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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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Stigma and Health
Number of Followers: 1  
 
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ISSN (Print) 2376-6972 - ISSN (Online) 2376-6964
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Weight bias internalization: Relationships with mental health, physical
           activity, and sedentary behavior.

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      Abstract: Research is lacking on the relationships between weight bias internalization (WBI; known as self-directed stigma regarding one’s weight) and mental health, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between WBI, mental health (body satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect), time spent performing different intensities of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among a Canadian sample of adults that is more representative of the general public. Participants (N = 175) completed questionnaires which examined WBI, body satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, PA, and SB. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between WBI and mental health variables, physical activity, and sedentary behavior after adjusting for age, gender, and race. Subsequent analyses were stratified by gender. WBI was negatively associated with moderate and strenuous intensity PA, as well as total PA, and was positively associated with SB. WBI was also negatively associated with life satisfaction, body satisfaction, and positive affect, but was positively associated with negative affect. WBI is significantly associated with negative mental health variables, reductions in PA, and increases in SB. More research is needed to better understand the negative health correlates and impacts WBI on physical and mental health in order to improve patient outcomes and to optimize the efficacy of targeted health behavior interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000336
       
  • Implicit ethnic–racial self-stereotyping’s relation to children’s
           body mass index and diet: The moderating role of self-esteem.

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      Abstract: Childhood obesity in the United States has disproportionately affected Latinx and Black children. The authors examine this issue by drawing upon implicit social cognition theory and social–psychological models of health and stress to propose and test a relation between negative implicit self-stereotyping and body mass index (BMI) and diet. Furthermore, it was predicted that self-esteem would buffer this relation because it is a psychological resource that functions to protect against stressors like the psychological experience of stigma. The authors recruited a community sample of 9–12-year-old Latinx and Black children and measured individual differences in implicit and explicit associations between the self and group stereotypes, self-esteem, objective BMI, and diet. Consistent with the main hypotheses, strong negative implicit (but not explicit) self-stereotyping was associated with higher levels of body mass indices in the obesity range and less healthy diet, but only among children with low self-esteem. Among children with high self-esteem, these relations were absent. These results held even after controlling for the contribution of parents’ BMI, diet, education, and household income. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link implicit self-stereotyping and self-esteem with physiological risk factors for chronic health conditions. Thus, this research contributes to understanding disparities among stigmatized ethnic–racial children in the United States and beyond. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000333
       
  • Fussy, fad, and frustrating': Stigma toward picky eaters and popular
           dieters by peers.

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      Abstract: Individuals commonly tailor their diets for reasons such as weight loss, health promotion, taste preferences, religious purposes, and to accommodate food allergies. Many individuals who adopt dietary changes, however, report experiencing significant social consequences such as stigma. This study explored stigma against various diet types and how one’s own dietary patterns influence stigma toward others’ eating behaviors. Participants (N = 509) completed an online survey assessing their own dietary patterns and stigma toward others’ dietary patterns. On average, participants reported the greatest stigma toward picky eaters and people who follow popular diets. Five mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to understand differences in stigma toward eating styles held by those who endorsed that eating style and those that did not. Men reported significantly more stigma toward eating styles than women; thus, gender was entered as a covariate for each ANOVA. Compared to non-picky eaters, picky eaters reported significantly lower stigma toward picky eating but significantly higher stigma toward all other eating styles except popular diets. There were no other significant differences in stigma reported between those who did or did not adhere to a given eating style. Future research should utilize more diverse samples and evaluate stigma experienced both by and toward others. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000322
       
  • Examining the relation between discrimination and suicide among Black
           Americans: The role of social pain minimization and decreased bodily
           trust.

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      Abstract: Despite robust associations between discrimination and suicidality, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood (Gomez et al., Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2011, 40, 1465; Hunger et al., Stigma and Health, 2020a, 5, 217). The current study tested whether discrimination leads to suicidal ideation through a process whereby social pain minimization erodes trust in bodily sensations. We predicted that among Black participants, discriminatory experiences would be related to social pain minimization and this invalidation in turn was predicted to relate to impaired trust in bodily sensation and ultimately, suicidal ideation. Given the systemic racism Black Americans experience, we recruited 341 Black participants and asked them to complete surveys assessing their experiences of discrimination, social pain minimization, bodily trust, and suicidal ideation. Findings supported the proposed model, and were consistent with the hypothesis that discrimination was related to suicidal ideation through minimization of social pain and reduced trust of body sensations. These findings suggest that clinical interventions targeting bodily trust and public health policy initiatives targeting social pain minimization may be useful methods of decreasing suicidal ideation in those that face discriminatory experiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000303
       
  • The difference in stigmatizing attributions toward older adults with or
           without Alzheimer’s disease.

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      Abstract: Persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may experience stigma related to having a neurodegenerative disease. This study combined attribution theory and constructs of aging bias (ageism, aging anxiety, anxiety about developing AD) to describe the stigma of AD. Two hundred and fifty-eight Amazon MTurk workers read a vignette describing an older adult, Harry, with either normal aging, mild AD, or severe AD. Structural equation modeling revealed support for a modified attribution model of public stigma of AD. AD severity influenced attributions of blame, pity, and segregation. Participants’ age was not significantly associated with attribution factors, nor ageism or AD threat. Higher ageist attitudes, however, correlated with greater blame, less pity, and more segregation. Participants who were more anxious about personally developing AD were likely to blame Harry less, pity him more, and call for segregation less. Implications in terms of messaging and contact are discussed to challenge the stigma of AD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000315
       
  • HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care and health-related
           quality of life among people living with HIV in England and Wales: A
           latent class analysis.

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      Abstract: Though life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is now comparable to that of HIV-negative persons, their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) lags behind. Lower HRQoL among PLHIV may vary meaningfully, shaped in part by social factors, including stigma. Using data from Positive Voices, a national cross-sectional probability survey of adults ≥18 years living with HIV and accessing HIV care services in England and Wales (N = 4,422), we conducted latent class analysis on responses to a HRQoL measure (problems with mobility, usual activities, self-care, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) to identify HRQoL patterns, followed by multinomial logistic regression to examine relationships between HRQoL classes and a 4-item measure of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care. Four classes emerged: All Problems (18% prevalence); Pain and Distress (18%); Pain and Mobility (9%); No Problems (55%). Scale scores of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care were positively, significantly associated with membership in the All Problems (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94, 2.41), Pain and Distress (aOR = 1.62; CI = 1.46, 1.81), and Pain and Mobility classes (aOR = 1.33; CI = 1.16, 1.52) compared to the No Problems class. A similar trend was observed for individual stigma and discrimination items. HRQoL among PLHIV in England and Wales varies and may be underpinned or exacerbated by HIV-related stigma and discrimination in health care. Ensuring stigma-mitigation interventions reach all health care systems/providers and emotional support services reach all PLHIV may improve HRQoL for PLHIV. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000299
       
  • A measure of hypervigilance in LGBTQ-identified individuals.

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      Abstract: Hypervigilance is an individual’s heightened awareness to threat or potential threats in their surroundings, may be context specific, and may be associated with negative mental health outcomes. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-identified individuals may experience hypervigilance related to their stigmatized status. There are few measures of general hypervigilance and no measure of LGBTQ-specific hypervigilance. A sample of LGBTQ-identified individuals (N = 378) was recruited for an online survey. Using exploratory structural equation modeling, we examined the factor structure of 13 items related to where (locations and contextual conditions) and around whom hypervigilance occurred, and 12 items assessing hypervigilant behaviors. Three-factor models were indicated for each set of items. Individuals experienced hypervigilance around strangers, conservative/religious people, and in work settings; they reported hypervigilance as social withdrawal, identity concealment, and scanning behaviors. Individuals who experienced one type of hypervigilant behavior also tended to report other types of hypervigilant behavior. Some group differences by gender identity, sexual identity, and racial/ethnic identity were found; specifically people of color and transgender and nonbinary (TNB) individuals tended to experience more hypervigilance than White and non-TNB individuals, respectively. Expected associations were found between the proposed factors and fear of negative evaluation, depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and satisfaction with life. The suggested factor structure and scales will assist researchers and practitioners in identifying possible LGBTQ-specific hypervigilance and points of intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000306
       
  • The impact of viewing opioid overdose photos on stigma, desire for social
           distance, and willingness to help.

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      Abstract: Police departments have publicly posted photos of individuals who have overdosed on drugs in order to generate awareness of the issue to the community, although research has not examined the impact of these social media campaigns. The present study used a between-subjects design to examine the effect of viewing opioid overdose photos on the level of stigma, social distance, willingness to help, and support for drug-related policy items. Participants were 124 college students who were randomly assigned to view overdose photos or nonoverdose photos contained within an ostensible website and then responded to measures asking about their attitudes about substance use. Participants who viewed opioid overdose images reported a lower willingness to help compared to those who viewed nonoverdose images, but no differences were observed for stigma, desire for social distance, or support for policy items. Interventions using scare tactics to curb opioid use may have unintended consequences including undermining support for drug addicts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000308
       
  • Lung cancer screening and stigma: Do smoking-related differences in
           perceived lung cancer stigma emerge prior to diagnosis'

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      Abstract: Most lung cancer patients report experiencing stigma (i.e., devaluation based on one’s lung cancer diagnosis), which is associated with adverse health outcomes. Lung cancer is stigmatized due to its robust association with smoking and the perception of the disease as self-inflicted. Identifying sociodemographic and smoking-related correlates of perceived stigma among lung cancer screening-eligible adults (early in the cancer care trajectory) is needed to guide proactive psychosocial interventions to reduce stigma and improve health for patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. A national sample of lung cancer screening-eligible adults (N = 515; 64.9% female) completed questionnaires on sociodemographic information, smoking-related characteristics, and perceived smoking-related lung cancer stigma. Zero-order and multivariate relationships between sociodemographic variables, smoking-related characteristics, and stigma were evaluated using Pearson’s correlations, t tests, ANOVAs, and multivariable regression. The multivariable regression demonstrated that younger age (b = −0.05, p = .047) was associated significantly with higher stigma. Additionally, women (b = 0.63, p = .015), participants who reported Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (b = 1.07, p = .049), and those with a college degree or higher (all p ≤ .029) reported significantly higher stigma, compared to men, those who did not report Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, and other education categories, respectively. None of the smoking-related characteristics were associated significantly with perceived stigma (all p> .12). Sociodemographic variables (rather than smoking-related characteristics) significantly and uniquely differentiated lung cancer screening-eligible adults’ perception of lung cancer stigma. Smoking-related differences in lung cancer stigma may emerge following rather than prior to diagnosis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000300
       
  • Psychometric evaluation and validation of the HIV Stigma Scale in Spanish
           among men who have sex with men and transgender women.

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      Abstract: Stigma and discrimination toward the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) community is pervasive and negatively impacts health. Validated measures of stigma in Spanish, however, are limited and none have specifically validated HIV-related stigma in Spanish-speaking men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a standardized HIV Stigma Scale, translated to Spanish, including its factor structure. Measures consisted of self-reported sociodemographic measures of age, sex, sexual orientation, education, employment status, income, living situation, HIV stigma, depressive symptoms, and social support. Using SPSS AMOS 24, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 10-item Wright HIV Stigma Scale translated to Spanish was conducted in 359 MSM and TGW with HIV recruited from HIV clinics in Lima, Peru. The path model with three subscales: enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma, with eight items had an adequate fit to the data. The Spanish version (HIV Stigma Scale-ES) and its dimensions are similar to the ones validated in English for people with HIV (not MSM). Each construct was deemed to be reliable and showed good construct validity. Given the need to better understand and measure stigma in Spanish-speaking MSM, the HIV Stigma Scale-ES can be a useful tool to examine stigma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000302
       
  • At the intersection of homophobia and racism: Sociocultural context and
           the sexual health of South Asian Canadian gay and bisexual men.

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      Abstract: South Asian gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Canada are at risk for experiencing intersectional structural oppressions related to homophobia and racism as well as for the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Our objective was to examine intersectional stigma among South Asian GBM and its effects on their mental and sexual health. We recruited 39 South Asian GBM in the Greater Toronto Area and interviewed them via focus groups (n = 37) or one-on-one interviews (n = 2). The facilitators used a semistructured interview protocol covering topics about the sexual health of participants, including how their home backgrounds and experiences of being South Asian GBM in predominantly white gay spaces affected their sexual health, and how these experiences shaped their attitudes about sexual health services. Data were analyzed to understand how intersectional stigma affected perceived choices and health among South Asian GBM. Participants reported significant concerns about the effects of intersectional oppressions as South Asian GBM, including distress about the potential social harms arising to one’s family for having a gay or bisexual son. Men also described feeling excluded by the white-dominated gay community. Intersectional stigma led to experiences of loneliness and social isolation among some South Asian GBM, and limited social power in sexual relationships. Findings suggest that South Asian GBM preferred programs that focused on reducing social isolation and loneliness, as opposed to traditional safer sex programming focusing on HIV risk education. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Mar 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/sah0000295
       
 
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