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Journal of Aging and Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.054
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0898-2643 - ISSN (Online) 1552-6887
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • A 13-Year Time-Lagged Description of General Cognitive and Functional
           Abilities in Older Men: A Cross-Lagged Panel Model

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      Authors: Peter Martin, Leonard W. Poon, Gina Lee, Hardeep K. Obhi, Kalpana J. Kallianpur, Bradley Willcox, Kamal Masaki
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cross-lagged panel model of general cognition and functional abilities over 13 years. The goal was to determine whether general cognitive abilities predict or precede functional decline versus functional abilities predicting cognitive decline. Methods: The sample included 3508 men (71–93 years of age at baseline) of the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were tested repeatedly using a global cognitive test and an assessment of functional capacity. Education and age served as covariates. Cross-lagged models were tested, assessing stationarity of stability and cross-lags. Results: The overall model fit the data well. Cognitive scores had better stability than functional abilities and predicted functional abilities more strongly than functional abilities predicted cognitive scores over time. The strength of all cross-lags increased over time. Discussion: These longitudinal data show that cognitive scores predicted functional decline in a population-based study of older men.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T02:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221130381
       
  • Functional Limitations and Physical Health in Community-Dwelling Medicare
           Advantage Beneficiaries: Variation by Race and Hispanic Subgroup

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      Authors: Jeff Luck, Diana Govier, Lan N. Ðoàn, Shyama Mahakalanda, Wei Zhang, Carolyn Mendez-Luck
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The objective is to examine racial and ethnic heterogeneity in older adults’ functional limitations and physical health. Methods: Data were from 2011 to 2015 Health Outcomes Survey of Medicare Advantage beneficiaries 65 and older (N = 828,946). Outcomes were Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores and need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs). Six non-Hispanic racial groups and five Hispanic subgroups were analyzed. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics. Results: White and Asian respondents had the lowest unadjusted ADL difficulty rates and highest PCS scores. In adjusted analyses, Cuban respondents had the highest PCS scores and lowest rates of any ADL difficulty; White respondents had the lowest rates of specific ADL difficulties. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander and multiple Hispanic respondents had the highest ADL difficulty rates. Discussion: Both the healthiest and highest need subgroups of Medicare Advantage beneficiaries were Hispanic. Understanding racial and ethnic subgroup differences may help target interventions to prevent or aid with functional limitations.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T12:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221113133
       
  • Psychometrics of the Physical Resilience Scale in Older Adults Living with
           Dementia: Proxy Responses

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      Authors: Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Ashley Kuzmik, Jeanette Ellis, Chris Wells
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if proxies can complete the Physical Resilience Scale for older adults living with dementia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using Rasch analysis and baseline data from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care Using the Evidence Integration Triangle trial. The first 240 patients living with dementia were included in this analysis. Results: There was evidence of reliability based on person and item separation index. There was no evidence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) between genders and a DIF by race on Item 7. Validity was supported based on items fitting the model with the exception of one item, and a significant relationship between physical resilience and pain and function. Discussion: There is some evidence that the Physical Resilience Scale is reliable and valid when completed by proxy reports. Future use should remove one of the items due to redundancy.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T06:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221130805
       
  • Loneliness Exacerbates the Association Between Bodily Pain and Depressive
           Symptoms Among Middle-Aged and Older Latinx Adults

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      Authors: Ángela Gutiérrez, Rosana L. Bravo, Courtney Thomas Tobin
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To investigate the associations between three bodily pain dimensions (intensity, frequency, severity) and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older Latinxs ages 40–94 and to determine whether loneliness conditioned the pain-depressive symptoms associations. Methods: Data are from a community-based study of community-dwelling residents in Florida (N = 527). Multivariable linear regression models assessed the impact of each pain dimension on depressive symptoms, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Interactions determined whether loneliness moderated the pain-depressive symptoms relationships. Results: Each pain dimension was positively associated with depressive symptoms (p < .01). Loneliness modified the impact of pain frequency and pain severity on depressive symptoms. Those with moderate and high loneliness levels experienced an amplified pain-depressive symptoms association. Discussion: Findings underscore the synergistic effects of pain and loneliness in exacerbating depressive symptomatology among middle-aged and older Latinx adults. Loneliness is an important point of intervention to improve mental health among aging Latinxs.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T06:20:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221127327
       
  • Religiosity and Physical Health of Middle–Old Aged African Americans:
           The Linking Role of Self-Control

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      Authors: Kandauda A. S. Wickrama, Penny A. Ralston
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study examined a psychological process (i.e., sense of control) that links religiosity to self-reported physical health in older African Americans. Methods: Two waves of data from 231 middle–old aged African Americans (AAs) were used to test two specific hypotheses: (a) religiosity influences changes in sense of control middle–old aged AAs, and (b) sense of control influences changes in global physical health in middle–old aged AAs. The analysis used two modeling approaches: (a) an autoregressive cross-lagged modeland (b) a parallel growth/change model. Results: The results of both types of models showed that religiosity positively influenced changes in sense of control and that sense of control positively influenced changes in physical health in middle–old aged AAs over time. Discussion: These findings provide evidence that sense of control links religiosity to physical health in older African Americans. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T10:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221128653
       
  • The Relationship Between Cognition and Mortality Among Older Black and
           White Men in Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly
           

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      Authors: Roland J. Thorpe, Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Olivio J. Clay, Lorraine Dean, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Andrew Gellert, George W. Rebok
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: To determine the association between baseline cognition and all-cause mortality among Black men and White men. Methods: Data were from 614 Black and White men aged ≥65 years at baseline in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial and their linked mortality information. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between baseline cognition (memory, reasoning, speed of processing, Mini Mental State Exam) and mortality risk over 20 years, adjusting for covariates. Results: Among White men, higher performance on the memory composite measure was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89–0.98), whereas the other cognitive measures were not associated with all-cause mortality risk. Among Black men, none of the cognitive measures was associated with all-cause mortality risk. Discussion: There is a need for future work to recruit and retain a larger sample of older Black men to better understand the cognition-mortality relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T09:40:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221128906
       
  • Sociodemographic Factors and Neighborhood/Environmental Conditions
           Associated with Social Isolation Among Black Older Adults

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      Authors: Harry O. Taylor, Kazumi Tsuchiya, Ann W. Nguyen, Collin Mueller
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To investigate sociodemographic factors and neighborhood/environmental conditions associated with social isolation (SI) among Black older adults. Methods: We utilized data from the 2014 and 2016 Leave-Behind Questionnaire from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS LBQ) among those who self-identified as Black (N = 2.323). Outcome variables for our study included SI from adult children, other family members, friends, disengagement from social participation and religious services, being unmarried, and living alone. These indicators were also combined into an overall SI index. Critical predictors included gender, age, household income, education, employment status, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, urbanicity, and region of residence. Results: Sociodemographic factors of gender, education and household income were significantly associated with SI indicators. Additionally, some neighborhood/environmental conditions were associated with SI indicators. Discussion: SI was found to be patterned by sociodemographic factors. These results can be used to develop effective interventions to mitigate SI among Black older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T08:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118427
       
  • Duration of Dementia and Social Service Use in the U.S.-Born and
           Foreign-Born Mexican-American Population

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      Authors: Jacqueline L. Angel, Sunshine Rote, William A. Vega, Jiwon Kim, Chi-Tsun Chiu, Maria Aranda, Juwen Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study estimates the number of years after age 65 that Mexican Americans live with likely dementia and the impact of dementia on community-based services (CBS) use by nativity.MethodsUsing the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly Sullivan methods are employed to predict duration of dementia and logistic regressions identify the predictors of service utilization.ResultsForeign-born women spend more years than other groups with dementia. The foreign-born are more likely to use out-of-home services, whereas U.S.-born are more likely to use in-home services. The foreign-born with dementia of relatively recent onset had the highest probability of service use.DiscussionGiven the high cost of institutional care and availability of family caregivers, community-based services are a potentially useful alternative for the growing Mexican-American population living with dementia. Expanded Medicaid and CBS programs could be an equitable and cost-effective alternative that should be investigated.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-18T05:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125845
       
  • Mental Health Benefits and Detriments of Caregiving Demands: A Nonlinear
           Association in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

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      Authors: Alex Bierman, Yeonjung Lee, Margaret J. Penning
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study examines whether the association between caregiving demands and mental health is non-linear and also, whether this non-linear association is contingent on the marital status of the caregiver.MethodsWe analyze the data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, applying OLS regression and quadratic interaction terms.ResultsA lower level of demands is salubriously associated with symptoms of depression and life satisfaction, but this association becomes deleterious at higher levels of demands. Moreover, a connection to a marital partner extends the benefits of caregiving demands and stems the adverse consequences.DiscussionThis research shows that acts of caregiving may not themselves be detrimental. Instead, the degree and way in which caregiving relates to mental health may vary by both the extent of the demands of the caregiving role and familial relationships in which caregivers are embedded.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T06:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125258
       
  • Depressive Symptom Trajectories and Cognition Among Older American
           Couples: A Dyadic Perspective

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      Authors: Dexia Kong, Peiyi Lu, Phyllis Solomon, Jean Woo, Mack Shelley
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study examined whether trajectories of depressive symptoms of one spouse are associated with the other spouse’s memory.MethodsLongitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (2004–2016) were used (N = 5690 heterosexual couples). Latent-class growth analysis and structural equation models examined the actor and partner effects of depressive symptom trajectories on memory.ResultsFour depressive symptom trajectories were identified (i.e., persistently low, increasing, decreasing, and persistently high). Compared to the low trajectory group, the increasing and persistently high trajectories were associated with worse memory for both men and women. While none of the wives’ depressive symptom trajectories was significantly associated with husbands’ memory (p> .05), husbands’ decreasing trajectory was linked to wives’ better memory (β = 0.498, 95% CI = 0.106, 0.890).DiscussionOlder adults with increasing and persistently high depressive symptoms may experience worse memory. Psychosocial interventions targeting depressive symptoms among older men may be beneficial to their spouses’ memory.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T08:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125838
       
  • Generational and Social Forces in the Life Events and Experiences of
           Lesbian and Gay Midlife and Older Adults Across the Iridescent Life Course
           

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      Authors: Karen Fredriksen-Goldsen, Charles Hoy-Ellis, Hyun-Jun Kim, Hailey H. Jung, Charles A. Emlet, Ian Johnson, Jayn Goldsen
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesUtilizing Iridescent Life Course, we examine life events among three generations of lesbian and gay adults: Invisible (born 1920–1934), Silenced (born 1935–1949), and Pride (born 1950–1964) Generations. Methods: We utilized a subsample (n = 2079) from the 2014 wave of Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS). Demographic characteristics, life events, and gender and generational interactions were compared. Results: Compared to other generations, the Invisible Generation disclosed their identity at older ages, were more likely to be retired, served in the military, and survived a partner’s death. Compared to the other generations, the Pride Generation was more likely to have disclosed their identities earlier and experienced higher levels of victimization/discrimination. Discussion: This paper is the first to examine the lived experiences of the oldest lesbians and gay men and compare them to other generations. The findings illustrate the heteronormative nature of most life course research.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T11:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125517
       
  • Longitudinal Changes in Dual Decline in Memory and Gait Speed Association
           with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Findings from the National
           Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

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      Authors: Mi Kyeong Kim, Byoung-Ho Kang, Ji Hyeun Park, Sun Mi Ham, Hae Yean Park, Ickpyo Hong
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: We investigated the association between dual decline (DD) (loss of memory and gait speed) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) degeneration in older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) reflecting changes over 5 years. This study used the NSHAP data set wave 2 (2010–2011, N = 3196) and wave 3 (2015–2016, N = 4377). Results: Data from 1640 participants were retrieved. There were 601 people with DD and 1039 people without-DD. The DD group had a 28.4% (95% CI = 1.013–1.626) greater risk of degrading in IADL than the without-DD group (odds ratio = 1.284, p < .05). Conclusion: Current research can be used when establishing intervention programs or policies that can prevent IADL degradation through simple memory training and walking activities for older adults living in the community.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T01:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221125274
       
  • Intersecting Early-Life Selection Mechanisms: Socio-Historical Changes in
           Racially Stratified Effects of Education on Functional Limitations in the
           United States

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      Authors: Tirth R. Bhatta
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveScant research has focused on the role of sociohistorical changes in shaping intersecting early-life selection mechanisms and their impacts on racially stratified effects of education on health across cohorts.MethodDrawing from the Health and Retirement Survey, this study fitted negative binomial regression models to assess the impacts of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on the relationship between education and functional limitations for Black and White adults across birth cohorts (n = 16,269, born 1931–1959).ResultsThe disparities between Black adults and White adults in impacts of childhood SES on both education and functional limitations were more pronounced in recent cohorts. The racial stratification in the impacts of education on functional limitations was documented across cohorts. However, after adjusting for childhood SES, this stratification narrowed considerably in recent cohorts.DiscussionThis study underscores the role of a sociohistorical context in shaping the effects of education on health at the intersection of race and cohort.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T08:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221124657
       
  • The Interactive Effects of Education and Social Support on Cognition in
           African Americans

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      Authors: DeAnnah R. Byrd, Yanping Jiang, Samuele Zilioli, Peter Lichtenberg, Roland J. Thorpe, Keith E. Whitfield
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examines whether the effects of receiving and providing social support on cognition differ by education. Methods: Data from 602 African American adults (48–95 years) enrolled in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results: We found no main effects of receiving or providing social support on global cognition. Main effects for receiving or providing social support on memory were detected. Further, a significant moderation effect was observed for memory, such that received social support was more strongly associated with higher working memory among less-educated individuals than those with high levels of education, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms. Discussion: Study findings demonstrate that social support and education have joint effects on memory outcomes, highlighting the importance of considering psychosocial protective factors that might alleviate, reduce, or even eliminate cognitive health disparities in African Americans.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-28T04:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221122692
       
  • The Impact of Sustained Ownership of a Pet on Cognitive Health: A
           Population-Based Study

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      Authors: Jennifer W. Applebaum, Monica M. Shieu, Shelby E. McDonald, Galit Levi Dunietz, Tiffany J. Braley
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To examine associations between sustained ownership of a pet and cognitive outcomes among a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods: Weighted linear mixed models were estimated using the Health and Retirement Study (2010–2016, n = 1369) to compare repeated measures of cognitive function between respondents who endorsed owning a pet in a sustained manner (>5 years), versus those who owned a pet ≤5 years, and non-pet owners. Results: Respondents aged 65+ who owned a pet>5 years demonstrated higher composite cognitive scores, compared to non-pet owners (β = .76, p = .03). Sustained pet ownership was associated with higher immediate (β = .3, p = .02) and delayed (β = .4, p = .007) word recall scores. There were no significant differences in cognitive scores between pet owners and non-owners aged < 65. Discussion: Sustained ownership of a pet could mitigate cognitive disparities in older adults. Further studies are needed to examine potential causal pathways, including physical activity and stress buffering, versus selection effects.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T04:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221122641
       
  • Rating Health and Rating Change: How Canadians Rate Their Health and Its
           Changes

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      Authors: Patrick Lazarevič, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: We investigated the contribution of five health domains to self-rated health (SRH) cross-sectionally and longitudinally and whether these contributions differ by gender or age. Methods: Employing dominance analyses, we quantified the contributions of functioning, diseases, pain, mental health, and behavior to both SRH at a point in time and for changes in SRH using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS, 1994–2011). Results: Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, functioning was the most important health domain, followed by diseases and pain. There were no meaningful differences in the ranking by gender while functioning, diseases, and pain were more relevant in older cohorts. Discussion: Functioning, diseases, and pain systematically were the most important health domains in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. While these results held for women and men, they were more salient for older adults. This points to a gender-invariant but age-graded process, confirming previous research with European data.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T02:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221119654
       
  • Decision Making and Blood Sugar Indicators in Older African American
           Adults

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      Authors: Veronica Eloesa McSorley, Melissa Lamar, Lei Yu, David A. Bennett, Lisa L. Barnes, Patricia A. Boyle
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Decision making is a modifiable behavior associated with health outcomes. We investigated the association of decision making with blood sugar indicators in older community-dwelling African American adults. Methods: Participants were 328 older African American adults from community-based studies (mean age = 78). Decision making was assessed using a performance-based measure (range: 0–12). Blood sugar indicators were non-fasting hemoglobin A1c and blood glucose. Using regression, we assessed the relationship between decision making and each blood sugar indicator, controlling for demographics. We additionally examined if an association varied by known diabetes diagnosis. Results: Lower decision making was associated with higher HbA1c (b: −0.05, p-value: .03), but not blood glucose. In an interaction analysis, the association of lower decision making with higher levels of HbA1c was present only among individuals with known diabetes (b (with diabetes): −0.13, p-value:
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:01:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221122639
       
  • Racial/Ethnic Differences in Biological Aging and Their Life Course
           Socioeconomic Determinants: The 2016 Health and Retirement Study

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      Authors: Mateo P. Farina, Jung Ki Kim, Eileen M. Crimmins
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examined differences in accelerated biological aging among non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States and assessed whether including life course socioeconomic conditions attenuated observed racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data came from the Venous Blood Collection Subsample of the Health and Retirement Study. We used a comprehensive summary measure of biological age (BA-22). We determined whether key lifetime socioeconomic conditions contributed to racial/ethnic differences in biological aging. Results: Findings indicated that non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics have accelerated aging, and non-Hispanic Whites have decelerated aging. Racial/ethnic differences were strongly tied to educational attainment. We also observed a significant difference by birthplace for Hispanics. US-born Hispanics had accelerated biological aging, whereas foreign-born Hispanics did not. In age-stratified analyses, these racial/ethnic differences were found for adults aged 56–74, but not for adults aged 75+. Conclusions: These findings provide insight into biological differences underlying racial/ethnic disparities in health.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T02:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221120743
       
  • Cardiovascular Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Asian
           American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Older Adults

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      Authors: Lan N. Đoàn, Yumie Takata, Carolyn A. Mendez-Luck, Karen Hooker, Veronica L. Irvin
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Assess the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (NH/PI) compared to white older adults. Methods: Data were from the 2011–2015 Health Outcomes Survey. HRQOL was assessed using the Veterans RAND 12-Item Survey, composed of physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS). Lower scores represent worse health. Multivariate regression was conducted to estimate PCS and MCS mean score differences related to self-reported CVD (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, other heart conditions, stroke) and race/ethnicity. Results: There were marked differences in PCS and MCS scores by disaggregated Asian American and NH/PI subgroups. After adjustment, Asian American and NH/PI older adults had better PCS but worse MCS than white older adults. Race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between CVD and HRQOL. Discussion: Asian American and NH/PI older adults with CVD had poorer mental health compared to their white counterparts.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T06:45:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118440
       
  • Care Needs and Arrangements of Aging Immigrants in the United States

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      Authors: Zohra Ansari-Thomas
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine the need for and arrangements pertaining to personal care assistance among individuals 65 and older, and how life stage at migration impacts nativity differences in aging-related care.MethodsUsing data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (2001, 2004, and 2008), I examine the odds of needing care assistance, who provides care assistance, and the duration of time care assistance is needed, comparing U.S.-born individuals to migrants who arrived before age 50 (“earlier-life migrants”) and those who arrived after age 50 (“later-life migrants”).ResultsWhile earlier-life migrants showed similar patterns to U.S.-born, later-life migrants showed higher care needs, were more likely to receive care from an adult child, and were particularly likely to need care for longer durations compared to U.S.-born.DiscussionAging later-life migrants have strikingly distinct care needs and arrangements, with implications for individual and family well-being, especially considering their barriers to public support.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T02:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221120701
       
  • Within-Person Dynamics of Objective and Subjective Social Isolation in
           Midlife and Later Life

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      Authors: Mengsha Luo, Lydia W. Li
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate the within-person dynamics of objective and subjective social isolation among U.S. middle-aged and older adults and to explore gender differences in this relationship. Methods: Four waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, 2006–2018, N = 5437) and the multiple group random intercept cross-lagged panel model were used. Results: Within-person deviation in expected subjective isolation predicted deviation in expected objective isolation years later. No corresponding cross-lagged effect of objective isolation on subjective isolation was found. Gender differences were detected: the within-person cross-lagged positive effect of subjective isolation on objective isolation was significant for men but not for women. Discussion: This study provides evidence for a unidirectional relationship between subjective and objective isolation at the within-person level: higher than expected increase in subjective isolation predicts higher than expected increase in subsequent objective isolation. This within-person process is more salient in men than in women.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T03:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118449
       
  • Respiratory Health Among Older Adults in Vietnam: Does Earlier-Life
           Military Role and War Exposure Matter'

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      Authors: Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan, Zachary Zimmer, Timothy Qing Ying Low, Tran Khanh Toan
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe explore how earlier-life military roles and war trauma associate with later-life respiratory health in Vietnam. Method: The population-based sample aged 60+ is from the 2018 Vietnam Health and Aging Study. Poisson and binary logistic regressions investigate correlates of overall lung health, measured as total number of four conditions, and individual conditions, with focus on earlier-life wartime experiences. Results: Exposure is associated with lung conditions. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in exposure results in 0.529 more conditions (p ≤ .001). Association varies across military roles and is partially explained by PTSD and smoking. Civilians heavily exposed to war trauma exhibit worse lung health than similarly exposed formal and informal military personnel. Discussion: Earlier-life war exposure is an important predictor of late-adulthood respiratory health in lower- and middle-income countries. Evidence calls for attention to the long-term impacts of war on health among not only formal and informal military personnel but also civilians.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T03:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221118445
       
  • Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity-Related State-Level Policies and
           Perceived Health Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT)
           Older Adults in the United States

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      Authors: Christi L. Nelson, Britney M. Wardecker, Ross Andel
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe examined the associations between state-level policies and the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Methods: Using data from the 2018–2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, we assessed physical and mental health by the tally of points for enacted LGBT-related policies (Low=
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T04:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221116762
       
  • Age Differences in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Assessing
           the Moderating Role of Attachment to God

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      Authors: Xi Zhu, Laura Upenieks
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examined age differences in mental health problems (depression and anxiety) during the COVID-19 pandemic using nationally representative data from the United States. Drawing from a life course perspective, we also assessed if a secure attachment to God conditioned the relationship between age and mental health. Methods: Data were from the 2021 Values and Beliefs of the American Public Study (N = 1168), collected roughly 1 year into the pandemic. Results: Older adults (61 years and over) reported lower depression and anxiety than respondents 18–30 years of age. However, stronger perceptions of attachment to God significantly closed the age gap in anxiety between these age groups. Discussion: Though absolute levels of religiosity tend to be higher for older adults, secure attachment to God was more protective of the mental health of younger adults during the pandemic. We reflect on our findings through a life course lens.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T07:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221112141
       
  • Determinants of Physical Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life
           among Sexual and Gender Minority Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment

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      Authors: Hyun-Jun Kim, Karen Fredriksen-Goldsen, Hailey H. Jung
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To examine risk and protective factors predicting physical functioning and physical and psychological health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among sexual and gender minority (SGM) older adults with cognitive impairment. Methods: This study analyzed longitudinal data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study with a sub-sample of 855 SGM older adults who reported difficulties in cognitive performance. Results: Physical functioning and HRQOL linearly declined over time, and the decline of physical functioning was steeper for those with low levels of physical and outdoor leisure activities. The overall levels of physical functioning and HRQOL over time were associated with physical and outdoor leisure activities, optimal sleep, and sufficient food intake. HRQOL was negatively associated with lifetime discrimination and victimization, identity stigma, and smaller social network. Discussion: These findings can be used to develop interventions to improve physical functioning and HRQOL of SGM older adults living with cognitive impairment.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T11:34:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108658
       
  • Evaluating Social Determinants of Health Domains and Their Predictive
           Validity Within Black/African American and White Older Adults From the
           Active Trial

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      Authors: Olivio J. Clay, Karlene K. Ball, Katie M. Wheeler, Michael Crowe, Michael Marsiske, Lorraine T. Dean, Roland J. Thorpe, Richard Jones, Joshua H. Owens, George W. Rebok, Sherry L. Willis
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess domains of social determinants of health (SDoH) and their associations with cognition and quality of life.MethodThis investigation uses baseline data from individuals participating in the ACTIVE trial (n = 2505) to reproduce the SDoH domains described in Healthy People 2030 (economic stability, health care, education, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context). Results: Results support using data from the ACTIVE trial to assess all five SDoH domains, and the ability of the composites to predict baseline performance on measures of cognition and self-reported quality of life within a sample of older adults. Additionally, higher SDoH domain scores were associated with better functioning on composite measures of cognition and higher scores for mental and physical health-related quality of life with Access to Healthcare associated with all outcomes. Discussion: These findings can inform investigators interested in assessing multiple domains of SDoH and highlight the importance of access to health care within older Black/African American and White older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T06:09:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221111205
       
  • Olfaction in (Social) Context: The Role of Social Complexity in
           Trajectories of Older Adults’ Olfactory Abilities

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      Authors: Alyssa W. Goldman
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Olfaction is an important correlate of later-life health, including cognition and mortality risk. Environmental enrichment protects against olfactory decline, yet little research considers the social context as a source of sensory enrichment or stimulation. This study examines how exposure to social complexity (i.e., diversity or novelty in social networks and activities) shapes later-life olfaction. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal ordered logit models analyze data from 1,447 older adults interviewed at Rounds 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results: Exposure to greater social complexity (larger social networks, greater network diversity) is associated with significantly better olfaction at baseline. Increases in network diversity and fewer network losses significantly protect against olfactory decline over time. Discussion: Findings highlight the social context as an important, yet relatively overlooked source of sensory enrichment, and underscore the need for biological applications to integrate social life dynamics into studies of health trajectories.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T04:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108020
       
  • Non-Contributory Pensions, Functional Limitations, and Unpaid Family Care
           for Older Adults in Mexico

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      Authors: Mariana López-Ortega, Emma Aguila
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: We explore the effects of non-contributory pensions on functional limitations and receipt of unpaid family care by gender and frequency of pension payment. Methods: We employ a difference-in-differences estimator to identify the causal effects of non-contributory pension programs disbursed monthly or every two months for adults 70 years and older in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Results:The monthly payment program led to lower difficulties in functional limitations and less receipt of help from family or relatives for older men and women as compared to the bimonthly program. We found a larger decline on receipt of family care for older women than for men. Discussion:Our results suggest that more frequent pension payments may have greater health benefits for recipients. They also highlight the need for greater understanding of policies that prevent or delay functional limitations and that could indirectly alleviate unpaid caregiver burden.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:51:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221110093
       
  • The Disability Paradox' Trajectories of Well-Being in Older Adults
           With Functional Decline

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      Authors: Anouk M. van Loon, Marja F. I. A. Depla, Cees M. P. M. Hertogh, Martijn Huisman, Almar A. L. Kok
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The ‘disability paradox’ (DP) suggests that most older adults maintain subjective well-being (SWB) despite functional decline. However, this may depend the SWB component: positive affect (PA), negative/depressed affect (NA/DA) or life satisfaction (LS). We assessed trajectories of these components in older adults with substantial functional decline. Methods: Data originated from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 2545) observed during 1992–2008. Using latent class growth analysis, we distinguished a group with substantial functional decline and examined their SWB trajectories and individual characteristics. Results: The DP occurred more frequently for DA (Men:73%, Women:77%) and LS (Men:14%, Women:83%) than for PA (Men:26%, Women:17%). Higher perceived control (mastery) emerged as the most consistent factor associated with higher odds of the DP. Discussion: We provide a nuanced view of the DP, shifting the question from whether it exists to for which dimension of SWB and for whom it is more or less apparent.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T12:42:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108660
       
  • Motivating Protective Behavior against COVID-19: Fear Versus Hope

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      Authors: Gregor Sand, Johanna Bristle
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesBased on protection motivation theory, we investigate how indicators of threat perception (perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, and fear arousal) and coping appraisal (hope) are associated with older people’s motivation to engage in protective behavior after the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe use multivariate regression analyses with a sample of 40,282 individuals from 26 countries participating in the SHARE Corona Survey.ResultsWe find that 15% of all respondents stayed home completely—mainly the oldest and vulnerable people with prior health risk conditions. On average, older Europeans responded strongly to the recommended protective behavior measures (6 out of 7 measures adopted). Among the threat perception indicators, fear arousal is the main motivator for protective behavior, whereas the coping appraisal indicator hope shows an equally strong association.DiscussionGiven the negative health effects of fear, our findings may help evaluate and revise governmental policy responses and communication strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T11:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221089427
       
  • Leisure Activities and Depressive Symptoms among Older Men and Women in
           Mexico: Implications of Physical Health

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      Authors: Maria A. Monserud
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study investigated whether the effects of specific types of group and individual leisure activities on depressive symptoms differ for older men and women in Mexico and whether several indicators of physical health can shape the psychological benefits of these activities.MethodsThis study used data from two waves (2012 and 2015) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and employed OLS regressions.ResultsThe association between leisure activities and depressive symptoms among older Mexicans may vary by the type of activity, gender, and physical health. Physical health issues may decrease potential psychological benefits of certain leisure activities. Yet, despite deteriorating physical health, older adults may benefit from involvement in some leisure activities.DiscussionThis study highlights the diversity of experiences related to later-life mental health and emphasizes the importance of investigating psychological implications of specific types of leisure activities among older men and women with different physical health concerns.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T07:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221108036
       
  • Association Between Social Support and Depression Help-Seeking Behaviors
           Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

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      Authors: Xiaochuan Wang, Stephanie Bergren, XinQi Dong
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Depression has become one major mental health concern among Asian older adults. Yet, less is known about the role of social support on depression help-seeking among this population. This study examined the association between positive (i.e., open up to, rely on) and negative (i.e., too many demands, criticism) social support and depression help-seeking among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Study sample consisted of 994 U.S. Chinese older adults with depressive symptoms. Results: Stepwise logistic regression results indicated that greater positive social support was associated with increased likelihood of both formal and informal help-seeking behaviors, whereas negative support was not a significant predictor. Discussion: Findings highlight the key role of positive social support in influencing U.S. Chinese older adults’ depression help-seeking behaviors. Tailored strategies are recommended to better meet the mental health needs of this vulnerable population.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-12T07:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221106870
       
  • Bridge or Barrier' The Impact of Network Capital on the Receipt of
           Long-Term Care Services in Germany

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      Authors: Ariane Baum
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesIn Germany, roughly 8.3 million people are in need of care, but only one-third of them receive state care benefits. The study investigates whether the individual network of a care-seeking person, as well as its resources, interact with health status on the likelihood of accessing formal care services.MethodsGerman data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from 2015 were used in several Firth logistic regressions with interaction terms.ResultsHealth limitations are a significant predictor for the probability of receiving formal care benefits. As moderating factors, caregivers from the immediate family as well as caregivers with lower levels of education tend to contribute to an increase in this probability.DiscussionFindings are based on a limited data set and indicate the importance of further research in this area to examine the mechanisms of access to formal care more precisely.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T12:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221098779
       
  • Stressors and Pain across the Late-Life Span: Findings from Two Parent
           Longitudinal Studies of Aging and Health

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      Authors: Penny L. Brennan
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:The objective is to determine associations between stressors and pain across the late-life span.Method:Multilevel linear modeling was applied separately to harmonized repeated measures data from the Longitudinal Late-Life Health study (LLLH; n = 342; 13-year interval) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 2959; 8-year interval).Results:In both the LLLH and HRS samples, independent of age, gender, and race, participants with higher average stressor levels experienced more numerous painful conditions and higher pain severity over the study intervals. In the HRS sample, they also experienced higher levels of pain interference. In general, participants’ stressor levels did not influence rates of increase in their pain. Gender and race had few moderating effects on associations between stressors and pain.Discussion:Stressors and pain are associated across the late-life span. Future research should focus on the mediating mechanisms that account for this association and the moderating factors that affect its strength.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104369
       
  • Perceived Neighborhood Racial Composition and Depressive Symptoms Among
           Black Americans Across Adulthood: Evaluating the Role of Psychosocial
           Risks and Resources

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      Authors: Courtney S. Thomas Tobin, James Huynh, Heather R. Farmer, Rebekah Israel Cross, Apurva Barve, Millicent Robinson, Erika Perez Leslie, Roland J. Thorpe
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To evaluate the relationships between perceived neighborhood racial composition (PNRC), psychosocial risks and resources, and depressive symptoms among young (ages 22–35), middle-aged (ages 36–49), and older (ages 50+) Black Americans. Methods: Full sample and age-stratified linear regression models estimated the PNRC-depressive symptoms association and the extent to which it persisted after accounting for psychosocial risks (i.e., neighborhood disorder, other social stressors) and resources (i.e., mastery, social support, racial identity) among 627 Black Americans in the Nashville Stress and Health Study. Results: Living in racially integrated and predominately White neighborhoods was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While psychosocial risks and resources explained a substantial portion of these associations, patterns varied across age groups. Discussion: PNRC impacts depressive symptoms among Black Americans by shaping psychosocial risks and resources. Findings underscore interconnections between contextual and psychosocial factors, as well as the distinct mental health significance of these processes across stages of adulthood.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100789
       
  • Immigration and the Life Course: Contextualizing and Understanding
           Healthcare Access and Health of Older Adult Immigrants

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      Authors: Adrian M. Bacong, Lan N. Đoàn
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveImmigrant health discussions often focus on acculturation and omit discussions on historical events that may underlie health differences among immigrant older adults. This paper provides a historical overview of immigration policy and flows to the U.S. and examines insurance access and health difficulties by sending country.MethodsWe analyzed the “Immigrants Admitted to the United States, Fiscal Years 1972–2000” and 2015–2019 American Community Survey datasets to examine the number of admitted immigrants, sociodemographic profiles for current immigrant older adults, and the predicted probabilities of health insurance access and health difficulties.ResultsOur results highlight alignment of immigration flows with immigration legislation and vast heterogeneity in migration, health, and healthcare access of immigrants by sending country.Discussion/ImplicationsPublic health practitioners must consider how historical events and social factors contribute to the healthcare access and health of immigrant populations, as demographic shifts will require interventions that promote equitable healthy aging.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T01:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104931
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Differences in Informal and Formal Advance Care Planning
           Among U.S. Older Adults

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      Authors: Rachel Lenko, Terri Voepel-Lewis, Sheria G. Robinson-Lane, Maria J. Silveira, Geoffrey J. Hoffman
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo examine advance care planning (ACP) trends among an increasingly diverse aging population, we compared informal and formal ACP use by race/ethnicity among U.S. older adults (≤65 years).MethodsWe used Health and Retirement Study data (2012–2018) to assess relationships between race/ethnicity and ACP type (i.e., no ACP, informal ACP only, formal ACP only, or both ACP types). We reported adjusted risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals.ResultsNon-Hispanic Black and Hispanic respondents were 1.77 (1.60, 1.96) and 1.76 (1.55, 1.99) times as likely, respectively, to report no ACP compared to non-Hispanic White respondents. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic respondents were 0.74 (0.71, 0.78) and 0.74 (0.69, 0.80) times as likely, respectively, to report using both ACP types as non-Hispanic White respondents.DiscussionRacial/ethnic differences in ACP persist after controlling for a variety of barriers to and facilitators of ACP which may contribute to disparities in end-of-life care.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T10:43:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104926
       
  • Current Marital Status and Epigenetic Clocks Among Older Adults in the
           United States: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study

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      Authors: Yan-Liang Yu
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examines how current marital status is associated with epigenetic aging. Methods: Data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study were used to examine marital status differences in the four epigenetic clocks, that is, GrimAge, DunedinPoAm, PhenoAge, and Zhang (N = 3765). Weighted ordinary least square regression models were estimated separately for men and women. Results: Remarried, cohabiting, divorced/separated and widowed older adults showed greater epigenetic aging than the continuously married similarly among men and women. Distinct sex difference was observed among the never married. While never-married women exhibited greater epigenetic aging than their continuously married counterparts, older men in lifelong singlehood showed comparable epigenetic aging to their continuously married peers. Discussion: The findings speak to the importance of marital context for epigenetic aging in later life and the biological risk associated with lifelong singlehood for older women in the US.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T08:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221104928
       
  • Cognitive Limitations Among Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants

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      Authors: Tiffany B. Kindratt, Florence J. Dallo, Laura B. Zahodne, Kristine J. Ajrouch
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives:To estimate and compare the prevalence of cognitive limitations among Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) immigrants compared to US- and foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites from Europe (including Russia/former USSR) and examine differences after controlling for risk factors.Methods:Cross-sectional data using linked 2000-2017 National Health Interview Survey and 2001–2018 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (ages >=65 years, n = 24,827) were analyzed.Results:The prevalence of cognitive limitations was 17.3% among MENA immigrants compared to 9.6% and 13.6% among US- and foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites from Europe. MENA immigrants had higher odds (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.06–3.34) of reporting a cognitive limitation than US-born non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age, sex, education, hearing loss, hypertension, depression, social isolation, and diabetes.Discussion:To further examine cognitive health among the MENA aging population, policy changes are needed to identify this group that is often absent from research because of their federal classification as non-Hispanic Whites.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T04:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221103712
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between Neighborhood
           Environment and Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

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      Authors: Greta Jianjia Cheng, Emily J. Nicklett
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives:To examine the associations between neighborhood environment—perceived neighborhood social cohesion and perceived neighborhood physical environment—and physical activity (PA) and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal study of US adults aged 50+ from 2006 to 2014 (N = 17,974), using multivariate mixed-effects linear models. PA was repeatedly measured using metabolic equivalent of task estimated values accounting for the vigor and frequency of self-reported PA. Results: In multivariate models, higher levels of PA were positively associated with higher rated neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical environment scores. The effects of social cohesion were stronger among non-Hispanic Whites than among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latinx participants, while race/ethnicity did not moderate the association between PA and physical environment. Discussion: Intervention strategies that address social and physical barriers of neighborhoods could promote PA in older adults. Key implications for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-22T01:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221103359
       
  • Older Korean Americans’ Perceived Burdensomeness to Their Healthcare
           Partners: An Egocentric Network Assessment

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      Authors: Yuri Jang, Jangmin Kim, Hyunwoo Yoon, Nan Sook Park, David A. Chiriboga, Eric Rice, Miyong T. Kim
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The objective is to examine how older Korean Americans’ perceived burdensomeness to their healthcare partners is associated with the characteristics of older adult participants (egos) and their healthcare partners (alters). Methods:Surveys of 2150 participants in the Study of Older Korean Americans provided ego data. Participants were also asked to list up to three individuals whom they usually asked for help on health-related matters or healthcare use, which generated 3402 alters. Multilevel modeling was conducted to examine the role of the characteristics of egos and alters, as well as their cross-level interactions. Results: Perceived burdensomeness was negatively associated with English-speaking ability and residence in a low Korean density area. Perceived burden was also lowered when emotional support was received from the alters, and this pattern was pronounced among those with multi-comorbidity. Discussion: By identifying older immigrants prone to the sense of burdensomeness, the study suggests strategies to promote their health and healthcare use.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T01:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221103057
       
  • Role of Neighborhood Physical Disorder and Social Cohesion on Racial and
           Ethnic Disparities in Dementia Risk

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      Authors: Roger Wong, Yi Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To analyze how neighborhood physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with racial and ethnic disparities in dementia risk. Methods: Nine years of data (2011–2019) were retrieved from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally representative U.S. older adult (age 65+) sample. Cox regression analyzed time to dementia diagnosis using composite scores for neighborhood physical disorder and social cohesion. Results: Higher baseline neighborhood physical disorder (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]=1.11, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.01–1.23) and increased disorder at follow-up (aHR=1.10, 95% CI=1.01–1.19) significantly increased dementia risk. Hispanic older adults with higher physical disorder at baseline (aHR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49–0.79) and follow-up (aHR=0.81, 95% CI=0.67–0.98) had a significantly decreased dementia risk. There were no significant associations for social cohesion. Discussion: Physical but not social neighborhood characteristics are associated with dementia risk. Future research is needed to understand protective mechanisms for dementia among Hispanic older adults in neighborhoods with high physical disorder.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T05:37:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221101352
       
  • 20th Century Puerto Rico and Later-Life Health: The Association Between
           Multigenerational Education and Chronic Conditions in Island-Dwelling
           Older Adults

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      Authors: Alejandra Colón-López, Catherine García
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives:Previous research on the association between education and older adult health in the U.S. has not included Puerto Rico. We investigated the effects of multigenerational educational attainment and chronic conditions among older Puerto Ricans residing on the archipelago’s main island.Methods:Data were from the longitudinal Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project. Generalized Poisson regression models were used to examine if multigenerational educational attainment was associated with chronic disease.Results:Findings show that parental educational attainment was associated with fewer chronic conditions among females at baseline but not at follow-up, suggesting that the effects of parental education on health over time are less pronounced. For males, educational attainment across the three generations was not significantly associated with chronic disease at baseline or follow-up.Discussion:Multigenerational education is an important determinant of older adult health that continues to be relevant in Puerto Rico and the Latin American and Hispanic-Caribbean region.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T01:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221097532
       
  • Life Satisfaction and Intergenerational Mobility Among Older Hispanics in
           the United States

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      Authors: Ladanya Ramirez Surmeier, Miles G. Taylor, Dawn C. Carr
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo investigate the impact of intergenerational mobility—measured as the difference between one’s own and one’s father’s education level—on overall life-satisfaction among Hispanic, White, and Black older Americans.MethodsData from the Health and Retirement Study were used to estimate life satisfaction by race/ethnicity using ordinary least squares regression (N = 5,057).ResultsHispanic and Black older Americans report greater educational gains relative to their fathers compared to Whites. Despite having the lowest reported education levels, Hispanics report the highest life satisfaction across race/ethnic groups. However, net of education level and other factors, intergenerational mobility decreased rather than increased life satisfaction for Hispanic older Americans.DiscussionThese results indicate that intergenerational mobility may not confer equal benefits for overall life satisfaction across racial/ethnic groups. As Hispanic individuals continue to achieve higher education levels, it is unclear whether upward mobility will translate to positive or negative assimilation consequences.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100788
       
  • Depressive Symptoms Partially Mediate the Association of Frailty Phenotype
           Symptoms and Cognition for Females but Not Males

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      Authors: Nicholas V. Resciniti, Mateo P. Farina, Anwar T. Merchant, Matthew C. Lohman
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe aimed to evaluate whether depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between frailty phenotype and cognitive function by sex.MethodsData came from the Health and Retirement Study from 2012–2016. The outcome was measured by Fried’s frailty criteria, our outcome was continuous global cognition, and mediator was depressive symptoms. We used mediation analysis, stratified by sex, to estimate the direct and indirect effects of frailty symptoms on cognition mediated by depressive symptoms.ResultsMales had a larger total effect (β= −0.43; 95% CI: −0.66, −0.02) for lower cognitive score for each increase in frailty symptom compared to females (β= −0.28; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.08). A significant indirect effect from frailty phenotype to cognition was found through depressive symptoms for females but not males.ConclusionThese results highlight the importance of identifying individuals with frailty and depressive symptoms to monitor and provide interventions to preserve cognitive function.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T07:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221100688
       
  • The Impact of Education and Insurance Status on Past-Year Dental Visits
           Among Older Mexican Adults: Results From the 2001 and 2012 Mexican Health
           and Aging Study

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      Authors: Jennifer Archuleta, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study assessed past-year dental visits among older Mexican adults from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). MHAS is a nationally representative cohort study of adults 50 years and older from Mexico. Methods: Baseline data from 2001 were compared with 2012 data. Binary logistic regression identified significant predictors of past-year dental visits. Decomposition techniques examined factors that contributed to changes in dental visits between 2001 and 2012. Results: Education and insurance status were positively associated with past-year dental visits, while decomposition results showed that population composition (more adults receiving insurance and higher education over time) contributed to the increased prevalence of dental visits between 2001 and 2012. Discussion: Education and insurance are critical factors that govern access to oral healthcare. After the provision of universal dental coverage by Mexico’s Seguro Popular in 2003, our results may reflect promising effects of such programs, which can inform future policies in Mexico and other settings.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T09:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221086586
       
  • The Longitudinal Association of Late-Life Visual and Hearing Difficulty
           and Cognitive Function: The Role of Social Isolation

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      Authors: Jeremy B. Yorgason, Corinna Trujillo Tanner, Stephanie Richardson, Melanie M.Y. Serrao Hill, Brian Stagg, Markus Wettstein, Joshua R. Ehrlich
      First page: 765
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesSensory impairments are prevalent among older adults and have been associated with cognitive challenges in later life, yet mechanisms are less well understood. We examined the mediating role of social isolation in the longitudinal relationship between self-reported sensory difficulty and impaired cognitive functioning among older adults.MethodsData were taken from the NHATS Study, an annual survey of Medicare beneficiaries’ age ≥ 65. Participants (N = 6,338) provided data at Rounds 5, 6, and 7 (2015, 2016, 2017). Structural equation models were estimated to test longitudinal direct and indirect associations.ResultsAll sensory difficulties were negatively associated with all cognitive functioning measures cross-sectionally through social isolation. Longitudinally, vision difficulty and dual sensory difficulty were indirectly associated with cognitive functioning across time. Hearing difficulty had no longitudinal indirect associations with cognitive functioning through social isolation.DiscussionSocial isolation is an important pathway through which late-life vision difficulty is associated with decreased cognitive function.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T05:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211063338
       
  • Measuring Physical Activity Regulatory Styles and Identity Among Adults 55
           Years or Older

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      Authors: Mary Katherine Huffman, Sharon L. Christ, Kenneth F. Ferraro, David B. Klenosky, Kristine Marceau, Steve Amireault
      First page: 775
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of modified versions of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and Exercise Identity Scale for use with adults ages ≥55 years to measure regulatory styles and identity related to physical activity. Methods. Participants [Mage = 66.29 years (SD = 7.06)] answered an online questionnaire twice across a four-week timescale. We assessed measurement invariance and convergent and divergent validity based on relations between regulatory styles, identity, and physical activity. Results. Both measures were invariant across gender and time, and findings support the convergent and divergent validity of the scales. Notably, a two-factor model of identity representing role identity and physical activity beliefs provided the best fit, and physical activity beliefs was more strongly related to introjected regulation. Discussion. Taken together, there is evidence that these modified scales are suitable for use with adults ages ≥55 years.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T04:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211063349
       
  • Childhood Disadvantage and Adult Functional Status: Do Early-Life
           Exposures Jeopardize Healthy Aging'

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      Authors: Patricia M. Morton
      First page: 794
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine whether childhood disadvantage is associated with later-life functional status and identify mediating factors.MethodsUnique and additive effects of five childhood domains on functional status were assessed at baseline (2006) and over time (2006–2016) in a sample of 13,894 adults from the Health and Retirement Study (>50 years). Adult health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) were tested as mediators.ResultsRespondents exposed to multiple childhood disadvantages (OR = .694) as well as low childhood SES (OR = .615), chronic diseases (OR = .694), impairments (OR = .599), and risky adolescent behaviors (OR = .608) were less likely to be free of functional disability by baseline. Over time, these unique and additive effects of childhood disadvantage increased the hazard odds of eventually developing functional disability (e.g., additive effect: hOR = 1.261). Adult health behaviors and SES mediated some of these effects.DiscussionGiven the enduring effects of childhood disadvantage, policies to promote healthy aging should reduce exposure to childhood disadvantage.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T08:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211064723
       
  • Secular Improvements in Cognitive Aging: Contribution of Education,
           Health, and Routine Activities

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      Authors: Johannes Beller, Beatrice G. Kuhlmann, Stefanie Sperlich, Siegfried Geyer
      First page: 807
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesLimited evidence exists regarding the reasons for secular changes in cognitive functioning over historical time. Thus, we examined potential explanatory factors for changes in cognitive speed, a central dimension of cognitive functioning.MethodsPopulation-based data of middle-aged and older adults from Germany (N = 5443) was used with baseline participants from 2002 to 2014, comparing the time periods 2002–2014.ResultsCognitive speed improved in middle-aged adults (40–65) and older adults (66+). In both age groups, increases were partly explained by education, employment status, volunteering status, routine activities, and physical functioning. Changes in education were more important in explaining increases in older than in middle-aged adults, whereas changes in health were more important for explaining increases in middle-aged adults.ConclusionsCognitive speed increased in both age groups over historical time. Education, employment, volunteering, routine activities, and health were all important in explaining these changes, but their importance differed between age groups.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T11:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211065571
       
  • Does Diversity of Social Ties Really Matter More for Health and Leisure
           Activity than Number of Social Ties' Evidence from Later Adulthood

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      Authors: Colette J. Brown, Karen S. Rook
      First page: 831
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesClaims that the diversity of social ties matters more for health than the sheer number of ties have largely gone untested. This study accordingly compared the unique associations of number versus diversity of social ties with key health-related outcomes: functional limitations and leisure activities. Additionally, positive and ambivalent ties were distinguished.MethodsSocial networks, health, and leisure activities were assessed in a national sample of older adults (N = 874; ages 65–91).ResultsRegression analyses revealed that number of ties related to each outcome at a magnitude comparable to, or exceeding, that of diversity in most models. For positive ties, number related more strongly than diversity to greater leisure activities. For ambivalent ties, number related more strongly than diversity to worse functional limitations.DiscussionContrary to prevailing views, diversity of ties is not necessarily more important than number of ties. Findings extend scientific understanding and approaches to interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T04:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211066652
       
  • Utilization of Recommended Preventive Health Screenings Between
           Transgender and Cisgender Older Adults in Sexual and Gender Minority
           Communities

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      Authors: Charles P. Hoy-Ellis, Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen, Hyun-Jun Kim
      First page: 844
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTransgender older adults are among the most health disparate populations in the United States; they also face some of the most significant barriers in accessing high quality, affordable, preventive healthcare services. We compare utilization rates of eight recommended preventive health screenings for adults aged 50 and older, by gender identity. Methods: We analyzed data from 2514 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults aged 50 and older, testing associations between gender identities and screening service utilizations by applying a series of multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sociodemographics. Results: Compared to cisgender LGB participants, transgender participants had significantly lower odds to have met four of the recommended screenings. Transgender men had significantly lower odds than transgender women to have met two of the recommended screenings. Discussion: Increasing transgender older adults’ access to preventative health screening tests is critical to reduce the health burden in this aging population.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211068557
       
  • “Till Death Do Us Part”, Dying Matters, Beyond the Individual: Advance
           Care Planning Patterns Among Older Couples

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      Authors: Hyo Jung Lee, Bon Kim
      First page: 858
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examined the formal and informal advance care planning (ACP) patterns of older couples and determined how these patterns are associated with individual and spousal characteristics.MethodsUsing data from the 2014 and 2016 Health and Retirement Study, we performed latent class analysis to identify ACP patterns and multinomial regression models to describe characteristics of older couples (N = 2195 couples).ResultsWe identified four ACP patterns: high engaging couple (47%); high engaging husband—low engaging wife (11%); high engaging wife—low engaging husband (11%); and low engaging couple (31%). High engaging couples were more likely to be older, educated, and financially better off, whereas high ACP engagement in discordant ACP patterns was associated with health and wives’ constraints.DiscussionA couple-based approach was recommended to promote the merits of ACP where spouses were older, had limited resources, or where one or both partners were suffering from poor health.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T10:10:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211068555
       
  • Childbearing Biographies and Midlife Women’s Health

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      Authors: Mieke Beth Thomeer, Rin Reczek, Clifford Ross
      First page: 870
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe introduce a “childbearing biography” approach to show how multiple childbearing characteristics cluster in ways significant for midlife health.MethodsWe analyze the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79; N = 3992) using mixed-mode Latent Class Analysis with eight childbearing variables (e.g., age at first birth, parity, birth spacing, and mistimed births) to identify how childbearing biographies are associated with midlife health, adjusting for key covariates—including socioeconomic status (SES) and relationship history.ResultsWe identify six childbearing biographies: (1) early compressed, (2) staggered, (3) extended high parity, (4) later, (5) married planned, and (6) childfree. Childbearing biographies are strongly associated with physical health but not mental health, with differences primarily explained by SES.DiscussionDifferent childbearing biographies are related to physical health inequalities above what is demonstrated by the typical use of one or two childbearing measures, providing a new perspective into the growing health gap among aging midlife women.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T06:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643211070136
       
  • Loneliness, Social Isolation, and All-Cause Mortality in a Large Sample of
           Older Adults

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      Authors: Timothy L. Barnes, Manik Ahuja, Stephanie MacLeod, Rifky Tkatch, Laurie Albright, James A. Schaeffer, Charlotte S. Yeh
      First page: 883
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesUsing data from a large random sample of U.S. older adults (N = 7982), the effect of loneliness and social isolation on all-cause mortality was examined considering their separate and combined effects.MethodsThe UCLA-3 Loneliness Scale and the Social Network Index (SNI) were used to define loneliness and social isolation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed.ResultsAmong study participants, there were 548 deaths. In separate, adjusted models, loneliness (severe and moderate) and social isolation (limited and moderate social network) were both associated with all-cause mortality. When modeled together, social isolation (limited and moderate social network) along with severe loneliness remained significantly associated with mortality.DiscussionResults demonstrate that both loneliness and social isolation contribute to greater risk of mortality within our population of older adults. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, loneliness and social isolation should be targeted safely in efforts to reduce mortality risk among older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T02:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221074857
       
  • Walkable Neighborhoods and Cognition: Implications for the Design of
           Health Promoting Communities

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      Authors: Dominique L. Sylvers, Margaret Hicken, Michael Esposito, Jennifer Manly, Suzanne Judd, Philippa Clarke
      First page: 893
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This study seeks to examine neighborhood characteristics, physical activity, and health status and their roles in promoting healthy cognitive aging. Methods: Using data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Difference in Stroke (REGARDS) study (N=10,289, mean age=73.4 years), we used multilevel linear regression to examine the relationships between walkable neighborhoods (both objectively measured and subjective perceptions), walking behavior, physical activity, health status, and cognitive function. Results: Engaging in any moderate physical activity (β=0.47, p < 0.001), having better health status (β=0.02, p < 0.001), living in neighborhoods with greater street connectivity (β=0.15, p < 0.05), and positive perceptions of neighborhood traffic (p < 0.01) and parks (p < 0.05), were associated with higher cognitive function. Residence in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (β=−0.01, p < 0.01) was negatively associated with cognitive function. Discussion: Both perceived and objective features of walkable environments may have consequences for cognitive health, and can inform the development of health promoting communities.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T04:08:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221075509
       
  • Associations Between Cognitive Functioning and Mortality in a
           Population-Based Sample of Older United States Adults: Differences by Sex
           and Education

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      Authors: Tamar Adjoian Mezzaca, Leah V. Dodds, Tatjana Rundek, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Michelle R. Caunca, Joyce Gomes-Osman, David A. Loewenstein, Neil Schneiderman, Tali Elfassy
      First page: 905
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: To determine whether cognition is associated with mortality among older US adults. Methods: We studied 5,989 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants age 60+ in years 1999–2014 with mortality follow-up through 2015. Cognitive function was measured in one standard deviation decrements using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Animal Fluency (AnFl), and two Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) tests. Results: Each decrement in cognitive function was associated with increased risk of mortality overall (DSST HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.48), among women only (AnFl: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24), and among those with less than a high school education only (AnFl HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.97; CERAD-WL HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.67; and CERAD-DR HR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.82). Discussion: Among US adults, lower cognitive functioning was associated with mortality; associations were stronger among women and those with less education.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T04:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221076690
       
  • Trajectories of Insomnia Symptoms Among Aging Employees and Their
           Associations With Memory, Learning Ability, and Concentration After
           Retirement - A Prospective Cohort Study (2000–2017)

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      Authors: Antti Etholén, Olli Pietiläinen, Anne Kouvonen, Mirja Hänninen, Ossi Rahkonen, Tea Lallukka
      First page: 916
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe applied a person-oriented approach and used latent class linear mixed models to identify sleep trajectories that explain memory, concentration, and learning ability problems after retirement.MethodsData consist of prospective surveys from four phases of the Helsinki Health Study between 2000–2017 (n = 3748, aged 55–77 years, 80% women). Multinomial regression was used to examine the associations between sleep trajectories and cognitive function, adjusting for sociodemographic, health-related behavior, and health factor covariates.ResultsAmong statutory retirees, three latent group trajectories of insomnia-related symptoms were identified: stable low, decreasing, and increasing. Among those who had retired for disability reasons, we identified one additional latent group trajectory: stable high. Insomnia symptoms were associated with worse cognitive function.DiscussionEarly detection of insomnia symptoms would be a potential intervention point to improve both sleep quality and prevent cognitive decline in later life. However, intervention studies are needed.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T02:55:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221078740
       
  • Multimorbidity Patterns in US Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline and
           Their Relationship with Functional Difficulties

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      Authors: Yixiu Liu, Depeng Jiang
      First page: 929
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study identified different multimorbidity patterns among adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and examined their association with SCD-related functional difficulties.MethodsData were obtained from the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Latent class analysis was applied to identify different patterns of chronic conditions. Logistic regression was implemented to examine relationships between multimorbidity patterns and risk of SCD-related functional difficulties.ResultsFive multimorbidity patterns were identified: severely impaired (14.6%), respiratory/depression (18.2%), obesity/diabetes (18.6%), age-associated (22.3%), and minimal chronic conditions group (26.3%). Compared with minimal chronic conditions group, severely impaired group was most likely to report SCD-related functional difficulties, followed by respiratory/depression and obesity/diabetes group.DiscussionsIndividuals in the three multimorbidity groups had elevated risk of SCD-related functional difficulties compared with minimal chronic conditions group. Characteristics of the high-risk groups identified in this study may help in development and implementation of interventions to prevent serious consequences of having multiple chronic conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T03:11:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221080287
       
  • Disparities in Mental Health and Well-Being between Heterosexual and
           Sexual Minority Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Jen-Hao Chen
      First page: 939
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: This study examines disparities in older adults’ mental health and well-being during the pandemic by sexual minority status. Methods: This study analyzed data on older adults from the Health and Retirement Study’s COVID-19 Module (N = 3142 for heterosexuals and N = 75 for sexual minorities). Weighted regressions linked concern about COVID-19, depression, pandemic emotional stress, and changes in loneliness, in-person contacts, income, and work to sexual minority status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority older adults had more concern about the pandemic and emotional stress and showed a decrease in in-person contact during the pandemic—these differences were not explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Sexual minority older adults were also more likely to have changes in income and work during the pandemic, but these differences were explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Discussion: Sexual minority older adults have experienced worse mental health outcomes than heterosexuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, which merits intervention.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T11:00:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221081965
       
  • Linguistic Adaptation and Cognitive Function in Older Chinese and Korean
           Immigrants in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Study

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      Authors: Yuri Jang, Eun Young Choi, Bei Wu, XinQi Dong, Miyong T. Kim
      First page: 951
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine the cross-sectional association of linguistic adaptation with cognitive function, as well as its interactions with sociodemographic and health profiles in older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the U.S.MethodsUsing harmonized data (N = 5063) from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE) and the Study of Older Korean Americans (SOKA), we examined between- and within-group differences in the role of linguistic adaptation (English use in older Chinese Americans and English proficiency in older Korean Americans) in cognitive function.ResultsThe positive association between linguistic adaptation and cognitive function was common in both groups. We also found that the relationship was pronounced among subgroups with the underlying linguistic and cognitive vulnerabilities (i.e., the very old, women, those with low education, and newly immigrated individuals).DiscussionFindings show the importance of linguistic adaptation in older immigrants’ cognitive health and suggest a need for targeted interventions for high-risk groups.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T05:58:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221083107
       
  • The Association of Dispositional Optimism and Pessimism With
           

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      Authors: Heather Craig, Joanne Ryan, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Alice Owen, John McNeil, Robyn L. Woods, Carlene Britt, Andrew Tonkin, Danijela Gasevic
      First page: 961
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Positive psychosocial factors may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the association of optimism and pessimism with CVD events in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: 11,651 adults aged 70 years and over, participants of the ASPREE Longitudinal Study of Older Persons (ALSOP), were followed-up for 4.7 years (median). The association of optimism and pessimism (assessed as separate constructs by revised Life Orientation Test) and incident CVD events (composite and components) was assessed by Cox regression adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and health factors. Results: No association was observed between optimism and pessimism with composite CVD events. Being more pessimistic was associated with a greater risk of fatal coronary heart disease, while being more optimistic was associated with a lower risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Optimism and pessimism may shape cardiovascular health of older adults; and we argue these psychosocial factors should be researched as separate constructs.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T03:28:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221083118
       
  • Is Marital Quality Related to Physical Activity Across the Life Course for
           Men and Women'

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      Authors: Patricia A. Thomas, Elizabeth A. Richards, Anna K. Forster
      First page: 973
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesAlthough physical activity is linked to multiple health outcomes, a majority of Americans do not meet physical activity guidelines, often with precipitous declines among older adults. Marital quality is a less-explored, but important, factor that may influence physical activity, as spouses often influence each other’s health behaviors.MethodsWe use nationally representative panel data to investigate whether positive and negative dimensions of marital quality influence physical activity, and whether age and gender moderate these relationships.ResultsWe find that both marital support and strain are related to higher odds of more frequent active exercise and walking, pointing to the complex influence of marital quality. Marital support became increasingly important to higher levels of walking frequency as men aged.DiscussionThis study provides new information on the ways in which both positive and negative dimensions of marital quality may contribute to trajectories of physical activity across the life course.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T10:00:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221083083
       
  • A Change for the Worse: Negative Social Exchanges are Associated with an
           Accelerated Decline in Self-Rated Health Over Time

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      Authors: Jason T. Newsom, Ann McQueen, Karen S. Rook, Neal Krause, Emily C. Denning
      First page: 984
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesAge-associated accelerated declines in physical health vary across individuals, and researchers have suggested that individual differences in decline may vary as a function of stressors. The relation of one such stressor, negative social exchanges, to accelerated declines in self-rated health is investigated. Method: Participants are from a 2-year, 5-wave, national, longitudinal study of social relationships among older adults. Growth curve analyses are used to examine the relation of negative and positive social exchanges to accelerated changes in self-rated health, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and depressive symptoms. Results: Individuals reporting more frequent negative social exchanges showed significantly accelerated declines in physical health. Positive social exchanges were not related to linear or accelerated declines in self-rated health over time.DiscussionThe association between negative social exchanges and accelerated deterioration in self-rated health provides general support for hypotheses that interpersonal stressors play an important role age-related physical health decline.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T11:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221083407
       
  • Wellness in the Face of Frailty Among Older Adults in First Nations
           Communities

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      Authors: Morgan Slater, Gabrielle Bruser, Roseanne Sutherland, Melissa K. Andrew, Wayne Warry, Kristen M Jacklin, Jennifer D. Walker
      First page: 996
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesFirst Nations people report high levels of wellness despite high rates of chronic illness. Our goal was to understand the factors associated with wellness among First Nations adults in Ontario who were considered frail.MethodsUsing the First Nations Regional Health Survey, we created a profile of First Nations adults (aged 45+) who were categorized as “frail” (weighted sample size = 8121). We used multivariate logistic regression to determine associations between wellness (as measured by self-reported physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual balance) and determinants of health.ResultsRates of reported wellness were high among those who were frail, ranging from 56.7% reporting physical balance to 71.6% reporting mental balance. Three key elements were associated with wellness: the availability of resources, individual lifestyle factors, and cultural connection and identity.DiscussionOur findings provide a profile of strength and wellness among older First Nations adults living with frailty.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T09:34:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221085107
       
  • Neighborhood Characteristics and Caregiver Depressive Symptoms in the
           National Study of Caregiving

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      Authors: Oanh L. Meyer, Hyun Jung Koo, Julie Strominger, Duyen Tran, Anna Bach, Amanda N. Leggett
      First page: 1005
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: We examined the association between neighborhood characteristics and depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of dementia caregivers. Methods: Data came from the 2017 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and National Study of Caregiving. The sample included 956 caregivers of those with dementia. Linear regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood physical disorder neighborhood social cohesion, and depressive symptoms, and to test the moderating effect of social support on these relations. Results: Results suggested that having friends and family (1) to talk to buffered the effect of high NPD and low cohesion on depressive symptoms, (2) to help with daily activities buffered the effect of low cohesion on depressive symptoms, and finally, and (3) to help with care had a protective effect on depressive symptoms if social cohesion was high. Discussion: Neighborhood contextual characteristics and social support interact to affect caregiver depressive symptoms in complex ways.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T04:57:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221085106
       
  • The Role of Country-Level Availability and Generosity of Healthcare
           Services, and Old-Age Ageism for Missed Healthcare during the COVID-19
           Pandemic Control Measures in Europe

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      Authors: Jason Settels, Anja K. Leist
      First page: 1016
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020) (N = 57,025), country-level data from the European Social Survey (2008) and OECD (2020), and logistic regressions, this study examines predictors of older Europeans’ forgone, postponed, and denied healthcare during the pandemic. Results: Country-level availability of physicians, healthcare systems’ generosity, and beliefs that older persons burden healthcare systems all increased forgone healthcare. Healthcare system generosity increased postponed and denied healthcare. Greater medical resources decreased denied healthcare. Furthermore, missed healthcare varied by individual-level gender (higher rates among women), age, education, and health. Discussion: This study reveals predictors of missed healthcare during the pandemic. To decrease unintended health consequences of a pandemic, both individual-level determinants, such as gender and health, and contextual-level determinants, such as healthcare systems’ characteristics, should be considered in research and practice.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T12:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221087097
       
  • Nursing Home Residents’ Positive Behavioral Responses to Individualized
           Music Predict Improvements in Sundowning Symptoms After Music Listening

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      Authors: Tara T. Lineweaver, Tonya R. Bergeson, Marissa J. Ward, Nicole A. Hagen, Kendall Ladd, Heather Johnson, Donald Braid, Monica Ott, Donald P. Hay, John Plewes, Mary Hinds, Michelle L. LaPradd, Hannah Bolander, Sarah Vitelli, Mikala Lain, Tim Brimmer
      First page: 1037
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: The goal of this exploratory study was to predict which long-term care residents with dementia would experience improvements in their sundowning symptoms after listening to personalized music playlists. Methods: We studied 101 residents with moderate to severe dementia from 15 long-term care facilities across 8 months. We observed residents’ behavioral responses to individualized music while they listened and recorded sundowning symptoms both before and after each listening session. Results: As hypothesized, residents who exhibited a greater number of positive reactive behaviors while listening to music also evidenced more improvements in their confusion, disengagement, unresponsiveness, and restlessness after their music-listening session. Discussion: Our results reveal that observing behavioral responses during music listening is an effective way to determine when nursing home residents are benefiting from personalized music playlists. These findings inform music programs in long-term care settings by identifying residents whose sundowning symptoms are most amenable to music intervention.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T12:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221087569
       
  • Social Relationships, Wealth, and Cardiometabolic Risk: Evidence from a
           National Longitudinal Study of U.S. Older Adults

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      Authors: Kaitlin Shartle, Yang Claire Yang, Laura S. Richman, Daniel W. Belsky, Allison E. Aiello, Kathleen Mullan Harris
      First page: 1048
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: To investigate multiple dimensions of social relationships related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and how their associations vary by wealth in older adults. Methods: Growth curve models were used to investigate the longitudinal associations between measures of both positive and negative social relationships and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2016 and the moderation of this association by wealth in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Results: Older adults with better social relationships had lower CMR on average. The protective effects of positive social relationships, however, waned at older ages, particularly for low-wealth individuals. Discussion: Our results suggest that good social relationships promote healthy aging by buffering against harmful cardiometabolic consequences of psychosocial stress, particularly among relatively wealthy individuals. Efforts to improve old age health would be more effective when focusing simultaneously on fostering social connections and boosting financial resources.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:19:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221087807
       
  • Association of Affect and Performance in Dual-Task Walking in Non-demented
           Older Adults

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      Authors: Deepan Guharajan, Roee Holtzer
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: We examined whether individual differences in positive and negative affective states predicted dual-task costs using an established Dual-Task Walking protocol in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that positive and negative affect would be associated with smaller and larger dual-task costs, respectively. Methods: Participants (N = 403; mean age = 76.22 ± 6.55; females = 56%) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the walking protocol involving three conditions: Single-Task-Alpha, Single-Task-Walk (STW), and Dual-Task-Walk (DTW). Gait velocity was assessed via an instrumented walkway. Results: Negative affect was associated with greater decline in gait velocity from STW to DTW (95% confidence interval [−0.73 to −0.03]) but not the decline of the rate of correct letter generation. There was no significant relationship between positive affect and DTW performance. Discussion: Findings suggest negative affect is adversely associated with allocation of attentional resources, leading to worse mobility outcomes in older adults.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T01:37:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221087836
       
  • Predictors of Mortality in 433 Nonagenarians Inside the Mugello Study: A
           10 Years Follow-Up Study

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      Authors: Silvia Pancani, Gemma Lombardi, Francesco Sofi, Anna Maria Gori, Roberta Boni, Chiara Castagnoli, Anita Paperini, Guido Pasquini, Federica Vannetti, Raffaello Molino Lova, Claudio Macchi, Francesca Cecchi
      First page: 1071
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectiveto identify the predictors of mortality in a cohort of nonagenarians inside the “Mugello study” after 10 years follow-up.MethodsInformation on sociodemographic data, cognitive and functional status, lifestyle, medical history, and drug use was collected from 433 non-selected participants aged 90-99 years, living in the Mugello area (Italy). Participants were followed over 10 years and their dates of death were retrieved from the municipal registers. Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant potential prognostic factors.ResultsThe mortality rate was 96.5%. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that a lower cognitive status was significantly associated with higher mortality as well as a poorer functional status, a higher comorbidity, and a higher number of drugs consumption.DiscussionImpaired cognitive function, loss of functional independence, higher comorbidity, and higher drugs intake were the stronger predictors of mortality.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T11:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221091653
       
  • The Life Course of Unemployment and Midlife Health

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      Authors: Adrianne Frech, Sarah Damaske, Adrienne Ohler
      First page: 1081
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: We estimate associations between unemployment trajectories from ages 27-49 and physical and mental health at age 50. Methods: Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N=6434). Group-based trajectory models are used to identify unemployment trajectories. Generalized linear models with a modified Bolck, Croon, and Hagenaars (BCH) correction are used to regress health on unemployment trajectory groups. Results: We identified “Consistently Low (70%),” “Decreasing Mid-Career (18%),” and “Persistently High (12%)” unemployment trajectories. Experiencing Decreasing Mid-Career or Persistently High trajectories was associated with worse physical and mental health at age 50 than Consistently Low trajectories. Experiencing a Persistently High trajectory was associated with worse physical and mental health than a Decreasing Mid-Career trajectory. Discussion: Timing and likelihood of unemployment are associated with midlife health. Mid-Career unemployment is associated with worse physical and mental health at age 50, but not to the same degree as Persistently High unemployment.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T10:06:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221091775
       
  • A Longitudinal Examination of the Association Between Loss of Control and
           Loneliness Among Older Adults Diagnosed with Cancer

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      Authors: Zachary Morris, Sana Malik, Shanna Burke, Adrienne Grudzien, Tamara Cadet
      First page: 1092
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine whether feeling a loss of control over one’s life is associated with an increased risk for loneliness among those diagnosed with cancer. Method: We draw on data from the Health and Retirement Study to identify three baseline and follow-up cohorts of cancer survivors age 50 and older. Ordinary least squared regression is used to examine predictors for future loneliness. Results: Upon adjusting for other known predictors of loneliness, feelings of loss of control was significantly predictive of loneliness among 4-year cancer survivors. Discussion: Social workers and other health care practitioners should seek to provide evidence-based interventions to reduce the risk for loneliness for cancer survivors feeling a loss of control.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T07:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221092735
       
  • Something’s Gotta Give: The Relationship Between Time in Eldercare, Time
           in Childcare, and Employee Wellbeing

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      Authors: Linda Duxbury, Michael Halinski, Maggie Stevenson
      First page: 1101
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      While existing research indicates that “sandwiched” employees (those with both childcare and eldercare demands) have lower wellbeing than employees with only eldercare demands, there is little understanding how childcare and eldercare demands interact to create those differences. Drawing on two studies, we hypothesize childcare demands amplify the negative impact of eldercare demands on wellbeing. Study 1 operationalizes childcare as a dichotomous variable (i.e., has childcare or not), and examines the relationship between hours per week in eldercare and wellbeing for two groups of employees: those with eldercare and those in the sandwich generation. Study 2, which operationalizes childcare as a continuous variable (i.e., hours in childcare per week), explores how time in childcare moderates the relationship between time in eldercare and wellbeing. Findings show time in eldercare is negatively associated with wellbeing, and the impact of childcare on the relationship between time in eldercare and wellbeing is dependent on how one operationalizes wellbeing and childcare constructs.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221092876
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Differences in Hearing Aid Use Among Medicare
           Beneficiaries

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      Authors: Julie S. Yi, Emmanuel E. Garcia Morales, Nicholas S. Reed, Amber Willink, Carrie L. Nieman
      First page: 1117
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe examined individual-level factors associated with hearing aid use by race and ethnicity in a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries.MethodsWe used the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (cycles 2016–2018) for 10,301 older adults with hearing loss and hearing aid use as the primary outcome. Covariates included education, income, urban residence, chronic conditions, functional limitations, and Medicaid eligibility. Multivariable logistic regression stratified by race and ethnicity was used to identify factors associated with hearing aid use.ResultsFactors associated with hearing aid use included higher education among White (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.16, 1.58), Black (OR = 1.76, 95%CI:1.02, 3.05), and Hispanic (OR = 1.77, 95%CI:1.17, 2.68) beneficiaries. Urban residence was associated with hearing aid use for Black participants (OR = 3.06, 95%CI:1.17, 8.03) and Medicaid eligibility for Hispanic participants (OR = 1.58, 95%CI:0.97, 2.59), although the confidence interval included the null hypothesis.Discussionndividual-level factors associated with hearing aid use differed by race and ethnicity among Medicare beneficiaries.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T12:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221095716
       
  • Nutrition Risk is Associated With Falls Risk in an Observational Study of
           Community-Dwelling, Rural, Older Adults

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      Authors: Caitlin D. Eckert, Emily K. Tarleton, Jocelyn Pellerin, Nicole Mooney, Nancy M. Gell
      First page: 1125
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesPoor nutritional status is a risk factor for falls and impedes recovery from falls in older adults. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrition status and fall risk over time in a cohort of older adults.MethodsUsing an observational analytic study design, we collected demographic, fall risk, nutrition risk, food insecurity, and incident falls data from community-dwelling older Vermonters.ResultsData from 708 participants (70.3 years ± 6.6; 82% female) indicate a significant association between fall risk and nutrition risk (p < 0.001), fall risk and food insecurity (p < 0.001), and food insecurity and nutrition risk (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, elevated nutrition risk was significantly associated with an incident fall over the next 6 months (p < 0.05).ConclusionGiven the evidence for an association between nutrition status and falls, additional research, in a more diverse population, is needed to understand the nuances of these relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T10:58:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221096944
       
  • Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on All-Cause Mortality in US Older
           Adults

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      Authors: George W. Rebok, Alison Huang, Emily Smail, Rostislav Brichko, Jeanine M. Parisi, Michael Marsiske, David L. Roth, Roland J. Thorpe, Cynthia Felix, Richard N. Jones, Sherry L. Willis
      First page: 1135
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Cognitive abilities have been implicated as predictors of mortality in older adults. This study examines the effects of cognitive training on mortality 20 years post-intervention. Methods: Data come from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized control trial (N = 2802). Participants were cognitively and physically healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate (1) the association between baseline cognition and mortality risk and (2) the effect of ACTIVE cognitive training (memory, reasoning, and speed of processing) on mortality risk 20 years post-intervention. Results: Higher baseline cognition predicted lower mortality risk 20 years post-intervention. No significant effects of ACTIVE cognitive training in memory, reasoning, or speed of processing on mortality risk were observed. Discussion: More work is needed to identify cognitive training interventions that may lead to lower mortality risks in later adulthood.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T09:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221097681
       
  • Predictors of Cessation Outcomes Among Older Adult Smokers Enrolled in a
           Proactive Tobacco Quitline Intervention

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      Authors: Margaret C. Fahey, Wayne G. Talcott, Leslie A. Robinson, Indika Mallawaarachchi, Robert C. Klesges, Melissa A. Little
      First page: 1144
      Abstract: Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo identify predictors of older adults’ likelihood of quitting following engagement in a proactive tobacco quit line.MethodsOlder (>60 years) participants (N = 186) enrolled in a four-session quit line with 8-weeks of nicotine replacement therapy reported demographics, beliefs, and information about tobacco use. Point prevalence abstinence was reported at 3 and 12-months.ResultsIn final models, endorsement of quitting to take control of one’s life and confidence in quitting were positively associated with 3-month cessation (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.62; OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.21, 2.52, respectively). At 12 months, stronger endorsement of quitting to take control of one’s life and decreased nicotine dependence were associated with higher cessation (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17; OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71,0.99, respectively).DiscussionFor tobacco cessation among older adults, programs should provide additional support to those with higher nicotine dependence, promote quitting self-efficacy, and encourage quitting as means to gain control of life and health.
      Citation: Journal of Aging and Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T02:49:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/08982643221097679
       
 
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