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  Subjects -> DISABILITY (Total: 103 journals)
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African Journal of Disability
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2223-9170 - ISSN (Online) 2226-7220
Published by AOSIS Publishing Homepage  [33 journals]
  • Child disability and family-centred care in East Africa: Perspectives from
           a workshop with stakeholders and health practitioners

    • Authors: Pauline Samia, Susan Wamithi, Amina Kassam, Melissa Tirkha, Edward Kija, Ayalew Moges, Arnab Seal, Peter Rosenbaum, Robert Armstrong
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Background: Our understanding of child disability has undergone major changes over the last three decades transforming our approach to assessment and management. Globally there are significant gaps in the application of these 21st century models of care. There is recognition that economic, cultural, and social factors influence transitions in care and there is need to consider contextual factors.Objectives: A two-day workshop brought together key stakeholders to discuss current models of care and their application in the East African context. This article summarises workshop proceedings and identifies a broadly supported set of recommendations that serve to set a direction for health professionals, families, family-based disability organisations, communities and government.Method: Presentations followed by facilitated round-table sessions explored specific themes with participants reporting their responses communally. Future actions were agreed upon by relevant stakeholders.Results: Many barriers exist to care for children with disabilities in East Africa, including stigma and a lack of human and infrastructural resources. In addition, significant disparities exist with regard to access to medication and specialist care. The International Classification of Functioning framework needs to be translated to clinical practice within East Africa, with due recognition of the importance of family-centred care and emphasis on the life course theory for disability care. Family-centred care, educational initiatives, advocacy on the part of stakeholders and involvement of government policymakers are important avenues to improve outcomes.Conclusion: Further education and data are needed to inform family-centred care and multidisciplinary team implementation across East African care contexts for children with disabilities.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.931
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Mobility impairment and life satisfaction in the Northern Region of Malawi

    • Authors: Jared M. Alswang, William B. Belshe, Dexter Killi, Weston Bandawe, Erin S. Silliman, Aaron C. Bastian, Brooke K. Upchurch, Megan F. Bastian, Sierra M. Pinal, Mark B. Klein, Bertha Ndhlozi, Mauricio Silva, John Chipolombwe, Rachel M. Thompson
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: There exist many psychosocial sequelae associated with mobility impairment, especially in low-resource settings where access to mobility assistive devices is limited.Objectives: This study aims to (1) define the burden and presenting aetiologies of mobility impairment in the rural Northern Region of Malawi and (2) assess the relationship between physical disability, life satisfaction and access to mobility aids.Methods: At mobility device donation clinics throughout the Northern Region of Malawi, adults living with mobility impairment were surveyed with a demographic questionnaire and a series of validated surveys to assess their physical activity levels (Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [GPAQ]), degree of mobility impairment (Washington Group Extended Set Questions on Disability) and life satisfaction (patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems satisfaction with participation in social roles and general life satisfaction).Results: There were 251 participants who qualified for inclusion, of which 193 completed all surveys. Higher physical activity scores were positively correlated with increased life satisfaction: (1) satisfaction with participation in social roles (0.481, p < 0.0001) and (2) general life satisfaction (0.230, p < 0.001). Respondents who had previously used a formal mobility device reported 235.5% higher physical activity levels ([139.0%, 333.0%], p = 0.006), significantly higher satisfaction with participation in social roles ([0.21, 6.67], p = 0.037) and equivocally higher general life satisfaction ([−1.77, 3.84], p = 0.470).Conclusion: Disability and mental health do not exist in isolation from one another. Given the positive correlations between formal mobility device usage and both physical activity and life satisfaction, interventions that increase access to mobility-assistive devices in undertreated populations are imperative.Contribution: This study contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between physical disability, access to mobility aids, and life satisfaction. Results from this study suggest the potential benefit that increasing access to mobility aids may have in improving the quality of life of mobility impaired persons in resource-limited settings, such as the Northern Region of Malawi.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.1013
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Exploring Senior Phase teachers’ competencies in supporting learners

    • Authors: Mubi F. Mavuso
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: Teaching learners with specific learning difficulties requires competent teachers who can provide learning support. Competencies such as identifying learning difficulties, assessing learners, designing interventions such as curriculum differentiation and facilitating referral systems are crucial. However, Senior Phase teachers in South Africa seem to be challenged when it comes to providing learning support. Consequently, learners do not meet the desired learning outcomes.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Senior Phase teachers’ competencies in supporting learners with specific learning difficulties in four mainstream schools.Methods: A qualitative research approach and phenomenological research design were used. Eighteen teachers who were members of the school-based support teams, including learning support educators, were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected through individual and focus group interviews, the analysis of support forms and field notes. A thematic data analysis was used to generate findings.Results: The thematic data analysis revealed discrepancies relating to participants’ competencies in identifying language difficulties, short-term memory problems and contextual barriers. Also, participants differed in collaborating with peers, social workers, and the district-based support teams. Furthermore, some participants were able to design intervention programmes and facilitate internal and external referral processes.Conclusion: The study concludes that teachers have different competencies in providing learning support. Therefore, the Department of Basic Education should provide a clear practical learning support strategy in the Senior Phase mainstream schools as well as continuous professional development for teachers couple with monitoring.Contribution: It is envisioned that the study will contribute to understanding teachers’ competences in providing learning support for learners with specific learning difficulties in the senior phase. The study advocates for collaborative continuous professional teacher development focusing on interventions programmes to support learners with specific learning difficulties in the mainstream schools.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.901
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Strategies employed in coping with physical disabilities acquired during
           adulthood in rural South Africa

    • Authors: Marubini C. Sadiki, Israel Kibirige
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: Society places people with physical disabilities acquired during adulthood in disadvantaged positions, especially when they cannot participate in activities like their non-disabled counterparts. The situation can be worse for individuals who acquire disabilities during adulthood, where they have to learn to cope with the adulthood-acquired physical disabilities.Objectives: This study aimed to identify the types of physical disabilities acquired during adulthood and their causes and explore how participants defined their disabilities and the coping strategies they used.Methods: The study used a phenomenological research design. Five adults (three women, two men) with adulthood-acquired disabilities were purposefully selected from a rural area in Limpopo, South Africa. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes about coping strategies study participants used.Results: The results show four types of adulthood-acquired disabilities amongst the participants: visual impairment, paraplegia, weakened muscles which led to bilateral amputation, loss of function on both hands and legs. Participants’ meanings of their physical adulthood-acquired disabilities ranged from a punishment, pain, not a bother, black magic, to results of doing wrong things to someone. In coming to terms with their adulthood-acquired disabilities, participants used problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Four themes from the participants’ responses were spiritual support, social support, substance dependency, access to health and rehabilitation services.Conclusion: The study contributes to understanding the experiences of individuals who acquired disabilities in adulthood, how they define their disabilities and the divergent coping strategies they use. This study established that participants used problem-focused, positive emotion-focused and negative emotion-focused coping strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.907
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Experiences of spinal cord injury patients admitted to the rehabilitation
           unit at the national referral hospital in Khomas region, Namibia

    • Authors: Daniel O. Ashipala, Lettie Langendorf
      First page: 8
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the major causes of disability globally. It results in permanent physical disability secondary to devastating neurological defects. When a person sustains SCI, substantial changes and challenges in their lives occur, regardless of their age or socioeconomic status. In Namibia, the knowledge on SCI experiences could be used to improve the care rendered to patients with this injury.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of patients with SCIs admitted to the rehabilitation unit at the national referral hospital in Khomas region, Namibia.Method: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive study design was used. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 15 participants from the rehabilitation unit. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.Results: Analysis of the data in this study identified three themes: negative experiences, positive experiences and measures to improve the lives of people living with SCI in the community. Participants experienced varied emotions from anger, stress, disbelief, frustration and sadness, which led to depression. In addition, participants experienced discrimination due to lack of community acceptance hence, improving awareness remains key.Conclusion: This study provided insight into the lived experiences of those living with SCI as they narrated their struggle from the onset of SCI to their reintegration into the community. The study’s findings can be used to develop self-care strategies and ongoing interventions that focus on maintaining physical and psychological health for spinal-cord injured persons throughout the course of living with disability.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.1018
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Activity and participation experiences of people with disabilities in

    • Authors: Terry Krupa, Rosemary Lysagh, Yetnayet S. Yehuala, Heather M. Aldersey, Molalign B. Adugna, Dorothy Kessler, Beata Batorowicz, Jasmine Montagnese, Klodiana Kolomitro
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Ethiopia, as a State Party to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), has committed to upholding the rights of people with disabilities in Ethiopia. There is little evidence, however, reflecting the impact of this commitment on the lived experiences of people with disabilities in Ethiopia.Objectives: This study sought to uncover how the experiences of participation and activity shape the enactment of rights for Ethiopians with disabilities as enshrined in the UNCRPD.Method: Analysis of 25 qualitative interviews with people with disabilities and family members living in Ethiopia used a reflexive thematic analysis approach to arrive at central themes.Results: People with disabilities in Ethiopia experience marginalisation, distress and practical challenges in both routine daily activities and participation in broader social roles and opportunities. These experiences affect their ability to claim many of the rights afforded by the UNCRPD.Conclusion: Despite legislative efforts to bring about change in Ethiopia, people with disabilities continue to live on the social margins. A meaningful change will require substantial allocation of needed resources by the Ethiopian government to support national-level programmes and policy change. It is critical that people with disabilities and their families are engaged in receiving relevant support, and serve as change leaders.Contribution: This study illustrates how marginalisation, distress and practical challenges in daily activities and social participation arise and are sustained for people with disabilities in Ethiopia. The findings can help to inform the country’s efforts to enact the rights of Ethiopians with disabilities as enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.1002
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Challenges of caregivers providing care to children with disabilities at
           non-governmental organisations in Tshwane townships, South Africa

    • Authors: Sharifa Moosa-Tayob, Patrone R. Risenga
      First page: 10
      Abstract: AbstractBackground: Caregivers of children with disabilities are vital stakeholders when it comes to safeguarding the health, well-being and overall survival of the children that they care for. Caregivers, however, face many challenging conditions that make it difficult for them to optimally fulfil their caregiving role. Understanding these challenges is crucial for developing empowerment programmes for caregivers, which will ensure that children with disabilities receive comprehensive, optimal care and that caregivers experience a good quality of life.Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of caregivers providing care to children with disabilities at non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in townships of Tshwane, South Africa.Method: This study followed an exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design within a qualitative methodology. The population in this study included caregivers who care for children with disabilities at NGOs (n = 10). Participants for the study were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by conducting semistructured interviews with caregivers. Data were analysed according to the six phases of thematic analysis proposed by.Results: The study revealed six themes that represent the challenges experienced by caregivers, namely (1) initial impressions, (2) rendering care, (3) stress, (4) lack of outside support, (5) coping and (6) poor community recognition.Conclusion: Support from the Departments of Health and Social Development and other institutions providing community rehabilitation services to townships should be provided to caregivers in order to empower them with skills and knowledge to effectively address the challenges they face so that they can render optimal care to the children they care for.Contribution: Results of this study could assist in ensuring improved recognition, resilience and supportive resources for caregivers in collaboration with community based rehabilitation stakeholders in the community that would ultimately lead to improved care for children with disabilities in townships within South Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.930
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Exploring the role and lived experiences of people with disabilities
           working in the agricultural sector in northern Nigeria the agricultural
           sector in northern Nigeria

    • Authors: Precious N. Sango, Mohammed Bello, Roy Deveau, Kevin Gager, Belinda Boateng, Hauwa K. Ahmed, Mohammed N. Azam
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Background: It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities.Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector.Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria.Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included ‘forced to and for survival’. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments.Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programmes in Nigeria.Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.897
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Psychosocial challenges of children with disabilities in Sekhukhune
           District, Limpopo province of South Africa: Towards a responsive
           integrated disability strategy

    • Authors: Matthews M. Makwela, Elizabeth I. Smit
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Background: Disability, and everything it encompasses, presents major challenges to individuals, families and communities worldwide. Children with disabilities (CWD) are marginalised and excluded in most societies. Discrimination and prejudice towards CWD are compounded by poverty, lack of essential services and support and sometimes a hostile and inaccessible environment.Objectives: The study sought to examine the psychosocial challenges experienced by CWD in the Sekhukhune district of Limpopo province, South Africa. Based on the identified, articulated and expressed challenges, the study sought to recommend improvement of the existing Integrated National Disability Strategy (INDS) for greater responsiveness to the needs of CWD at both provincial and local levels.Method: The interpretivist qualitative mode of enquiry was the chosen methodology for this study. Phenomenology and descriptive research designs guided the study. Purposive sampling was employed, and data were collected from 36 participants using three triangulated methods: individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Thematic data analysis was used to analyse data.Results: The findings revealed that CWD in Sekhukhune experienced numerous challenges which affected their social functioning, development and general well-being. Aggravating factors included stigma, labelling and discrimination; disability-specific discrimination and bullying; exclusive education; sexual exploitation; lack of governmental support and poor implementation of disability-specific policies, amongst others.Conclusion: The provisions of the INDS to promote inclusion, integration, mainstreaming and equitable access to resources and services remained an ideal rather than a reality for CWD in Sekhukhune.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.799
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
  • Provision and use of physical rehabilitation services for adults with
           disabilities in Rwanda: A descriptive study

    • Authors: Anne Kumurenzi, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane, Jeanne Kagwiza, Ines Musabyemariya, Jackie Bosch
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Background: Physical rehabilitation interventions address functional deficits caused by impairments that affect someone’s performance. Whilst rehabilitation is important, it is assumed that these services are either minimal or nonexistent in low-resource settings. Our data expand on the data from the Situation Assessment of Rehabilitation in the Republic of Rwanda report to describe rehabilitation services and who access them at public and semiprivate facilities (primarily funded by the private sector).Objectives: This article describes the use of the outpatient physical rehabilitation services across nine health facilities, the characteristics of adults attending these health facilities and some of the facilitators and barriers they encounter when attending rehabilitation.Method: Data were collected between September and December 2018 from the heads of departments and adult patients attending outpatient rehabilitation services funded by the government, international nongovernmental organisations or faith-based organisations.Results: Two hundred and thirteen adults were recruited from nine facilities. There is a sixfold difference in the number of rehabilitation personnel between public and semiprivate hospitals in these facilities’ catchment areas. However, most participants were recruited at public facilities (186 [87%]), primarily with physical disorders. Patients reported that family support (94%) was the most crucial facilitator for attending rehabilitation, whilst transportation cost (96%) was a significant barrier.Conclusion: Rehabilitation service availability for Rwandan adults with disabilities is limited. Whilst family support helps patients attend rehabilitation, transportation costs remain a significant barrier to people attending rehabilitation. Strategies to address these issues include developing triage protocols, training community health workers and families.Contribution: Data on rehabilitation service provision in Rwanda and most African countries are either non-existent or very limited. These data contain important information regarding the services provided and the people who used them across different health facilities (public versus private) and urban versus rural settings). To improve rehabilitation service provision, we first need to understand the current situation. These data are an important step to better understanding rehabilitation in Rwanda.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.4102/ajod.v11i0.1004
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2022)
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