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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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Advances in Autism
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.222
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 41  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2056-3868 - ISSN (Online) 2056-3876
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Experiences of equine assisted therapy for females with autism spectrum
           disorders

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      Authors: Katie Warner , Saskia Keville , Jemma Hockley , Amanda Ludlow
      Abstract: This research indicates females with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a diverse clinical presentation compared to males. Furthermore, females with ASD are often diagnosed later and typically experience greater levels of mental health difficulties. Evidence suggests that clinic-based verbal interventions for ASD have limited efficacy; therefore, alternative therapies, such as equine-assisted therapies (EATs), are gaining recognition. The purpose of this study was to directly explore the experiences of females with an ASD who have undertaken EAT. Five female participants with a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from two equine therapy centres. Participants were aged between 15 and 30 years and undertook semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: the difficult experience of the social world, the process of EAT and the emotional impact of horses. Directly exploring the experiences of females with ASD highlights benefits from engaging therapeutically with horses, building confidence and independence to transferring this into more effective social communication with other people. Offering emotion-focused therapeutic complementary interventions for females with ASD should be forefronted to help remediate the impact of difficult and sometimes traumatic earlier experiences in the social world. This requires increased funding for EAT, combined with larger-scale research projects to evaluate this.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-10-2021-0040
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Strategies used by students with autism when solving multiplicative
           problems: an exploratory study

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      Authors: Juncal Goñi-Cervera , María Cristina Martínez Romillo , Irene Polo-Blanco
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the strategies used by ten students diagnosed with autism when solving multiplication and division problems because these operations are rarely studied in students with this condition. This study conducted an exploratory study with ten students diagnosed with autism to explore and describe the strategies used in solving equal group problems. The authors also describe in detail the case of a student whom the authors deem to be representative because of the reasoning the student employed. The informal strategies that they used are described, as well as the difficulties observed in the various problems, depending on the operation required to solve them. The strategies used include direct modeling with counting and others that relied on incorrect additive relationships, with strategies based on multiplication and division operations being scarce. Difficulties were observed in several problems, with measurement division being particularly challenging for the study participants. The detailed description of the strategies used by the students revealed the meanings that they associate with the operations they are executing and brought to light potential difficulties, which can help teachers plan their instruction. This research supplements other studies focusing on mathematical problem-solving with autistic students.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-03-2021-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Reducing perseverative requesting and other problem behavior in a young
           girl with autism: a sequentially implemented intervention package

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      Authors: Mo Chen , Shelley Kreibich
      Abstract: This study aims to use a sequentially implemented intervention package to reduce the occurrence of perseverative requesting and other problem behavior in a young girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this single-case study, subsequent to a functional analysis and a preference assessment, an intervention package consisting of three components (i.e. a tolerance for delay to reinforcement, choice-making and visual schedule) was implemented sequentially to address perseverative requesting and other problem behavior maintained by access to preferred items/activities in a young girl with ASD. Via the intervention package, the girl demonstrated higher self-control skills (i.e. delaying access to preferred items/activities, choosing more preferred items/activities with delayed access over less preferred ones with immediate access, completing tasks before having access to preferred items/activities) with a reduction of perseverative requesting or other problem behavior. The current case study presents concrete steps that could be applied to address tangible-maintained perseverative requesting using more natural and educationally relevant signals while improving the child’s appropriate skills (e.g. delay to reinforcement, self-control and task engagement).
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-09-2020-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The application of adapted dialectical behaviour therapy concepts and
           skills in the treatment of adults with autistic spectrum disorder who
           display challenging or offending behaviours

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      Authors: Joseph Sakdalan , Yvonne Maxwell
      Abstract: Despite some advances in the assessment and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there remains a paucity of intervention and research literature in treating adults with ASD. There is growing evidence supporting a relationship between the core features of ASD and emotion dysregulation. There is an overlap between ASD and borderline personality disorder (BPD) characteristics such as emotional dysregulation, sensory issues and social skills deficits. This paper aims to explore the applications of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) concepts and skills in treating ASD individuals who display challenging or offending behaviours. The similarities in characteristics between ASD and BPD and the core issue of emotion dysregulation hold promise in the utility of DBT with ASD. This is a conceptual paper that includes a case vignette. A DBT-informed treatment approach using the adaptations and reconceptualization, i.e. risky mind–wise mind outlined in this paper, can be considered promising in addressing issues for ASD individuals, particularly those with challenging and/or offending behaviours. DBT incorporates different elements of applied behaviour analysis, cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness skills, sensory-based treatments, psychosocial interventions and emotion regulation skills, which makes it a more cohesive and integrated approach to treatment. The authors assert that DBT can be considered a more integrated, strengths-based, habilitative and trauma-informed approach which can be promising in its application to address challenging behaviours or offending in ASD individuals. It is recommended that research be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of adapted DBT programs in treating ASD individuals presenting with challenging and/or offending behaviours. Future research can focus on evaluating the effectiveness of the different DBT concepts and skills and the different DBT modules to determine which components of the program are particularly useful for this client group. Treatment manuals have already been developed for clients with intellectual disability and developmental disabilities who exhibit challenging and/or offending behaviour; hence, it is recommended that modifications be made to make it more applicable and appropriate for ASD individuals. Modifications should address ASD-specific issues (e.g. black and white thinking, cognitive rigidity, sensory issues, impaired theory of mind, emotion dysregulation issues, social skills deficits and anxiety issues). The use of DBT has much wider implications regarding addressing comorbid mental health conditions and personality issues in this client group. There are limited psychological interventions that prove to be useful for individuals with ASD with complex presentations and challenging or offending behaviours. This paper discusses the application of adapted DBT concepts and skills that appear to be promising in the treatment of this client group.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-01-2022-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Impact of critical pedagogy on professional learning for post-16 education

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      Authors: Carmel Conn , Neil Mahoney , Yasmeen Multani , Jodie Rees
      Abstract: Professional learning has been highlighted as critical to improvement in educational practice for Autistic learners. Empirical evidence about what is effective for professional learning in education suggests it is a “bottom-up” process of intellectual, practical and emotional engagement and application of new knowledge to specific contexts. The purpose of this study was to gather information about postgraduate professional learning that sought to combine lived experience with reflection on practice in a critical pedagogy approach for practitioners working with Autistic learners in post-16 education. Participants in the study represented all further education (FE) colleges in Wales and included experienced teachers and leaders, most of whom have a role focused on inclusion and learning support within their setting. Two phases of data collection were carried out, namely, a baseline survey (n = 36) and follow-up interviews (n = 15) at the end of the year of study. Interviews explored personal experiences of learning, knowledge and beliefs about practice and change in this respect and professionals’ priorities for the development of practice. Findings present information gathered from the interviews and indicate that the course did not provide practitioners with new knowledge about autism but supported the development of more nuanced understandings of autism and more professional confidence about practice. However, familiarisation with lived experience and critical reflection on practice were described as supporting the questioning of basic assumptions and greater appreciation of the nature of difference for Autistic learners. Study findings reframe what should be considered the focus of support practices for Autistic learners in FE.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-11-2021-0045
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The forensic implications of camouflaging: a study into victimisation and
           offending associated with autism and pathological demand avoidance

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      Authors: Grace Trundle , Katy A. Jones , Danielle Ropar , Vincent Egan
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits. Camouflaging aims to overcome or conceal difficulties in social and communication skills. Autistic individuals report camouflaging in response to threat and being verbally and physically assaulted when they have not camouflaged. Thus, camouflaging could be associated with victimisation. Camouflaging could also impact on specialist support available to an individual, potentially increasing the risk of victimisation or offending. Cross-sectional study was conducted using 220 participants from the general population who completed online questionnaires measuring victimisation and offending, autism and PDA traits, camouflaging and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Correlational analysis found positive associations between camouflaging and victimisation, and camouflaging and lifetime offending. Greater camouflaging and PDA traits predicted greater offending, whereas greater autism traits predicted fewer offending behaviours. While correlated, camouflaging was not significantly predictive of victimisation. Victimisation was predicted by symptoms of depression and PDA traits. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to consider camouflaging as an influencing factor on offending and victimisation in autistic and PDA individuals.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-02-2022-0006
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A scoping review of disparities in health and health-care service
           provisions experienced by adults with autism spectrum disorder

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      Authors: Harsimran Kaur Sidhu , M. Claire Greene
      Abstract: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to have a poor health status because of being diagnosed with a range of physical and mental health conditions and experience disparities in health care. The purpose of this study is to find barriers to health care experienced by adults with ASD and find gaps in health care which health-care providers can work to fill. This scoping review aimed to identify studies that report on disparities in health and health-care service provisions experienced by adults with ASD. The authors included articles that described health-care disparities for patients with ASD and were published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and April 2022. The authors searched the following databases and medical journals to search for eligible studies: Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, Sage Publications and Embase. The authors comprehensively searched key terms related to ASD, health care and disparities. The core defining features of ASD, which include communication and social impairments and deficits in sensory processing, were found to be barriers in the health-care experience of adults with ASD. Continued research and changes in health care, such as developing interventions to empower patients, adequately training providers and increasing the accessibility of the health-care system, are necessary to ensure adults with ASD receive adequate medical care. Additionally, clarifying the current literature on this topic can guide future research efforts to explore the influence of factors such as gender and the spectrum of autism itself leading to various levels of abilities and their influence on the health-care experience of adults with ASD. Overall, the findings from this scoping review underline the importance of providing readily accessible evidence-based, age-appropriate primary and hospital health care for adults with ASD. Further interventions are needed to empower patients, adequately train providers, increase the accessibility of the health-care system, increase support for ASD patients and decrease discrimination. This paper is a scoping literature review of the original work done by researchers in the field of developmental disorders and health care.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-03-2022-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring the income, savings and debt levels of autistic adults living in
           Australia

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      Authors: Ru Ying Cai , Emma Gallagher , Kaaren Haas , Abigail Love , Vicki Gibbs
      Abstract: Many autistic adults experience unemployment, which may impact their financial circumstances. However, no research has examined their personal financial circumstances. Therefore, this study aims to examine the self-reported income, savings and debt of autistic adults living in Australia, as well as the demographic associates and predictors of income and savings. Sixty-four autistic adults aged 18–67 years (Mage = 32.78, SDage = 11.36) completed an online survey containing questions relating to their financial circumstances and the autism spectrum quotient-short. Overall, the authors found that many autistic adults are financially disadvantaged. The mode of income levels was below AU$25,000, which is substantially lower than the mean annual Australian full-time income of AU$89,123. Higher savings was associated with not having any debt or having a greater ability to repay debt. Autism traits were positively associated with income levels. As predicted, being employed was associated with and predicted higher income. People who were employed were four times more likely to have a higher income than unemployed individuals. The authors did not find a relationship between having a co-occurring mental condition with income or savings. The authors also did not find a significant association between employment status and savings. These research findings have implications on how we can improve the financial circumstances of autistic adults and provide additional evidence for the importance of increasing employment opportunities for autistic individuals. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the personal financial circumstances of autistic adults.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-01-2022-0004
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Increasing incidence of autism spectrum disorder: are we
           over-diagnosing'

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      Authors: Lance Vincent Watkins , Heather Angus-Leppan
      Abstract: In 2016, 1 in 54 children were estimated to have autism in the USA compared to 1 in 2,500 in 1955. This study aims to consider whether there has been a worldwide rise in incidence over time that is contributing to the rise in prevalence. A systematic review of the literature with strict inclusion criteria was performed to identify large population-based studies that include raw incidence rate data with clearly defined diagnostic criteria. The data from the included studies were pooled and analysed descriptively to compare incidence rates by decade. Seven studies were included in the final quantitative analysis including incidence rate data from 1988 to 2015 with 29,026 cases, over a total of 69,562,748 person years. Considering the most robust data, the incidence rate ratio between the decade 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 provides an estimated relative risk of 4.21 (95% CI; 4.11–4.32). If we compare the limited data available in 1988–1989 and 2010–2015, there is an estimated 75 times (95% CI 49.56–115.04) increased rate of diagnosis. The broadening of diagnostic criteria and its increasing application in clinical practice needs further consideration to ensure individuals receive the most appropriate personalised support. A true rise in the incidence of autism will influence the level of service provision required in future with the potential for significant under resourcing. More detailed assessment of the clinical characteristics of those diagnosed will help predict risk factors for specialist service involvement in future.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-10-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • “Iranian family caregivers of autistic children: the experience of
           stigma”

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      Authors: Nastaran Poorkhorshidi , Sima Zohari Anboohi , Jamile Mohtashami , Hamid Alavi Majd
      Abstract: Autistic children and their family caregivers are impacted widely by the social arrangements, which bring up a variety of problems and make their caregiving duties even more difficult. One of the main troubles family caregivers struggle with is the “Autism stigma” that eventually leads to social exclusion. This study aims to identify shreds of evidence of Autism stigma experienced by family caregivers of autistic children. The study also aims to present some general comparison between the findings in Iran and a few other countries’ available respective data to the “Autism stigma.” This study is an inductive qualitative content analysis. Twelve family caregivers were purposefully selected. Data were gathered exercising semi-structured, in-depth interviews and scrutinized using content analysis method. In the interviews with the participants, a new category called “Autism stigma” was discerned. This category includes three subcategories: “Diagnosis process,” “Lack of awareness” and “Presence in the society.” In Iran, Autism is considered a kind of social stigma. It mainly happens due to a lack of public awareness about this psychological disorder. The family caregivers in the community suffer from the stigma of autism, which leads them to distance themselves from society. This paper aims to improve the social awareness in regard to the negative impacts of Autism stigma.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-08-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Suspected feigning of autism in adults: a clinician survey, indications
           and proposed guidelines

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      Authors: David Murphy , Josephine Grace Broyd
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide a discussion and summary of a clinician survey exploring the experiences of suspected feigned autism. This study is an online survey targeting a range of autism professionals, with varying levels of experience, working in different clinical settings. Approximately half of the professionals who completed the survey reported experiencing situations of suspected feigning of adult autism across a range of clinical contexts and with various motivations. In terms of best indications of potential feigning, most clinicians reported “textbook” self-descriptions of problem behaviours with vague examples, as well as inconsistent presenting problems and mismatch with any known developmental history. Approximately half of clinicians expressed the view that autism was more difficult to feign than a psychiatric disorder and had experienced situations involving differences in professional opinion as to an individual autism diagnosis. The survey is limited by a potential sample bias and no information regarding the clinical characteristics of those suspected to have feigned autism. However, these initial findings offer further questions for future research to pursue. As an initial examination of practicing clinicians’ experiences of suspected feigned autism, the survey highlights the complexities of an autism diagnosis and suggests feigning is a potential clinical scenario. Some guidance as to when to suspect possible feigned autism is also offered, as well as a provisional assessment protocol.
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-11-2021-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Eddie Chaplin , Jane McCarthy , Samuel Tromans , Verity Chester
      Abstract: Editorial
      Citation: Advances in Autism
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/AIA-07-2022-075
      Issue No: Vol. 8 , No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Advances in Autism

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