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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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Advances in Autism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.222
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 39  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2056-3868 - ISSN (Online) 2056-3876
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • The forensic implications of camouflaging: a study into victimisation and
           offending associated with autism and pathological demand avoidance

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      Authors: Grace Trundle , Katy A. Jones , Danielle Ropar , Vincent Egan
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits. Camouflaging aims to overcome or conceal difficulties in social and communication skills. Autistic individuals report camouflaging in response to threat and being verbally and physically assaulted when they have not camouflaged. Thus, camouflaging could be associated with victimisation. Camouflaging could also impact on specialist support available to an individual, potentially increasing the risk of victimisation or offending. Cross-sectional study was conducted using 220 participants from the general population who completed online questionnaires measuring victimisation and offending, autism and PDA traits, camouflaging and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Correlational analysis found positive associations between camouflaging and victimisation, and camouflaging and lifetime offending. Greater camouflaging and PDA traits predicted greater offending, whereas greater autism traits predicted fewer offending behaviours. While correlated, camouflaging was not significantly predictive of victimisation. Victimisation was predicted by symptoms of depression and PDA traits. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to consider camouflaging as an influencing factor on offending and victimisation in autistic and PDA individuals.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-02-2022-0006
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A scoping review of disparities in health and health-care service
           provisions experienced by adults with autism spectrum disorder

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      Authors: Harsimran Kaur Sidhu , M. Claire Greene
      Abstract: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to have a poor health status because of being diagnosed with a range of physical and mental health conditions and experience disparities in health care. The purpose of this study is to find barriers to health care experienced by adults with ASD and find gaps in health care which health-care providers can work to fill. This scoping review aimed to identify studies that report on disparities in health and health-care service provisions experienced by adults with ASD. The authors included articles that described health-care disparities for patients with ASD and were published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and April 2022. The authors searched the following databases and medical journals to search for eligible studies: Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, Sage Publications and Embase. The authors comprehensively searched key terms related to ASD, health care and disparities. The core defining features of ASD, which include communication and social impairments and deficits in sensory processing, were found to be barriers in the health-care experience of adults with ASD. Continued research and changes in health care, such as developing interventions to empower patients, adequately training providers and increasing the accessibility of the health-care system, are necessary to ensure adults with ASD receive adequate medical care. Additionally, clarifying the current literature on this topic can guide future research efforts to explore the influence of factors such as gender and the spectrum of autism itself leading to various levels of abilities and their influence on the health-care experience of adults with ASD. Overall, the findings from this scoping review underline the importance of providing readily accessible evidence-based, age-appropriate primary and hospital health care for adults with ASD. Further interventions are needed to empower patients, adequately train providers, increase the accessibility of the health-care system, increase support for ASD patients and decrease discrimination. This paper is a scoping literature review of the original work done by researchers in the field of developmental disorders and health care.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-03-2022-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring the income, savings and debt levels of autistic adults living in
           Australia

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      Authors: Ru Ying Cai , Emma Gallagher , Kaaren Haas , Abigail Love , Vicki Gibbs
      Abstract: Many autistic adults experience unemployment, which may impact their financial circumstances. However, no research has examined their personal financial circumstances. Therefore, this study aims to examine the self-reported income, savings and debt of autistic adults living in Australia, as well as the demographic associates and predictors of income and savings. Sixty-four autistic adults aged 18–67 years (Mage = 32.78, SDage = 11.36) completed an online survey containing questions relating to their financial circumstances and the autism spectrum quotient-short. Overall, the authors found that many autistic adults are financially disadvantaged. The mode of income levels was below AU$25,000, which is substantially lower than the mean annual Australian full-time income of AU$89,123. Higher savings was associated with not having any debt or having a greater ability to repay debt. Autism traits were positively associated with income levels. As predicted, being employed was associated with and predicted higher income. People who were employed were four times more likely to have a higher income than unemployed individuals. The authors did not find a relationship between having a co-occurring mental condition with income or savings. The authors also did not find a significant association between employment status and savings. These research findings have implications on how we can improve the financial circumstances of autistic adults and provide additional evidence for the importance of increasing employment opportunities for autistic individuals. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the personal financial circumstances of autistic adults.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-01-2022-0004
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Increasing incidence of autism spectrum disorder: are we
           over-diagnosing'

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      Authors: Lance Vincent Watkins , Heather Angus-Leppan
      Abstract: In 2016, 1 in 54 children were estimated to have autism in the USA compared to 1 in 2,500 in 1955. This study aims to consider whether there has been a worldwide rise in incidence over time that is contributing to the rise in prevalence. A systematic review of the literature with strict inclusion criteria was performed to identify large population-based studies that include raw incidence rate data with clearly defined diagnostic criteria. The data from the included studies were pooled and analysed descriptively to compare incidence rates by decade. Seven studies were included in the final quantitative analysis including incidence rate data from 1988 to 2015 with 29,026 cases, over a total of 69,562,748 person years. Considering the most robust data, the incidence rate ratio between the decade 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 provides an estimated relative risk of 4.21 (95% CI; 4.11–4.32). If we compare the limited data available in 1988–1989 and 2010–2015, there is an estimated 75 times (95% CI 49.56–115.04) increased rate of diagnosis. The broadening of diagnostic criteria and its increasing application in clinical practice needs further consideration to ensure individuals receive the most appropriate personalised support. A true rise in the incidence of autism will influence the level of service provision required in future with the potential for significant under resourcing. More detailed assessment of the clinical characteristics of those diagnosed will help predict risk factors for specialist service involvement in future.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-10-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • “Iranian family caregivers of autistic children: the experience of
           stigma”

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      Authors: Nastaran Poorkhorshidi , Sima Zohari Anboohi , Jamile Mohtashami , Hamid Alavi Majd
      Abstract: Autistic children and their family caregivers are impacted widely by the social arrangements, which bring up a variety of problems and make their caregiving duties even more difficult. One of the main troubles family caregivers struggle with is the “Autism stigma” that eventually leads to social exclusion. This study aims to identify shreds of evidence of Autism stigma experienced by family caregivers of autistic children. The study also aims to present some general comparison between the findings in Iran and a few other countries’ available respective data to the “Autism stigma.” This study is an inductive qualitative content analysis. Twelve family caregivers were purposefully selected. Data were gathered exercising semi-structured, in-depth interviews and scrutinized using content analysis method. In the interviews with the participants, a new category called “Autism stigma” was discerned. This category includes three subcategories: “Diagnosis process,” “Lack of awareness” and “Presence in the society.” In Iran, Autism is considered a kind of social stigma. It mainly happens due to a lack of public awareness about this psychological disorder. The family caregivers in the community suffer from the stigma of autism, which leads them to distance themselves from society. This paper aims to improve the social awareness in regard to the negative impacts of Autism stigma.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-08-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Suspected feigning of autism in adults: a clinician survey, indications
           and proposed guidelines

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      Authors: David Murphy , Josephine Grace Broyd
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide a discussion and summary of a clinician survey exploring the experiences of suspected feigned autism. This study is an online survey targeting a range of autism professionals, with varying levels of experience, working in different clinical settings. Approximately half of the professionals who completed the survey reported experiencing situations of suspected feigning of adult autism across a range of clinical contexts and with various motivations. In terms of best indications of potential feigning, most clinicians reported “textbook” self-descriptions of problem behaviours with vague examples, as well as inconsistent presenting problems and mismatch with any known developmental history. Approximately half of clinicians expressed the view that autism was more difficult to feign than a psychiatric disorder and had experienced situations involving differences in professional opinion as to an individual autism diagnosis. The survey is limited by a potential sample bias and no information regarding the clinical characteristics of those suspected to have feigned autism. However, these initial findings offer further questions for future research to pursue. As an initial examination of practicing clinicians’ experiences of suspected feigned autism, the survey highlights the complexities of an autism diagnosis and suggests feigning is a potential clinical scenario. Some guidance as to when to suspect possible feigned autism is also offered, as well as a provisional assessment protocol.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-11-2021-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Eddie Chaplin , Jane McCarthy , Samuel Tromans , Verity Chester
      Abstract: Editorial
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-07-2022-075
      Issue No: Vol. 8 , No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Advances in Autism

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