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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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Disability Studies Quarterly
Number of Followers: 39  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1041-5718 - ISSN (Online) 2159-8371
Published by Ohio State University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Re: / Re-

    • Authors: Elizabeth Brewer, Brenda Brueggemann, Kelsey Henry
      Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.9003
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Blind Cinema: Reframing Visual Impairment in Shadow Girl (Chile 2016)

    • Authors: Eduardo Ledesma
      Abstract: From an ableist perspective, few things may seem more unlikely than a blind filmmaker. Vision (a physical state) and the "gaze" (a theoretical construct) are central to and constitutive of film, so how could it be possible for a blind person to make a film' Yet, blind and visually impaired filmmakers such as Chilean director María Teresa Larraín, by virtue of their unique perspective, capture images in new ways, reframing blindness and altering society's expectations about the central role of the image and of how visuality operates in film. Recent films by visually impaired directors, as well as collaborations between blind and sighted filmmakers, show how the aesthetics and content of these works represent the experience of blindness. For example, Larraín's autobiographical documentary "Shadow Girl" (2016) mimics the filmmaker-protagonist's gradual vision loss by progressively darkening the screen, placing the spectator at the center of her traumatic experience. This self-reflexive documentary narrates the filmmakers' journey into blindness and, concurrently, her return to Chile after a lengthy exile. The loss of her vision is intricately linked to the loss of the Chile she recalls, binding the personal to the political. By asserting a new visual style that evokes vision loss even as she advocates for her rights as a blind artist, Larraín will reconstruct her status as a filmmaker and locate a renewed hope for Chile. Moreover, Shadow Girl disrupts our mistaken belief that vision is the primary way of processing the cinematic experience and the world at-large, making it a truly transgressive film in form and content alike.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7673
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • (Re)Imagining the museum: Communicative and social features of verbal
           description in art museums

    • Authors: Silvia Soler Gallego
      Abstract: Verbal description plays a crucial role in improving access to modern-day art museums. This article presents the results of a study of verbal description in art museums in France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. These results are of two types: one, the communicative features of the verbal descriptions offered by museums and two, the social features of the context in which these verbal descriptions are created and implemented. Previous studies have partially described these aspects, but they mainly followed a quantitative approach or focused on the most frequent practices regarding specific linguistic devices. The goal of this article is to offer a qualitative analysis of these elements in a large sample and to provide a comparative analysis and critical discussion of both the majority and the minority practices in verbal description in art museums. The results show that art museums follow various approaches to foster the access for blind people to their collections. Some of these approaches open new ways of comprehending accessibility in art museums and especially, audio description. A critical and creative discussion of these findings and further collaboration within and across borders could revolutionize verbal description and visitors' experience in art museums in the years to come.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7287
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Is There Dyslexia Without Reading'

    • Authors: Sharrona Pearl
      Abstract: Can there be dyslexia without reading' Is there face blindness without a variety of faces' Is super recognition identifiable without cameras' Without the mass production of colored textiles, does color blindness exist' If you never speak, can you have a stutter' These are thought experiments about situationally latent potentialities. We can't ever definitively answer these questions. But that doesn't mean that they don't matter. At the heart of this inquiry is a proposition that certain somatic or neurological conditions are fundamentally unidentifiable, unrecognizable, invisible, and thus cannot be made manifest in absence of some broader interactions with technology, media, and the built environment. In this essay, I bring together the history and sociology of medicine, media studies, and disability studies to argue that by studying these questions, we can open up new ways of understanding what the body once knew and now does not, and what it might one day know that it does not know now, thereby reframing what counts as illness or disability.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.8184
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Politicizing self-advocacy: Disabled students navigating ableist
           expectations in postsecondary education

    • Authors: Emunah Woolf, Alise de Bie
      Abstract: The student self-advocacy literature commonly claims that although self-advocacy is a vital skill that disabled students require to succeed in postsecondary education, many of these students experience a significant ‘skills-deficit’ in this area. This paper seeks to intervene in this literature by proposing opportunities to ‘politicize’ self-advocacy and move away from its individual, deficit-focused approach. To do so, the paper reports findings from a qualitative study at a research-intensive Canadian university. Interviews with 11 disabled students revealed a perception that there is an institutionally endorsed ‘right way’ to self-advocate that included expectations to: (1) register for formal accommodations; (2) embody visible/physical disability; (3) perform less disabled; and (4) make others comfortable. Rooted in ableism, these harmful expectations adopt misconceptions of disability as predictable and visible, and burden students with demands that they make their self-advocacy convenient for those to whom they are self-advocating. As a form of resistance to these ableist expectations, students described their own ‘better way’ of negotiating self-advocacy and disability on campus. This ‘better way’ offers opportunities for ‘politicizing’ self-advocacy by recognizing ableism and the harms of the self-advocacy model, affirming disabled student knowledge and community, and enacting their visions for institutional change. Vital to this politicization is a move away from staff and nondisabled-led initiatives like self-advocacy training to address a perceived skills-deficit in individual students. Politicizing self-advocacy moves instead towards disabled students as full partners in conducting research and informing student services and staff training based on their collective lived expertise and strategic practices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.8062
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Autism, Autonomy, and Touch Avoidance

    • Authors: Elle Felicity Henderson
      Abstract: Touch is an important component of many social experiences for many people. Autistic children commonly avoid social touch more than non-autistic peers. It is generally thought that this is due to autistic individuals experiencing hyper- or hyposensitivity of touch. While this is undoubtedly the case at least some of the time, studies of touch and autism have often involved decontextualised experimental settings or post-hoc reports on touch by autistic people or their common social interactants (i.e., parents). As such, there is very little research that looks at social touch in interactions involving autistic people and studies how it naturally occurs and how it is managed in the moment. Using multimodal Conversation Analysis, I analyse a collection of cases of social touch in the form of parents' cuddles or embraces with their autistic children. I demonstrate here what these cuddles can look like, how they can unfold over time with both autistic children and their parents mutually participate in building intimate sensorial moments. I also show more problematic moments where the child resists, abandons, or misunderstands a cuddle from their parent (or attempt to secure one) demonstrating that, in these cases, the trouble for the autistic children was not touch sensitivity but the prioritisation of courses of action that social touch would impede. As such the children display that the social touch is avoided or negatively evaluated due to its social nature, not its physical/sensational one. In demonstrating this I argue that not everything that might look like a sign of sensory difference is one.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7714
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Disney and Disability: Media Representations of Disability in Disney and
           Pixar Animated Films

    • Authors: Jeanne Holcomb, Kenzie Latham-Mintus
      Abstract: Since the merger of Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios, Disney has been lauded for creating more progressive content that includes representations of main characters from diverse backgrounds. However, progressive representations of disability (both physical and mental disability) have been slow to emerge in most mediums. The objective of this research is to examine whether portrayals of illness and disability in recent animated feature films produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios or Pixar Animation Studios depict progressive (or multicultural) narratives of disability versus traditional narratives of disability. We analyzed 20 of the most recent (i.e., 2008-2018) animated films from both studios with 9 films from Walt Disney Animation and 11 films from Pixar Animation Studios. Using thematic content analysis, a combination of pre-identified and emergent disability- and illness-related themes are described. Overwhelmingly, disability portrayals were traditional, with disability used to elicit pity or humor from the viewer and to indicate that characters were evil or old. Out of the 20 films, few progressive portrayals of disability were observed. Although Disney has been lauded for being more inclusive in their representations of characters, disability representations continue to perpetuate and reaffirm the stigmatization of disability.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7054
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Disability in a Galaxy Far, Far Away: A Mythology of Villains, "Obsessive
           Avengers," and Complex Embodiments in Star Wars

    • Authors: Elisa Shaholli
      Abstract: This article analyzes the depictions disability embodies in the fantasy film series Star Wars. Fantasy as a genre is able to re-present our past and present values through visionary forms and can act as a mirror to the society that creates the image. Fantasy is powerful as it enables films the ability to conceptualize realistic viewpoints and current day culture in their images and themes. In terms of Disability Studies, fantasy plays a critical role in the analysis of disability representation since fantasy is known for exploiting and transforming disabilities into Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell's "narrative prostheses." Once transformed, disability is used for its representational power rather than its true nature. Utilizing Roland Barthes's research on myth-making and Martin F. Norden's established disability archetypes, I discuss the varying portrayals disabilities have throughout the disability-laden series Star Wars. I discuss how disability portrayals rely on archetypes such as Norden's "Obsessive Avenger," the myth formation of disability as related to a sliding scale for evil, and as a symbolic connection to themes pertaining to technology's dehumanizing effects on humans. However, I also discuss the standalone Star Wars film Rogue One which diverges in portrayals through its exploration of Tobin Siebers's theory of complex embodiment. These films can act as a larger metaphor for films with disabilities today: taking steps when it comes to the improvement of disability representations, yet still behaving as perpetrators of long-held stereotypes and archetypes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.8024
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Entering "the Dimension of Imagination": The Twilight
           Zone's Tales of Madness

    • Authors: Adam Cetorelli
      Abstract: Delusions. Illusions. Over-tension, over-anxiety, and under-confidence. The original Twilight Zone series employed madness as a metaphor to critique the late-1950s and early-1960s American cultural ideals of uncompromising rationality, social conformity, and the organization of life around work. The series's representations of madness were not, however, solely metaphorical, as they also served to expose the norm of able-mindedness as compulsory and dangerous to Americans and American society. The protagonists of "Mirror Image," "Nightmare at 20,000 Feet," and "The Arrival," as well as those of other episodes, experience inexplicable yet undeniable phenomena and adjust their normative, rational worldviews to accurately interpret their surroundings. This potential for accurate irrationality reveals madness as socially constructed, while the surveillance of these protagonists' adherence to normative standards of middle-class American behavior by other characters highlights able-mindedness as compulsory. The Twilight Zone was produced during a time when American attitudes toward mental healthcare were undergoing a significant shift. The deinstitutionalization movement affected the release of mental health patients back into American society while psychoanalysis collided with a new preventative approach to medicine, resulting in the idea that lying dormant in all people was a latent madness, which responsible middle-class Americans would ensure did not overtake them. The asylum features heavily in The Twilight Zone, and each of the three episodes I analyze in this essay ends with its protagonist's forced removal to a mental hospital for his or her refusal to perform able-mindedness when confronted with a situation that cannot be rationally comprehended. With its tales of madness, The Twilight Zone illuminated the dehumanizing treatment of mental health patients in mid-twentieth century America and pushed viewers to find creative, nonnormative, or even mad alternatives to the status quo.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7398
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • "We are all thrown into one basket": Dyslexia, schools and the
           (non)enactment of policies of inclusion

    • Authors: Thom Paul Nevill, Martin Forsey
      Abstract: Since the mid-1990s it has been illegal for Australian education providers to deny students with disabilities the right to access and participate in education. Conjointly, policies and standards have been introduced that devolve the responsibility of ensuring disabled students are able to fully engage in their education to schools. Despite recent studies suggesting dyslexic student needs are rarely met in the Australian school system, to date, little research has examined how developments in anti-discriminatory and inclusive policy affect the provision of support to these students. This paper examines how devolved approaches to inclusive education policy practice affect the lived experiences of dyslexic students in Western Australian schools. Focusing on two young people's stories about their time in school, it is argued that the adoption of devolved approaches to policy has been instrumental in shifting responsibility for the delivery of equitable education for students with learning disabilities to families, and especially mothers. Drawing on a social-relational model of disability and Bourdieusien theories of capital, this paper illustrates how shifting responsibility for inclusion to parents results in inequity. The findings illuminate a need to think more critically about exactly who should be responsible for inclusion.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7649
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Perspectives of two college students labeled with intellectual disability:
           Supports during the moving in and through stages of transition

    • Authors: Amanda L. Miller, Mina Chun
      Abstract: An increasing number of students labeled with intellectual disability are attending colleges and universities. Yet, their perspectives are underrepresented in the research. Grounded in Disability Studies in Education and Schlossberg's Transition Theory, this study reports on the transitional experiences of two emerging adults labeled with intellectual disability at a large public university with a particular focus on how the participants conceptualized their support systems during the moving in and through stages of transition to university. Three themes are discussed: supports the students brought with them to the university, reciprocal supports with peer mentors, and university-provided supports. As such, the findings contribute to and expand existing scholarship dedicated to the experiences of emerging adults labeled with intellectual disability at postsecondary institutions. Aligning with the research question and blended theoretical framing, implications for practice and research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7516
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Caring Classrooms in Crisis: COVID-19, Interest Convergence, and Universal
           Design for Learning

    • Authors: Meg Peters
      Abstract: This article explores how the University of Ottawa enacted interest convergence (Bell 1980; Dolmage 2020) during March 2020 when it changed its accessibility procedure because of the COVID-19 crisis. By looking to Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy (CSP), I argue that educators should take a universalizing and intersectional understanding of disability in the classroom, designing classroom methods in advance to acknowledge ability difference from the beginning of teaching. Through two proposed assignments, this article outlines how educators can better care for their disabled, BIPOC, gender diverse, and/or queer students by acknowledging difference as itself an alternative means of knowledge-creation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7929
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • "Treating him…like a piece of meat": Poor communication as a barrier to
           care for people with learning disabilities

    • Authors: Eleanor Badcock, Dikaios Sakellariou
      Abstract: People with learning disabilities face numerous barriers accessing health and social care. Previous studies have identified that poor communication can be a significant barrier, but this has not been explored in depth. This article explores the perceptions and experiences of people with learning disabilities and their family carers regarding communication with health and social care professionals, in order to establish both the areas that they find problematic and also identify strategies that can lead to more effective communication. Five people with learning disabilities and their family carers participated in the study, sharing their experiences through the use of semi-structured and symbol exchange interviews, and pictures. Communication was an area of concern for all participants, affecting their access to health and social care. Participants reported instances of ineffective and disrespectful communication and identified a desire for professionals to use a variety of communication methods, such as gestures, touch, and images, rather than relying on verbal language alone and to treat people with learning disabilities with respect.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7408
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Misfits and ecological saints: strategies for non-normative living in
           autistic life writing

    • Authors: Anna Catherine Stenning
      Abstract: The historical construction of autism since the early 20th century has retained a focus on deficient 'interest in people, severe impairments in communication and bizarre responses to the environment' (DSM III). This means that he or she is represented as narcissistic and a-social rather than 'ecocentric', with an interest in the 'mechanical aspects of the environment'. Life writing by autistics including Chris Packham (2018) and Tito Rajarshi Mukhopadhyay (2008) demonstrates an awareness that human experiences of the non-human world are intra-active and constantly changing (Alaimo 2010). Ironically, autistic writers who describe affinity with non-human nature are seen as having an innate (hence unreflective and naïve, in Schiller's sense) ecocentrism. This downplays the importance of experimental life writing by autistic authors which displays self-awareness and sensitivity to preconceptions about autism. Whether environmental discourse frames autistics as symbols of toxic practices such as vaccination (see Gibbons 2017) or as 'exemplary neurotypes' (Duan et al 2018) enabled by their autism to deliver us from collective environmental threat, this contributes to the silencing of autistic experience. This is particularly the case when we recognize that autistic lives are manifold and involve difficulties that are highly individual. These difficulties are often key to understanding their author's self-stories. This article reads the autobiographical writings of Packham, Greta Thunberg and Mukhopadhyay in terms of intra-action between humans and their environments. It attends to the ways that autistic self-narratives are framed, and how they suggest the 'emergence of alternative strategies of nonnormative living" that include writing itself (Grossman 2019).
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7715
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • "Get down on your knees": Representing the Seven Dwarfs in the

    • Authors: Erin Pritchard
      Abstract: Dwarfs are prominent figures within the entertainment industry, but there is limited academic focus on representations of them in the theatre. In this paper, I explore one of the most prominent representations of dwarfism in the theatre: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Drawing on theories of humour, the paper argues that the current representation of the Seven Dwarfs engages with disabling humour, which mocks their stature and has implications for people with dwarfism in society. Focusing on three different forms of casting including; using people with dwarfism, average height adults and children to fulfil the roles of the Seven Dwarfs, I argue that each representation promotes a negative stereotype of dwarfism, which can be explained by different theories of humour. In the last part, I suggest that using disability humour within scenes featuring the Seven Dwarfs can help to challenge stereotypes of dwarfism, which are less likely to have negative repercussions upon people with dwarfism in society.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7576
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Death of Others. On the Narrative Rhetoric of Neoliberal

    • Authors: Jan Grue
      Abstract: Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are deeply controversial topics both within and beyond disability studies, involving issues of structural ableism, discrimination, and the right to self-determination. A common defence of the legalization of PAS, as distinct from euthanasia, rests on the right of an individual to freely choose when to end one's life. This essay makes an intervention in this debate by examining the rhetoric of media and cultural narratives that directly and indirectly address the issue of PAS and autonomous choice. Considering these narratives from a biopolitical point of view, I argue that contemporary thanatopolitical narratives draw on a particular rhetorical mode, known as "parrhesiastic rhetoric" or anti-rhetoric. This mode helps frame the testimony of extremely vulnerable individuals as a supremely credible argument in favor of the legalization of PAS. Moreover, it engenders sympathy rather than identification with these narrative subjects, ensuring that the death that is being justified remains at a distance from the reader, safely positioned as the death of others. I further argue that this narrative rhetoric supports a particular, neoliberal conception of autonomy, in which individual subjects are dynamic, rational and self-directing. In neoliberal thanatos political discourse, the choice to die is seen as fundamentally an outcome of individual, informed decision-making. Against this atomistic framework, I deploy the analyses of biopolitical disability studies to contribute to a better understanding of the historical, socio-economic, cultural, and rhetorical forces that shape contemporary debates over euthanasia and PAS.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7799
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
  • Disability and cycling technology: A socio-historical analysis

    • Authors: Glen Norcliffe, Ron Buliung, Annika Kruse, John Radford
      Abstract: This article explores longstanding links between cycling and disability. Social models of disability and closely related theories on the social construction of technology are central to our approach. The former insists that disability is a social construct; the latter views technology as socially formed. Disabled persons engage in cycling for, among other things, the pleasure of moving about the city and countryside, parks and neighbourhoods, to access places of work and study, and to gain greater independence in their daily lives. They have played an active role in the development and adaptation of cycles to make them better suited to particular needs. Disabled persons, their friends and family, and technicians have shared ideas and information to design cycling machines that reduce the limitations of technologies and environments developed for so-called "able" bodies. Here, we present a typology identifying seven types of cycles that were and are used by disabled persons for varying purposes. They are as follows: transporters, pedomotives, manumotives, sociables, stability machines, tandems, and power-assisted bikes. In each case, examples existed in the nineteenth century or earlier but social construction and improved materials and technology have dramatically enhanced their utility in recent years.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.8276
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)

    • Authors: Nancy Scott
      Abstract: No abstract available.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.18061/dsq.v42i1.7611
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 1 (2022)
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