allah’s word.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Life and Personality of Zayd b. ‘Amr b. Nufayl Who was from the
           Ḥanīfs

    • Authors: Recep ERKOCAASLAN
      Abstract: Idolatry was widespread in Mecca and most of Arabia just before the Prophet Muḥammad’s prophecy. However, there was a small group that was committed to the Prophet Abraham’s belief in monotheism. These people, who are called Ḥanīf, tried to stay away from idolatry, Christianity and Judaism and continue the religion of the Prophet Abraham as much as they could reach his knowledge. Even though the intervening years had caused them to forget the sharia of the Prophet Abraham, they were at least trying to stay away from the bad habits of Jāhiliyya, such as drinking and adultery. Also, they did not accept any god other than Allah. One of the Ḥanīfs was Zayd b. ‘Amr who lived and died during the Jāhiliyya. He is a remarkable person because of his characteristics such as criticizing the Meccans for their beliefs, not eating the meat of animals slaughtered on behalf of idols, and saving baby girls who were wanted to be killed by their families. Since there is not any independent study on Zayd b. ‘Amr in Turkey, we thought that it would be appropriate to examine this precious person, who was ahead of his contemporaries in terms of both mentality and behavior.It is not known that when he was born and how old he was when he died. He is a makti person because his mother married her step-son and Zayd b. ‘Amr was born by this marriage. Both his explanations and the testimony of other people show that he was the only person who was Ḥanīf in Mecca during his lifetime.As he pointed out in some of his poems, he had shown respect to idols like his fellow citizens at one time. There is not any information on whether he went through an experience that dissuaded him from this opinion or whether he started believing in the unity of Allāh through his own intellectual deductions. When he realized that it was wrong to worship idols, he visited many towns and sought a right religion. As far as we understand from the narrations, these trips were made more than once to find a right religion. It is understood that he visited many regions such as Yathrib, Khaybar, Fadak, Ayla, Shām, al-Mawṣil, al-Jazīra, Balḳāʾ and Ḥirāʾ to find the right religion. Zayd b. ‘Amr could not find a religion that made him satisfied during these trips and decided to become committed to the religion of his ancestors, the Prophet Abraham and the Prophet Ismāʿīl, as far as he could access the information on it. Because the intervening years had caused this religion to be forgotten, he tried to worship Allāh with the very limited knowledge that he had. According to the sources, he made some rituals such as performing prayer and making pilgrimage. In addition, like a person who can think clearly, he tried to stay away from bad customs and habits such as drinking, adultery and usury. After Zayd b. Amr began to criticize his fellow citizens because of wrong practices and beliefs, he was exposed to hostility of Meccans, especially his uncle and his paternal half-sibling called K̲h̲aṭṭāb b. Nufayl. Moreover, he had to live in a cave on Ḥirāʾ Mountain or to set up in a tent because he was not allowed to enter Mecca.Zayd b. Amr had one of the most beautiful behaviors that conducted was to save the baby girls who were wanted to be buried by their families and to give these families money to dissuade them from this idea. This behavior is sufficient to show that he was a person to be ahead of his age in terms of mentality and behavior.After his death, the way of Islam chosen by his wife Fāṭima bint Baʿd̲j̲a, and his children, Saʿīd b. Zayd and ʿĀtika bint Zayd shows that he affected his family members positively. Before the prophecy, Prophet Muḥammad met with Zayd b. Amr and helped him to start questioning the customs of Jāhiliyya. Although there are different narrations on the subject, it is thought that Zayd b. Amr probably died in Mecca when the Prophet Muḥammad was around thirty five years old and buried at the foot of Ḥirā Mountain. In many narrations coming from the Prophet Muḥammad, it is stated that he will be resurrected as a single ummah. There are also narrations that he deserves heaven.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Relationship between Organ Donation Attitudes and Religiosity

    • Authors: Sezai KORKMAZ
      Abstract: Organ donation is below the expected number of cadaver donors (ppm) per million population in the world. The country with the highest number of cadaver donors per million in the world is Spain. In 2019, it was determined the number of cadaver donors per million as 48,9 in Spain. At the same year, in Turkey, the number of cadaver donors per million was determined as 7,54. There are many reasons why number of cadaver donors in Turkey is low. Main reasons are religious ground and insufficient knowledge. A large number of studies, the major factor for determining the attitudes towards organ donation is seem to be religion and religiosity. With the religiosity level of people in Turkey, the attitudes towards organ donation are becoming more important. For this reason, there is a need in literature for new studies that related to the relation between organ donation and religion. Therefore, the aim of this research is to fill the gap on the relation religiosity among organ donation in the literature. Under the guidance of studies dealing with the relationship between individual religion, religious practices and organ donation attitudes, the following hypotheses were tested: 1. The attitudes towards organ donation differentiated by gender. 2. The religious practices and individual religiosity differentiated by gender. 3. There is a positive correlation between the dimension of benevolence & moral values/belief values, and religious practices & individual religiosity. 4. There is a negative correlation between the dimension of benevolence & moral/belief values, and fear of medical neglect & bodily injury. 5. Religious practice predicts the values of benevolence, moral/belief values, fear of medical neglect, and fear of bodily injury. 6. Individual religiosity predicts the values of benevolence, moral/belief values, fear of medical neglect, and fear of bodily injury. 7. The value of benevolence and the dimension of moral/belief values predict both the fear of medical neglect and bodily injury.In this study, religiosity and the attitudes towards organ donation was examined. Religiosity was examined as religious practices and individual religion. The attitudes towards organ donation have two aspects called as positive and negative. The positive aspect of attitudes towards organ donation consists of the value of charity and moral/belief, at the same time the negative aspect of it consists of the fear of medical neglect and bodily injury.The sample of research consisted of 205 (M: 26,3%, F: 73,7%) university students. The average age of the participants was determined to be 21.56. In this research, the scale of attitudes towards organ donation, the scale of religiosity practices and the inventory of individual religiosity were used to measure the variable of religiosity. The scale of attitudes towards organ donation was developed by Parisi and Katz. The scale of religious practices was developed by Ayten and the inventory of individual religiosity was developed by Zagumny et al. The scales used in the study were statistically reliable and validity.In this study's results, it was seen that a statistically significant level of differentiation was found in the dimension of bodily injury fear, which represents the negative level of attitudes towards organ donation by gender. Moreover, the level of religious worship was also differated by gender. In the considering the relations, the individual religiosity was correlated with the values of benevolence and moral/belief. Additionally, a significant correlation was also found between the sub-dimensions of attitudes toward organ donation. In study, it was also found that there was a statistical regression relation between individual religiosity and sub-dimension of attitudes towards organ donation which are the value of benevolence and moral/belief. According to the findings of this study, it is possible to say that the dimension of benevolence and moral/belief values that constitute the positive aspect of the attitudes towards organ donation were negatively regression relations with the fear of medical neglect and bodily injury that constitute the negative aspect of attitudes towards organ donation.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Analysing of the Attitudes of Gifted Students for the Course of Religious
           Culture and Ethics

    • Authors: Cemal TOSUN ; Hasan SÖZEN , Yasemin İPEK , Vahdeddin ŞİMŞEK
      Abstract: People with high intelligence levels are the most important human resource in the society which they live in. Societies that have discovered the importance of potential of gifted students, can progress much higher than their peers in the fields of studies on gifted children and their education. In this context, in recent years the educational activities for gifted students have increased in Turkey as well as all over the world. At this point, Science and Art Centers (BILSEM) were established to aim providing education for individuals with superior abilities and intelligence. The gifted students who are educated in these centers can also receive education at school like other students. One of these courses is Religious Culture and Ethics. However, there are no studies to determine the attitudes of students with these characteristics towards the course of Religious Culture and Ethics.In this context, the aim of the research is to examine the general attitudes of gifted students about the course of Religious Culture and Ethics with different variables. On the other hand, other aims of the research are to draw attention on the gap in the field related to gifted students, to demonstrate that more in-depth studies are needed to determine the interests and needs of gifted students in the field of teaching religion and ethics, and to lay the groundwork for new researches on this issue. The study used the model of literature review from quantitative research methods. The study group consists of secondary and high school students who are diagnosed as “gifted” by the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Special Education. The research data in research was collected in the 2019-2020 academic year. The SPSS package program was used to analyse the data obtained. For the testing reliability of the scale based on the data obtained, the internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach’s Alpha) was calculated and the value of Cronbach’ Alpha was calculated to be 0,05. In addition, the descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, and arithmetic mean are also included to summarize the data. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the attitudes of gifted students in the study regarding the courses of Religious Culture and Ethics were positive. It was resulted that their attitudes did not differ statistically according to gender and maternal learning status, but differed statistically according to the paternal educational background, level of class and income.At this point, it was found important the determining of expectation of students themselves and their parents from the curriculum, teachers, teaching activities, materials, and methods of the course to review for the positively increasing attitudes of both gifted students and students with normal intelligence towards to the course. Another important result of this research, the priority recommended is to conduct qualitative studies that will provide more in-dept data to support the quantitative data. Another important recommendation is to develop the differentiated DKAB curriculum for gifted students taking into account the recommendations of relevant results. It is also important to develop the course materials that take into account their learning capacities, high-level thinking skills, interests and needs to ensure that educational activities for gifted students are carried out in integrity. In all educational activities that will be designed for gifted students, care should be taken to choose and develop approaches, methods-techniques and materials that will make it possible to build knowledge up, not present pattern knowledge. 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Some Qur'anic Verses in Hodja Sadeddin Efendi's Tâj
           al-Tawârîh

    • Authors: Kadir ERBİL
      Abstract: Hodja Sadaddin Effendi is one of the most important historians of the 16th century. In his work entitled as “Tâj al-Tawârîh”, he dealt with the events from the establishment of Ottoman history (1299) to the death of Selim the Resolute (1520). Tâj al-Tawârîh has been a reliable and widely read book as a source that explained the Ottoman history from the beginning to the 16th century. Therefore, the book is one of the brightest examples of the 16th century. It has an important place among Turkish and world historians in terms of historical science. For this reason, some supplements have been written on the work. In Europe, the book was in great demand and from the 17th century, it was fully translated into French, German and Italian, and partially into Russian, English and Hungarian. The information that he gave in his book shed light on Ottoman History and was also used as a source of Ottoman histories that were compiled later on. In compiling his work, he promoted the events that were narrated using religious sources such as verses, hadiths and proverbs according to the importance of the subject. This situation shows that he was very knowledgeable about religious and historical information.He states that had a heavy cross to bear with the writing of events in the periods of Selim the Resolute and Suleiman the Magnificent, and has also written the book with all the details in "uslûb-i itidâl" with bounds on praise and criticism. However, he states that the readers should be careful about the topics of the first period that he has written in his book because of that it has been a long time and the people who reported the events might have confused the information, and that he might not be able to provide reliable information.He stated that there may be some deviations as long years passed in the reporting of the first period events because of that the narrators might have confused some narrations and even added their own opinions. He also states that the recent events in his book are true and there is no fabricated news in his statements.In his book, he went on to describe some events in summary by only mentioning the names. The reason for this is either that he could not find any information or sources about the events, or he could just find that information in the sources that he had reached.In explaining the events, he narrates some of the events under the headings of "Latîfa and Hikayât" in order to not boring for the reader. By this method, he has retained the work from being a work full of battle scenes. He tried to provide a better understanding of the events, leave deep traces in the minds of the readers and encourage people for goodness by means of the subjects explained under the headings of "Latîfa and Hikayât". He, like modern historians, tried to seek and investigate the underlying reasons of social, economic, political and religious events. He stated the reasons for the events and made criticisms where necessary. He compared the events and sources. In this way, he transformed the knowledge of history into a philosophical system.He also gives information about social events of the period such as famine, earthquake, fire, lunar and solar eclipse, ceremonies, epidemic diseases and deaths. The information given by Ottoman history writers about the first establishment of the state and the following years is generally based on the oral folk epics. These are valuable information about the culture, social life and belief of a nation at that time.In the preface of book, he gives some information about the definition of history, its subject and aims, the features that a historian should have, and the methods that a historian should follow. According to him, the history is to convey to future generations by writing on the services of those who serve on the path of nation and religion, their good habits, life stories and struggles.In his book, which is one of the most important sources in the history of the Ottoman Empire, he narrates the events that occurred from the establishment of the Ottoman Empire to the end of the Selim the Resolute period. Tâj al-Tawârîh consists of nine chapters that each chapter describes the events that occurred during the period of a Sultan. 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Al-Imam al-A'zam Abu Hanifa and His Views in Ottoman Foundation
           Documents: Example of Macedonia Waqfiyyas

    • Authors: Hasan TELLİ
      Abstract: The foundation establishment, which is established in the period of Prophet Muhammad, has started to become widespread in the Islamic society since the first years of Islam. Issues such as charity, ongoing charity, good deeds, selling their property to Allah, goodness, preferring your brother to your own soul, spend his wealth in the way of Allah, feeding, being in the way of Allah, gaining heaven and protection from hell, which are frequently mentioned in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad, have been the main factors that feed the spirit of the foundation. The foundation establishment completed its legal development in the second half of the third century of the Hijra and rapidly spread throughout the all Islamic territories where Muslims lived from Andalusia to Indonesia. Foundations were especially widespread in Seljuks and Ottoman Empire's period. Therefore, the term "Heaven of Foundations" was used for the Ottoman. In order to legally strengthen and to protect the foundations, legal foundation transactions called as "waqfiyya" were organized. This study concerns the case of how al-Imam al-A'zam and his views reflected on the waqfiyyas in the period of Ottoman Empire. The subject was restricted to the waqfiyya transactions that belong to the foundations that established in the Macedonian territory during the Ottoman period and which are currently under protection in the Archives of the General Directorate of Foundations in Turkey.In 1389, the Ottomans defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of First Kosovo and dominated the territory of Macedonia. As in other territories in the Balqans that was conquered by Ottomans, the government provided foundation services in the region. In this sense, foundations were established in Macedonian cities such as Skopje, Debar, Doyran, Kriva Palanka, Gostivar, Štip, Tetovo, Kočani, Veles Kičevo, Kratovo, Kumanovo, Bitola, Ohrid, Prilep, Titveš and Strumica. These foundations have also undertaken important duties for the establishment of Turkish-Islamic culture in the region. Thanks to the foundations, monuments such as mosques, mosques, schools, madrasas, imarets, inns, baths, caravanserais, lodges, dervish lodges, hospitals, libraries, fountains, public fountains, bridges, tombs and Islamic cemeteries have been built in the heography of Macedonia. For the surviving and continuing of the services, fields, vineyards, gardens, plots, shops, lands and cash money were devoted.Waqfiyyas were organized for legal protection of foundation. Many of these waqfiyyas have been preserved until today. It was seen that some of these foundations refers the name of the founder of the Hanafi school, Imam al-A'zam Abu Hanifa and his views. Apart from this, there is not any independent scientific study on Imam al-A'zam and his views in document of the Ottoman Foundatıon in the Ottoman period up today. For this reason, the issue of how the views of Imam al-A'zam were reflected in the Ottoman foundation documents has always remained as unclear. In this study, 164 foundations related to Macedonian waqfiyyas in the Archives of the General Directorate of Foundations were examined one by one and the waqfiyyas mentioning Imam al-A'zam are elaborated specifically. In the light of Macedonian waqfiyyas, it was aimed to reveal the aspects of Imam al-A'zam and his views reflected in the Ottoman period foundation documents. In this sense, the issue of what kind of a Imam al-A'zam perception existed in the social imagination of the people who are involved in foundation services is examined. What kind of a Imam al-A'zam perception takes place in waqfiya transactions' How did the founders of foundation name and describe him' Why and for what purpose are Imam al-A'zam and his views included in the waqfiyyas' How are his views reflected on the waqfiyyas' Which opinions are included in the waqfiyyas' In what forms are these views expressed' Have his views are been acted or not' If not, what are the reasons behind it' How do the views of Imam al-A'zam relate to the recourse cases in the waqfiyyas' What is the significance and value of his views in Ottoman foundation practices' What are the Baktashi’s perception of Imam al-A'zam in the waqfiyyas regarding Baktashi lodges' In the study, answers to such questions were sought and such issues were tried to be clarified in the light of documents. The study is discussed under the headings of foundation definition, its authenticity, legal validity, real estate foundations, movable foundations and money foundations. The subject has been evaluated descriptively and systematically with archival reviews and induction method. The study has the first study feature in its field in terms of its specific subject. In this respect, it has a unique value.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Transaction of Jurisprudential (Fiqhî) Specific Rules with Narrations:
           Example of Semen as Dirt

    • Authors: Fikret ÖZÇELİK
      Abstract: One of the controversies issues related to Hadith science is associated with the criteria to accept the narrations as authentic or weak. Within this context, it is a fact that various methods have been used to understand, evaluate and determine the authenticity of the narrations. Because of this fact that different approaches have been raised in understanding and interpreting the hadiths since the early period. In relation to this, it has also become inevitable that different views and sects emerged. On the other hand, the Qur’an, sunnah and ijtihad, which are universal rules and jurisprudential specific rules, have developed and systematized as a separate genre in classical fiqh literature. Also, it is seen that the scholars concluded different results about narrations the accepting a hadith as authentic and put forward some jurisprudential specific rules while making inferences (istinbât) on the issue as a result of different understanding in understanding and interpreting the hadiths. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the narrations about semen as dirt within the context of jurisprudential specific rules. Firstly, the narrations on the subject in the basic hadiths sources were determined. The authenticity status of these determined narrations were explained in terms of isnad. Then, the interpretations that especially sect imams and scholars made on these narrations in terms of jurisprudential specific rules were mentioned. Also, the effects of narrations on the jurisprudential specific rules were also pointed out. As a result of the investigations carried out, more than one narration about semen was identified, and it was seen that these narrations were authentic in terms of isnad. In addition, it was established that the content of the narrations is the washing and rubbing the semen. As far as it was determined, there is no statement directly belonging to Prophet about semen as dirt (najis). In this case, it was seen that scholars interpreted the narrations within the framework of jurisprudential specific rules that they developed and found some inferences (istinbat).According to Hanafis, semen is najis whether it is wet or dry in all cases. They tried to prove their views with jurisprudential specific rules as well as some narrated evidences as “Whatever causes dirt is najis in its own right.”. Likewise, Hanafis said that semen is najis by comparing it to urine and menstruation blood. It is seen that Hanafis, who accept the Ferk narration, prioritized the jurisprudential specific rules about the issue that semen is najis. In addition to this, in the Hanafi sect, “it is wajib to wash away something najis” is a well-known jurisprudential specific rule. However, Hanafis made an exception when the semen was dry; and they found it sufficient to rub the dry semen away. So, the narration was preferred to jurisprudential specific rule. Mâlik b. Enes accepted semen as najis and claimed that it must be washed. In addition, Mâlik did not consider the rubbing as sufficient; and he did not accept such an application. In Shafi’îte sect, such a jurisprudential specific rule is valid as “Every liquid discharged from front or back of a person is najis.” According to this, feces, urine, blood and semen are to be accepted as najis. However, semen was exempted from this jurisprudential specific rule, and considered as clean. They put forward some logical evidences, comparisons and ferk narration narrated by Aisha as a justification. That is to say that Shafi’îtes preferred the narration to their general principles. Ahmad b. Hanbal also said that semen was clean. Those, who consider the sufficient to rub away the semen, accepted the narrations expressing that the semen should be washed away as authentic. According to them, rubbing act was performed not for the fact that semen is najis, but it was like cleaning mubah things such as saliva and soil. Based on this particular example, it is understood that the narrations affect the jurisprudential specific rules, and at the same time the jurisprudential specific rules are also effective in understanding and interpreting the narrations. In addition, the jurisprudential specific rules can vary according to scholars and sects. Though there are the jurisprudential specific rules on which all scholars and sects agree, it is not possible to tell this for all jurisprudential specific rules. And this paves for controversies and different approaches in understanding and evaluating hadiths. It is possible to see the plain example of this in the example of semen as dirt (najis). 
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Crimean Ulama Who Participated in the Huzur Lessons and Publications of
           Quranic Commentary Texts of Mohammed Emin Efendi

    • Authors: Süleyman GÜR
      Abstract: During the Ottoman period, the tafsir (interpretation) lessons held in the presence of the Sultan in every year during Ramadan were called as "lessons in presence." The lessons, which began in 1172/1759, continued until the end of the Ottoman Empire. The lessons in presence were attended by the Sultan, the shaykh al-islam, the mukarrir (teacher) who would present the lecture, the interlocutors in the position of negotiators and other persons who were in the status of listeners. The mukarrir and interlocutors were chosen by the shaykh al-islam and appointed by the Sultan himself. The verses to be interpreted in the course were notified to mukarrir and the interlocutors two months ago for giving them time to get prepared for the lesson. The duration of each lesson was about two hours, and at the end of the lesson, starting from the high-ranking interlocutor, questions were directed to the mukarrir, and discussions were also held afterwards. After mukarrir made an exegesis of the verse, he would answer the questions and objections posed to him. The lessons in presence were the highest and most prestigious scientific councils in which a scholar could participate. Participating in this assembly also required being one of the Istanbul dersiâms (certified teachers). In the historical process, scholars from Anatolian cities attended these courses, as well as scholars from different regions of the Ottoman geography such as Ahiska, Dagestan and Bosnia. Some of these scholars were also from Crimea.It is known that the Ottoman ulema were influential in Crimea and the Crimean ulema in the Ottoman geography from the time when Crimea was annexed to the Ottoman Empire. As a matter of fact, the Crimean scholars served in high-level positions such as professorship, mufti, judge, and cadilesker in important centers of the Ottoman Empire such as Istanbul, Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Damascus and Egypt. This situation also continued in the same way after the Russian invasion of Crimea. In this study, some names such as Abdülhalim Efendi (dec. 1210/1795), Muhammed (Emin) Efendi (dec. 1243/1827), Abdullah Efendi (dec. after 1242/1827), Abdülhayy Efendi (dec. 1339/1920), Ahmed Efendi (dec. after 1205/1791), Ali Şücâî Efendi (dec. 1341/1922), Hasan Rüşdü Efendi (dec. 1311/1894), Selim Efendi (dec. 1260/1844) and Şerafeddin Şerif Efendi (dec. 1331/1913), who attended to the lessons in presence, will be discussed and in this context, a brief information will be given about their life stories, the years they attended lessons in presence, their positions in the assembly and their scientific rank, and then, the work of the lesson in presence that Crimean Muhammed Emin Efendi gave will be analyzed and transcribed. The only source regarding the content of the lessons in presence is the texts of teaching and negotiations. However, few of these texts survived to the present day, especially those with old dates. One of them belongs to Muhammed Efendi of Crimea. This 13-leaf work is kept at the Turkish Manuscripts in the Section of Istanbul University Library at number 7297 as a manuscript, and its language is Turkish. This work, in which the verses 139-142 of Surah Âl- Imrân discussed in the 3rd assembly of lessons in presence in the year 1238 and were interpreted during the reign of Sultan Mahmud III, gives some ideas about the content of the lessons in presence and the method of interpretation of the verses. Just like Baydâvî's Anvâru't-Tanzîl and Fahruddîn al-Râzî's Mefâtîh which are used as the main sources, in the work the method of interpretation of the narration is used, which only the text of the negotiation is included, but it is seen that the method of discernment is also emphasized. In this context, the verses are interpreted through verses, hadiths, and the views of early scholars, as well as extensive linguistic analyses, theological discussions, the effect of readings on meaning and similar issues were mainly discussed. As far as it is understood, this method, which is also frequently used in the tafsir (interpretation) texts of classical period, was also adopted and applied by the mukarrirs of lessons in presence.According to our findings in this study, ten scholars from Crimea, two of whom were mukarrirs and eight of whom were interlocutors, attended the lessons in presence, which were a very high-level scientific activities. This data have been obtained from the available records. Information on the total number of people attending classes and the number of assemblies should be approached with caution, since no records of some years have survived. These numbers are likely to change as new documents become available.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Mullā Sadrā’s Criticism of Suhrawardī in Context of the Distinction
           Between Being and Quiddity

    • Authors: Fevzi YİĞİT
      Abstract: In this article, Suhrawardi’s evidences to prove the idea of essence nobility in his Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq was examined by taking into account the interpretations of Qutb al-Din al-Shīrāzī and Shams al-Din Shahrazūrī and Sadra’s criticisms on the book was presented. Avicenna developed the Aristotelian distinction of being and quiddity to its final limits and included this distinction among the main topics of Islamic philosophy. Suhrawardi, with his objections to Avicenna, took the issue into the category of primary controversial issues, on the other hand Mullā Ṣadrā responded to some criticisms of Suhrawardī in his talikāt that had an effect in turning the discussion in favor of Avicenna. Especially the problem of whether being or quiddity has the primacy was clearly put forward by Mīr Dāmād and his student Mullā Ṣadrā, and the discussion continued in this line.Suhrawardī and his commentators have criticized the Peripatetic (Mashshāʼī) philosophy in many ways, while forming the Ishrāqī system. It is obvious that these criticisms made a very important contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy. In addition, although Suhrawardī claimed to have established a new system, it is clear that the Ishrāqī community used the Peripatetic foundations. For example, the debate on being and quiddity in the Peripatetic philosophy has turned into the doctrine of the vertical and horizontal lights in Ishrāqī philosophy. Suhrawardī replaced the concept of being with the concept of light with accepting that the distinction between being and quiddity is only a mental distinction, and claimed that the primacy in the external world belongs to the quiddity. Accordingly, the concept of being is one of the mental universal concepts that have no external reality. Furthermore, this concept is too far from having an external reality to reveal metaphysical truths, since it is widely used by the Peripatetic philosophers to include bodies. Because, metaphysical beings such as God, light and angel cannot be grouped under the same denominator with dark entities like bodies. Suhrawardī and his commentators argued that if the primacy of being is accepted, it would renders the distinction between necessary being and contingent being meaningless while talking about the existence of contingent beings would actually mean an infinite regress of contingent beings. Mullā Ṣadrā's criticisms of Suhrawardī had significant contribution to Islamic philosophy. According to him, the claim of that “being is a mental concept that has no external reality” originates from the inability to grasp the truth of being. Because he confused it with other universal concepts that have no external reality, the reason is that he did not pay attention to the special position of the concept of being, that caused him not to see that the same assessment can be made for the concept of light. However, the being that creates the external world should not have any special quiddity in terms of its truth so that it can give reality to all other creatures. Mullā Ṣadrā claimed that the idea of distinction between necessary being and contingent being will disappear with the acceptance of being nobility that derived from the inability to understand the modulated structure of the being. In other words, according to him, existence of being as the ultimate reality does not prevent its appearance and emanation at different levels. So, the contingent beings express the level of existence in a hierarchy. If existence of a being has strength, intensity, wealth and perfection, its contingency decreases as much. According to Ṣadrā, quiddities cannot be characterized by existence and non-existence in terms of their identicalness. In terms of their appearance in the external world, the quiddities can only emerge depending on being. In this sense, the quiddities do not have an ontological status of their own. This acceptance would invalidate the claims regard to an infinite regress of regeneration of the contingent beings. According to Ṣadrā, the claim that "in case of accepting the aṣālat of being, being would require another being and it will require another one" originates from not understanding that the being itself self-exists and not in need of anything else to exist. In order to the infinite regress of being in the mind, it is sufficient to end the mental reputation at any point. In sum, according to Ṣadrā, there is only one being who’s its existence is in itself and necessary. The contingents are nothing but dependent states and results of the emanation from the Necessary Being. In this case, being is the primary, and the quiddities are states dependent on the being.  
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Story of the First Murder (Surah al-Maidah/27-31) in Classic and
           Modern Sources: A Comparative Examination in Terms of Tafsir Methodology

    • Authors: Yunus Emre GÖRDÜK
      Abstract: In this article, the “qissa of the first murder" (al-Maidah/27-31) is discussed methodologically in the point of classical tafsir sources and modern studies. The qissa consists of two elements which are the phrases “two sons of Adam” and the “crow’s guidance to the murderer”. In general, the commentators consider that the “Adam” indicates the Prophet Adam. The crow was sent to show how the body would be buried because the murder committed is the first murder on earth that does not know what to do with a dead body. In this general opinion, as well as the proofs of verses words and in-text contex elements, authentic ḥadiths, which are the main references of the tafsir, and narrations of companion and followers were taken into consideration. Along with other ḥadiths; especially it is seen that it is not possible to discredite the following ḥadīth narration of Masruq Ibn al-Ajda reported from Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud that is included in almost all authentic ḥadith sources as “no person is killed wrongfully, but a share of responsibility for his blood will be upon the first son of Adam, because he was the first one to kill". By adding the views of the companions, followers and the alliance of the ummah, it has become clear who the killer and victim are. In addition, the crow sent to show how to bury the dead body that confirms this view. Until the 20th century, it is seen that all of the commentators are in alliance on this view. The view referred to personalities such as Ḥasan al-Baṣrī and al-Ḍaḥḥāk is that the two people mentioned in the qissa are from children of Israel. However it is evident from other narrations of this view is not related to the idea that Adam and his wife were not the first human couple. Therefore, there is not an unique understanding of Adam that is accepted by everyone. In the explanations made by the commentators taken into consideration the different verses related to the subject. On the other hand, the literal meaning of the verses was taken as a basis and there was no need for taʾwīl because of any ambigious expression. These are also constitute the basic elements of the method followed in classical tafsirs.As for the evolutionist point of view; there is no such phenomenon as the first children of the first two people. Because in evolution, it is impossible to mention such a thing as the first two people. One of the dominant elements that shapes the modern exegesis understanding is this style of approach. According to the claim that the qissa's are symbolic, the verse statements are not important already. In this aspect, it is emphasized that both there is no reality of the story and is mentioned in reference to the Torah. But the similar story mentioned in the Torah, which is originally as divine, does not contradict its inclusion in the Qur’an as a truth. As a matter of fact, the Qur’an has been modifier and corrective as well as supplemantary and confirmative on the texts of Torah and Bible. In addition, the story of Abel and Cain in Torah is not mentioned the crow. According to the symbolist understanding, the Qur'an conveys a story that is claimed to be an imaginary product, and adds unfounded element to it during the transfer. This is a delusion that is not based on any evidence. It is certain that Allah, who knowledge encompasses everything and describes what is told in the Quran as truth, does not need to tell an imaginary story to show the guidance. Moreover, if the qissa of the first murder is symbolic, it means that the entire ummah, including the Prophet (pbuh) and the companions, has not understood this since 14th century which means that even mentioning this is absurd. The same inconsistent situation applies to evolutionist interpretations.As a result, after one of the two brothers killed the other; the killer did not know what to do the dead body, and finally learned from a crow that he should be buried. The literal expression of the verse refers to these two people as "two sons of Adam", and ta'wîl on this issue is far from convincing unless there is a valid evidence. It is seen that both approaches, which are the product of modern times in terms of methodology of Qur’anic Exegesis, are not based on solid scientific basis and lead the way to different contradictions rather than solving problems.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Examining Relationship between Religiosity and Marital Adjustment: The
           Case Study in Kahramanmaras

    • Authors: Zeynep Sümeyye YILMAZ ; Halil APAYDIN , Büşra Nur YÜKSEL
      Abstract: The concept of religion, which is one of the most common concepts in daily life, affects the lives of both individuals and societies. Since the holistic effect is thought to be also affected the marriage and family adjustment of individuals, the issue of marital adjustment and religiosity between spouses is important. In this study, the effect of religiosity on marital adjustment was evaluated along with various variables. In this respect, the effects of religiosity on married individuals who have different religiosity level has been analyzed, and the effects also have been evaluated with some factors such as gender, age, educational status, economic status, working condition, number of children, duration of marriage, married style, and sources of religious education. In other words, the main problem of the research that “is there a relationship between the level of religiosity and marital adjustment (happiness in marriage) of the married individuals who are living in Kahramanmaras'”, and the basic hypothesis was defined as "there is a significant positive relationship between religiosity and marital adjustment (happines in marriage)”. In the research, the correlational model which is a quantitative research design was used and the survey form consisting of ‘Personal and Sociodemografic Information Form’ which contains sociodemografic factors such as gender, economic status and married styles has been created by author appropriate to the topic, ‘Marital Adjustment Scale’, formed by Almas and evaluates the level of marital adjustment between spouses, and ‘Religiosity Scale’ formed by Kula that evaluates the level of religiosity, has been conducted on a group which consist of 420 (218: F, 202: M) married individuals who are living in Kahramanmaras. After collecting the scores on scales of married individuals, the data was transferred to computer and SPSS 21 statistical program was used for the analysis of the data. The mean scores and standard deviations of religiosity was calculated, and Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine whether the relations between two different groups was significant or not. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to analyze the datas obtained from comparison of more than two groups and for the analysis of the significant differences Spearman coefficient of correlation was used in order to determine the variation of correlation between two variables. For the testing of hypotheses, significance value (p) was taken as ,05. The results show that 218 (51,9%) of the participants were female and 202 (48,1%) were male, at the same time 68 (16,2%) participants were graduates of primary school, 36 (8,6%) were of secondary school, 63 (15%) were of high school, 216 (51,4%) were of university and 37 (8,8%) of them have master degree. In addition, 325 (77,4%) participants had middle purchasing power, 45 (10,7%) participants had lower purchasing power, and 50 (11,9%) had high purchasing power. Also, the results determine that 103 (24,5%) of the participants were unemployed, 50 (11,9%) of them were worker, 225 (53,7%) of them were officer, 16 (3,8%) of them were trades, 1 (0,2%) of them were farmer and 9 (2,1%) of them were retired person. In addition, 165 (39,3%) of the participants were married by the way of pre-arranged marriage, 157 (37,4%) of them were married by the way of acquaintance and 98 (23,3%) of them were married by the way of friend’s proposal. The datas in regard to the duration of marriage show that 23 (5,5%) of participants have been married less than 1 year, 60 (14,3%) of them were together from 1 to 3 years, 64 (15,2%) of them were together from 4 to 6 years, 61 (14%) of them were together from 7 to 9 years, and 212 (50,5%) of them have been married for 10 years and more. Also the results in regard to the sources of religious education show that 131 (31,2) of participants received from their family, 75 (17,9) of them received from school, 156 (37,1) of them received from mosque, 47 (11,2) of them received from multiple sources. In the study, also a positive significant correlation was found between the participants' scores of the rituals, knowledge, affective dimensions of religiosity and happiness in marriage. On the other hand, any significant correlation was found between the scores of the rituals, knowledge, belief sub-dimensions of religiosity and the unhappiness in marriage. Moreover, in the results of analyses, it is clearly found that there is a positive correlation between the scores of marital adjustment (happiness in marriage) and religiosity. As a conclusion, the findings of this study showed that the married individuals in Kahramanmaras who stated to have more high religious level, experienced happiness in their marriage.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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