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Journal of Aging and Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.054
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0898-2643 - ISSN (Online) 1552-6887
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Association of Osteoarthritis and Functional Limitations With Cognitive
           Impairment Among Older Adults in the United States

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      Authors: Maxwell J. Rakutt, Ryan A. Mace, Caitlin E. W. Conley, Austin V. Stone, Stephen T. Duncan, Jonathan Greenberg, David C. Landy, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Cale A. Jacobs
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Given overlapping pathophysiology, this study sought to assess the association between osteoarthritis (OA), functional impairment, and cognitive impairment in the aging population. Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to identify participants>60 years of age. We analyzed multivariable associations of grouped participants that underwent cognitive function testing using linear and logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, race, and ethnicity. Results: Of 2776 identified participants representing a population of 50,242,917, 40% did not report OA or functional limitations; 21% had OA but not functional limitations; 15% did not have OA but had functional limitations; 17% had OA and related functional limitations; and 7% had OA and non-arthritic functional limitations. OA was not independently associated with cognitive impairment. Contrarily, functional limitations were associated with cognitive impairment regardless of OA diagnosis. Discussion: Cognitive impairment is not associated with OA, but rather functional limitations, potentially guiding future intervention.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-21T09:20:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643231153459
       
  • Association Between Frailty, 30-day Unplanned Readmission and Mortality
           After Hospitalization for Heart Failure: Results From the Nationwide
           Readmissions Database

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      Authors: Muni Rubens, Venkataraghavan Ramamoorthy, Anshul Saxena, Juan G. Ruiz-Pelaez, Md Ashfaq Ahmed, Zhenwei Zhang, Peter McGranaghan, Sandra Chaparro, Javier Jimenez
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examined how frailty in traditional risk-adjusted models could improve the predictability of unplanned 30-day readmission and mortality among heart failure patients. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of Nationwide Readmissions Database data collected during the years 2010–2018. All patients ≥65 years who had a principal diagnosis of heart failure were included in the analysis. The Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining diagnosis indicator was used to identify frail patients. Results: There was a total of 819,854 patients admitted for heart failure during the study period. Among them, 63,302 (7.7%) were frail. In the regression analysis, the risk of all-cause 30-day readmission (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.14–1.22) and in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.40–1.66) were higher in patients with frailty. Discussion: Inclusion of frailty in comorbidity-based risk-prediction models significantly improved the predictability of unplanned 30-day readmission and in-hospital mortality.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T11:43:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643231152694
       
  • Social Mediators of the Association Between Depression and Falls Among
           Older Adults

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      Authors: Matthew C. Lohman, Afsaneh Fallahi, Eric Mishio Bawa, Jingkai Wei, Anwar T. Merchant
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate the role of social factors in the association between depression and falls among older adults.MethodsThe sample included data from 3443 older adults from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2010–2014). A Lifestyle Questionnaire was used to measure social engagement, social network contact, and neighborhood social context. Mediating effects of social factors were estimated through causal mediation analysis. Results: Poorer social engagement and network contact were associated with greater likelihood of falls, while poorer neighborhood context was associated with greater likelihood of fall injuries. Social engagement mediated a significant portion of the effect of depression on falls (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), and neighborhood context mediated a portion of the effect of depression on fall injuries (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07). Discussion: The direct and indirect impacts of social factors suggest that considering them may help improve existing fall prevention approaches.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T05:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643231152276
       
  • Unmet Needs for Help With Mobility Limitations Among Older Adults Aging in
           Place: The Role of Rurality

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      Authors: Carrie Henning-Smith, Megan Lahr, John Mulcahy, Hannah MacDougall
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study identifies differences in unmet mobility needs among older adults living in rural versus urban areas.MethodsWe used data from Round 9 of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), limiting our analyses to respondents who had not moved since baseline (average housing tenure of 27 years; n = 3343). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to detect rural/urban differences in unmet mobility needs, adjusting for socio-demographics, health status, and housing characteristics.ResultsRural residence was associated with higher odds of any unmet mobility needs for older adults aging in place (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.44, p < .05). The relationship between rurality and unmet needs for help with mobility limitations remained significant in fully adjusted models.DiscussionRural older adults aging in place have greater unmet needs for help with mobility limitations. This study highlights several important gaps in supporting rural older adults aging in place.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T05:00:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643231151777
       
  • Women’s Employment–Family Trajectories and Well-Being in Later Life:
           Evidence From France

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      Authors: Constance Beaufils, Anna Barbuscia, Emmanuelle Cambois
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Previous research in various countries has found that employment–family trajectories characterized by early or single motherhood, or weak ties to employment, are associated with poor well-being among older women. Our paper explores whether this differs (1) in France, characterized by a high female employment rate and supportive family policies; (2) across dimensions of well-being. Method: We used the Health and Occupational Itinerary survey to identify 10 common patterns of employment–family trajectories (derived from multi-channel sequence analysis) and analysed their association with six indicators of well-being in 2010 (N = 2882 50–78 years old women). Results: Continuous full-time employment is associated with better well-being, except for women who had a first child around 24 years old, who reported increased anxiety and lack of support. Discussion: Employed mothers’ well-being seems to be protected in a context of family friendly policies, but we identified one group with lower well-being, which merits further study.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T06:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221147637
       
  • The Relationship between Personal and Contextual Factors and Participation
           Restriction in Mid-Life Caregivers

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      Authors: Tara C. Klinedinst, Scott Beach, Heidi Donovan, Juleen Rodakowski, Grace Campbell
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesMid-life family caregivers (CGs) are at risk for participation restriction, which can worsen quality of care for care recipients (CR) and increase CG burden and poor health. We aimed to identify factors associated with participation restriction in mid-life CGs.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study of CGs aged 40–64 years (n = 1100) from the 2015 cohort of the National Study of Caregiving (NSOC)/National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate personal and caregiving attributes associated with restricted participation.ResultsIndividual items from the negative and Positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) scales were associated with participation restriction. Mid-life caregivers with “frequent changes to caregiving routine” and “no time for self” were more likely to report restricted participation and those feeling “closer to the CR” were less likely to report restricted participation.DiscussionInterventions to optimize caregiving routines and improve dyadic relationships could decrease participation restriction in mid-life CGs.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T02:12:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221150051
       
  • The Fading of Protective Roots: A Multivariate Analysis of the Risk of
           Hypertension among Hispanics by Nativity

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      Authors: Brandon S. Walker, Norman J Waitzman
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo examine the effects of Hispanic nativity on the risk and severity of hypertension relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites.MethodsThe analytic sample (n = 34,007) was comprised of cross-sectional data drawn from twenty years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2018.ResultsForeign-born Hispanics aged 65 years and older had a greater risk of severe hypertension compared to non-Hispanic Whites. When examined by length of residency in the US, elderly foreign-born Hispanics with less than 10 years of residency were at greater risk of hypertension and severe hypertension, while those with 20 or more years of residency had similar risks compared to non-Hispanic Whites.ConclusionThe “Hispanic Paradox” of better health despite lower socioeconomic status, was not observed in foreign-born or US-born Hispanics aged 65 years and older. Among elderly immigrants, those with fewer years of residency had the greatest hypertensive risk.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T08:18:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221149810
       
  • Relationships of Low Cognitive Performance and Sleep Disorder With
           Functional Disabilities Among Older Adults

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      Authors: Rifat Alam, Laura Quintero Silva, Nilufer Jahan, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Babatope Ogunjesa, Ana Selzer Ninomiya, Andiara Schwingel
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study examined the relationships of low cognitive performance and sleep disorder with functional disabilities among older adults. Methods: NHANES 2011–2014 data on 3179 individuals [Mage=69.71] were analyzed. Functional domains included: activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL) and leisure and social activities (LSA). Animal Fluency Test and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test assessed cognitive performance. Participants self-reported having physician-diagnosed sleep disorder. Results: Participants with both low cognitive performance and sleep disorder had 4- to 10-times greater odds for ADL, IADL, and LSA difficulties compared to the participants with no low cognitive performance/sleep disorder. Participants with only low cognitive performance and those with only sleep disorder were two to three times more likely to experience these difficulties. Discussion: Low cognitive performance and sleep disorder together or independently were associated with functional disabilities. Participants with both low cognitive performance and sleep disorder had higher odds of functional disabilities.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-12-06T10:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221143221
       
  • Association of Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health with
           Subjective and Objective Memory in Older Adults

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      Authors: Zhong-Xu Liu, Brenda Whitehead, Anda Botoseneanu
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate how indicators of psychological stress and physical health differentially influence subjective and objective memory in older adults. Methods: 404 adults aged ≥55 without cognitive impairment participated in remote assessment of physical health (PHY; multimorbidity, body-mass-index), psychological distress (PDS; perceived stress, anxiety, depression), subjective memory complaints (SM), and task-based objective memory performance (OM). Results: Separately, both PHY and PDS significantly predicted SM (p < 0.01), but only PHY was associated with OM (p = 0.05). Combined models showed that PHY and PDS maintained significant association with SM (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.30), while only PHY was associated with OM (p = .07, R2 = 0.03; for associative OM, p = 0.04). Discussion: SM is associated with participants’ psychological profile, highlighting the importance of addressing these factors when assessing SM. The results also reveal that remotely-administered OM tasks are more immune to participants’ psychological profile, and support previously-established links between physical health and objective and subjective memory function.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T09:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221143828
       
  • Mapping Protective Performance of Social Network Types on Health and
           Quality of Life in Older People in European Regions

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      Authors: Zaira Torres, Amparo Oliver, José M. Tomás
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To identify social network profiles using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), to study the relationships of these profiles with health markers, mental health, quality of life, and cognitive functioning, and to compare profiles across European regions. Methods: 27,272 participants from the Wave 8 of the SHARE project, aged 65 or older (M = 74.95, SD = 7.17) from Europe. Statistical analyses included LPAs followed by MANOVAs to compare the profiles and the health markers. Results: Five profiles were identified: family, friends, spouse, diverse, and others. A no network group was also added. The prevalence of the specific profiles differed across European regions. Individuals with no network and those categorized into the others profile presented the worst health outcomes. Discussion: The “friends” network is more protective toward cognitive functioning and physical health and the “spouse” and “family” ones are more protective toward mental health. The variability according to European regions is discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T03:11:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221142078
       
  • Trends in Activity Limitations From an International Perspective:
           Differential Changes Between Age Groups Across 30 Countries

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      Authors: Johannes Beller, Marc Luy, Guido Giarelli, Enrique Regidor, Lourdes Lostao, Juliane Tetzlaff, Siegfried Geyer
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Examine trends in limitations among young (15–39), middle-aged (40–64) and older age-groups (>=65) and their socioeconomic differences. Methods: Population-based European Social Survey data (N = 396,853) were used, covering 30 mostly European countries and spanning the time-period 2002–2018. Limitations were measured using a global activity limitations indicator. Results: Age-differential trends in limitations were found. Activity limitations generally decreased in older adults, whereas trends varied among younger and middle-aged participants, with decreasing limitations in some countries but increasing limitations in others. These age-differential trends were replicated across limitation severity and socioeconomic groups; however, stronger limitation increases occurred regarding less-severe limitations. Discussion: Functional health has improved in older adults. Contrarily, the increasing limitations in younger and middle-aged individuals seem concerning, which were mostly observed in Western and Northern European countries. Given its public health importance, future studies should investigate the reasons for this declining functional health in the young and middle-aged.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T10:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221141123
       
  • Physical Activity Tracker Application in Promoting Physical Activity
           Behavior among Older Adults: A 24-month Follow-Up Study

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      Authors: Tuomas Kari, Markus Makkonen, Christer Carlsson
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate whether and how PA tracker application use supports PA behavior among older adults during the first 24 months of use. Methods: The changes in PA levels (i.e., time spent in different PA intensities) and between PA categories (i.e., low, moderate, or high based on total PA) were examined between three different time points: before taking the application into use (t0), after 12 months of use (t1), and after 24 months of use (t2). The data was collected by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly (IPAQ-E). Results: A statistically significant increase was observed in walking (χ2 (2) = 29.741, p < .001), moderate PA (χ2 (2) = 6.327, p = .042), and total PA levels (χ2 (2) = 11.489, p = .003). The increase was observed between t0 and t1 as well as between t0 and t2. The overall changes between PA categories were statistically significant between t0 and t1 (χ2 (3) = 15.789, p = .001) as well as between t0 and t2 (χ2 (3) = 14.745, p = .002). There were more increasingly active (moved to a higher PA category) than decreasingly active (moved to a lower PA category) participants. Discussion: Overall, the results indicate that PA tracker application use can promote PA behavior among older adults. Stakeholders that work with PA programs and PA promotion, as well as individual users, can utilize digital wellness technologies in supporting PA promotion, especially in exceptional times, like the COVID-19 pandemic, when health care restrictions prevent general gatherings.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T02:01:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221135812
       
  • Associations of Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use With Cognition,
           Health-Related Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptoms

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      Authors: Lauren K. Dillard, Alex Pinto, Kimberly D. Mueller, Carla R. Schubert, Adam J. Paulsen, Natascha Merten, Mary E. Fischer, Ted S. Tweed, Karen J. Cruickshanks
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesDetermine associations of hearing loss (HL) and hearing aid (HA) use with cognition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and depressive symptoms. Methods: Participants were from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study or Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HL was defined as pure-tone average (.5–4.0 kHz)> 25 dB. A principal component analysis of 5 cognitive tasks measured cognition. The SF-12 measured mental and physical HRQoL. The Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16). Regression models returned beta (B) coefficients or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: This study included 3574 participants. HL (vs. none) was associated with poorer cognition (B−.12 [−.18, −.06]), mental (B−.99 [−1.65, −.33]) and physical (B−.76 [−1.50, −.03]) HRQoL, and increased odds of depressive symptoms (OR 1.49 [1.16, 1.91]). HA users had better cognition than non-users. Discussion: HL likely impacts cognition and well-being. HA use may have cognitive benefits.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T09:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221138162
       
  • The Effects of Loneliness on Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults During
           COVID-19: Longitudinal Analyses of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on
           Aging

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      Authors: Andrew Wister, Lun Li, Mélanie Levasseur, Laura Kadowaki, John Pickering
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis paper examines the longitudinal effects of changes in the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms during the pandemic among older adults (65+). Methods Baseline (2011–2015) and Follow-up 1 (2015–2018) from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit waves of the CLSA COVID-19 study (April–December, 2020) (n = 12,469) were used. Loneliness was measured using the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale and depression using the CES_D- 9. Results Loneliness is associated with depressive symptoms pre-pandemic; and changes in level of loneliness between FUP1 and the COVID Exit survey, adjusting for covariates. No interaction between loneliness and caregiving, and with multimorbidity, on depressive symptoms were observed, and several covariates exhibited associations with depressive symptoms. Discussion Strong support is found for an association between loneliness on depressive symptoms among older adults during the pandemic. Public health approaches addressing loneliness could reduce the burden of depression on older populations.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T02:14:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221129686
       
  • Elderly Outcomes After Hospitalization: The Hospital Frailty Risk Score
           Applied on the French Health Data Hub

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      Authors: Sophie Dubnitskiy-Robin, Emeline Laurent, Julien Herbert, Bertrand Fougère, Leslie Guillon-Grammatico
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To demonstrate the association between the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) and 30-day mortality, 30-day hospital readmission and length of stay (LOS) in France. Methods: Logistic regressions were performed using data recorded in the French national health data system (SNDS) for elderly patients (≥75 years old) hospitalized in France in 2017. Results: Over the 1,111,090 patients included, 30-day mortality was associated with the HFRS: adjusted OR (aOR) for an intermediate HFRS (5–15 points) was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (95% IC); 1.87–1.95] and aOR 2.57 [95% IC; 2.50–2.64] for high HFRS (>15 points), as compared to low HFRS (10 days increased with the HFRS (aOR = 1.36 [95% IC; 1.34–1.38] for an intermediate HFRS and aOR 1.51 [95% IC; 1.48–1.54] for a high HFRS). A high HFRS was associated with 30-day hospital readmission (aOR = 1.06 [95% IC; 1.04–1.08]). Discussion: This real-life analysis of in- and out-patient healthcare pathways confirmed the HFRS’s ability to predict adverse outcomes, after adjustment on social deprivation.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T01:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221135318
       
  • Lonely in a Crowd: Social Isolation Profiles and Caregiver Burden Among
           Family Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Cognitive
           Impairment

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      Authors: Pildoo Sung, June May-Ling Lee, Angelique Chan
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study identified distinct social isolation profiles among caregivers, each formed by varied combinations of social disconnectedness and loneliness, and examined if and how the profiles were associated with caregiver burden.MethodsLatent class analysis and multivariable regression were applied to data from 266 caregivers of community-dwelling older Singaporeans with cognitive impairment.ResultsTwo caregiver social isolation profiles were identified: strongly connected, not lonely (86%), and moderately connected, lonely (14%). Moderately connected and lonely caregivers tended to perceive a higher level of burden than strongly connected and not lonely caregivers. Moderately connected and lonely caregivers were also more likely to be burdened by their care recipients’ poor health than their connected and not lonely counterparts.DiscussionCaregivers who feel “lonely in a crowd” are vulnerable to caregiving stress and burden. Tailored interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, are needed to reduce the loneliness of moderately connected caregivers.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T08:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221137939
       
  • Matters of the Heart: Childhood Maltreatment, Religious Transitions, and
           Cardiovascular-Related Problems over the Life Course

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      Authors: Laura Upenieks, Patricia A. Thomas
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives:Childhood maltreatment is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular-related problems, the leading cause of death in the United States. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study considers whether transitions in religious attendance moderate the deleterious impact of childhood maltreatment on long-term cardiovascular risk.Methods:We utilize over 35 years of prospective panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth from the United States (1979–2015).Results:Our findings suggest that decreases in religious attendance between adolescence and adulthood (from high to low, and high to moderate attendance) were associated with elevated cardiovascular-related risk for those abused as children. Neither stable high attendance nor increases in attendance buffered against the impact of childhood abuse on cardiovascular-related problems.Discussion:We illustrate the importance of incorporating the role of stability and change in religious attendance across the life course and suggest directions for future research.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T08:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221135689
       
  • Marital Histories and Associations With Later-Life Dementia and Mild
           Cognitive Impairment Risk in the HUNT4 70+ Study in Norway

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      Authors: Vegard Skirbekk, Catherine E. Bowen, Asta Håberg, Astanand Jugessur, Bo Engdahl, Bernt Bratsberg, Ekaterina Zotcheva, Geir Selbæk, Hans-Peter Kohler, Jordan Weiss, Jennifer R. Harris, Sarah E. Tom, Steinar Krokstad, Yaakov Stern, Bjørn Heine Strand
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Earlier studies suggest that being married in later life protects against dementia, and that being single in old age increases the risk of dementia. In this study, we examine midlife marital status trajectories and their association with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at ages 70 plus using a large population based sample from Norway. Methods: Based on a general population sample linked to population registries (N = 8706), we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the associations between six types of marital trajectories (unmarried, continuously divorced, intermittently divorced, widowed, continuously married, intermittently married) between age 44 and 68 years from national registries and a clinical dementia or a MCI diagnosis after age 70. We estimated relative risk ratios (RRR) and used mediation analyses adjusting for education, number of children, smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, mental distress, and having no close friends in midlife. Inverse probability weighting and multiple imputations were applied. The population attributable fraction was estimated to assess the potential reduction in dementia cases due to marital histories. Results: Overall, 11.6% of the participants were diagnosed with dementia and 35.3% with MCI. Dementia prevalence was lowest among the continuously married (11.2%). Adjusting for confounders, the risk of dementia was higher for the unmarried (RRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.40), continuously divorced (RRR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.43), and intermittently divorced (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.06) compared to the continuously married. In general, marital trajectory was less associated with MCI than with dementia. In the counterfactual scenario, where all participants had the same risk of receiving a dementia diagnosis as the continuously married group, there would be 6.0% fewer dementia cases. Discussion: Our data confirm that staying married in midlife is associated with a lower risk of dementia and that divorced people account for a substantial share of dementia cases.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T01:32:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221131926
       
  • Dementia and Related Comorbidities in the Population Aged 90 and Over in
           the Vitality 90+ Study, Finland: Patterns and Trends From 2001 to 2018

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      Authors: Pauliina Halonen, Linda Enroth, Esa Jämsen, Saritha Vargese, Marja Jylhä
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine trends in the prevalence of dementia and related comorbidities among the oldest old.MethodsSix repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2018, each including all inhabitants aged over 90 in Tampere, Finland (n = 5386). Co-occurring conditions and their time trends among participants with dementia were examined using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations.ResultsThe prevalence of dementia decreased from 47% in 2007 to 41% in 2018. Throughout the study period, depression was more common among people with dementia compared to those without. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and osteoarthritis increased and the prevalence of depression decreased among people with dementia. The mean number of comorbidities increased from 2.0 in 2001 to 2.3 in 2018.DiscussionDementia remains highly prevalent among the oldest old and it is accompanied by an increasing burden of comorbidities, posing a challenge to people with dementia, their caregivers, and care systems.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-18T08:06:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221123451
       
  • Pre- and Early Peri-menopausal Physical Function and Risk of
           Cardiovascular Events: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

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      Authors: Brittney S. Lange-Maia, Samar R. El Khoudary, Carolyn J. Crandall, Yanyu Zhang, Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Bradley M. Appelhans, Elsa S. Strotmeyer, Kelly R. Ylitalo, Kelly Karavolos, Howard M. Kravitz, Sheila A. Dugan, Imke Janssen
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo determine whether physical function (PF) before menopause is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.MethodsParticipants were N = 2950 pre-/early peri-menopausal women (median age 46, (25th–75th percentile: 43–48 years). Physical function was assessed at baseline using the Physical Function subscale of the SF-36 and scores were trichotomized (no, some, or substantial limitations). Clinical CVD events were ascertained at annual/biennial clinical assessments through the 15th follow-up visit. Risk of CVD was determined with Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Women were followed for a median of 19.1 years, during which 220 women had a CVD event. In fully adjusted models, women with substantial limitations at baseline had higher CVD risk compared to women with no limitations (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.33). Discussion: Substantial PF limitations in pre- and early peri-menopausal women are associated with higher risk of clinical CVD events, consistent with literature in older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T02:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221133580
       
  • Functional Capacity and Difficulties in Activities of Daily Living From a
           Cross-National Perspective

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      Authors: Tiia Kekäläinen, Martina Luchetti, Angelina Sutin, Antonio Terracciano
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study investigated whether physical and cognitive functioning predicts developing difficulties in basic or instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), and whether country-level factors moderated the associations. Methods: 69,227 adults aged 50+ from 19 countries were followed for up to 14 years. Cox regression and meta-regression analyses were used. Results: Higher grip strength was associated with a 45% lower risk of developing ADL limitations and a 47% lower risk of IADL limitations. The corresponding values were 22% and 23% for peak flow, 20% and 23% for word recall, and 20% and 24% for temporal orientation. The associations were similar and statistically significant in most countries, but some associations were weaker in countries with lower GDP and lower service coverage. Discussion: Good physical and cognitive functional capacity protects from ADL and IADL limitations consistently across Western countries. The associations may be stronger in countries with more resources.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-15T07:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221128929
       
  • Hip Fracture-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and
           Deaths by Mechanism of Injury among Adults Aged 65 and Older, United
           States 2019

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      Authors: Briana L. Moreland, Jaswinder K. Legha, Karen E. Thomas, Elizabeth R. Burns
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveDescribe rates of hip fracture-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among older adults (aged ≥65 years) in the United States.MethodsData from the 2019 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate rates of hip fracture-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among older adults by select characteristics and mechanism of injury.ResultsIn 2019, there were 318,797 ED visits, 290,130 hospitalizations, and 7731 deaths related to hip fractures among older adults. About 88% of ED visits and hospitalizations and approximately 83% of deaths related to hip fractures were caused by falls. Rates were highest among older adults living in rural areas and among those aged ≥85 years.DiscussionMost hip fractures among older adults are fall-related. Healthcare providers can prevent falls among their older patients by screening for fall risk, assessing modifiable risk factors, and offering evidence-based interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T07:05:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221132450
       
  • A 13-Year Time-Lagged Description of General Cognitive and Functional
           Abilities in Older Men: A Cross-Lagged Panel Model

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      Authors: Peter Martin, Leonard W. Poon, Gina Lee, Hardeep K. Obhi, Kalpana J. Kallianpur, Bradley Willcox, Kamal Masaki
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cross-lagged panel model of general cognition and functional abilities over 13 years. The goal was to determine whether general cognitive abilities predict or precede functional decline versus functional abilities predicting cognitive decline. Methods: The sample included 3508 men (71–93 years of age at baseline) of the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were tested repeatedly using a global cognitive test and an assessment of functional capacity. Education and age served as covariates. Cross-lagged models were tested, assessing stationarity of stability and cross-lags. Results: The overall model fit the data well. Cognitive scores had better stability than functional abilities and predicted functional abilities more strongly than functional abilities predicted cognitive scores over time. The strength of all cross-lags increased over time. Discussion: These longitudinal data show that cognitive scores predicted functional decline in a population-based study of older men.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T02:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221130381
       
  • Psychometrics of the Physical Resilience Scale in Older Adults Living with
           Dementia: Proxy Responses

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      Authors: Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Ashley Kuzmik, Jeanette Ellis, Chris Wells
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if proxies can complete the Physical Resilience Scale for older adults living with dementia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using Rasch analysis and baseline data from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care Using the Evidence Integration Triangle trial. The first 240 patients living with dementia were included in this analysis. Results: There was evidence of reliability based on person and item separation index. There was no evidence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) between genders and a DIF by race on Item 7. Validity was supported based on items fitting the model with the exception of one item, and a significant relationship between physical resilience and pain and function. Discussion: There is some evidence that the Physical Resilience Scale is reliable and valid when completed by proxy reports. Future use should remove one of the items due to redundancy.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T06:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221130805
       
  • Religiosity and Physical Health of Middle–Old Aged African Americans:
           The Linking Role of Self-Control

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      Authors: Kandauda A. S. Wickrama, Penny A. Ralston
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study examined a psychological process (i.e., sense of control) that links religiosity to self-reported physical health in older African Americans. Methods: Two waves of data from 231 middle–old aged African Americans (AAs) were used to test two specific hypotheses: (a) religiosity influences changes in sense of control middle–old aged AAs, and (b) sense of control influences changes in global physical health in middle–old aged AAs. The analysis used two modeling approaches: (a) an autoregressive cross-lagged modeland (b) a parallel growth/change model. Results: The results of both types of models showed that religiosity positively influenced changes in sense of control and that sense of control positively influenced changes in physical health in middle–old aged AAs over time. Discussion: These findings provide evidence that sense of control links religiosity to physical health in older African Americans. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T10:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221128653
       
  • The Relationship Between Cognition and Mortality Among Older Black and
           White Men in Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly
           

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      Authors: Roland J. Thorpe, Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Olivio J. Clay, Lorraine Dean, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Andrew Gellert, George W. Rebok
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: To determine the association between baseline cognition and all-cause mortality among Black men and White men. Methods: Data were from 614 Black and White men aged ≥65 years at baseline in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial and their linked mortality information. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between baseline cognition (memory, reasoning, speed of processing, Mini Mental State Exam) and mortality risk over 20 years, adjusting for covariates. Results: Among White men, higher performance on the memory composite measure was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89–0.98), whereas the other cognitive measures were not associated with all-cause mortality risk. Among Black men, none of the cognitive measures was associated with all-cause mortality risk. Discussion: There is a need for future work to recruit and retain a larger sample of older Black men to better understand the cognition-mortality relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T09:40:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221128906
       
  • Sociodemographic Factors and Neighborhood/Environmental Conditions
           Associated with Social Isolation Among Black Older Adults

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      Authors: Harry O. Taylor, Kazumi Tsuchiya, Ann W. Nguyen, Collin Mueller
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To investigate sociodemographic factors and neighborhood/environmental conditions associated with social isolation (SI) among Black older adults. Methods: We utilized data from the 2014 and 2016 Leave-Behind Questionnaire from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS LBQ) among those who self-identified as Black (N = 2.323). Outcome variables for our study included SI from adult children, other family members, friends, disengagement from social participation and religious services, being unmarried, and living alone. These indicators were also combined into an overall SI index. Critical predictors included gender, age, household income, education, employment status, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, urbanicity, and region of residence. Results: Sociodemographic factors of gender, education and household income were significantly associated with SI indicators. Additionally, some neighborhood/environmental conditions were associated with SI indicators. Discussion: SI was found to be patterned by sociodemographic factors. These results can be used to develop effective interventions to mitigate SI among Black older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T08:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118427
       
  • Mental Health Benefits and Detriments of Caregiving Demands: A Nonlinear
           Association in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

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      Authors: Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee, Margaret J. Penning
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study examines whether the association between caregiving demands and mental health is non-linear and also, whether this non-linear association is contingent on the marital status of the caregiver.MethodsWe analyze the data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, applying OLS regression and quadratic interaction terms.ResultsA lower level of demands is salubriously associated with symptoms of depression and life satisfaction, but this association becomes deleterious at higher levels of demands. Moreover, a connection to a marital partner extends the benefits of caregiving demands and stems the adverse consequences.DiscussionThis research shows that acts of caregiving may not themselves be detrimental. Instead, the degree and way in which caregiving relates to mental health may vary by both the extent of the demands of the caregiving role and familial relationships in which caregivers are embedded.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T06:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125258
       
  • Depressive Symptom Trajectories and Cognition Among Older American
           Couples: A Dyadic Perspective

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      Authors: Dexia Kong, Peiyi Lu, Phyllis Solomon, Jean Woo, Mack Shelley
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study examined whether trajectories of depressive symptoms of one spouse are associated with the other spouse’s memory.MethodsLongitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (2004–2016) were used (N = 5690 heterosexual couples). Latent-class growth analysis and structural equation models examined the actor and partner effects of depressive symptom trajectories on memory.ResultsFour depressive symptom trajectories were identified (i.e., persistently low, increasing, decreasing, and persistently high). Compared to the low trajectory group, the increasing and persistently high trajectories were associated with worse memory for both men and women. While none of the wives’ depressive symptom trajectories was significantly associated with husbands’ memory (p> .05), husbands’ decreasing trajectory was linked to wives’ better memory (β = 0.498, 95% CI = 0.106, 0.890).DiscussionOlder adults with increasing and persistently high depressive symptoms may experience worse memory. Psychosocial interventions targeting depressive symptoms among older men may be beneficial to their spouses’ memory.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T08:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125838
       
  • Generational and Social Forces in the Life Events and Experiences of
           Lesbian and Gay Midlife and Older Adults Across the Iridescent Life Course
           

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      Authors: Karen Fredriksen-Goldsen, Charles Hoy-Ellis, Hyun-Jun Kim, Hailey H. Jung, Charles A. Emlet, Ian Johnson, Jayn Goldsen
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesUtilizing Iridescent Life Course, we examine life events among three generations of lesbian and gay adults: Invisible (born 1920–1934), Silenced (born 1935–1949), and Pride (born 1950–1964) Generations. Methods: We utilized a subsample (n = 2079) from the 2014 wave of Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS). Demographic characteristics, life events, and gender and generational interactions were compared. Results: Compared to other generations, the Invisible Generation disclosed their identity at older ages, were more likely to be retired, served in the military, and survived a partner’s death. Compared to the other generations, the Pride Generation was more likely to have disclosed their identities earlier and experienced higher levels of victimization/discrimination. Discussion: This paper is the first to examine the lived experiences of the oldest lesbians and gay men and compare them to other generations. The findings illustrate the heteronormative nature of most life course research.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T11:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125517
       
  • Longitudinal Changes in Dual Decline in Memory and Gait Speed Association
           with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Findings from the National
           Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

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      Authors: Mi Kyeong Kim, Byoung-Ho Kang, Ji Hyeun Park, Sun Mi Ham, Hae Yean Park, Ickpyo Hong
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: We investigated the association between dual decline (DD) (loss of memory and gait speed) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) degeneration in older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) reflecting changes over 5 years. This study used the NSHAP data set wave 2 (2010–2011, N = 3196) and wave 3 (2015–2016, N = 4377). Results: Data from 1640 participants were retrieved. There were 601 people with DD and 1039 people without-DD. The DD group had a 28.4% (95% CI = 1.013–1.626) greater risk of degrading in IADL than the without-DD group (odds ratio = 1.284, p < .05). Conclusion: Current research can be used when establishing intervention programs or policies that can prevent IADL degradation through simple memory training and walking activities for older adults living in the community.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T01:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125274
       
  • Intersecting Early-Life Selection Mechanisms: Socio-Historical Changes in
           Racially Stratified Effects of Education on Functional Limitations in the
           United States

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      Authors: Tirth R. Bhatta
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveScant research has focused on the role of sociohistorical changes in shaping intersecting early-life selection mechanisms and their impacts on racially stratified effects of education on health across cohorts.MethodDrawing from the Health and Retirement Survey, this study fitted negative binomial regression models to assess the impacts of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on the relationship between education and functional limitations for Black and White adults across birth cohorts (n = 16,269, born 1931–1959).ResultsThe disparities between Black adults and White adults in impacts of childhood SES on both education and functional limitations were more pronounced in recent cohorts. The racial stratification in the impacts of education on functional limitations was documented across cohorts. However, after adjusting for childhood SES, this stratification narrowed considerably in recent cohorts.DiscussionThis study underscores the role of a sociohistorical context in shaping the effects of education on health at the intersection of race and cohort.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T08:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221124657
       
  • The Impact of Sustained Ownership of a Pet on Cognitive Health: A
           Population-Based Study

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      Authors: Jennifer W. Applebaum, Monica M. Shieu, Shelby E. McDonald, Galit Levi Dunietz, Tiffany J. Braley
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To examine associations between sustained ownership of a pet and cognitive outcomes among a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods: Weighted linear mixed models were estimated using the Health and Retirement Study (2010–2016, n = 1369) to compare repeated measures of cognitive function between respondents who endorsed owning a pet in a sustained manner (>5 years), versus those who owned a pet ≤5 years, and non-pet owners. Results: Respondents aged 65+ who owned a pet>5 years demonstrated higher composite cognitive scores, compared to non-pet owners (β = .76, p = .03). Sustained pet ownership was associated with higher immediate (β = .3, p = .02) and delayed (β = .4, p = .007) word recall scores. There were no significant differences in cognitive scores between pet owners and non-owners aged < 65. Discussion: Sustained ownership of a pet could mitigate cognitive disparities in older adults. Further studies are needed to examine potential causal pathways, including physical activity and stress buffering, versus selection effects.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T04:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221122641
       
  • Rating Health and Rating Change: How Canadians Rate Their Health and Its
           Changes

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      Authors: Patrick Lazarevič, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: We investigated the contribution of five health domains to self-rated health (SRH) cross-sectionally and longitudinally and whether these contributions differ by gender or age. Methods: Employing dominance analyses, we quantified the contributions of functioning, diseases, pain, mental health, and behavior to both SRH at a point in time and for changes in SRH using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS, 1994–2011). Results: Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, functioning was the most important health domain, followed by diseases and pain. There were no meaningful differences in the ranking by gender while functioning, diseases, and pain were more relevant in older cohorts. Discussion: Functioning, diseases, and pain systematically were the most important health domains in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. While these results held for women and men, they were more salient for older adults. This points to a gender-invariant but age-graded process, confirming previous research with European data.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T02:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221119654
       
  • Decision Making and Blood Sugar Indicators in Older African American
           Adults

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      Authors: Veronica Eloesa McSorley, Melissa Lamar, Lei Yu, David A. Bennett, Lisa L. Barnes, Patricia A. Boyle
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Decision making is a modifiable behavior associated with health outcomes. We investigated the association of decision making with blood sugar indicators in older community-dwelling African American adults. Methods: Participants were 328 older African American adults from community-based studies (mean age = 78). Decision making was assessed using a performance-based measure (range: 0–12). Blood sugar indicators were non-fasting hemoglobin A1c and blood glucose. Using regression, we assessed the relationship between decision making and each blood sugar indicator, controlling for demographics. We additionally examined if an association varied by known diabetes diagnosis. Results: Lower decision making was associated with higher HbA1c (b: −0.05, p-value: .03), but not blood glucose. In an interaction analysis, the association of lower decision making with higher levels of HbA1c was present only among individuals with known diabetes (b (with diabetes): −0.13, p-value:
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221122639
       
  • Racial/Ethnic Differences in Biological Aging and Their Life Course
           Socioeconomic Determinants: The 2016 Health and Retirement Study

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      Authors: Mateo P. Farina, Jung Ki Kim, Eileen M. Crimmins
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examined differences in accelerated biological aging among non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States and assessed whether including life course socioeconomic conditions attenuated observed racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data came from the Venous Blood Collection Subsample of the Health and Retirement Study. We used a comprehensive summary measure of biological age (BA-22). We determined whether key lifetime socioeconomic conditions contributed to racial/ethnic differences in biological aging. Results: Findings indicated that non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics have accelerated aging, and non-Hispanic Whites have decelerated aging. Racial/ethnic differences were strongly tied to educational attainment. We also observed a significant difference by birthplace for Hispanics. US-born Hispanics had accelerated biological aging, whereas foreign-born Hispanics did not. In age-stratified analyses, these racial/ethnic differences were found for adults aged 56–74, but not for adults aged 75+. Conclusions: These findings provide insight into biological differences underlying racial/ethnic disparities in health.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T02:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221120743
       
  • Care Needs and Arrangements of Aging Immigrants in the United States

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      Authors: Zohra Ansari-Thomas
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine the need for and arrangements pertaining to personal care assistance among individuals 65 and older, and how life stage at migration impacts nativity differences in aging-related care.MethodsUsing data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (2001, 2004, and 2008), I examine the odds of needing care assistance, who provides care assistance, and the duration of time care assistance is needed, comparing U.S.-born individuals to migrants who arrived before age 50 (“earlier-life migrants”) and those who arrived after age 50 (“later-life migrants”).ResultsWhile earlier-life migrants showed similar patterns to U.S.-born, later-life migrants showed higher care needs, were more likely to receive care from an adult child, and were particularly likely to need care for longer durations compared to U.S.-born.DiscussionAging later-life migrants have strikingly distinct care needs and arrangements, with implications for individual and family well-being, especially considering their barriers to public support.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T02:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221120701
       
  • Within-Person Dynamics of Objective and Subjective Social Isolation in
           Midlife and Later Life

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      Authors: Mengsha Luo, Lydia W. Li
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate the within-person dynamics of objective and subjective social isolation among U.S. middle-aged and older adults and to explore gender differences in this relationship. Methods: Four waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, 2006–2018, N = 5437) and the multiple group random intercept cross-lagged panel model were used. Results: Within-person deviation in expected subjective isolation predicted deviation in expected objective isolation years later. No corresponding cross-lagged effect of objective isolation on subjective isolation was found. Gender differences were detected: the within-person cross-lagged positive effect of subjective isolation on objective isolation was significant for men but not for women. Discussion: This study provides evidence for a unidirectional relationship between subjective and objective isolation at the within-person level: higher than expected increase in subjective isolation predicts higher than expected increase in subsequent objective isolation. This within-person process is more salient in men than in women.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T03:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118449
       
  • Respiratory Health Among Older Adults in Vietnam: Does Earlier-Life
           Military Role and War Exposure Matter'

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      Authors: Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan, Zachary Zimmer, Timothy Qing Ying Low, Tran Khanh Toan
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe explore how earlier-life military roles and war trauma associate with later-life respiratory health in Vietnam. Method: The population-based sample aged 60+ is from the 2018 Vietnam Health and Aging Study. Poisson and binary logistic regressions investigate correlates of overall lung health, measured as total number of four conditions, and individual conditions, with focus on earlier-life wartime experiences. Results: Exposure is associated with lung conditions. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in exposure results in 0.529 more conditions (p ≤ .001). Association varies across military roles and is partially explained by PTSD and smoking. Civilians heavily exposed to war trauma exhibit worse lung health than similarly exposed formal and informal military personnel. Discussion: Earlier-life war exposure is an important predictor of late-adulthood respiratory health in lower- and middle-income countries. Evidence calls for attention to the long-term impacts of war on health among not only formal and informal military personnel but also civilians.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T03:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118445
       
  • Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity-Related State-Level Policies and
           Perceived Health Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT)
           Older Adults in the United States

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      Authors: Christi L. Nelson, Britney M. Wardecker, Ross Andel
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe examined the associations between state-level policies and the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Methods: Using data from the 2018–2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, we assessed physical and mental health by the tally of points for enacted LGBT-related policies (Low=
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T04:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221116762
       
  • Age Differences in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Assessing
           the Moderating Role of Attachment to God

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      Authors: Xi Zhu, Laura Upenieks
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examined age differences in mental health problems (depression and anxiety) during the COVID-19 pandemic using nationally representative data from the United States. Drawing from a life course perspective, we also assessed if a secure attachment to God conditioned the relationship between age and mental health. Methods: Data were from the 2021 Values and Beliefs of the American Public Study (N = 1168), collected roughly 1 year into the pandemic. Results: Older adults (61 years and over) reported lower depression and anxiety than respondents 18–30 years of age. However, stronger perceptions of attachment to God significantly closed the age gap in anxiety between these age groups. Discussion: Though absolute levels of religiosity tend to be higher for older adults, secure attachment to God was more protective of the mental health of younger adults during the pandemic. We reflect on our findings through a life course lens.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T07:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221112141
       
  • Evaluating Social Determinants of Health Domains and Their Predictive
           Validity Within Black/African American and White Older Adults From the
           Active Trial

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      Authors: Olivio J. Clay, Karlene K. Ball, Katie M. Wheeler, Michael Crowe, Michael Marsiske, Lorraine T. Dean, Roland J. Thorpe, Richard Jones, Joshua H. Owens, George W. Rebok, Sherry L. Willis
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess domains of social determinants of health (SDoH) and their associations with cognition and quality of life.MethodThis investigation uses baseline data from individuals participating in the ACTIVE trial (n = 2505) to reproduce the SDoH domains described in Healthy People 2030 (economic stability, health care, education, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context). Results: Results support using data from the ACTIVE trial to assess all five SDoH domains, and the ability of the composites to predict baseline performance on measures of cognition and self-reported quality of life within a sample of older adults. Additionally, higher SDoH domain scores were associated with better functioning on composite measures of cognition and higher scores for mental and physical health-related quality of life with Access to Healthcare associated with all outcomes. Discussion: These findings can inform investigators interested in assessing multiple domains of SDoH and highlight the importance of access to health care within older Black/African American and White older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T06:09:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221111205
       
  • Motivating Protective Behavior against COVID-19: Fear Versus Hope

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      Authors: Gregor Sand, Johanna Bristle
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesBased on protection motivation theory, we investigate how indicators of threat perception (perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, and fear arousal) and coping appraisal (hope) are associated with older people’s motivation to engage in protective behavior after the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe use multivariate regression analyses with a sample of 40,282 individuals from 26 countries participating in the SHARE Corona Survey.ResultsWe find that 15% of all respondents stayed home completely—mainly the oldest and vulnerable people with prior health risk conditions. On average, older Europeans responded strongly to the recommended protective behavior measures (6 out of 7 measures adopted). Among the threat perception indicators, fear arousal is the main motivator for protective behavior, whereas the coping appraisal indicator hope shows an equally strong association.DiscussionGiven the negative health effects of fear, our findings may help evaluate and revise governmental policy responses and communication strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T11:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221089427
       
  • Stressors and Pain across the Late-Life Span: Findings from Two Parent
           Longitudinal Studies of Aging and Health

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      Authors: Penny L. Brennan
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:The objective is to determine associations between stressors and pain across the late-life span.Method:Multilevel linear modeling was applied separately to harmonized repeated measures data from the Longitudinal Late-Life Health study (LLLH; n = 342; 13-year interval) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 2959; 8-year interval).Results:In both the LLLH and HRS samples, independent of age, gender, and race, participants with higher average stressor levels experienced more numerous painful conditions and higher pain severity over the study intervals. In the HRS sample, they also experienced higher levels of pain interference. In general, participants’ stressor levels did not influence rates of increase in their pain. Gender and race had few moderating effects on associations between stressors and pain.Discussion:Stressors and pain are associated across the late-life span. Future research should focus on the mediating mechanisms that account for this association and the moderating factors that affect its strength.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104369
       
  • Perceived Neighborhood Racial Composition and Depressive Symptoms Among
           Black Americans Across Adulthood: Evaluating the Role of Psychosocial
           Risks and Resources

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      Authors: Courtney S. Thomas Tobin, James Huynh, Heather R. Farmer, Rebekah Israel Cross, Apurva Barve, Millicent Robinson, Erika Perez Leslie, Roland J. Thorpe
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To evaluate the relationships between perceived neighborhood racial composition (PNRC), psychosocial risks and resources, and depressive symptoms among young (ages 22–35), middle-aged (ages 36–49), and older (ages 50+) Black Americans. Methods: Full sample and age-stratified linear regression models estimated the PNRC-depressive symptoms association and the extent to which it persisted after accounting for psychosocial risks (i.e., neighborhood disorder, other social stressors) and resources (i.e., mastery, social support, racial identity) among 627 Black Americans in the Nashville Stress and Health Study. Results: Living in racially integrated and predominately White neighborhoods was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While psychosocial risks and resources explained a substantial portion of these associations, patterns varied across age groups. Discussion: PNRC impacts depressive symptoms among Black Americans by shaping psychosocial risks and resources. Findings underscore interconnections between contextual and psychosocial factors, as well as the distinct mental health significance of these processes across stages of adulthood.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100789
       
  • The Impact of Education and Insurance Status on Past-Year Dental Visits
           Among Older Mexican Adults: Results From the 2001 and 2012 Mexican Health
           and Aging Study

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      Authors: Jennifer Archuleta, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study assessed past-year dental visits among older Mexican adults from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). MHAS is a nationally representative cohort study of adults 50 years and older from Mexico. Methods: Baseline data from 2001 were compared with 2012 data. Binary logistic regression identified significant predictors of past-year dental visits. Decomposition techniques examined factors that contributed to changes in dental visits between 2001 and 2012. Results: Education and insurance status were positively associated with past-year dental visits, while decomposition results showed that population composition (more adults receiving insurance and higher education over time) contributed to the increased prevalence of dental visits between 2001 and 2012. Discussion: Education and insurance are critical factors that govern access to oral healthcare. After the provision of universal dental coverage by Mexico’s Seguro Popular in 2003, our results may reflect promising effects of such programs, which can inform future policies in Mexico and other settings.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T09:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221086586
       
  • 20th Century Puerto Rico and Later-Life Health: The Association Between
           Multigenerational Education and Chronic Conditions in Island-Dwelling
           Older Adults

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      Authors: Alejandra Colón-López, Catherine García
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives:Previous research on the association between education and older adult health in the U.S. has not included Puerto Rico. We investigated the effects of multigenerational educational attainment and chronic conditions among older Puerto Ricans residing on the archipelago’s main island.Methods:Data were from the longitudinal Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project. Generalized Poisson regression models were used to examine if multigenerational educational attainment was associated with chronic disease.Results:Findings show that parental educational attainment was associated with fewer chronic conditions among females at baseline but not at follow-up, suggesting that the effects of parental education on health over time are less pronounced. For males, educational attainment across the three generations was not significantly associated with chronic disease at baseline or follow-up.Discussion:Multigenerational education is an important determinant of older adult health that continues to be relevant in Puerto Rico and the Latin American and Hispanic-Caribbean region.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T01:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221097532
       
  • Bridge or Barrier' The Impact of Network Capital on the Receipt of
           Long-Term Care Services in Germany

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      Authors: Ariane Baum
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesIn Germany, roughly 8.3 million people are in need of care, but only one-third of them receive state care benefits. The study investigates whether the individual network of a care-seeking person, as well as its resources, interact with health status on the likelihood of accessing formal care services.MethodsGerman data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from 2015 were used in several Firth logistic regressions with interaction terms.ResultsHealth limitations are a significant predictor for the probability of receiving formal care benefits. As moderating factors, caregivers from the immediate family as well as caregivers with lower levels of education tend to contribute to an increase in this probability.DiscussionFindings are based on a limited data set and indicate the importance of further research in this area to examine the mechanisms of access to formal care more precisely.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T12:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221098779
       
  • Depressive Symptoms Partially Mediate the Association of Frailty Phenotype
           Symptoms and Cognition for Females but Not Males

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      Authors: Nicholas V. Resciniti, Mateo P. Farina, Anwar T. Merchant, Matthew C. Lohman
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe aimed to evaluate whether depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between frailty phenotype and cognitive function by sex.MethodsData came from the Health and Retirement Study from 2012–2016. The outcome was measured by Fried’s frailty criteria, our outcome was continuous global cognition, and mediator was depressive symptoms. We used mediation analysis, stratified by sex, to estimate the direct and indirect effects of frailty symptoms on cognition mediated by depressive symptoms.ResultsMales had a larger total effect (β= −0.43; 95% CI: −0.66, −0.02) for lower cognitive score for each increase in frailty symptom compared to females (β= −0.28; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.08). A significant indirect effect from frailty phenotype to cognition was found through depressive symptoms for females but not males.ConclusionThese results highlight the importance of identifying individuals with frailty and depressive symptoms to monitor and provide interventions to preserve cognitive function.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T07:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100688
       
  • Life Satisfaction and Intergenerational Mobility Among Older Hispanics in
           the United States

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      Authors: Ladanya Ramirez Surmeier, Miles G. Taylor, Dawn C. Carr
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate the impact of intergenerational mobility—measured as the difference between one’s own and one’s father’s education level—on overall life-satisfaction among Hispanic, White, and Black older Americans.MethodsData from the Health and Retirement Study were used to estimate life satisfaction by race/ethnicity using ordinary least squares regression (N = 5,057).ResultsHispanic and Black older Americans report greater educational gains relative to their fathers compared to Whites. Despite having the lowest reported education levels, Hispanics report the highest life satisfaction across race/ethnic groups. However, net of education level and other factors, intergenerational mobility decreased rather than increased life satisfaction for Hispanic older Americans.DiscussionThese results indicate that intergenerational mobility may not confer equal benefits for overall life satisfaction across racial/ethnic groups. As Hispanic individuals continue to achieve higher education levels, it is unclear whether upward mobility will translate to positive or negative assimilation consequences.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100788
       
  • Older Korean Americans’ Perceived Burdensomeness to Their Healthcare
           Partners: An Egocentric Network Assessment

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      Authors: Yuri Jang, Jangmin Kim, Hyunwoo Yoon, Nan Sook Park, David A. Chiriboga, Eric Rice, Miyong T. Kim
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The objective is to examine how older Korean Americans’ perceived burdensomeness to their healthcare partners is associated with the characteristics of older adult participants (egos) and their healthcare partners (alters). Methods:Surveys of 2150 participants in the Study of Older Korean Americans provided ego data. Participants were also asked to list up to three individuals whom they usually asked for help on health-related matters or healthcare use, which generated 3402 alters. Multilevel modeling was conducted to examine the role of the characteristics of egos and alters, as well as their cross-level interactions. Results: Perceived burdensomeness was negatively associated with English-speaking ability and residence in a low Korean density area. Perceived burden was also lowered when emotional support was received from the alters, and this pattern was pronounced among those with multi-comorbidity. Discussion: By identifying older immigrants prone to the sense of burdensomeness, the study suggests strategies to promote their health and healthcare use.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T01:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221103057
       
  • Current Marital Status and Epigenetic Clocks Among Older Adults in the
           United States: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study

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      Authors: Yan-Liang Yu
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examines how current marital status is associated with epigenetic aging. Methods: Data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study were used to examine marital status differences in the four epigenetic clocks, that is, GrimAge, DunedinPoAm, PhenoAge, and Zhang (N = 3765). Weighted ordinary least square regression models were estimated separately for men and women. Results: Remarried, cohabiting, divorced/separated and widowed older adults showed greater epigenetic aging than the continuously married similarly among men and women. Distinct sex difference was observed among the never married. While never-married women exhibited greater epigenetic aging than their continuously married counterparts, older men in lifelong singlehood showed comparable epigenetic aging to their continuously married peers. Discussion: The findings speak to the importance of marital context for epigenetic aging in later life and the biological risk associated with lifelong singlehood for older women in the US.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T08:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104928
       
  • Association Between Social Support and Depression Help-Seeking Behaviors
           Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

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      Authors: Xiaochuan Wang, Stephanie Bergren, XinQi Dong
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Depression has become one major mental health concern among Asian older adults. Yet, less is known about the role of social support on depression help-seeking among this population. This study examined the association between positive (i.e., open up to, rely on) and negative (i.e., too many demands, criticism) social support and depression help-seeking among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Study sample consisted of 994 U.S. Chinese older adults with depressive symptoms. Results: Stepwise logistic regression results indicated that greater positive social support was associated with increased likelihood of both formal and informal help-seeking behaviors, whereas negative support was not a significant predictor. Discussion: Findings highlight the key role of positive social support in influencing U.S. Chinese older adults’ depression help-seeking behaviors. Tailored strategies are recommended to better meet the mental health needs of this vulnerable population.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-12T07:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221106870
       
  • Leisure Activities and Depressive Symptoms among Older Men and Women in
           Mexico: Implications of Physical Health

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      Authors: Maria A. Monserud
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study investigated whether the effects of specific types of group and individual leisure activities on depressive symptoms differ for older men and women in Mexico and whether several indicators of physical health can shape the psychological benefits of these activities.MethodsThis study used data from two waves (2012 and 2015) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and employed OLS regressions.ResultsThe association between leisure activities and depressive symptoms among older Mexicans may vary by the type of activity, gender, and physical health. Physical health issues may decrease potential psychological benefits of certain leisure activities. Yet, despite deteriorating physical health, older adults may benefit from involvement in some leisure activities.DiscussionThis study highlights the diversity of experiences related to later-life mental health and emphasizes the importance of investigating psychological implications of specific types of leisure activities among older men and women with different physical health concerns.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T07:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108036
       
  • Olfaction in (Social) Context: The Role of Social Complexity in
           Trajectories of Older Adults’ Olfactory Abilities

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      Authors: Alyssa W. Goldman
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Olfaction is an important correlate of later-life health, including cognition and mortality risk. Environmental enrichment protects against olfactory decline, yet little research considers the social context as a source of sensory enrichment or stimulation. This study examines how exposure to social complexity (i.e., diversity or novelty in social networks and activities) shapes later-life olfaction. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal ordered logit models analyze data from 1,447 older adults interviewed at Rounds 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results: Exposure to greater social complexity (larger social networks, greater network diversity) is associated with significantly better olfaction at baseline. Increases in network diversity and fewer network losses significantly protect against olfactory decline over time. Discussion: Findings highlight the social context as an important, yet relatively overlooked source of sensory enrichment, and underscore the need for biological applications to integrate social life dynamics into studies of health trajectories.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T04:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108020
       
  • The Disability Paradox' Trajectories of Well-Being in Older Adults
           With Functional Decline

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      Authors: Anouk M. van Loon, Marja F. I. A. Depla, Cees M. P. M. Hertogh, Martijn Huisman, Almar A. L. Kok
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The ‘disability paradox’ (DP) suggests that most older adults maintain subjective well-being (SWB) despite functional decline. However, this may depend the SWB component: positive affect (PA), negative/depressed affect (NA/DA) or life satisfaction (LS). We assessed trajectories of these components in older adults with substantial functional decline. Methods: Data originated from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 2545) observed during 1992–2008. Using latent class growth analysis, we distinguished a group with substantial functional decline and examined their SWB trajectories and individual characteristics. Results: The DP occurred more frequently for DA (Men:73%, Women:77%) and LS (Men:14%, Women:83%) than for PA (Men:26%, Women:17%). Higher perceived control (mastery) emerged as the most consistent factor associated with higher odds of the DP. Discussion: We provide a nuanced view of the DP, shifting the question from whether it exists to for which dimension of SWB and for whom it is more or less apparent.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T12:42:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108660
       
  • Determinants of Physical Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life
           among Sexual and Gender Minority Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment

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      Authors: Hyun-Jun Kim, Karen Fredriksen-Goldsen, Hailey H. Jung
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To examine risk and protective factors predicting physical functioning and physical and psychological health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among sexual and gender minority (SGM) older adults with cognitive impairment. Methods: This study analyzed longitudinal data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study with a sub-sample of 855 SGM older adults who reported difficulties in cognitive performance. Results: Physical functioning and HRQOL linearly declined over time, and the decline of physical functioning was steeper for those with low levels of physical and outdoor leisure activities. The overall levels of physical functioning and HRQOL over time were associated with physical and outdoor leisure activities, optimal sleep, and sufficient food intake. HRQOL was negatively associated with lifetime discrimination and victimization, identity stigma, and smaller social network. Discussion: These findings can be used to develop interventions to improve physical functioning and HRQOL of SGM older adults living with cognitive impairment.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T11:34:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108658
       
 
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