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Stigma and Health
Number of Followers: 1  
 
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ISSN (Print) 2376-6972 - ISSN (Online) 2376-6964
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Associations between internalized weight stigma and visceral adipose
           tissue status are observed in women but not men.

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      Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between internalized weight stigma (IWS) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease risk, and how this relationship is moderated by gender. Participants (N = 70, 81% White, 51% women, Mage = 30.4 ± 7.8 years, MBMI = 28.7 ± 5.5 kg/m2, MBF% = 32.4 ± 8.9%) completed in-lab measures of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity), IWS (Weight Bias Internalization Scale-Modified; WBIS-M), and visceral adiposity. VAT mass was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Primary moderation analysis investigated the effect of gender on associations between IWS and VAT mass. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, and total body fat percent. After adjusting for covariates in the primary moderation analysis, WBIS-M scores displayed a positive association with VAT mass (b = 32.58, p = .033). The relationship between WBIS-M scores and VAT mass was moderated by gender (b = 68.63, p = .020); no relationship between WBIS-M scores and VAT mass was observed in men (b = -2.71, p = .894), whereas a positive association between WBIS-M scores and VAT mass was observed in women (b = 65.92, p = .003). Internalization of weight stigma was associated with greater visceral adiposity in women across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum, suggesting it as a chronic stressor. Future studies should investigate directionality and causality of this relationship to elucidate mechanisms of stigma-associated CVD risk. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • "Australian women’s lived experiences of stigmatization after cosmetic
           surgery: A qualitative investigation": Correction to Bonell et al. (2022).
           

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      Abstract: Reports an error in "Australian women’s lived experiences of stigmatization after cosmetic surgery: A qualitative investigation" by Sarah Bonell, Emma Austen, Gemma Sharp and Scott Griffiths (Stigma and Health, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 04, 2022, np). In the article, the first sentence in the Open Science Commitment section should read as follows: Our qualitative study was approved by the University of Melbourne, Ethics ID: 21155, and is preregistered on the Open Science Framework (https://tinyurl.com/reuxxmxn; Bonell et al., 2022). All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2022-47732-001.) Cosmetic surgery is highly popular, yet some cosmetic surgery recipients continue to face stigmatization. Our qualitative study provides a comprehensive analysis of cosmetic surgery recipients’ lived experiences of stigmatization in Australia. In particular, we examine the methods through which recipients postoperatively navigate and manage stigmatization. We interviewed 15 Australian women (28–59 years old) who had undergone cosmetic surgery and used reflexive thematic analysis to analyze transcripts. We generated three themes: (a) stigma awareness, (b) internalized stigma, and (c) navigating and managing stigma. Participants spoke at length about their experiences of stigma despite having generally positive outcomes of surgery. Further, they acknowledged experiences of internalized stigma and discussed the ways in which this stigma manifests (e.g., as guilt and shame for turning to cosmetic surgery “in place of” diet and exercise). Finally, and perhaps most notably, participants described engaging in ongoing stigma management. For example, some participants felt they needed to keep their surgeries a secret from others to avoid facing stigma. Conversely, other participants often detached themselves from negative stereotypes associated with surgery by failing to identify with the “stereotypical” cosmetic surgery recipients to whom they felt stigma applied. In other words, participants conceptualized a stigmatized “other”—a cosmetic surgery recipient unlike themselves who was more deserving of, and more likely to face, stigmatization. Findings have practical implications for cosmetic surgery recipients and their loved ones. By exploring cosmetic surgery stigmatization through the lens of its victims, the present study contributes to a growing understanding of cosmetic surgery stigma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Stigma toward mental illness and substance use disorders in faith
           communities: The roles of familiarity and causal attributions.

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      Abstract: This article explores the prevalence of stigma toward mental illness and substance use disorders in faith communities and highlights the roles of familiarity and causal attributions as explanatory factors. Social support within faith communities has been noted as an important mental health resource and faith leaders often represent the first point of contact in a mental health or substance abuse crisis. Yet, faith communities can also perpetuate stigmatization. Based on a vignette-based survey of congregants (N = 1,796) in a diverse set of faith communities in the U.S., this study examines desired social distance as a proxy of stigma toward mental illness (depression and schizophrenia vignettes) and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug use disorder vignettes). Analyses show that survey respondents’ stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with mental health and substance use conditions in faith communities vary strongly by the type of condition. Familiarity with depression is associated with less stigma toward the disorder, but familiarity with the other conditions is not a significant predictor of stigma in the other vignettes. Levels of agreement with biogenetic and psychosocial causal attributions are high, but important associations of personal/moral and spiritual causal attributions with higher levels of desired social distance are found. The results imply that interventions to mitigate stigma in faith communities should consider differences by condition types and the particular characteristics of faith-based settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mental health correlates of stigma among college students with suicidal
           ideation: Data from the 2020–2021 Healthy Minds Study.

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      Abstract: Suicidal ideation and attempts are stigmatized behaviors, but little is known about the correlates of stigma among young adults with suicidal ideation. Data from the Healthy Minds Study (N = 14,147) were used to test the associations between suicidal ideation and indicators of emotional state nondisclosure, stereotype awareness, and stereotype agreement among college students. Among the subsample of respondents with past-year suicidal ideation (N = 1912), logistic regression was used to test whether stigma measures were associated with mental health outcomes including suicide attempts, self-harm, depression, anxiety, and flourishing. Undergraduate- and graduate-level college students with suicidal ideation reported greater stereotype awareness, stereotype agreement, and less willingness to disclose their emotional state compared to those without suicidal ideation. Among those with ideation, all stigma measures were associated with greater likelihood of self-harm, more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, and less flourishing. The main finding was that suicidal ideation is associated with greater stereotype awareness and agreement among college students, which may have an impact on other aspects of mental health, including potential risk for self-harm and suicidal behavior. Future research is needed to determine the temporality of these associations and to explore potential implications of suicide-related stigma among college students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Australian women’s lived experiences of stigmatization after cosmetic
           surgery: A qualitative investigation.

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      Abstract: [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 7(2) of Stigma and Health (see record 2022-60016-002). In the article, the first sentence in the Open Science Commitment section should read as follows: Our qualitative study was approved by the University of Melbourne, Ethics ID: 21155, and is preregistered on the Open Science Framework (https://tinyurl.com/reuxxmxn; Bonell et al., 2022). All versions of this article have been corrected.] Cosmetic surgery is highly popular, yet some cosmetic surgery recipients continue to face stigmatization. Our qualitative study provides a comprehensive analysis of cosmetic surgery recipients’ lived experiences of stigmatization in Australia. In particular, we examine the methods through which recipients postoperatively navigate and manage stigmatization. We interviewed 15 Australian women (28–59 years old) who had undergone cosmetic surgery and used reflexive thematic analysis to analyze transcripts. We generated three themes: (a) stigma awareness, (b) internalized stigma, and (c) navigating and managing stigma. Participants spoke at length about their experiences of stigma despite having generally positive outcomes of surgery. Further, they acknowledged experiences of internalized stigma and discussed the ways in which this stigma manifests (e.g., as guilt and shame for turning to cosmetic surgery “in place of” diet and exercise). Finally, and perhaps most notably, participants described engaging in ongoing stigma management. For example, some participants felt they needed to keep their surgeries a secret from others to avoid facing stigma. Conversely, other participants often detached themselves from negative stereotypes associated with surgery by failing to identify with the “stereotypical” cosmetic surgery recipients to whom they felt stigma applied. In other words, participants conceptualized a stigmatized “other”—a cosmetic surgery recipient unlike themselves who was more deserving of, and more likely to face, stigmatization. Findings have practical implications for cosmetic surgery recipients and their loved ones. By exploring cosmetic surgery stigmatization through the lens of its victims, the present study contributes to a growing understanding of cosmetic surgery stigma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sources of weight stigma and adolescent mental health: From whom is it the
           most harmful'

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      Abstract: Although youth experiences of weight stigma have been documented in multiple settings including school, health care, the media, and the home, most research to date has examined the frequency and consequences of weight stigma from a single source (e.g., peers) or in a single context (e.g., home). To address this gap, this research investigated adolescents’ experiences of weight stigma in the home, school, and community context to identify the most common sources of weight stigma, compare distress levels associated with each source, and examine group and sex differences in mental health outcomes. Self-report online surveys were administered to a sample of 371 adolescents (52% female) aged 12–17 years (Mage = 13.8) and data were analyzed within an analysis of variance framework. Results revealed that adolescents most commonly experienced weight-based stigma from same-aged peers and siblings, although perceived it as most distressing when perpetrated by adults. There were no sex differences in the frequency or sources of weight stigma, however, females reported greater distress than males when stigmatized by a family member or friend. Those experiencing stigma, reported psychological difficulties that were two to three times higher than those not victimized, with females being at a greater risk of engaging in self-harm. Collectively, the findings indicate that experiences of weight-based stigma are associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among adolescents and highlight the need for holistic intervention in the school, home, and community that targets same-aged peers where it most common, and adults where it induces the greatest distress. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The moderating role of cultural factors and subclinical psychosis on the
           relationship between internalized stigma, discrimination, and mental
           help-seeking attitudes.

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      Abstract: The present study evaluated the interplay among mental health stigma, perceived discrimination and cultural factors on help-seeking attitudes. In addition, this study was one of the first to examine the role of subclinical psychosis on help-seeking attitudes. A nonclinical sample of 494 undergraduate students completed an online survey consisting of several self-report measures. Greater perceived discrimination was associated with poorer help-seeking attitudes. Interestingly, this relationship was stronger for those with higher levels of subclinical psychosis and weaker for more enculturated individuals. Contrary to expectations, greater internalized mental health stigma was related to more positive help-seeking attitudes. This relationship was moderated by ethnicity, such that stigma was significantly associated with help-seeking attitudes for Caucasians, but not for racial/ethnic minorities (REMs). Contrary to expectations, the relationship between stigma and help-seeking attitudes decreased for individuals who reported greater likelihood of compartmentalizing distinct cultural identities. Findings suggest that organized efforts to counteract racial discrimination could help to increase the likelihood that minorities will seek professional mental health services when needed. Interestingly, results also suggest that stigma may improve help-seeking attitudes for Caucasians, and that increasing enculturation (e.g., pride and engagement in the culture of origin) may also help to improve the current underutilization of mental health services among REMs. Other study findings and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Opioid addiction, attributions, and stigma: An online vignette
           experimental study.

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      Abstract: Stigma toward opioid addiction is a barrier to reversing the opioid epidemic. This study examined stigma, preferred consequences, and attributions of the cause(s) of addiction based on responses to a character portrayed as recently laid off and addicted to opioids. This study employed a 2 (race: Black vs. White) × 2 (status: janitor vs. computer scientist) × 2 (source of opioids: from a doctor vs. on the street) vignette between-subjects experimental design in an online survey. Equal numbers of political conservatives and liberals (n = 513) were recruited. The sample was mostly White with equal proportions of males and females. Stigma was measured with four scales and two items, and causal attributions and preferred consequences were each measured with three scales. Stigma was greater toward the janitor than the computer scientist and toward obtaining opioids on the street versus from a doctor. Respondent political conservatism predicted greater stigma including social distance (b = .29, p < .001). Bad character attributions predicted greater stigma including more negative feelings (b = .23, p < .001). Attributing addiction to being laid off predicted less stigma such as negative stereotypes (b = −.11, p < .001) and support for economic relief (b = .24, p < .001), whereas attributing it to biology predicted negative stereotypes (b = .07, p < .001). Political conservatism and attributing addiction to bad character predict stigma and unwillingness to help people with opioid addiction, whereas attributing it to being laid off and struggling financially predicts the opposite. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The efficacy of interventions on cognitive, behavioral, and affective
           public stigma around mental illness: A systematic meta-analytic review.

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      Abstract: For individuals with mental disorders, public stigma around mental illness exacerbates maladjustment and reluctance to seek treatment, contributing to poor quality of life beyond the effects of the disorder itself. Previous research demonstrates small, albeit significant, effect sizes for stigma reduction interventions. The current meta-analysis examines the effects of interventions on the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of stigma around mental illness. Forty randomized controlled trials of interventions to reduce public stigma were included. Across studies, results demonstrated significant postintervention changes in stereotypic cognitive beliefs about mental illness (k = 33, Hedge’s g = 0.29, p < .001), affective responses to mental illness (k = 8, g = 0.26, p = .025), and behavioral intentions toward individuals with mental illness (k = 24, g = 0.54, p < .001). Significant intervention effects persisted at follow-up for cognitive beliefs (k = 15, g = 0.31, p < .001) and behavioral intentions (k = 14, g = 0.41, p = 0.001), but not for affective responses (k = 6, g = 0.20, p = 0.15). Type of intervention, target population, mental illness type, age, duration, and delivery medium moderated effects for some stigma components. As only three studies examined mediators of treatment effects, we know little about the mechanisms through which interventions work to reduce public stigma and the reasons for differential intervention effects on cognitive, affective, and behavioral stigma. Implications of findings and future directions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Personal growth initiative, mental health stigma, and intentions to seek
           professional psychological help: A model extension.

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      Abstract: The public and self-stigmas of seeking psychological help are well-known barriers which prevent people from seeking mental health care. However, little consideration has been given regarding if, and to what extent, there is an incremental role of personality factors on the development of a person’s attitudes and intentions toward seeking professional psychological help. Thus, there is a clear gap in the theoretical and quantitative understanding of the help-seeking process. Personal growth initiative (PGI), which captures a person’s ability to identify areas for change and initiate growth, is a modifiable characterological orientation that may offer novel insight into the process underlying the decision to seek mental health care, which is instrinically characterized by its momentum toward positive self-change. Therefore, the present study sought to expand upon an established model of stigma and help-seeking variables by testing the incremental and predictive utility of PGI. Using structural equation modeling among a sample of college students, 70% of whom reported clinically relevant levels of interpersonal problems, we modeled the relationships among PGI and four well-researched help-seeking variables—public stigma, self-stigma, attitudes toward mental health care, and intentions to seek mental health care—after controlling for severity of interpersonal problems. Our study provides evidence for PGI as a unique predictor of lower self-stigma and increased help-seeking intentions above and beyond the other variables in the model. We discuss potential implications and the need for further research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The impact of curvy fitspiration and fitspiration on body dissatisfaction,
           negative mood, and weight bias in women.

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      Abstract: Exposure to fitspiration (images of thin, active women) on Instagram has been shown to be associated with body dissatisfaction, but fitspiration’s effect on weight bias has not been studied. The impact of curvy fitspiration (images of higher weight, active women) also has not been explored. The present study aim was to investigate the impact of curvy fitspiration and fitspiration on body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and weight bias. Participants included 178 women from the general population who were randomly assigned to three groups: curvy fitspiration, fitspiration, or control (travel). Participants completed measures of body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and weight bias before and after exposure to the images. Body dissatisfaction and weight bias decreased in the curvy fitspiration group, and the curvy fitspiration group had lower negative mood and weight bias than the fitspiration group postexposure. Body dissatisfaction and weight bias did not change in the fitspiration group, but negative mood increased. Body dissatisfaction and negative mood decreased in the control group, and the control group had lower body dissatisfaction and weight bias than the fitspiration group postexposure. These results suggest that increasing representations of diverse body types on Instagram could be beneficial in reducing body dissatisfaction and weight bias in women. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Stigma and health of Indian LGBT population: A systematic review.

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      Abstract: Stigma against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) individuals is not a new phenomenon. There is strong evidence to show that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) people experience stigma that results in several health-related issues. The present paper is a systematic review of studies published in the last 10 years that explores stigma and its associated health consequences among the LGBT population in India. A total of 50 studies were identified based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist and were analyzed to explore the existence of stigma and its impact on physical, mental, and sexual health among the Indian LGBT population and to identify intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that are responsible for the experience of stigma and its manifestation on health. The analysis revealed that LGBT people experience social rejection and structural disregard that led them to experience stigma and impact their physical, psychological, and sexual health. Lack of knowledge and sensitivity regarding this community, nonacceptance from family, partners or peers, and other society members are the interpersonal factors. Self-blame, low self-worth, guilt, identity confusion, and loneliness are some of the intrapersonal factors responsible for LGBT stigma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Beyond biogenetic and psychosocial attributions: The role of the public in
           reducing stigma for people with schizophrenia.

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      Abstract: This article investigated the effects of attributions that are derived from being aware of interconnectedness in reducing public stigma for people with schizophrenia. The first study tested the mediating role of biogenetic, psychosocial, societal, and personal attributions on the relationship between interconnectedness and social distance from people with schizophrenia. In the second study, an experiment with four conditions was employed to test the incremental effects of societal and personal attributions over biopsychosocial attribution. Study 1 showed interconnectedness is associated with less social distance only through personal attribution. Study 2 found levels of personal advocacy differ between pre- and postexperiment among four conditions across time. Public responsibility at postexperiment mediated the relationship between conditions involving personal attribution and less social distance and greater personal advocacy at 2-week follow-up. These studies highlight the importance of accounting for societal factors and reminding all members of the society their interconnectedness to achieve stigma reduction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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